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Sample records for affect plasma levels

  1. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  2. Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 5A sequence variants affect human plasma triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, E. M.; Baye, T. M.; Eckert, J. V.; Abraham, L. J.; Moses, E. K.; Kissebah, A. H.; Martin, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) work closely with leptin and insulin to fine-tune the metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to dietary intake. Losing the sensitivity to excess food intake can lead to obesity, diabetes, and a multitude of behavioral disorders. It is largely unclear how different serotonin receptor subtypes respond to and integrate metabolic signals and which genetic variations in these receptor genes lead to individual differences in susceptibility to metabolic disorders. In an obese cohort of families of Northern European descent (n = 2,209), the serotonin type 5A receptor gene, HTR5A, was identified as a prominent factor affecting plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), supported by our data from both genome-wide linkage and targeted association analyses using 28 publicly available and 12 newly discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 3 were strongly associated with plasma TG levels (P < 0.00125). Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) analysis identified a putative causal promoter SNP (rs3734967) with substantial posterior probability (P = 0.59). Functional analysis of rs3734967 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed distinct binding patterns of the two alleles of this SNP with nuclear proteins from glioma cell lines. In conclusion, sequence variants in HTR5A are strongly associated with high plasma levels of TG in a Northern European population, suggesting a novel role of the serotonin receptor system in humans. This suggests a potential brain-specific regulation of plasma TG levels, possibly by alteration of the expression of HTR5A. PMID:20388841

  3. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

  4. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*

    PubMed Central

    Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  5. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Starzyński, Rafał R.; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level. PMID:23737963

  7. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Rafał R; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  8. Stress in the wild: chronic predator pressure and acute restraint affect plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Newman, A E M; Zanette, L Y; Clinchy, M; Goodenough, N; Soma, K K

    2013-05-01

    The effects of chronic stressors on glucocorticoid levels are well described in laboratory rodents, but far less is known about the effects of chronic stressors on wild animals or on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels. DHEA can be produced by the adrenal cortex and has prominent antiglucocorticoid properties. Here, we examined wild songbirds to elucidate the relationship between chronic predator pressure and plasma DHEA and corticosterone levels. We measured circulating steroid levels at baseline and after acute restraint in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. During the breeding season, males in low predator pressure (LPP) environments had higher baseline DHEA levels than males in high predator pressure (HPP) environments. Also, acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in LPP males only but increased corticosterone levels in HPP and LPP males similarly. During the nonbreeding season, DHEA and corticosterone levels were lower than during the breeding season, and acute restraint decreased DHEA levels in both HPP and LPP males. Unlike males, breeding females showed no effect of predator pressure on baseline DHEA or corticosterone levels. These data suggest that naturalistic chronic and acute stressors affect circulating DHEA and corticosterone levels in wild animals and highlight the importance of using multiple endpoints when studying the physiological effects of chronic stress.

  9. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  10. COMBINED CIS-REGULATOR ELEMENTS AS IMPORTANT MECHANISM AFFECTING FXII PLASMA LEVELS

    PubMed Central

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chillón, Miguel; Mordillo, Carolina; Martínez, Ángel; Gil, Estel; Mateo, José; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Soria, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Factor XII (FXII) deficiency is a recessive Mendelian trait due to mutations in the F12 gene. There is no bleeding associated with FXII deficiency, but FXII deficiency has been reported to be associated with risk of thrombosis in some studies. Material and Methods We examined the functional effect of two naturally-occurring mutations in two Spanish FXII deficient families: a C/G substitution at position –8, and a C/T substitution at position –13. Both mutations were located on a putative HNF4 binding site of F12 gene promoter. We also analyzed the F12 C46T polymorphism (rs1801020), associated with a decrease in the FXII levels, which also segregated in both families. A fragment containing each one of both –8 and -13 mutations, was cloned 5′ of a reporter gene. We compared the in vitro expression of these constructs to the wild type expression. Results Our analyses confirm that the –8C/G and the –13C/T mutations decreased expression levels, demonstrating that both mutations are involved in the observed FXII deficiency. In addition, electrophoretic shift analyses suggest that they alter the union of nuclear proteins to the promoter. Coinheritance of these mutations with the C46T polymorphism, result in a significant genotype-phenotype correlation. Conclusions We have identified two naturally-occurring mutations in the F12 promoter that drastically reduce FXII levels. Knowing rare genetic alterations in the F12 gene, together with the C46T common variant, may yield further understanding about the genetic architecture of FXII levels, which may have a role in the risk of thrombosis. PMID:19786295

  11. Cardiac tamponade as an independent condition affecting the relationship between the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels and cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Minai, Kosuke; Komukai, Kimiaki; Arase, Satoshi; Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Kayama, Yosuke; Inada, Keiichi; Tanigawa, Shin-Ichi; Takemoto, Tomoyuki; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Date, Taro; Ogawa, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2013-07-01

    Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is finely regulated by the cardiac function and several extracardiac factors. Therefore, the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and the severity of heart failure sometimes seems inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the plasma BNP levels in patients with cardiac tamponade and their changes after pericardial drainage. This study included 14 patients with cardiac tamponade who underwent pericardiocentesis. The cardiac tamponade was due to malignant diseases in 13 patients and uremia in 1 patient. The plasma BNP levels were measured before and 24-48 h after drainage. Although the patients reported severe symptoms of heart failure, their plasma BNP levels were only 71.2 ± 11.1 pg/ml before drainage. After appropriate drainage, the plasma BNP levels increased to 186.0 ± 22.5 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than that before drainage (P = 0.0002). In patients with cardiac tamponade, the plasma BNP levels were low, probably because of impaired ventricular stretching, and the levels significantly increased in response to the primary condition after drainage. This study demonstrates an additional condition that affects the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and cardiac function. If inconsistency is seen in the relationship between the plasma BNP levels and clinical signs of heart failure, the presence of cardiac tamponade should therefore be considered.

  12. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  13. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  14. Genetic alterations of IL-1 receptor antagonist in mice affect plasma cholesterol level and foam cell lesion size.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Cecilia M; Kuriakose, George; Hirsch, Emmet; Tabas, Ira

    2002-04-30

    Inflammatory cytokines have been linked to atherosclerosis by using cell culture models and acute inflammation in animals. The goal of this study was to examine lipoprotein levels and early atherosclerosis in chronic animal models of altered IL-1 physiology by using mice with deficient or excess IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). IL-1ra knockout C57BL/6J mice fed a cholesterol/cholate diet for 3 mo had a 3-fold decrease in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a trend toward increased foam-cell lesion area compared to wild-type littermate controls. IL-1ra transgenic/low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) knockout mice fed a cholesterol-saturated fat diet for 10 wk showed a 40% increase in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, consistent with the IL-1ra knockout data, although there was no change in lesion size. When these IL1-ra overexpressing transgenic mice on the LDLR knockout background were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet containing cholate, however, a statistically significant 40% decrease in lesion area was observed compared to LDLR knockout mice lacking the transgene. By immunohistochemistry, IL-1ra was present in C57BL/6J and LDLR knockout aortae, absent in IL-1ra knockout aortae, and present at high levels in LDLR knockout/IL-1ra transgene aortae. In summary, IL-1ra tended to increase plasma lipoprotein levels and, when fed a cholate-containing diet, decrease foam-cell lesion size. These data demonstrate that in selected models of murine atherosclerosis, chronic IL-1ra depletion or overexpression has potentially important effects on lipoprotein metabolism and foam-cell lesion development.

  15. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  16. Poststroke depression as a factor adversely affecting the level of oxidative damage to plasma proteins during a brain stroke.

    PubMed

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Poststroke depression, the second most serious psychosomatic complication after brain stroke, leads to delay of the rehabilitation process and is associated with an increased disability and cognitive impairment along with increase in term mortality. Research into the biochemical changes in depression is still insufficiently described. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the possible association between plasma protein oxidative/nitrative damages and the development of poststroke depression. We evaluated oxidative/nitrative modifications of specific proteins by measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups levels using ELISA test. Additionally, we checked differences in proteins thiol groups by spectrophotometric assay based on reaction between DTNB and thiols. We also evaluated catalase activity in erythrocytes measured as ability to decompose H2O2. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's rank. We observed significant (P < 0.001) differences in all oxidative/nitrative stress parameters in brain stroke patients compared to healthy group. Our research shows that oxidative damage of proteins is correlated with the degree of poststroke depression, while nitrative changes do not show any relationship. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the concentration of carbonyl groups and the Geriatric Depression Scale and a negative correlation between the degree of depression and the concentration of -SH groups or catalase activity.

  17. Nitrite-induced methemoglobinaemia affects blood ionized and total magnesium level by hydrolysis of plasma adenosine triphosphate in rat.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Hong, Chul-Un; Lee, Young-Up; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium nitrite (NaNO(2))-induced methemoglobinaemia on plasma ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and corresponding changes of blood-ionized magnesium (iMg(2+)) as well as total magnesium (tMg(2+)) in a time-dependent manner. This study was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to which NaNO(2) was injected (10 mg/kg i.p.) to induce methemoglobinaemia. Methemoglobin (MetHb) in blood was measured before (0 min.) and after 10, 30, 60 and 120 min. of NaNO(2) injection. At respective time points, the tMg(2+), blood ions and gases were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion selective electrode, respectively. Haematological parameters were checked by automatic blood cell count, and blood films were observed under light microscope. Plasma ATP was measured by bioluminescence assay using a luminometer, and plasma proteins were measured by an automatic analyser. Blood cell count (RBC, WBC and platelet), haematocrit, and haemoglobin were found to be decreased with the advancement of MetHb concentration. With the gradual increase of MetHb concentration, the plasma ATP decreased and blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) increased significantly as time passed by in comparison with the pre-drug values. A significant decrease of the ratio of ionized calcium to iMg(2+), Na(+) and increase of K(+) was observed. In conclusion, NaNO(2)-induced methemoglobinaemia is a cause of hydrolysis of plasma ATP which is responsible for the increase of blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) in rats.

  18. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine.

  19. Respiratory mechanics and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 are affected by gas humidification during mechanical ventilation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Olmos-Zúñiga, J Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel O; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Gutiérrez-González, Luis H

    2014-01-01

    The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p = 0.77). This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05). Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p = 0.02). Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation.

  20. Respiratory Mechanics and Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 6 Are Affected by Gas Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Olmos-Zúñiga, J. Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel O.; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Gutiérrez-González, Luis H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p = 0.77). This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05). Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p = 0.02). Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation. PMID:25036811

  1. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  2. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated.

  3. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  4. Lung compliance, plasma electrolyte levels and acid-base balance are affected by scorpion envenomation in anesthetized rats under mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcus V; Caramez, Maria Paula R; Abreu, Elnara Marcia N N; Dolnikoff, Marisa; Omar, Erick D; Velasco, Irineu T; Cunha-Melo, José R

    2004-05-01

    To determine the effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin on lung compliance and resistance, ionic equilibrium and acid-base balance over time in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats, we measured air flow, tracheal and esophageal pressure. Lung volume was obtained by electronic integration of airflow signal. Arterial blood samples were collected through a catheter at baseline (before) and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after scorpion toxin injection for arterial blood gases, bicarbonate, and alkali reserve levels as well as for, sodium, potassium, magnesium, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, and osmolality analysis. Injection of the gamma fraction of the T. serrulatus scorpion venom in rats under mechanical ventilatory support leads to a continuous decrease in lung compliance secondary to pulmonary edema, but no change in airway resistance. The changes in arterial blood gases characterizing metabolic acidosis were accompanied by an increase in arterial lactate and glucose values, suggesting a scorpion toxin-induced lactic acidosis, in association with poor tissue perfusion (hypotension and low cardiac output). Moreover, scorpion toxin injection resulted in hyperosmolality, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia and an increase in hematocrit. The experiments have shown a clinically relevant animal model to study severe scorpion envenoming and may help to better understand the scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  5. Relationship of blood cadmium level to hypertension and plasma norepinephrine level: a Romanian study (41159)

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; Zinsmeister, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    The associations of blood cadmium levels with hypertension and plasma norepinephrine concentrations were determined in normotensive and hypertensive nonsmokers and smokers. Statistical analysis showed that after adjustment for age alone, the estimated mean values of blood cadmium and plasma norepinephrine in nonsmokers were significantly lower than in smokers. However, after adjustment for age and blood cadmium, the estimated mean values for plasma norepinephrine were not significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers or normotensives and hypertensives. In contrast the estimated mean value for blood cadmium as a function of blood pressure and smoking habit was still significant after adjustment for age and plasma norepinephrine. We suggest that smoking and blood pressure affect the level of blood cadmium, and through this change in blood cadmium the level of plasma norepinephrine is affected.

  6. Chemotherapy and plasma adipokines level in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Słomian, Grzegorz; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Nowak, Grzegorz; Pawlas, Krystyna; Żelazko, Aleksandra; Nowak, Przemysław

    2017-04-12

    Adipokines are molecules produced and secreted by adipose tissue and are linked to multiple malignancies. Adipokines can suppress or promote particular cell behaviors in different types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of chemotherapy on select adipokines in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Blood samples were collected from 42 patients with pathologically documented advanced CRC, who required palliative chemotherapy. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin levels were measured by ELISA before and 3 months after the administration of chemotherapy. Among the 42 patients evaluated, 18 achieved a partial response (PR), 16 achieved stable disease (SD) and 8 patients experienced disease progression (PD). We found that 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens significantly increased plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin and decreased plasma levels of resistin and visfatin in PR and SD patients, whereas the plasma levels of these molecules were not affected in PD patients. Furthermore, the mean plasma levels of leptin were significantly lower, and the mean plasma levels of resistin and visfatin were significantly greater in patients with PD compared with PR and SD both before and after chemotherapy treatment. We conclude that palliative chemotherapy in CRC patients, in addition to providing clinical benefits, positively affects cytokine production and secretion in PR and SD patients. Specifically, we found that palliative chemotherapy increased plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin and decreased the plasma levels of visfatin and resistin, molecules known to promote angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation in PR and SD patients. Moreover, the baseline values of leptin, visfatin and resistin might serve as prognostic indicators of a poor response to chemotherapy.

  7. During the Long Way to Mars: Effects of 520 Days of Confinement (Mars500) on the Assessment of Affective Stimuli and Stage Alteration in Mood and Plasma Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu; Lv, Ke; Wu, Bin; Bai, Yanqiang; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (p<0.05), and the correlation between psychological and biochemical data was identified (p<0.05). Overall, we concluded that the confined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon. PMID:24695321

  8. During the long way to Mars: effects of 520 days of confinement (Mars500) on the assessment of affective stimuli and stage alteration in mood and plasma hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu; Lv, Ke; Wu, Bin; Bai, Yanqiang; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (p<0.05), and the correlation between psychological and biochemical data was identified (p<0.05). Overall, we concluded that the confined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon.

  9. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn.

  10. ARH missense polymorphisms and plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Hyatt, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in a putative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor adaptor protein called ARH have been recently described in patients with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH). ARH plays a tissue-specific role in determination of LDL receptor function. In the ARH gene three mismatched polymorphisms have been detected: Pro202Ser, Pro202His and Arg238Trp. These are of putative interest in plasma cholesterol level determination. To evaluate the effect of polymorphisms on plasma cholesterol levels, all polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis by MnII, HpyCH4IV and SacII in 100 Caucasian males with high (>90%, 6.29 +/- 0.89 mmol/l), and 100 males with low (<10%, 3.60 +/- 0.57 mmol/l), total plasma cholesterol levels. No significant differences were observed in frequencies of ARH genotypes or alleles between these two extreme groups. These results suggest that ARH polymorphisms are unlikely to be important genetic determinants of plasma cholesterol levels.

  11. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Fraser, William D; Julien, Pierre; Audibert, Francois; Xiao, Lin; Garofalo, Carole; Levy, Emile

    2015-12-08

    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24-28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of beta-cell function), insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations. Strong positive correlations were observed between maternal and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress (r = 0.33 for MDA, r = 0.74 for total F2-isoprostanes, all p < 0.0001). Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, cord plasma ghrelin concentrations were consistently negatively correlated to oxidative stress biomarkers in maternal (r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for MDA; r = -0.31, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes) or cord plasma (r = -0.13, p = 0.04 for MDA; r = -0.32, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes). Other fetal metabolic health biomarkers were not correlated to oxidative stress. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, similar associations were observed. Our study provides the first preliminary evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may affect fetal ghrelin levels in humans. The implications in developmental "programming" the vulnerability to metabolic syndrome related disorders remain to be elucidated.

  12. Plasma level monitoring of antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T B

    1978-01-01

    Psychotic patients treated with identical doses of antipsychotic drugs have been shown to have great interindividual differences in their steady state plasma concentration. Therefore, monitoring treatment by dosage adjustment alone is of little value. If antipsychotic blood levels can be related to clinical response then their routine measurement may well result in well defined guidelines to individualised optimal dosage. Despite the considerable effort expended in this field and the many interesting testable hypotheses generated, little substantive evidence for an acceptable plasma level monitoring guide has been reported to date. Work on metabolite level profiles, intra- and extracellular drug concentration differences, more detailed clinical rating scales, and improved experimental design, all show great promise for the future. Investigation of the pharmacokinetics and the elucidation of the often complex metabolic pathways of individual antipsychotic drugs are generating the data base required for the rational pharmacotherapy of these most severely ill patients. Until more data are available, routine monitoring of antipsychotic drug plasma levels remains of research interest.

  13. Plasma adropin level in patients with pseudoexfoliation.

    PubMed

    Oğurel, Tevfik; Oğurel, Reyhan; Topuz, Mustafa; Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma adropin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This retrospective case-control study included 35 patients with PEX and 35 individuals without PEX who served as controls. Plasma adropin levels with triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and haemoglobin A1c (HGBA1C) concentrations were measured in both groups. The mean serum adropin levels were 3.24 ± 0.95 ng/mL (range, 1.90-7.88 ng/mL) in patients with PEX syndrome and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 2.08-5.41 ng/mL) in PEX glaucoma patients. There was no statistically significant difference in mean adropin levels between PEX syndrome and PEX glaucoma patients. However, similar adropin levels were found in the PEX glaucoma patients and the control group (P > 0.05). The mean serum adropin levels were 3.34 ± 0.89 ng/mL (range, 1.90-5.39 ng/mL) in the PEX group and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 3.08-11.06 ng/mL) in the control group. The mean serum adropin level of the PEX group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HGBA1C, triglycerides levels, or body mass index (all P > 0.05). Adropin level is lower in patients with PEX.

  14. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (p<.001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p=.031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r=-.408, p=.002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r=.267, p=.045) and DA/E (r=.271, p=.042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.

  15. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies.

  16. The regulation of plasma relaxin levels during human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Abbas, A A; Allman, A C; Nicolaides, K H; Lightman, S L

    1994-08-01

    The factors that determine the circulating levels of relaxin during pregnancy have been investigated by comparing the plasma levels of relaxin throughout pregnancy in women who became pregnant spontaneously (singleton, n = 240) or following superovulation (singleton and multifetal pregnancies (two to ten conceptuses), n = 83). Some of the women with multifetal pregnancies underwent selective fetal reduction to twin pregnancies. Relaxin levels were higher at 7-34 weeks of gestation in singleton pregnancies achieved following superovulation when compared with levels in spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies (p < 0.05-0.001). In samples obtained between 10 and 12 weeks of gestation (before fetal reduction for the multifetal pregnancies), plasma relaxin levels correlated with fetal number (r = 0.526, P = 0.0001). Reduction in fetal number to a twin pregnancy did not alter relaxin levels. These data suggest that the circulating levels of relaxin throughout pregnancy are determined during the cycle of conception by gonadotrophin stimulation, and within the first 10 weeks of pregnancy by the luteotrophic stimulus from the conceptus. Furthermore, once corpus luteum synthesis of relaxin is established, then reduction in the luteotrophic stimulus does not appear to affect it.

  17. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W; Holtzman, David M; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Abeta levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Abeta elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Abeta, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Abeta in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasma Abeta levels did not correlate with brain Abeta levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Abeta1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated, both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold: first, that both plasma and brain Abeta levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD; and second, that plasma Abeta levels are not an accurate index of brain Abeta levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice.

  18. Regulation of plasma histamine levels by the mast cell clock and its modulation by stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yuki; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Shibata, Shigenobu; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2017-01-01

    At steady state, plasma histamine levels exhibit circadian variations with nocturnal peaks, which is implicated in the nighttime exacerbation of allergic symptoms. However, the regulatory mechanisms are largely unexplored. This study determined how steady-state plasma histamine levels are regulated and affected by environmental factors. We found that plasma histamine levels decreased in mast cell–deficient mice and their circadian variations were lost in mast cell–deficient mice reconstituted with bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) harboring a mutation in the circadian gene Clock. Clock temporally regulates expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), which is involved in histamine transport, in mast cells; OCT inhibition abolished circadian variations in plasma histamine levels. Mice housed under aberrant light/dark conditions or suffering from restraint stress exhibited de-synchronization of the mast cell clockwork, concomitant with the loss of circadian variations in OCT3 expression and plasma histamine levels. The degree of compound 48/80–induced plasma extravasation in mice was correlated with plasma histamine levels. Collectively, the mast cell clock mediates circadian regulation of plasma histamine levels at steady state, in part by controlling OCT3 expression, which can be modulated by stress. Additionally, we propose that plasma histamine levels potentiate mast cell–mediated allergic reactions. PMID:28074918

  19. DETERMINANTS OF PLASMA PARATHYROID HORMONE LEVELS IN YOUNG WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Julie M.; Curhan, Gary C.; Forman, John P.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While the effects of calcium, phosphorus intake, and vitamin D on parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been well studied, less is known about other factors that impact PTH. Our goal was to delineate associations between demographic, dietary, and plasma factors and PTH. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of intact PTH among 1,288 non-black women in the Nurses Health Study II aged 33–53 with BMI < 30kg/m2 and eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results Median PTH was 30.7pg/ml. After adjusting for 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other factors, PTH was 4.1pg/ml lower (95% CI −7.7 to −0.5) in women who smoked 1–14 cigarettes/day and 6.4pg/ml lower (95% CI −11.2 to −1.7) in women who smoked >15 cigarettes/day compared to non-smokers. After multivariate adjustment, women whose BMI was 27–29 kg/m2 had PTH levels 2.0pg/ml higher (95% CI 0.2–3.9) compared to BMI of 21–22 kg/m2, and women in the highest quartile of plasma phosphorus had PTH levels 4.1pg/ml lower (95% CI −5.8 to −2.4) than women in the lowest quartile. Higher vitamin A intake was independently associated with lower PTH whereas lower calcium intake, lower plasma calcium, lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and winter blood draw were associated with higher PTH. Intakes of phosphorus, animal protein, magnesium, alcohol, and caffeine were not associated with PTH. Conclusions Factors not classically associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism impact PTH. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby smoking, vitamin A, and phosphorus affect PTH and to examine how body size and season may affect PTH independent of 25(OH)D. PMID:20631996

  20. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  1. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome.

  2. Differences in bisphenol A and estrogen levels in the plasma and seminal plasma of men with different degrees of infertility.

    PubMed

    Vitku, J; Sosvorova, L; Chlupacova, T; Hampl, R; Hill, M; Sobotka, V; Heracek, J; Bicikova, M; Starka, L

    2015-01-01

    The general population is potentially exposed to many chemicals that can affect the endocrine system. These substances are called endocrine disruptors (EDs), and among them bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used and well studied. Nonetheless, there are still no data on simultaneous measurements of various EDs along with steroids directly in the seminal fluid, where deleterious effects of EDs on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis are assumed. We determined levels of BPA and 3 estrogens using LC-MS/MS in the plasma and seminal plasma of 174 men with different degrees of infertility. These men were divided according their spermiogram values into 4 groups: (1) healthy men, and (2) slightly, (3) moderate, and (4) severely infertile men. Estradiol levels differed across the groups and body fluids. Slightly infertile men have significantly higher BPA plasma and seminal plasma levels in comparison with healthy men (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, seminal BPA, but not plasma BPA, was negatively associated with sperm concentration and total sperm count (-0.27; p<0.001 and -0.24; p<0.01, respectively). These findings point to the importance of seminal plasma in BPA research. Overall, a disruption of estrogen metabolism was observed together with a weak but significant impact of BPA on sperm count and concentration.

  3. Binding energy levels of a slowly moving ion in dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hongwei; Li, Fuli

    2013-02-01

    The near field electric potential of a slowly moving ion in complex plasmas is studied. We find that the potential consists of the Debye-Hückel potential, the wake potential, and the potential associated with charge fluctuations. The binding energy levels of the ion are calculated by use of the Ritz variation method. The results show that the binding energy levels are related to the magnetic quantum number m. The binding energy levels are affected by speed of the ion and dust grain number density. In contract to isolated ion or static ion in plasmas, the binding energy levels of the ion are pushed up and even become unbounded.

  4. Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilová, H; Hainer, V; Sedlácková, D; Papezová, H; Kunesová, M; Bellisle, F; Hill, M; Nedvídková, J

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered peptide produced in the stomach, which was originally described to suppress food intake and decrease body weight in experimental animals. We investigated fasting plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women and associations of plasma obestatin levels with anthropometric and hormonal parameters. Hormonal (obestatin, ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and anthropometric parameters and body composition were examined in 15 normal weight, 21 obese and 15 anorectic women. Fasting obestatin levels were significantly lower in obese than in normal weight and anorectic women, whereas ghrelin to obestatin ratio was increased in anorectic women. Compared to leptin, only minor differences in plasma obestatin levels were observed in women who greatly differed in the amount of fat stores. However, a negative correlation of fasting obestatin level with body fat indexes might suggest a certain role of obestatin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A significant relationship between plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels, independent of anthropometric parameters, supports simultaneous secretion of both hormones from the common precursor. Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies.

  5. Clinical significance of plasma metastin level in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2009-03-01

    Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening.

  6. Excess nicotinamide increases plasma serotonin and histamine levels.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan-Jie; Li, Da; Ma, Qiang; Gu, Xin-Yi; Guo, Ming; Lun, Yong-Zhi; Sun, Wu-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2013-02-25

    Methylation, a methyl group-consuming reaction, plays a key role in the degradation (i.e., inactivation) of monoamine neurotransmitters, including catecholamines, serotonin and histamine. Without labile methyl groups, the methylation-mediated degradation cannot take place. Although high niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) intake, which is very common nowadays, is known to deplete the body's methyl-group pool, its effect on monoamine-neurotransmitter degradation is not well understood. The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of excess nicotinamide on the levels of plasma serotonin and histamine in healthy subjects. Urine and venous blood samples were collected from nine healthy male volunteers before and after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide. Plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide, urinary N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and plasma betaine levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma concentrations of choline, serotonin and histamine were measured using commercial kits. The results showed that the plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide level and the urinary excretion of 2-Py significantly increased after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide, which was accompanied with a decrease in the methyl-group donor betaine. Compared with those before nicotinamide load, five-hour postload plasma serotonin and histamine levels significantly increased. These results suggest that excess nicotinamide can disturb monoamine-neurotransmitter metabolism. These findings may be of significance in understanding the etiology of monoamine-related mental diseases, such as schizophrenia and autism (a neurodevelopmental disorder).

  7. [Relationship between clozapine plasma levels and withdrawal symptoms].

    PubMed

    Berecz, R; de la Rubia Martínez, A; Norberto Gamero, M J; Gutiérrez Casares, J R; Glaub, T; Degrell, I; Llerena, A

    2002-01-01

    Discontinuation of clozapine and an attempt to change his medication to sertindol has led to serious psychotic and somatic symptoms in an schizophrenic patient treated with clozapine for five years, however after readministration of clozapine these symptoms rapidly disappeared. To further analyse the case we have developed an HPLC method for the measurement of plasma levels of clozapine and its main metabolite N-desmethyl clozapine in order to monitor the plasma levels of clozapine and to correlate with the clinical symptoms. The present results confirmed that after discontinuation of clozapine no measurable amount of drug or its main metabolite were present in the plasma of the patient. The correlation between the plasma levels of clozapine and the changes in the clinical state of the patient confirmed that the patient's severe psychotic and somatic symptoms were the result of discontinuation of clozapine treatment. The clozapine plasma concentration of the patient reported here was low (100 ng/ml) compared to the generally accepted plasma levels for antipsychotic action of clozapine (350 ng/ml), however the somatic and psychotic clozapine withdrawal symptoms rapidly and completely disappeared.

  8. Relationship between plasma and saliva quinine levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Babalola, C P; Bolaji, O O; Ogunbona, F A; Dixon, P A

    1996-02-01

    The relationship between saliva and plasma levels of quinine was studied in four healthy volunteers. After a single oral dose of quinine sulfate (600 mg) to the volunteers, quinine was determined in both saliva and plasma simultaneously over a 48-h period by an ion pair reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography method. The tmax (4.3 +/- 0.5 h) and elimination half-life (11.8 +/- 2.9 h) of quinine derived from saliva levels were comparable with those obtained from plasma levels (tmax = 2.8 +/- 0.2 h, t1/2 = 12.9 +/- 2.3 h). A significant correlation existed between the plasma and saliva concentrations of the drug (r = 0.93, n = 20, p < 0.001). The mean saliva/plasma quinine concentration ratio was 0.24 +/- 0.02. The results suggest that quinine is passively secreted into saliva and that saliva level determination may be useful as a noninvasive method in the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters and therapeutic drug monitoring of quinine.

  9. Plasma amino acid response to graded levels of escape protein.

    PubMed

    Gibb, D J; Klopfenstein, T J; Britton, R A; Lewis, A J

    1992-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the potential of using plasma amino acid responses to graded levels of escape protein to determine limiting amino acids in cattle. Growing calves (n = 120; mean BW = 220 +/- 21 kg) were fed a basal diet of corncob:sorghum silage (61:39) and were individually supplemented with distillers' dried grains (DDG), heat-damaged DDG (H-DDG), feather meal (FTH), or urea. The urea supplement was mixed with DDG and H-DDG to allow 0, 20, 35, 50, 65, or 80% of the supplemental CP to come from distillers' protein and maintain an 11.5% CP diet. Urea supplement was mixed with FTH to allow 0, 22, 39, 56, 73, or 90% of the supplemental CP to come from FTH. Dietary CP ranged from 11.5% at the 0% level to 17.3% at the 90% level. Plasma concentration of most essential plasma amino acids responded (P less than .10) linearly and(or) quadratically to increased escape protein. The broken-line response of plasma methionine at low DDG intake suggested that methionine was limiting at low levels of escape protein. An initial decrease followed by a plateau fit by a broken line indicated that histidine became limiting in FTH diets, and lysine eventually became limiting for DDG, H-DDG, and FTH diets before maximum BW gain was reached. Results indicate that plasma amino acid responses may identify amino acids that become limiting with increasing escape protein.

  10. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  11. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  12. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate enhances mood and prosocial behavior without affecting plasma oxytocin and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Oliver G; Eisenegger, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg; von Rotz, Robin; Dornbierer, Dario; Gachet, M Salomé; Heinrichs, Markus; Wetter, Thomas C; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was examined by the Charity Donation Task, the Social Value Orientation test, and the Reciprocity Task. Reaction time, memory, empathy, and theory-of-mind were also tested. Blood plasma levels of GHB, oxytocin, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) were determined. GHB showed stimulating and sedating effects, and elicited euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. In participants with low prosociality, the drug increased donations and prosocial money distributions. In contrast, social cognitive abilities such as emotion recognition, empathy, and theory-of-mind, and basal cognitive functions were not affected. GHB increased plasma progesterone, while oxytocin and testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, DHEA, and ACTH levels remained unaffected. GHB has mood-enhancing and prosocial effects without affecting social hormones such as oxytocin and testosterone. These data suggest a potential involvement of GHB-/GABAB-receptors and progesterone in mood and prosocial behavior.

  13. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  14. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  15. Short-term treatment with rivastigmine and plasma levels of Abeta peptides in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sobow, Tomasz; Kloszewska, Iwona

    2005-01-01

    Deregulation of APP metabolism is considered to be a key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease. Data from cell cultures indicate that the secretion of Abeta1-42 might be inhibited by cholinesterase inhibitors, possibly via M1 receptors stimulation. Treatment with tacrine, a dual acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, had no significant effect on mean plasma Abeta species concentrations. However, a correlation was observed between higher drug concentrations and lower Abeta levels that might indicate an effect on APP metabolism with an increased alpha-cleavage. Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 levels were measured in the plasma of 28 AD subjects by means of a commercially available ELISA before rivastigmine treatment and at week 2 after the first dose of the drug (3 mg/day) had been administered. Treatment with rivastigmine exhibited a significant effect on mean plasma concentrations of Abeta1-42 (mean difference 7.8+/-8.4, t=-4.9, pmean difference 7.8+/-8.4, t=-4.9, p<0.001) with a negative correlation with the patients age (Pearson's R=-0.40, p=0.035). No significant effect on plasma Abeta1-40 was observed. The observed increase of mean levels of plasma Abeta1-42 after rivastigmine treatment might indicate an effect of the drug on Abeta metabolism, mobilization of Abeta1-42 from deposits in the affected brain areas and a consecutive Ab1-42 brain-to-plasma efflux. The negative correlation between Abeta1-42 plasma levels changes and age may be a sign of impairment of this process in the older patients. A large individual variation of the observed response, however, excludes drawing definite conclusions. Whether those subjects who respond to rivastigmine in terms of Abeta1-42 plasma levels changes also respond clinically needs to be established.

  16. Modulation of Human Plasma Fibronectin Levels Following Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    increased under conditions of pathology, such as in obesity (6). cancer (3). proteinuria (4). diabetic retinopathy (5). and preeclampsia (27). in the absence...Res. 1977: 22:709-716. 27. Stubbs. T.M.. Lazarchick. J.. and Horger. E.O. Plasma fibronectin levels in preeclampsia : A possible biochemical marker

  17. Progesterone and estradiol plasma levels in neonatally irradiated cycling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freud, A.; Sod-Moriah, U.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Female rats which were exposed to a single low dose of gamma irradiation (6R or 15R) at the age of 8 days produce smaller litters when mature than untreated controls. The possibility that the impaired fertility resulted from altered ovarian activity as reflected by changes in plasma levels of progesterone or estardiol was investigated. Plasma levels of both steroids were determined throughout the day of proestrus. Progesterone level was also determined in 6R animals on the day of weaning. The maturity of such irradiated rats was assessed by observing the time of vaginal opening. The results indicated that the preovulatory peak of progesterone was delayed in the 6R rats whereas in the 15R group its levels were significantly lower. On the other hand no differences in estradiol plasma levels were noticed between the groups. The higher level of progesterone in the 6R animals was not evident on the day of weaning and was even in both groups, but vaginal opening in the irradiated rats was significantly delayed. The elevated level of progesterone might be responsible, among other endocrine changes, for the lower fertility of neonatally irradiated mature female rats.

  18. Plasma lipid levels in preterm neonates receiving parenteral fat emulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, J L; Shannon, D L; Hunter, M A; Brans, Y W

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of various plasma lipid fractions were determined during 96 hours of continuous parenteral infusions of lipid emulsions in 10 normally-grown neonates whose birth-weights ranged from 960 to 1760 g and whose gestational ages ranged from 26 to 32 weeks. Total lipid, triglyceride, free glycerol, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. During lipid infusions, mean plasma concentrations of all lipid fractions increased above the mean preinfusion values if 2 g/kg a day or more of lipid emulsion was used. There were no further significant increases in mean plasma lipid levels if the infused dosage was increased to 3 or 4 g/kg a day. At these higher infusion rates however, there were considerable individual variations. The only neonate less than 27 weeks of gestation had plasma lipid levels severalfold higher than any of his peers, his plasma was frankly creamy on visual inspection, and the study had to be stopped. Further investigations are needed to determine the optimal modalities of parenteral nutrition with fat emulsions. PMID:6402989

  19. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers.

    PubMed

    House, R A

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.

  20. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  1. Plasma ghrelin levels in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Göksal; Inal, Ali; Ilikçi, Rahşan; Baysal, Ozan

    2009-01-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) is a familial disease characterized by recurrent episodes of febrile serositis, peritonitis, arthritis and pleuritis. Many studies have been performed is an attempt to understand the basis of the inflammatory attacts in FMF. Ghrelin, a recently described orexigene peptide is predominantly produced by stomach. Ghrelin also exerts multiple regulatory effects on immune system. It has reported that grelin has anti-inflammatory effects. There is currently no published evidence demonstrating a role for anti-inflammatory effects of ghrelin in FMF. For this reason, we investigated the role of plasma ghrelin levels in patients with FMF. Thirty seven patients with FMF and 10 healthy controls (5 female, 5 male; mean age 35.4 +/- 5.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Twenty-one patients were in active stage (10 female, 11 male, mean age; 31.0 +/- 5.4 years, mean disease duration 7.2 +/- 3.3 years) and 16 patients were in inactive stage (7 female,9 male, mean age; 33.0 +/- 6.0 years, mean disease duration; 8.7 +/- 3.2 years). Plasma ghrelin levels were determined by EIA. The mean plasma ghrelin levels were 158.4 +/- 52.9 pg/ml in patients with FMF and 56.7 +/- 7.5 pg/ml in healthy controls. The mean plasma ghrelin levels were 190.5 +/- 49.4 pg/ml in the active patients and 116.2 +/- 11.7 pg/ml in the inactive patients. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly high in patients with FMF compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly high in the active patients compared to in the inactive patients and healthy controls (p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). There was significantly difference between in active and inactive patients with FMF (p<0.001). As a results; Plasma ghrelin levels were high both in active and inactive patients with FMF. It is showed that ghrelin may play significant role of the pathogenesis of FMF.

  2. Human traumatic brain injury alters plasma microRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Ward, Norman H; Hergenroeder, Georgene W; Dash, Pramod K

    2010-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) present in the serum/plasma are characteristically altered in many pathological conditions, and have been employed as diagnostic markers for specific diseases. We examined if plasma miRNA levels are altered in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) relative to matched healthy volunteers, and explored their potential for use as diagnostic TBI biomarkers. The plasma miRNA profiles from severe TBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score ≤8) and age-, gender-, and race-matched healthy volunteers were compared by microarray analysis. Of the 108 miRNAs identified in healthy volunteer plasma, 52 were altered after severe TBI, including 33 with decreased and 19 with increased relative abundance. An additional 8 miRNAs were detected only in the TBI plasma. We used quantitative RT-PCR to determine if plasma miRNAs could identify TBI patients within the first 24 h post-injury. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that miR-16, miR-92a, and miR-765 were good markers of severe TBI (0.89, 0.82, and 0.86 AUC values, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that combining these miRNAs markedly increased diagnostic accuracy (100% specificity and 100% sensitivity), compared to either healthy volunteers or orthopedic injury patients. In mild TBI patients (GCS score > 12), miR-765 levels were unchanged, while the plasma levels of miR-92a and miR-16 were significantly increased within the first 24 h of injury compared to healthy volunteers, and had AUC values of 0.78 and 0.82, respectively. Our results demonstrate that circulating miRNA levels are altered after TBI, providing a rich new source of potential molecular biomarkers. Plasma-derived miRNA biomarkers, used in combination with established clinical practices such as imaging, neurocognitive, and motor examinations, have the potential to improve TBI patient classification and possibly management.

  3. Smoking, COPD and 3-Nitrotyrosine Levels of Plasma Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hongjun; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Peterson, Elena S.; Tan, Ruimin; Bigelow, Diana J.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Hoidal, John R.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide is a physiologically regulator of endothelial function and hemodynamics. Oxidized products of nitric oxide can form nitrotyrosine, which is a marker of nitrative stress. Cigarette smoking decreases exhaled nitric oxide, and the underlying mechanism may be important in the cardiovascular toxicity of cigarette smoke, although it is not clear if this effect results from decreased nitric oxide production or oxidation of nitric oxide to reactive, nitrating, species. These processes would be expected to have opposite effects on nitrotyrosine levels, a marker of nitrative stress. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we determine the effects of smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on circulating levels of nitrotyrosine, and thereby gain insight into the processes regulating nitrotyrosine formation. METHODS: A custom antibody microarray platform was used to analyze the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine modifications on 24 proteins in plasma. Plasma samples from 458 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Nitrotyrosine levels in circulating proteins were uniformly reduced in smokers but increased in COPD patients. We also observed a persistent suppression of nitrotyrosine in former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking broadly suppresses the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma proteins, suggesting that cigarette smoke suppresses endothelial nitric oxide production. In contrast, the increase in nitrotyrosine levels in COPD patients most likely results from inflammatory processes. This study provides the first evidence that smoking has irreversible effects on endothelial production of nitric oxide, and provides insight into how smoking could induce a loss of elasticity in the vasculature and a long-term increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Plasma folate levels in men with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ito, Teizo

    2005-09-01

    Limited data suggest that folate levels are higher in patients with type 2 diabetes than in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We compared the fasting plasma folate, glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), and supplementary vitamin use among male subjects with NGT, those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), those with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and those with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Plasma folate of patients with newly diagnosed diabetes and that of patients with previously diagnosed diabetes was significantly higher than that of NGT subjects (p < 0.001). Prevalence of vitamin use was lower in newly diagnosed or previously diagnosed diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic subjects. Self-rated vegetable intake was similar among the four groups. FPG, BMI, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure correlated with plasma folate levels independently of lifestyle factors studied. These results suggest that plasma folate levels are elevated in male diabetic patients independently of health-conscious behavior that is recommended for diabetic people.

  5. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    PubMed

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  6. Plasma immunoreactive relaxin levels in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, E M; Carriere, B T; Sorensen, L; Segaloff, A; Schwabe, C; Steinetz, B G

    1978-11-01

    Immunoreactive relaxin was measured in plasma samples obtained from human volunteers utilizing the RIA procedure of Sherwood et al., as modified by O'Byrne and Steinetz for heterologous plasma samples. Immunoreactive hormone was not detected in samples obtained from men, and only rarely in plasma of nonpregnant women. Immunoreactive relaxin was present as early as the fourth week of pregnancy and was detectable throughout the course of gestation. Immunoreactive relaxin tended to be higher early in pregnancy, and there was no peak just before parturition as occurs in many other species. Our results are at variance with those of Bryant and coworkers, who reported high levels of immunoreactive relaxin in men and nonpregnant as well as pregnant women. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are presented.

  7. Plasma levels of S100A4 in portopulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tien; Zamanian, Roham; Krowka, Michael J; Benza, Raymond L; Roberts, Kari E; Taichman, Darren B; Rybak, Debbie; Trotter, James F; Brown, Robert S; Fallon, Michael B; Kawut, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    We previously showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in S100A4 was associated with portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) in patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to determine the association between plasma levels of S100A4 and PPHTN. We performed a case-control study of patients with advanced liver disease. Cases with PPHTN had mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg, pulmonary vascular resistance >240 dynes s cm(-5) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Plasma samples were assayed for S100A4. The study sample included 14 cases with PPHTN and 32 controls with liver disease. There was no difference in mean age between cases and controls (p = 0.52). Seventy-nine percent of cases were female compared with 44% of controls (p = 0.03). There was no difference in S100A4 levels between cases and controls (p = 0.58). Both groups had significantly higher S100A4 levels than healthy volunteers (p <0.05). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of S100A4 between PPHTN patients and controls with liver disease, although liver disease itself was associated with increased S100A4 levels.

  8. Plasma Levels of S100A4 in Portopulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tien; Zamanian, Roham; Krowka, Michael J.; Benza, Raymond L.; Roberts, Kari E.; Taichman, Darren B.; Rybak, Debbie; Trotter, James F.; Brown, Robert S.; Fallon, Michael B.; Kawut, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in S100A4 was associated with developing portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) in patients with advanced liver disease. We aimed to determine the association between plasma levels of S100A4 and PPHTN. We performed a case-control study of patients with advanced liver disease. Cases with PPHTN had mean pulmonary artery pressure > 25 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance > 240 dynes-sec · cm−5, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15 mm Hg. Controls with liver disease had right ventricular systolic pressure < 40 mm Hg and normal right atrial and ventricular morphology by echocardiography. Plasma samples were assayed for S100A4. The study sample included 14 cases with PPHTN and 32 liver disease controls. The mean age for both cases and controls was 52 ± 9 yrs. Eighty percent of cases were female compared to 42% of controls (p = 0.02). There was no difference in S100A4 levels between cases and controls (p = 0.53). Both groups had significantly higher S100A4 levels than healthy volunteers (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in plasma levels of S100A4 between PPHTN patients and controls with liver disease, although liver disease itself was associated with increased S100A4 levels. PMID:19399660

  9. Cytokine levels affected by gamma-linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Dirks, J; van Aswegen, C H; du Plessis, D J

    1998-10-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in the form of evening primrose oil (EPO) could affect rat serum cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The following diets were administered: control, glucan, Freund's adjuvant and glucan plus Freund's adjuvant with and without GLA. In the presence of GLA, the IFN-gamma and MCP-1 levels were significantly decreased in contrast to the control group of TNF-alpha, which was significantly stimulated. On account of interaction between diets and GLA, the remaining diet groups of TNF-alpha were either not affected or were inhibited in the presence of GLA. The observations indicate that GLA may modulate the level of serum IFN-gamma, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha, which may be a worthwhile line of treatment in certain human diseases.

  10. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

  11. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing in plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sauchyn, V.; Khvedchyn, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-07-01

    Methods of low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing comprise: cementation, bituminization, curing in polymer matrices, combustion and pyrolysis. All these methods are limited in their application in the field of chemical, morphological, and aggregate composition of material to be processed. The thermal plasma method is one of the universal methods of RAW processing. The use of electric-arc plasma with mean temperatures 2000 - 8000 K can effectively carry out the destruction of organic compounds into atoms and ions with very high speeds and high degree of conversion. Destruction of complex substances without oxygen leads to a decrease of the volume of exhaust gases and dimension of gas cleaning system. This paper presents the plasma reactor for thermal processing of low and intermediate level radioactive waste of mixed morphology. The equipment realizes plasma-pyrolytic conversion of wastes and results in a conditioned product in a single stage. As a result, the volume of conditioned waste is significantly reduced (more than 10 times). Waste is converted into an environmentally friendly form that suits long-term storage. The leaching rate of macro-components from the vitrified compound is less than 1.10{sup -7} g/(cm{sup 2}.day). (authors)

  12. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens.

  13. Elevated plasma tricyclic levels with therapeutic doses of imipramine.

    PubMed

    Garvey, M J; Tuason, V B; Johnson, R A; Valentine, R H; Cooper, T B

    1984-07-01

    Nine (15%) of 59 patients treated with imipramine at doses of 150 to 300 mg/day had steady-state plasma levels greater than 500 ng/ml. Low capacity for hydroxylation was found in all six patients for whom hydroxy metabolites were measured. Maximum tricyclic levels in the nine study patients were comparable to levels found in tricyclic antidepressant overdoses (651-2439 ng/ml). No study patient experienced any adverse effects: QRS durations were all less than 100 msec, and a mildly dry mouth was the most commonly reported side effect (five of nine patients). Depressive symptoms recurred in three patients when their imipramine dose was decreased.

  14. Injected phytosterols/stanols suppress plasma cholesterol levels in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Vanstone, C A.; Raeini-Sarjaz, M; Jones, P J.H.

    2001-10-01

    Although plant sterols are known to suppress intestinal cholesterol absorption, whether plasma and hepatic lipid levels are influenced through non-gut related internal mechanisms has not been established. To examine this question 50 male hamsters were divided into 5 groups and fed semi-purified diets containing 20% energy as fat and 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol ad libitum for 60 days. The control group (i) received diet alone, while four additional groups consumed the diet plus one of four equivalent phytosterol mixtures (5 mg/kg/day) given either as (ii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols mixed with diet (oralSA), (iii) tall oil phytosterols/stanols subcutaneously injected (subSA), (iv) soybean oil phytosterols alone mixed with diet (oralSE), or (v) soybean oil subcutaneous injected phytosterols alone (subSE). The control group and both orally supplemented groups also received placebo subcutaneous sham injections. Neither food consumption, body weight, nor liver weight differed across treatment groups. Subcutaneous administration of SA and SE decreased plasma total cholesterol levels by 21% and 23% (p < 0.0001) and non-apolipoprotein-A cholesterol concentrations by 22% and 15% (p < 0.0002), respectively, compared to control. HDL cholesterol and TG concentrations remained unchanged across all groups, except for a decline of 25% (p < 0.0001) in HDL concentration in the subSE group versus control. Plasma campesterol levels were lower (p < 0.05) in the subSA group relative to all other groups. Plasma campesterol:cholesterol and campesterol:sitosterol ratios were, however, higher (p < 0.0001) for both the oral and subSE groups. Hepatic cholesterol levels were higher (p < 0.0001) in the oral and subSE phytosterol groups by 30% and 31%, respectively, relative to control. We conclude that low doses of subcutaneously administered plant sterols reduce circulating cholesterol levels through mechanisms other than inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  15. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  16. PLASMA OXYTOCIN LEVELS PREDICT SOCIAL CUE RECOGNITION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Keller, William R.; Koenig, James I.; Gold, James M.; Frost, Katherine H.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated with endogenous oxytocin. The current study explored the association between endogenous oxytocin levels and lower- and higher-level social cognition in 40 individuals diagnosed with SZ and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). All participants received the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT), which presents participants with videotaped interpersonal vignettes and subsequent true/false questions related to concrete or abstract aspects of social interactions in the vignettes. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ and CN did not differ on SCRT hits, but SZ had more false positives and lower sensitivity scores than CN. Higher plasma oxytocin levels were associated with better sensitivity scores for abstract items in CN and fewer false positives for concrete items in individuals with SZ. Findings indicate that endogenous oxytocin levels predict accurate encoding of lower-level socially relevant information in SZ. PMID:25673435

  17. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N

    1976-09-01

    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  18. Context affects lightness at the level of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Marianne; Wichmann, Felix A; Shapley, Robert

    2015-01-14

    Visual perception of object attributes such as surface lightness is crucial for successful interaction with the environment. How the visual system assigns lightness to image regions is not yet understood. It has been shown that the context in which a surface is embedded influences its perceived lightness, but whether that influence involves predominantly low-, mid-, or high-level visual mechanisms has not been resolved. To answer this question, we measured whether perceptual attributes of target image regions affected their perceived lightness when they were placed in different contexts. We varied the sharpness of the edge while keeping total target flux fixed. Targets with a sharp edge were consistent with the perceptual interpretation of a surface, and in that case, observers perceived significant brightening or darkening of the target. Targets with blurred edges rather appeared to be spotlights instead of surfaces; for targets with blurred edges, there was much less of a contextual effect on target lightness. The results indicate that the effect of context on the lightness of an image region is not fixed but is strongly affected by image manipulations that modify the perceptual attributes of the target, implying that a mid-level scene interpretation affects lightness perception.

  19. Decreased Plasma BDNF Levels of Patients with Somatization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most abundant and important neurotrophins, is known to be involved in the development, survival, maintenance, and plasticity of neurons in the nervous system. Some studies have suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia. Similarly, it is likely that the alteration of BDNF may be associated with the neuro-modulation that contributes to the development of somatization disorder. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an abnormality of plasma BDNF levels in patients with somatization disorder, and to analyze the nature of the alteration after pharmacotherapy using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The plasma BDNF levels of the patients with a somatization disorder were significantly lower compared with those of the control volunteers (83.61±89.97 pg/mL vs. 771.36±562.14 pg/mL); moreover, the plasma BDNF levels of those patients who received an antidepressant were significantly increased after the treatment (118.13±91.45 pg/mL vs. 72.92±88.21 pg/mL). Conclusion These results suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of somatization disorder. PMID:27757131

  20. Yeast mutants affecting possible quality control of plasma membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kane, T; Tipper, C; Spatrick, P; Jenness, D D

    1999-05-01

    Mutations gef1, stp22, STP26, and STP27 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as suppressors of the temperature-sensitive alpha-factor receptor (mutation ste2-3) and arginine permease (mutation can1(ts)). These suppressors inhibited the elimination of misfolded receptors (synthesized at 34 degrees C) as well as damaged surface receptors (shifted from 22 to 34 degrees C). The stp22 mutation (allelic to vps23 [M. Babst and S. Emr, personal communication] and the STP26 mutation also caused missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, and ste2-3 was suppressed by mutations vps1, vps8, vps10, and vps28 but not by mutation vps3. In the stp22 mutant, both the mutant and the wild-type receptors (tagged with green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulated within an endosome-like compartment and were excluded from the vacuole. GFP-tagged Stp22p also accumulated in this compartment. Upon reaching the vacuole, cytoplasmic domains of both mutant and wild-type receptors appeared within the vacuolar lumen. Stp22p and Gef1p are similar to tumor susceptibility protein TSG101 and voltage-gated chloride channel, respectively. These results identify potential elements of plasma membrane quality control and indicate that cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are translocated into the vacuolar lumen.

  1. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  2. Hip Osteonecrosis Is Associated with Increased Plasma IL-33 Level

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinhui; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Li, Shirui; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered IL-33 as an IL-1 cytokine family member has been proved to be specifically released from osteonecrotic bones. We aimed to investigate the potential role of IL-33 in the development of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Forty patients diagnosed with ONFH and forty age-, sex-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study between March 2016 and September 2016. A commercially available ELISA kit was used to test the level of plasma IL-33. The IL-33 levels were compared among different ARCO stages, CJFH types, and etiology groups. Plasma IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the ONFH patients than that in the control subjects. The levels of IL-33 did not differ significantly among the ONFH patients with different ARCO stages. The IL-33 levels of patients with CJFH type L3 were significantly higher than that of patients with types L1 and L2. No significant differences were observed in IL-33 levels between steroid-induced, alcohol-induced, and idiopathic patients. Our findings seem to indicate that IL-33 effects may be detrimental during ONFH, which appeared to be associated with the prognosis of ONFH. The IL-33 deserves particular attention in the pathogenesis of ONFH. PMID:28167850

  3. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  4. Acute psychological stress increases plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin and TSH.

    PubMed

    Schedlowski, M; Wiechert, D; Wagner, T O; Tewes, U

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acute stress during a parachute jump on hormonal responses were studied in 12 experienced and 11 inexperienced military parachutists. Each subject performed two jumps. Prior to and immediately after each jump blood samples were drawn and analysed for plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin (TSH), somatotropin (STH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). While there was a significant increase in cortisol, prolactin and TSH levels after both jumps, no alterations could be observed in STH and LH levels. Stress-induced hormonal responses were not affected by jump experience. There was also no association between the endocrine variables and anxiety scores.

  5. HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Saxena, D.; Chen, Z.; Norman, R.G.; Phelan, J.A.; Laverty, M.; Fisch, G.S.; Corby, P.M.; Abrams, W.; Malamud, D.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes. PMID:22821240

  6. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  7. Neural Affective Mechanisms Predict Market-Level Microlending.

    PubMed

    Genevsky, Alexander; Knutson, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Humans sometimes share with others whom they may never meet or know, in violation of the dictates of pure self-interest. Research has not established which neuropsychological mechanisms support lending decisions, nor whether their influence extends to markets involving significant financial incentives. In two studies, we found that neural affective mechanisms influence the success of requests for microloans. In a large Internet database of microloan requests (N = 13,500), we found that positive affective features of photographs promoted the success of those requests. We then established that neural activity (i.e., in the nucleus accumbens) and self-reported positive arousal in a neuroimaging sample (N = 28) predicted the success of loan requests on the Internet, above and beyond the effects of the neuroimaging sample's own choices (i.e., to lend or not). These findings suggest that elicitation of positive arousal can promote the success of loan requests, both in the laboratory and on the Internet. They also highlight affective neuroscience's potential to probe neuropsychological mechanisms that drive microlending, enhance the effectiveness of loan requests, and forecast market-level behavior.

  8. Hyperglycemia may determine fibrinopeptide A plasma level increase in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Giugliano, D; Quatraro, A; Dello Russo, P; Marchi, E; Torella, R

    1989-12-01

    The effects of hyperglycemia on plasma fibrinopeptide A (FPA) levels in normal subjects are reported. An increase of FPA concentration parallel to sustained hyperglycemia was observed; when the glycemia returned to basal values, FPA showed values in normal range. Heparin infusion was able to significantly decrease the hyperglycemia-induced augment of FPA levels. Isovolumic-isotonic NaCl solution infusion produced a slight (NS) increase in FPA levels; however, mild hyperglycemia, achieved by glucagon, was also able to produce a significant increase in FPA concentration. These data demonstrate the direct role of hyperglycemia in conditioning FPA level, and suggest that hyperglycemia, by itself, is a sufficient stimulus to produce thrombin activation in humans.

  9. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances an increase of plasma corticosterone levels induced by forced swim-stress.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazunori; Koushi, Emi; Irie, Keiichi; Higuchi, Sei; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Kinjo, Junei; Egashira, Nobuaki; Oishi, Ryozo; Uchida, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Ryoji; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2009-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on susceptibility to stress. We reported that THC significantly prolonged the immobility time during the forced swim-stress. The selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist O-2050 significantly reduced the enhancement of immobility by THC. We investigated the effect of THC on levels of stress hormone corticosterone under non-stress and forced swim-stress conditions. THC did not affect plasma corticosterone levels under non-stress conditions. However, THC, together with forced swim-stress, significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels. This effect was inhibited by O-2050. This evidence suggests that THC, under stressful conditions, enhances the susceptibility of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis to stress via the CB(1) receptor, thereby increasing the risk of depression.

  10. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Aroner, Sarah A; Rosner, Bernard A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Baur, Nadja; Joos, Thomas O; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is an enzyme with important functions in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is unclear whether circulating MMP2 levels may predict breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective nested case-control analysis in the Nurses' Health Study among 1136 cases who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2004 and 1136 matched controls. All participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990, and a subset (170 cases, 170 controls) contributed an additional sample in 2000-2002. Pre-diagnostic plasma MMP2 levels were measured via immunoassay, and conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for breast cancer risk factors. No association was observed between plasma MMP2 levels and risk of total invasive breast cancer (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.2; p-trend=0.89). Findings did not vary significantly by time since blood draw, body mass index, postmenopausal hormone use, or menopausal status at either blood draw or breast cancer diagnosis. MMP2 was associated with a greater risk of nodal metastases at diagnosis (top vs. bottom quartile, OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2; p-heterogeneity, any vs. no lymph nodes=0.002), but no significant associations were observed with other tumor characteristics or with recurrent or fatal cancers. Plasma MMP2 levels do not appear to be predictive of total invasive breast cancer risk, although associations with aggressive disease warrant further study.

  11. Comparable Low-Level Mosaicism in Affected and Non Affected Tissue of a Complex CDH Patient

    PubMed Central

    Veenma, Danielle; Beurskens, Niels; Douben, Hannie; Eussen, Bert; Noomen, Petra; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Grijseels, Els; Lequin, Maarten; de Krijger, Ronald; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Van Opstal, Dian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the detailed clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a prenatally detected complex Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) patient with a mosaic unbalanced translocation (5;12). High-resolution whole genome SNP array confirmed a low-level mosaicism (20%) in uncultured cells, underlining the value of array technology for identification studies. Subsequently, targeted Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization in postmortem collected tissues demonstrated a similar low-level mosaicism, independently of the affected status of the tissue. Thus, a higher incidence of the genetic aberration in affected organs as lung and diaphragm cannot explain the severe phenotype of this complex CDH patient. Comparison with other described chromosome 5p and 12p anomalies indicated that half of the features presented in our patient (including the diaphragm defect) could be attributed to both chromosomal areas. In contrast, a few features such as the palpebral downslant, the broad nasal bridge, the micrognathia, microcephaly, abnormal dermatoglyphics and IUGR better fitted the 5p associated syndromes only. This study underlines the fact that low-level mosaicism can be associated with severe birth defects including CDH. The contribution of mosaicism to human diseases and specifically to congenital anomalies and spontaneous abortions becomes more and more accepted, although its phenotypic consequences are poorly described phenomena leading to counseling issues. Therefore, thorough follow–up of mosaic aberrations such as presented here is indicated in order to provide genetic counselors a more evidence based prediction of fetal prognosis in the future. PMID:21203572

  12. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  13. Plasma bupivacaine levels associated with extradural anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Thompson, E M; Wilson, C M; Moore, J; McClean, E

    1985-05-01

    Plasma bupivacaine levels were measured in 47 women undergoing extradural Caesarean delivery. They were divided into four groups according to the following dose regimens using 0.5% bupivacaine. Group A were given a bolus of 20 ml with increment after 20 minutes. Groups B and C were given 10 ml initially with further increments if required at 10 minutes (group B) and 20 minutes (group C); Group D consisted of patients who had an extradural block extended for emergency Caesarean delivery. In the elective groups the highest and most rapidly achieved values were associated with group A and the lowest levels found in group C. The highest levels of all were found in the emergency group. The investigation indicates that slow controlled induction of extradural anaesthesia for Caesarean section greatly reduces the risk of local anaesthetic toxicity.

  14. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  15. Antimullerian Hormone Level and Endometrioma Ablation Using Plasma Energy

    PubMed Central

    Bubenheim, Michael; Auber, Mathieu; Marpeau, Loïc; Puscasiu, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of ovarian endometrioma vaporization using plasma energy on antimullerian hormone (AMH) level. Method: We report a prospective, noncomparative series (NCT01596985). Twenty-two patients with unilateral ovarian endometriomas ≥30 mm, with no surgical antecedent and no ongoing pregnancy, underwent vaporization of ovarian endometriomas using plasma energy during the period of November 29, 2010 to November 28, 2012. We assessed AMH levels before surgery, 3 months postoperatively, and at the end of follow-up. Results: The mean length of postoperative follow-up was 18.2 ± 8 months. AMH level significantly varied through the 3 assessments performed in the study, as the mean values ± SD were 3.9 ± 2.6 ng/mL before the surgery, 2.3 ± 1.1 ng/mL at 3 months, and 3.1 ± 2.2 ng/mL at the end of the follow-up (P = .001). There was a significant increase from 3 months postoperatively to the end of follow-up (median change 0.7 ng/mL, P = .01). Seventy-one percent of patients had an AMH level >2 ng/mL at the end of the follow-up versus 76% before the surgery (P = 1). During the postoperative follow-up, 11 patients tried to conceive, of whom 8 (73%) became pregnant. Conclusions: The ablation of unilateral endometriomas is followed in a majority of cases by a significant decrease in AMH level 3 months after surgery. In subsequent months, this level progressively increases, raising questions about the real factors that impact postoperative ovarian AMH production. PMID:25392649

  16. Circularly polarized, sinusoidal, 50 Hz magnetic field exposure does not influence plasma testosterone levels of rats.

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Honma, K; Shigemitsu, T; Shiga, Y

    1994-01-01

    We exposed rats to circularly polarized 50 Hz magnetic fields to determine if plasma testosterone concentration was affected. Previous experiments indicate that magnetic fields suppress the nighttime rise in melatonin, suggesting that other neuroendocrine changes might occur as well. Male Wistar-King rats were exposed almost continuously for 6 weeks to magnetic flux densities of 1, 5, or 50 microT. Blood samples were obtained by decapitation at 12:00 h and 24:00 h. Plasma testosterone concentration showed a significant day-night difference, with a higher level at 12:00 h when studied in July and December, but night difference, with a higher level at 12:00 h when studied in July and December, but the day-night difference disappeared when concentrations were studied in April. In three experiments, magnetic field exposure had no statistically significant effect on plasma testosterone levels compared with the sham-exposed groups. These findings indicate that 6 weeks of nearly continuous exposure to circularly polarized, 50 Hz magnetic fields did not change plasma testosterone concentration in rats.

  17. Influence of dietary lipids on hepatic mRNA levels of proteins regulating plasma lipoproteins in baboons with high and low levels of large high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R S; McMahan, C A; Mott, G E; Carey, K D; Reardon, C A; Getz, G S; McGill, H C

    1991-12-01

    Selective breeding of baboons has produced families with increased plasma levels of large high density lipoproteins (HDL1) and very low (VLDL) and low (LDL) density lipoproteins when the animals consume a diet enriched in cholesterol and saturated fat. High HDL1 baboons have a slower cholesteryl ester transfer, which may account for the accumulation of HDL1, but not of VLDL and LDL. To investigate the mechanism of accumulation of VLDL + LDL in plasma of the high HDL1 phenotype, we selected eight half-sib pairs of baboons, one member of each pair with high HDL1, the other member with little or no HDL1 on the same high cholesterol, saturated fat diet. Baboons were fed a chow diet and four experimental diets consisting of high and low cholesterol with corn oil, and high and low cholesterol with lard, each for 6 weeks, in a crossover design. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and hepatic mRNA levels were measured on each diet. HDL1 phenotype, type of dietary fat, and dietary cholesterol affected plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, whereas dietary fat alone affected plasma triglyceride and apoA-I concentrations. HDL1 phenotype and dietary cholesterol alone did not influence hepatic mRNA levels, whereas dietary lard, compared to corn oil, significantly increased hepatic apoE mRNA levels and decreased hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. Hepatic apoA-I message was associated with cholesterol concentration in HDL fractions as well as with apoA-I concentrations in the plasma or HDL. However, hepatic apoB message level was not associated with plasma or LDL apoB levels. Total plasma cholesterol, including HDL, was negatively associated with hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. However, compared with low HDL1 baboons, high HDL1 baboons had higher concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol at the same hepatic mRNA levels. These studies suggest that neither overproduction of apoB from the liver nor decreased hepatic LDL

  18. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  19. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  20. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  1. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  2. [Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations Reference values for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are not available for Colombian populations. A representative sample of a working-class population was used to establish these values to provide reference data for use by the social security system. Two working-class populations were sampled from the Aburrá Valley (Aburrá) and eastern Antioquia (Oriente). Cholinesterase activity was measured in 827 workers, with ages spanning 18-49 years, 415 from Aburrá and 412 people from Oriente. Three methods were used to measure cholinesterase: Michel, EQM and Monotest The average values by Michel and EQM were not statistically different between regions (Michel: Aburrá, 1.11, and East, 1.13 deltas pH/hora; EQM: Aburrá, 2.55, and Oriente, 2.48 U/ml). By the Monotest, the enzyme average was statistically higher in Aburra than in Oriente (5,743 and 5,459 U/L respectively; p = 0 .012). By region and technique, men had significantly higher enzymatic levels than women. Within both regions and sexes, no statistically significant difference among the three aged groups was noted. Our obtained Colombian values differed significantly from foreign reference values: Michel and Monotest levels were higher and EQM levels were lower. For making clinical and epidemiologic decisions in Colombia related to these data, the values obtained for the Colombian populations are preferred over values derived from external sources.

  3. Evolutionary clade affects resistance of Clostridium difficile spores to Cold Atmospheric Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Mairéad; Flynn, Padrig B.; Fairley, Derek J.; Marks, Nikki; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.; McGrath, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Spores produced by C. difficile are robust and can remain viable for months, leading to prolonged healthcare-associated outbreaks with high mortality. Exposure of C. difficile spores to a novel, non-thermal atmospheric pressure gas plasma was assessed. Factors affecting sporicidal efficacy, including percentage of oxygen in the helium carrier gas admixture, and the effect on spores from different strains representing the five evolutionary C. difficile clades was investigated. Strains from different clades displayed varying resistance to cold plasma. Strain R20291, representing the globally epidemic ribotype 027 type, was the most resistant. However all tested strains displayed a ~3 log reduction in viable spore counts after plasma treatment for 5 minutes. Inactivation of a ribotype 078 strain, the most prevalent clinical type seen in Northern Ireland, was further assessed with respect to surface decontamination, pH, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Environmental factors affected plasma activity, with dry spores without the presence of organic matter being most susceptible. This study demonstrates that cold atmospheric plasma can effectively inactivate C. difficile spores, and highlights factors that can affect sporicidal activity. PMID:28155914

  4. Evolutionary clade affects resistance of Clostridium difficile spores to Cold Atmospheric Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Mairéad; Flynn, Padrig B.; Fairley, Derek J.; Marks, Nikki; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.; McGrath, John W.

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Spores produced by C. difficile are robust and can remain viable for months, leading to prolonged healthcare-associated outbreaks with high mortality. Exposure of C. difficile spores to a novel, non-thermal atmospheric pressure gas plasma was assessed. Factors affecting sporicidal efficacy, including percentage of oxygen in the helium carrier gas admixture, and the effect on spores from different strains representing the five evolutionary C. difficile clades was investigated. Strains from different clades displayed varying resistance to cold plasma. Strain R20291, representing the globally epidemic ribotype 027 type, was the most resistant. However all tested strains displayed a ~3 log reduction in viable spore counts after plasma treatment for 5 minutes. Inactivation of a ribotype 078 strain, the most prevalent clinical type seen in Northern Ireland, was further assessed with respect to surface decontamination, pH, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Environmental factors affected plasma activity, with dry spores without the presence of organic matter being most susceptible. This study demonstrates that cold atmospheric plasma can effectively inactivate C. difficile spores, and highlights factors that can affect sporicidal activity.

  5. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  6. Serial changes in plasma annexin A1 and cortisol levels in sepsis patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Hui; Li, I-Ting; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Shih, Chung-Hung

    2014-02-28

    Annexin A1 (AnxA1), originally identified as a glucocorticoid-regulated protein, is an impor- tant endogenous anti-inflammatory mediator during the resolution phase of inflammation, and its cir- culating level has been rarely studied in sepsis patients. Glucocorticoid has been extensively used in treating patients with sepsis. However, it is unclear whether endogenous cortisol or exogenous glucocor- ticoid contributes to the regulation of AnxA1 levels in peripheral blood of sepsis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate: [1] serial changes over time in the plasma levels of AnxA1 and cortisol in sepsis patients; and [2] prognostic value of AnxA1 level in the survival of sepsis patients. Fifty-eight adult sepsis patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled. The plasma levels of cortisol and AnxA1 were determined by specific enzyme-link immunosorbent assay. Results show that the median daily levels of cortisol at the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day after admission to ICU were signifi- cantly elevated over the cortisol level of the control subjects. However, the AnxA1 level was elevated in only thirty-three patients (56%) over the observation period. There was no significant correlation between cortisol levels and AnxA1 levels. Further analysis indicated that steroid treatment resulted in significant elevation of the cortisol level over time, but did not affect the AnxA1 level. AnxA1 levels were also not statistically different between surviving and non-surviving patients. In conclusions, the circu- lating level of AnxA1 is elevated in a subgroup of sepsis patients, and the AnxA1 level does not correlate with the cortisol level in the peripheral blood of sepsis patients.

  7. Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients reveals proteins that affect oxidative stress responses and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Ma, Duan; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Lin, Biaoyang; Li, Run-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Asthenozoospermia (AS) is a common cause of human male infertility. In one study, more than 80% of the samples from infertile men had reduced sperm motility. Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland. Studies have shown that seminal plasma contains proteins that are important for sperm motility. To further explore the pathophysiological character of AS, we separated the seminal plasma proteins from AS patients and healthy donors using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion, and then subjected the proteins to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 741 proteins were identified in the seminal plasma, with a false discovery rate of 3.3%. Using spectral counting, we found that 45 proteins were threefold upregulated and 56 proteins were threefold downregulated in the AS group when compared with the control. Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate. This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS. We identified DJ-1-a protein that has been shown elsewhere to be involved in the control of oxidative stress (OS)-as a downregulated protein in AS seminal plasma. The levels of DJ-1 in AS seminal plasma were about half of those in the control samples. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species were 3.3-fold higher in the AS samples than in the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that downregulation of DJ-1 is involved in OS in semen, and therefore affects the quality of the semen.

  8. Plasma inflammatory and vascular homeostasis biomarkers increase during human pregnancy but are not affected by oily fish intake.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepción M; Mesa, María D; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel

    2012-07-01

    The Salmon in Pregnancy Study investigated whether the increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) from farmed Atlantic salmon affects immune function during pregnancy and atopic disease in neonates compared with a habitual diet low in oily fish. In this context, because the ingestion of (n-3) LC-PUFA may lower the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, we investigated whether the consumption of oily fish affects the levels of inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion factors during pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 123) were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet (control group, n = 61), which was low in oily fish, or to consume two 150-g salmon portions/wk (salmon group, n = 62; providing 3.45 g EPA plus DHA) from 20 wk of gestation until delivery. Plasma inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion factors were measured in maternal plasma samples. Inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-8, hepatocyte growth factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein, increased over the course of pregnancy (P < 0.001), whereas plasma matrix metalloproteinase 9, IL-6, TNFα, and nerve growth factor concentrations were not affected. Vascular homeostasis biomarkers soluble E-selectin, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, and total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 increased as pregnancy progressed (P < 0.001). The plasma sICAM-1 concentration was greater in the control group than in the salmon group at wk 20 (baseline) and 38 (P = 0.007) but there was no group x time interaction, and when baseline concentration was used as a covariate, the groups did not differ (P = 0.69). The remaining biomarkers analyzed were similar in both groups. Therefore, although some inflammatory and vascular homeostasis biomarkers change during pregnancy, they are not affected by the increased intake of farmed salmon.

  9. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  10. Plasma soluble (pro)renin receptor is independent of plasma renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations but is affected by ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Geneviève; Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Bergerot, Damien; Chambon, Yann; Hirose, Takuo; Caumont-Prim, Aurore; Tabard, Sylvie Brailly; Baron, Stéphanie; Frank, Michael; Totsune, Kazuhito; Azizi, Michel

    2014-02-01

    A soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) circulates in plasma and is able to bind renin and prorenin. It is not known whether plasma sPRR concentrations vary with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. We measured plasma sPRR, renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in 121 white and 9 black healthy subjects, 40 patients with diabetes mellitus, 41 hypertensive patients with or without renin-angiotensin system blockers, 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, and 10 patients with Gitelman syndrome. Median physiological plasma sPRR concentration was 23.5 ng/mL (interquartile range, 20.9-26.5) under usual uncontrolled sodium diet. sPRR concentration in healthy subjects, unlike renin and prorenin, did not display circadian variation or dependence on age, sex, posture, or hormonal status. sPRR concentrations were ≈25% lower in black than in white subjects, whereas renin concentrations were ≈40% lower. Patients with diabetes mellitus (average renin-high prorenin levels) and with hypertension only (average renin-average prorenin levels) had sPRR concentrations similar to healthy subjects. Renin-angiotensin system blockade was associated with increase of sPRR concentration by ≈12%. sPRR in patients with primary aldosteronism (low renin-low prorenin) and Gitelman syndrome (high renin-high prorenin) were similar and ≈10% higher than in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between sPRR and renin or prorenin. In conclusion, our results show that plasma sPRR concentrations are dependent on ethnicity and independent of renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in healthy subjects and in patients with contrasted degrees of renin-angiotensin system activity.

  11. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  12. Lower Oxytocin Plasma Levels in Borderline Patients with Unresolved Attachment Representations.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Padberg, Frank; Mauer, Maria-Christine; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Bauriedl-Schmidt, Christine; Sabass, Lena; Sarubin, Nina; Falkai, Peter; Renneberg, Babette; Zill, Peter; Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT) system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball). The majority of BPD patients (63.2%) but no HCs showed unresolved (disorganized) attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  13. Lower Oxytocin Plasma Levels in Borderline Patients with Unresolved Attachment Representations

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Andrea; Padberg, Frank; Mauer, Maria-Christine; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Bauriedl-Schmidt, Christine; Sabass, Lena; Sarubin, Nina; Falkai, Peter; Renneberg, Babette; Zill, Peter; Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT) system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball). The majority of BPD patients (63.2%) but no HCs showed unresolved (disorganized) attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients. PMID:27064696

  14. Variation in dose and plasma level of lamotrigine in patients discharged from a mental health trust

    PubMed Central

    Douglas-Hall, Petrina; Dzahini, Olubanke; Gaughran, Fiona; Bile, Ahmed; Taylor, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate the dose of lamotrigine when prescribed with an enzyme inhibitor or enzyme inducer in patients discharged from a mental health trust and to determine the corresponding lamotrigine plasma concentrations and the factors that may affect these. Methods: All patients discharged on lamotrigine between October 2007 and September 2012 were identified using the pharmacy dispensing database. We recorded demographic details, lamotrigine dose and plasma levels and coprescribed medication. Results: During the designated period, 187 patients were discharged on lamotrigine of whom 117 had their plasma levels recorded. The mean lamotrigine daily dose was 226.1 mg (range 12.5–800 mg) and the mean plasma level 5.9 mg/l (range 0.8–18.1 mg/l). Gender, ethnicity, diagnosis and smoking status had no significant effect on dose or plasma levels. Patients taking an enzyme-inducing drug (n = 6) had significantly lower plasma levels [mean (SD) 3.40 (1.54) mg/l] than those not taking enzyme inducers [n = 111; 6.03 (3.13) mg/l; p = 0.043]. Patients taking an enzyme-inhibiting drug (n = 23) had significantly higher levels [7.47 (3.99) mg/l] than those not taking an inhibitor [n = 94; 5.52 (2.75) mg/l; p = 0.035]. No significant difference was found between the doses of lamotrigine in patients taking an enzyme inhibitor and those not taking one (p = 0.376). No significant difference was found between the doses of lamotrigine in patients taking an enzyme-inducing drug and those not taking any (p = 0.574). Conclusions: Current dosing recommendations indicate that lamotrigine doses should be halved in individuals taking enzyme inhibitors and doubled in those on enzyme inducers. In our survey these recommendations were rarely followed with the consequence that patients received too high or too low a dose of lamotrigine, respectively. PMID:28101320

  15. Increased plasma levels of competing amino acids, rather than lowered plasma tryptophan levels, are associated with a non-response to treatment in major depression.

    PubMed

    Ormstad, Heidi; Dahl, Johan; Verkerk, Robert; Andreassen, Ole A; Maes, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Lowered plasma tryptophan (TRP) and TRP/competing amino acid (CAA) ratio may be involved in the pathophysiology of major depression (MDD). Increased cortisol and immune-inflammatory mediators in MDD may affect the availability of TRP to the brain. We investigated whether baseline or post-treatment TRP, CAAs and TRP/CAA ratio are associated with a treatment response in MDD and whether these effects may be mediated by cortisol or immune biomarkers. We included 50 medication-free MDD patients with a depressive episode (DSM diagnosis) and assessed symptom severity with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) before and after treatment as usual for 12 weeks (endpoint). Plasma levels of TRP, CAAs, the ratio, cortisol, CRP and 6 selected cytokines were assayed. The primary outcome was a 50% reduction in the IDS, while the secondary was a remission of the depressive episode. In IDS non-responders, CAAs increased and the TRP/CAA ratio decreased, while in IDS responders CAAs decreased and the TRP/CAA ratio increased from baseline to endpoint. In patients who were still depressed at endpoint TRP and CAAs levels had increased from baseline, while in remitted patients no such effects were found. Increases in CAAs were inversely correlated with changes in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels. The results show that increased CAA levels from baseline to endpoint are associated with a non-response to treatment in MDD patients. This suggests that the mechanism underpinning the CAA-related treatment resistance may be related to changes in immune pathways. CAA levels and amino acid metabolism may be new drug targets in depression.

  16. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  17. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K

    2015-09-08

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC's content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  18. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5).

  19. Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, S; Kamei, C; Yoshida, T; Tasaka, K

    1993-08-01

    Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine (H(i)) were studied in dogs. Intracerebroventricular administration of Hi at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms/kg caused a significant increase in plasma ACTH, while more rapid and more marked increase in plasma cortisol was noticed after Hi injection at doses of 2-10 micrograms/kg. Similar results were obtained when 2-methylhistamine was injected; remarkable increases in both plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were observed at doses of 25 and 50 micrograms/kg. However, no such effect was elicited by 4-methylhistamine even at a dose of 50 micrograms/kg. The rate of plasma cortisol increase induced by either Hi or 2-methylhistamine was significantly faster than that of plasma ACTH. Simultaneous application of pyrilamine (intracerebroventricularly) with H(i) resulted in the significant inhibition of H(i)-induced hormone secretions, but in similar administration neither ACTH nor cortisol were affected by cimetidine. In hypophysectomized dogs, a significant increase in plasma cortisol level was also observed after H(i) injection at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg. Intravenous infusion of hexamethonium continued before and after H(i) injection failed to inhibit the increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels induced by H(i). From these findings, it can be concluded that intracerebroventricular injection of H(i) caused an increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels via H1-receptor, and it is suggested that to some extent, the cortisol release elicited by H(i) is certainly produced without participation of ACTH.

  20. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  1. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  2. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  3. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  4. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  5. Seminal plasma affects prostaglandin synthesis and angiogenesis in the porcine uterus.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Monika M; Krawczynski, Kamil; Filant, Justyna

    2013-03-01

    Introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract may induce molecular and cellular changes facilitating conception and pregnancy. Because prostaglandins (PGs) and appropriate vascularization of the endometrium are crucial for pregnancy success, the effect of seminal plasma (SP) on PG synthesis and angiogenesis was investigated. Gilts at estrus received an infusion of 100 ml of either SP or PBS (control). Uterine horns were collected on Days 1, 3, 5, and 10 after each treatment. Concentrations of PGE2, PGF2alpha , and PGFM were measured in the uterine lumen and endometrial tissue. Expression of PG synthesis pathway enzymes and angiogenic factors, infiltration of immune cells, and vascular bed development were assessed. One day after SP infusion, the PGE2:PGF2alpha ratio in the uterine lumen was lower than in controls. In endometrial tissue, however, PGE2 levels and the PGE2:PGF2alpha ratio were elevated on Day 10. PG-endoperoxide synthase expression in the endometrium was up-regulated on Day 1 and decreased on Day 5 after SP treatment compared to that in controls. PGF2alpha synthase levels were decreased on Day 5 and 10 in SP-treated animals when compared to controls. SP-induced vascular bed development was apparent shortly before the time corresponding to maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig. Together, these data indicate that the porcine uterus can be sensitized shortly after SP exposure to evoke prolonged effects on PG synthesis and angiogenesis in the endometrium, persisting over the course of the prereceptive phase. Thus, SP can affect uterine receptivity and embryo-maternal interactions in pigs through locally direct and/or indirect mechanisms.

  6. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.

    1987-06-29

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field. 5 figs.

  7. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1989-01-01

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  8. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  9. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Glucose intolerance in fluorosis areas and when fluoride is administered for the treatment of osteoporosis has been reported. Controlled fluoridation of drinking water is regarded as a safe and effective measure to control dental caries. However, the effect on glucose homeostasis was not studied so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intake of fluoridated water supply on glucose metabolism in rats with normal and deficient renal function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of four rats. Renal insufficiency was induced in four groups (NX) which received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm F (NaF) for 60 days. Four groups with simulated surgery acted as controls. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test between controls and NX rats and among rats with different intakes of fluoride. However, plasma insulin level increased as a function of fluoride concentration in drinking water, both in controls and in NX rats. It is concluded that the consumption of fluoridated water from water supply did not affect plasma glucose levels even in cases of animals with renal disease. However, a resistance to insulin action was demonstrated.

  10. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  11. Contextualizing Mathematics Related Affect: Significance of Students' Individual and Social Level Affect in Finland and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuohilampi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics related affect turn from positive to negative during comprehensive school years worldwide. There is a clear need to find solutions to the problem. However, some gaps and problems appear in the methodologies and the common approaches used in the field. This article discusses five studies addressing affective development, challenges some…

  12. Between Affect and Cognition: Proving at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furinghetti, Fulvia; Morselli, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report on a case study of a university student (third year of Mathematics course). She was engaged in proving a statement of elementary number theory. We asked her to write the thoughts that accompanied her solving process. She was collaborative and her protocol is suitable to study the interrelation between affect and cognition.…

  13. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  14. Effects of different copper sources and levels on plasma superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, and copper status of lambs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianbo; Ma, Hui; Fan, Caiyun; Zhang, Zijun; Jia, Zhihai; Zhu, Xiaoping; Wang, Lisheng

    2011-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of different copper (Cu) sources and levels on plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, and Cu status of lambs. Fifty Dorper × Mongolia wether lambs (approximately 3 month of age; average BW = 23.8 ± 0.6 kg) were divided into five equal groups each with ten animals according to their weight. Treatments consisted of (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (3) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (4) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl; TBCC), and (5) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from TBCC. The Cu concentration was 6.74 mg/kg DM in the basal diet. Plasma copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities were not affected on day 30 by Cu supplementation. Copper supplementation increased plasma and liver copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities on day 60. Muscle Cu concentrations were not affected by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle Cu concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities between Cu-lysine and TBCC. Liver copper concentrations and plasma ceruloplasmin activities were increased in lambs supplemented with 20 mg Cu/kg DM than in those supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM on day 60. However, copper levels had no effects on Cu concentrations in plasma and muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were decreased in plasma and liver tissues, but not affected in muscle by Cu supplementation. Plasma SOD activities were increased by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle MDA concentrations and plasma SOD activities between Cu sources and levels. These results indicated that Cu supplementation increased plasma SOD activity, lipid oxidative stability, and copper status of lambs, but did not influence lipid oxidative stability in sheep muscle. Cu-lysine and TBCC were of similar availability when offered to finishing sheep.

  15. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-09-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that

  16. Biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, K; Lenzinger, E; Hornik, K; Schönbeck, G; Hatzinger, R; Langer, G; Sieghart, W; Aschauer, H N

    1997-01-01

    Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) induced by neuroleptics such as haloperidol. The effects of biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels on EPS were studied in 29 chronically ill schizophrenics. The results show relationships between biperiden dose and biperiden plasma levels (BPL), and between BPL and haloperidol plasma levels (HPL). Neither BPL nor HPL seem to influence EPS.

  17. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    PubMed

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  18. Metabonomics of Pig Blood Plasma Following Whole Body Exposure to Low Levels of Gb Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    METABONOMICS OF PIG BLOOD PLASMA FOLLOWING WHOLE BODY EXPOSURE TO LOW LEVELS OF GB VAPOR Vicky L. H. Bevilacqua▲, Terrence G...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metabonomics Of Pig Blood Plasma Following Whole Body Exposure To Low Levels Of Gb Vapor 5a. CONTRACT...analysis of minipig blood plasma by high field NMR after low-level exposure to GB by whole body inhalation. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 1. SARIN

  19. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  20. Validated HPLC method for determination of caffeine level in human plasma using synthetic plasma: application to bioavailability studies.

    PubMed

    Alvi, Syed N; Hammami, Muhammad M

    2011-04-01

    Several high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been described for the determination of caffeine in human plasma. However, none have been cross validated using synthetic plasma. The present study describes a simple and reliable HPLC method for the determination of the caffeine level in human plasma. Synthetic plasma was used to construct calibration curves and quality control samples to avoid interference by caffeine commonly present in donor's human plasma. After deproteination of plasma samples with perchloric acid, caffeine and antipyrine (internal standard, IS) were separated on a Waters Atlantis C18 column using a mobile phase of 15 mM potassium phosphate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (83:17, v/v), and monitored by photodiode array detector, with the wavelength set at 274 nm. The relationship between caffeine concentrations and peak area ratio (caffeine-IS) was linear over the range of 0.05-20 μg/mL. Inter-run coefficient of variation was ≤ 5.4% and ≤ 6.0% and bias was ≤ 3% and ≤ 7% using human and synthetic plasma, respectively. Mean extraction recovery from human plasma of caffeine and the IS was 91% and 86%, respectively. Caffeine in human plasma was stable for at least 24 h at room temperature or 12 weeks at -20 °C, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The method was successfully applied to monitor caffeine levels in healthy volunteers with correction of caffeine levels using the mean ratio of the slopes of the calibration's curves constructed using human and synthetic plasma.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide assimilation as affected by light level

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, H. ); Ormond, D.; Marie, B. )

    1989-04-01

    The air pollutant NO{sub 2} is absorbed and assimilated by plants to serve as a source of nitrogen but only to a limited extent. The objective of this research was to identify the constraints on NO{sub 2} assimilation. Differential light levels were used to manipulate carbohydrate metabolites available for nitrogen assimilation. Bean plants were grown at four light levels with or without nutrient nitrate and exposed to 0.25 ppm NO{sub 2} for 6h each day. Growth of roots and shoots was inhibited by NO{sub 2} in both the presence and absence of nutrient nitrate. The inhibition was most pronounced at the lowest light level. Light level similarly influenced the effect of nitrate and of NO{sub 2} on soluble protein, nitrate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen in the root and shoot tissues. Two experiments demonstrated that the injurious effects of NO{sub 2} are more pronounced at low light than at high light and that more NO{sub 2} is assimilated into soluble shoot protein at higher light levels.

  2. Effect of exercise on the plasma BDNF levels in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington F; Lacerda, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Arrieiro, Arthur N; Fonseca, Sueli F; Amorim, Mateus R; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Miranda, Aline S; Coimbra, Cândido C; Brito-Melo, Gustavo E A

    2014-06-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease in the elderly population worldwide. The alleviation of the symptoms associated with this disease can be achieved with physical exercise that induces a cascade of molecular and cellular processes. Of the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be the most affected by physical activity. Moreover, BDNF seems to have a negative modulatory role in inflammation, and its production by skeletal muscle cells or by cells of the immune system drives the immunoprotective role of physical activity in situations of chronic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma BDNF concentrations in elderly individuals presenting with knee osteoarthritis. To accomplish this, sixteen volunteers (mean age 67 ± 4.41 years) presenting with clinically and radiographically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis were evaluated during acute exercise (1 session of 20 min on a treadmill) and after chronic exercise (12 weeks of aerobic training, consisting of a 50-min walk 3 times per week). Additionally, both a functional assessment (during a 6-min walk) and a pain perception assessment were performed at the start and at the end of physical exercises (training). The plasma BDNF concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the population studied, acute exercise increased the levels of BDNF only before the 12-week training period (p < 0.001). Moreover, the training augmented the plasma concentrations of BDNF (p < 0.0001) and improved clinical parameters (functional p < 0.001; pain perception p < 0.01).

  3. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  4. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  5. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  6. Affect and Digital Learning at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Yaacov J.; Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the efficiency of SMS based cell-phone vocabulary learning as compared to email vocabulary delivery and snail mail vocabulary delivery at the university level. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 241 first year university students studied English vocabulary in their mandatory English foundation…

  7. Effect of method of delivering nicarbazin to mallards on plasma 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide levels and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yoder, C A; Graham, J K; Miller, L A; Bynum, K S; Johnston, J J; Goodall, M J

    2006-08-01

    Nicarbazin (NCZ), a coccidiostat used in the poultry industry, has been developed as a contraceptive for resident Canada geese. We tested the efficacy of NCZ as a contraceptive using mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model for Canada geese. Nicarbazin-treated corn was fed ad libitum for 14 d at 0, 750, 1,000, or 1,500 ppm. Plasma and egg levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the active anticoccidial component of NCZ, differed among treatment groups in a dose-response relationship, but plasma levels did not differ between sexes. Nicarbazin caused a decrease in egg weight, but there was no effect of NCZ on the numbers of eggs laid per female per day. Nicarbazin did not significantly impact bird health. An additional trial tested the effect of the method of NCZ delivery on plasma DNC levels. Mallards were given NCZ daily for 12 d either by gavage with a corn oil suspension, gavage with a water suspension, peroral administration of a capsule, or feeding 500 mg of NCZ/kg of pelleted feed ad libitum. The method of delivery significantly affected plasma DNC levels, with the highest levels in the corn oil suspension group and the lowest levels in the pelleted feed group. This is likely due to decreased availability of NCZ in a pellet compared with gavage with a suspension or capsule. Mallards receiving 34.2 mg of NCZ/kg of BW when fed cracked corn coated with NCZ daily for 14 d had higher plasma DNC levels than those obtained by liquid gavage, capsule, or pelleted NCZ feed. For maximum effect in the field, NCZ should be coated onto corn. A higher concentration of NCZ is needed in pelleted feed to obtain comparable plasma DNC levels to allow for the decreased absorption of DNC.

  8. Correlation between plasma D-dimer levels and the severity of patients with chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Triwongwaranat, Daranporn; Chularojanamontri, Leena; Pinkaew, Samruay

    2013-01-01

    Background Beside autoimmunity, coagulation pathway is also involved in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria (CU). Previous studies showed that plasma D-dimer levels paralleled the severity of the disease. To date, there are no data concerning D-dimer level in Thai patients with CU. Objective This study aimed to find the relationship between plasma D-dimer levels and the disease severity of Thai CU patients. The secondary objective is to analyze plasma D-dimer level in each group of patients who performed autologous plasma skin testing (APST) and autologous serum skin testing (ASST). Methods We retrospectively reviewed case record forms of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) patients aged at least 18 years in Skin Allergy Clinic, Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University, Bangkok, during June 2008 to June 2011. Results Of 120 patients, plasma D-dimer level was abnormal in 58 patients (48.3%). The study showed statistically significant positive correlation between disease severity and plasma D-dimer level (p < 0.05, r = 0.537). There was no statistically significant difference in plasma D-dimer level between APST positive and negative groups, and also between ASST positive and negative groups. In APST negative group, plasma D-dimer level was elevated in 29 patients (47.5%) and correlated with disease severity. Conclusion This study showed elevated plasma D-dimer levels in nearly half of Thai patients with CIU. There was a positive correlation between plasma D-dimer levels and the severity of disease activity. Investigation for plasma D-dimer level may be an alternative way to evaluate disease severity in patients with CIU. PMID:23667833

  9. Fruiting Branch K+ Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  10. Daytime light intensity affects seasonal timing via changes in the nocturnal melatonin levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Rani, Sangeeta; Malik, Shalie; Trivedi, Amit K.; Schwabl, Ingrid; Helm, Barbara; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2007-08-01

    Daytime light intensity can affect the photoperiodic regulation of the reproductive cycle in birds. The actual way by which light intensity information is transduced is, however, unknown. We postulate that transduction of the light intensity information is mediated by changes in the pattern of melatonin secretion. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of high and low daytime light intensities on the daily melatonin rhythm of Afro-tropical stonechats ( Saxicola torquata axillaris) in which seasonal changes in daytime light intensity act as a zeitgeber of the circannual rhythms controlling annual reproduction and molt. Stonechats were subjected to light conditions simulated as closely as possible to native conditions near the equator. Photoperiod was held constant at 12.25 h of light and 11.75 h of darkness per day. At intervals of 2.5 to 3.5 weeks, daytime light intensity was changed from bright (12,000 lux at one and 2,000 lux at the other perch) to dim (1,600 lux at one and 250 lux at the other perch) and back to the original bright light. Daily plasma melatonin profiles showed that they were linked with changes in daytime light intensity: Nighttime peak and total nocturnal levels were altered when transitions between light conditions were made, and these changes were significant when light intensity was changed from dim to bright. We suggest that daytime light intensity could affect seasonal timing via changes in melatonin profiles.

  11. Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiwei; Zuo, Yuegang

    Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H 2O 2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 μM with an average concentration of 6.9 μM. A strong seasonal dependence for H 2O 2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H 2O 2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H 2O 2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H 2O 2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H 2O 2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H 2O 2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H 2O 2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H 2O 2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H 2O 2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater.

  12. Factors Affecting Noise Levels of High-Speed Handpieces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    office communication and increase patient anxiety. Purpose: To determine if three noise-reducing techniques utilized in larger scale , non- dental...hearing loss may cause confusion, fear, and loneliness , and that sometimes hearing loss is accompanied by dizziness, which would be a handicap in the...employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8- hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or

  13. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  14. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  15. Plasma levels of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor in healthy subjects and in patients with edema.

    PubMed Central

    Shenker, Y; Sider, R S; Ostafin, E A; Grekin, R J

    1985-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a recently sequenced cardiac peptide, has been shown to have potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilating effects in several species. We have developed a radioimmunoassay to measure the levels of immunoreactive ANF in human plasma. Plasma levels of ANF in healthy volunteers on a low sodium diet were 9.8 +/- 1.4 pmol/liter and increased to 21.9 +/- 3.0 on a high sodium diet. The levels of atrial natriuretic factor correlated directly with urinary sodium and inversely with plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels. Patients with marked edema due to congestive heart failure had plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor five times higher than normal (P less than 0.05), whereas patients with cirrhosis and edema had levels that were not different from normal. These results suggest that atrial natriuretic factor plays an important role in the adaptation to increased sodium intake. PMID:2932471

  16. Novel gene-by-environment interactions: APOB and NPC1L1 variants affect the relationship between dietary and total plasma cholesterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Plasma cholesterol level is a key risk factor in CVD pathogenesis. Genetic and dietary variation both influence plasma cholesterol; however, little is known about dietary interactions with genetic variants influencing the absorption and transport of dietary cholesterol. We sought to determine whether gut expressed variants predicting plasma cholesterol differentially affected the relationship between dietary and plasma cholesterol levels in 1,128 subjects (772/356 in the discovery/replication cohorts, respectively). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within three genes (APOB, CETP, and NPC1L1) were significantly associated with plasma cholesterol in the discovery cohort. These were subsequently evaluated for gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions with dietary cholesterol for the prediction of plasma cholesterol, with significant findings tested for replication. Novel GxE interactions were identified and replicated for two variants: rs1042034, an APOB Ser4338Asn missense SNP and rs2072183 (in males only), a synonymous NPC1L1 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs 5′ of NPC1L1. This study identifies the presence of novel GxE and gender interactions implying that differential gut absorption is the basis for the variant associations with plasma cholesterol. These GxE interactions may account for part of the “missing heritability” not accounted for by genetic associations. PMID:23482652

  17. Sweet future: fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Dvorak, Robert D

    2010-02-01

    This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a "smaller and sooner" reward and a "larger but later" option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants' dynamic body-energy budget.

  18. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals.

  19. Prions are Affected by Evolution at Two Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Kelly, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), most based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals. PMID:26713322

  20. Dietary levels of acrylamide affect rat cardiomyocyte properties.

    PubMed

    Walters, Brandan; Hariharan, Venkatesh; Huang, Hayden

    2014-09-01

    The toxic effects of acrylamide on cytoskeletal integrity and ion channel balance is well-established in many cell types, but there has been little examination regarding the effects of acrylamide on primary cardiomyocytes, despite the importance of such components in their function. Furthermore, acrylamide toxicity is generally examined using concentrations higher than those found in vivo under starch-rich diets. Accordingly, we sought to characterize the dose-dependent effects of acrylamide on various properties, including cell morphology, contraction patterns, and junctional connexin 43 staining, in primary cardiomyocytes. We show that several days exposure to 1-100 μM acrylamide resulted in altered morphology, irregular contraction patterns, and an increase in the amount of immunoreactive signal for connexin 43 at cell junctions. We conclude that dietary levels of acrylamide may alter cellular function with prolonged exposure, in primary cardiomyocytes.

  1. Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Amos, W; Harwood, J

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be

  2. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  3. Some factors affecting the dynamics of a plasma-wall interaction simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausing, R. E.; Heatherly, L.; Emerson, L. C.

    1982-12-01

    Isotope mixing and thermal desorption from samples exposed in a glow discharge apparatus were used to study the factors affecting hydrogen recycle and wall inventory. Conditions were chosen to be similar to those expected at the walls in today's experimental fusion devices. The size and nature of the hydrogen reservoir in the wall after plasma pulses was investigated by thermal desorption techniques. Large amounts of deuterium, i.e., 5 × 10 15 D cm -2 remain in the sample 4 min after a single 200 ms plasma pulse. While this result may be explained by a model using bulk diffusion and traps, it is suggested that either a spectrum of desorption energies, or a concentration dependent recombination coefficient, may also be useful in describing the thermal desorption processes. Experiments with various pumping conditions show that readsorption of molecular hydrogen isotopes on the wall should be considered in modeling hydrogen recycle and isotope changeover processes. HD formation without plasmas confirms the role readsorption plays.

  4. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in Han Chinese heroin-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-02-02

    BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of long-term heroin use. Thus, we investigated the relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentrations and the BDNF Val66Met nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in heroin-dependent patients. The pretreatment expression levels of plasma BDNF and the BDNF Val66Met SNP in 172 heroin-dependent patients and 102 healthy controls were checked. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients (F = 52.28, p < 0.0001), but the distribution of the SNP was not significantly different. Nor were plasma BDNF levels significantly different between Met/Met, Met/Val, and Val/Val carriers in each group, which indicated that the BDNF Val66Met SNP did not affect plasma BDNF levels in our participants. In heroin-dependent patients, plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the length of heroin dependency. Long-term (>15 years) users had significantly lower plasma BDNF levels than did short-term (<5 years) users. We conclude that plasma BDNF concentration in habitual heroin users are not affected by BDNF Val66Met gene variants, but by the length of the heroin dependency.

  5. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  6. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  7. Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in Early and Recent Classes of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-01-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  8. Effects of static magnetic field exposure on plasma element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Aida, Lahbib; Soumaya, Ghodbane; Myriam, Elferchichi; Mohsen, Sakly; Hafedh, Abdelmelek

    2014-07-01

    The interaction of static magnetic fields (SMFs) with living organisms is a rapidly growing field of investigation. The magnetic fields (MFs) effect observed with radical pair recombination is one of the well-known mechanisms by which MFs interact with biological systems. SMF influenced cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms by affecting antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). However, there were insufficient reports about the effects of SMF on macro and trace elements in serum, and the results were contradictory until now. In the current study, 12 rats were divided into two groups, namely as control and exposure group (128 mT and 1 h/day during five consecutive days). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined. No significant difference was observed in the sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and selenium (Se) levels in rat compared to control. By contrast, exposure to SMF showed an increase in the zinc (Zn) level and a decrease in iron (Fe) concentration. Under our experimental conditions, SMF exposure cannot affect the plasma levels of macroelements, while it can disrupt Zn and Fe concentrations in rat.

  9. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:27698956

  10. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sérgio Luís; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs) living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso) in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration, consistent with a dose

  11. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia. A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39–44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65–3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41–4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2–3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33–2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35–2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06–0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99–3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61–0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2–0.23]), age of the mother (B –0.03 [95% CI: –0.03, –0.02]), and family size (B –0.14 [95% CI: –0.18,–0.11]). PMID:27495044

  12. Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L

    2009-10-01

    Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in the 2.00-cm implant-treated animals than in the control and 0.75-cm implant group. The effect of estradiol treatment on GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.05). The 15-min GH responses to 0.075 microg/kg hGRH in the control, 0.75-cm, and 2.00-cm implant groups, respectively, were 76 +/- 10, 22.6 +/- 2.1, and 43.6 +/- 15.0 ng/mL. Growth hormone mRNA content was determined for pituitary glands from the different treatment groups, and no differences in steady-state GH mRNA levels were observed. There were no differences in the mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I, cortisol, T(3), or T(4) from weekly samples. Growth hormone release from cultured ovine pituitary cells from control sheep was not affected by estradiol after 72 h or in a subsequent 3-h incubation with estradiol combined with GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH.

  13. PLASMA SOLUBLE SGP130 LEVELS ARE INCREASED IN OLDER SUBJECTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME. THE ROLE OF INSULIN RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Galvani, Matteo; Maggio, Marcello; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Cherubini, Antonio; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Increased interleukin-6 plasma levels have been reported in metabolic syndrome (MS); nevertheless, it is unclear whether interleukin-6 activity is exerted through direct signalling only or also through the “trans-signalling”. This issue is important to clarify since signalling and “trans-signalling” affect different tissues. We investigated the relationship between MS and the interleukin-6 system in an older population. Methods Data from 997 older community dwelling individuals (age ≥ 65 years; females: 56.2%) enrolled the InChianti study were analyzed. Interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) were measured on plasma by ELISA. MS was defined by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria; 309 individuals (31%) resulted affected by MS. Results Subjects with MS had higher interleukin-6 and sgp130 levels compared to controls; a trend toward higher levels of sIL-6R was also observed. The risk of having MS was increased in individuals with high sIL-6r or/and sgp130 levels, independent of age, gender, and interleukin-6 levels. Elevated sgp130 levels were associated with higher plasma glucose, HOMA, triglycerides, and with diabetes both in subjects with and without MS. Although the risk of high sgp130 levels was generally associated with MS (O.R.:1.77, 95%C.I.: 1.39-2.25), this excess of risk was not present in MS phenotypes excluding the criteria “elevated glucose” or “elevated triglycerides”. Furthermore, the association between sgp130 and MS disappeared after adjustment for HOMA. Conclusions We found that older individuals with MS have increased sgp130 plasma levels compared with controls; nevertheless, our data suggest that this association might be mediated by insulin resistance. PMID:20869059

  14. Tobacco use is associated with increased plasma BDNF levels in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Colle, Romain; Trabado, Séverine; Rotenberg, Samuel; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Hardy, Patrick; Falissard, Bruno; Becquemont, Laurent; Verstuyft, Céline; Fève, Bruno; Corruble, Emmanuelle

    2016-12-30

    Since serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are higher in tobacco smokers than in non-smokers and since Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of smoking, we assessed the association of smoking and plasma BDNF levels in 359 depressed MDD patients. Plasma BDNF levels were positively correlated with the magnitude of tobacco consumption (current number of cigarettes/day and number of packs/year). Accordingly, current tobacco users had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels than non-users. In further studies of MDD, peripheral measures of BDNF should take into account tobacco use.

  15. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  16. Chloramphenicol in children: dose, plasma levels and clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Ismail, R; Teh, L K; Choo, E K

    1998-06-01

    Despite concerns about adverse effects, chloramphenicol (CMC) continues to be used in certain situations and, due to its low therapeutic index and variable pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is often recommended. At our centre, CMC finds applications in typhoid and meningitis and TDM is routinely performed. Elsewhere in Malaysia, however, CMC is used without TDM. We therefore decided to evaluate our TDM for CMC in relation to its roles in CMC therapy in children, who constitute most of our patients. Our objective was also to develop strategies to improve our TDM for CMC use. Data were collected from 168 children given CMC for various indications and monitored by the TDM service. Plasma CMC was determined by HPLC and used to adjust doses to maintain concentrations within a range of 10-25 micrograms/ml. Outcomes measured included daily temperatures and haematological indices. Daily doses and plasma CMC varied greatly. Doses averaged 40.5 mg/kg for neonates and 75.5 for older children. Average peak concentrations were therapeutic in 60% and trough in 42%. Average duration of fever was 6.3 days and it was unaffected by plasma CMC. Typhoid was eradicated in 97% but nine children with other diagnoses died. Side-effects were confined to mild reversible haematological abnormalities which developed in 11% of children at plasma concentrations which tended to be high. We conclude that CMC remains useful in children with typhoid. Its use for other indications, however, should be reviewed. Routine TDM for CMC is probably not warranted, at least until a clearer role is defined by well designed prospective studies.

  17. Multiple Levels of Degradation Diminish Hemostatic Potential of Thawed Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Matijevic, Nena; Kostousov, Vadim; Wang, Yao-Wei W.; Wade, Charles E.; Wang, Weiwei; Letourneau, Phillip; Hartwell, Elizabeth; Kozar, Rosemary; Ko, Tien; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe bleeding after injury requires transfusion of blood products, including fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Many centers are keeping thawed plasma (TP) ready for massively transfused patients. According to the American Association of Blood Banks Standards, TP is approved for transfusion up to 5 days after thawing, when stored at 1°C to 6°C. However, there are no clinical data analyzing the effects of the approved 5-day storage on plasma. We hypothesize that the hemostatic potential (HP) of freshly thawed (FFP-0) was superior to plasma stored for 5 days (FFP-5). Methods FFP from 30 single donors were thawed at 37°C and kept at 1°C to 6°C for 5 days. HP was evaluated at day 0 and 5 by measuring kinetics of thrombin generation (TG), kinetics of clot formation by thromboelastography, clotting factors and inhibitors, and cell-derived microparticles (MPs) by flow cytometry. Results When comparing FFP-5 to FFP-0, FFP-5 exhibited only 40% of the potential of FFP-0 for TG (6.2 nM/min vs. 14.3 nM/min, p < 0.0001), a slower clotting response via thromboelastography (reaction time: 4.3 minutes vs. 3.2 minutes, p < 0.0001) and a longer delay in reaching maximum thrombus generation (5.7 minutes vs. 4.6 minutes, p < 0.01). Diminished HP was accompanied by a significant decline in multiple coagulation proteins, including FV, VII, VIII, von Willebrand factor, and free Protein S, by up to 30%, and a decrease of 50% in MP counts. Conclusion The HP and clot forming ability of TP significantly declined with storage. Hence, freshly TP may have a greater ability to restore hemostasis and correct coagulopathy compared with FFP-5. The clinical consequences for transfused patients deserve further exploration. PMID:21217484

  18. Clinical Implication of Plasma Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kunihiro; Sagara, Masaaki; Aoki, Chie; Tanaka, Seiichi; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the plasma hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, as the plasma H2S levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Methods The plasma H2S levels were measured in 154 outpatients with type 2 diabetes and 66 outpatients without diabetes. All blood samples were collected in the outpatient department from 09:00 to 10:00. The patients had fasted from 21:00 the previous evening and had not consumed alcohol or caffeine or smoked until sample collection. The plasma H2S levels were measured using the methylene blue assay. The plasma H2S levels were determined in triplicate, and the average concentrations were calculated against a calibration curve of sodium sulfide. Results The patients with type 2 diabetes showed a progressive reduction in the plasma H2S levels (45.1±15.5 μM versus 54.0±26.4 μM, p<0.05), which paralleled poor glycemic control. There was a significant correlation between a reduction in the plasma H2S levels and the HbA1c levels (β=-0.505, p<0.01), Furthermore, a reduction in the plasma H2S levels was found to be related to a history of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes (39.9±13.8 μM versus 47.5±15.9 μM, p<0.01). Conclusion Collectively, the plasma H2S levels were reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, which may have implications in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. #000020549). PMID:28049995

  19. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  20. Effects of aging on the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIANG-BO; NISHIDA, MIYUKI; KAIMOTO, KAORI; ASAKAWA, AKIHIRO; CHAOLU, HUHE; CHENG, KAI-CHUN; LI, YING-XIAO; TERASHI, MUTSUMI; KOYAMA, KEN ICHIRO; AMITANI, HARUKA; SAKOGUCHI, TAKEO; USHIKAI, MIHARU; IKEDA, SATOSHI; AOYAMA, KOHJI; HORIUCHI, MASAHISA; LI, JIAN-ZHONG; INUI, AKIO

    2014-01-01

    Gastric and adipose tissue secrete a number of hormones that are involved in energy metabolism. The biological functions of these hormones, including their effects on aging, are currently under investigation. Adiponectin was shown to be directly involved in appetite and the control of body weight. However, the effects of aging of nesfatin-1, an appetite-suppressing peptide that was recently identified, have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aging on the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin. Our results demonstrated no significant differences in the nesfatin-1 plasma levels among three age groups (2, 6 and 24 months) of female BALB/c mice. The plasma nesfatin-1 levels/visceral fat (VF) ratio in the 24-month-old mice was significantly lower compared to that in the 2- and 6-month-old mice. In addition, there were no significant differences in the plasma adiponectin levels among the three age groups. The plasma adiponectin levels/VF ratio in the 24-month-old mice was significantly lower compared to that in the 2- and 6-month-old mice. In conclusion, there were no age-related changes in the plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin, although the ratio of plasma levels of nesfatin-1 and adiponectin per VF was decreased with advancing age. Our results indicated that nesfatin-1 and adiponectin may be involved in controlling energy balance during aging. PMID:24649088

  1. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  2. Reduction of Cellular Expression Levels Is a Common Feature of Functionally Affected Pendrin (SLC26A4) Protein Variants

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Vanessa C S; Bernardinelli, Emanuele; Zocal, Nathalia; Fernandez, Jhonathan A; Nofziger, Charity; Castilho, Arthur M; Sartorato, Edi L; Paulmichl, Markus; Dossena, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Sequence alterations in the pendrin gene (SLC26A4) leading to functionally affected protein variants are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of syndromic and nonsyndromic deafness. Considering the high number of SLC26A4 sequence alterations reported to date, discriminating between functionally affected and unaffected pendrin protein variants is essential in contributing to determine the genetic cause of deafness in a given patient. In addition, identifying molecular features common to the functionally affected protein variants can be extremely useful to design future molecule-directed therapeutic approaches. Here we show the functional and molecular characterization of six previously uncharacterized pendrin protein variants found in a cohort of 58 Brazilian deaf patients. Two variants (p.T193I and p.L445W) were undetectable in the plasma membrane, completely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and showed no transport function; four (p.P142L, p.G149R, p.C282Y and p.Q413R) showed reduced function and significant, although heterogeneous, expression levels in the plasma membrane. Importantly, total expression levels of all of the functionally affected protein variants were significantly reduced with respect to the wild-type and a fully functional variant (p.R776C), regardless of their subcellular localization. Interestingly, reduction of expression may also reduce the transport activity of variants with an intrinsic gain of function (p.Q413R). As reduction of overall cellular abundance was identified as a common molecular feature of pendrin variants with affected function, the identification of strategies to prevent reduction in expression levels may represent a crucial step of potential future therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring the transport activity of dysfunctional pendrin variants. PMID:26752218

  3. Dietary copper level affects copper metabolism during lipopolysaccharide-induced immunological stress in chicks.

    PubMed

    Koh, T S; Peng, R K; Klasing, K C

    1996-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of dietary Cu level on Cu metabolism during the acute phase response in broiler chicks with adequate (Experiment 1) or deficient (Experiment 2) Cu. Diets based on cornstarch and isolated soybean protein were used to formulate a basal diet, and basal diet plus either 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg additional Cu as either CuO or CuSO4. Each diet was fed to six pens of five chicks per pen (Experiment 1) or eight pens of five chicks (Experiment 2). Half of the chicks on each diet were injected with Salmonella typhymurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on alternate days. In Experiment 1, LPS significantly decreased daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency (P < 0.01) and increased the concentration of Cu in blood plasma (P < 0.01). In the uninjected birds, adding 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuO or 15 mg/kg Cu as CuSO4 increased the rate of gain over that of chicks fed the basal diet. In the birds challenged with LPS, 10 mg/kg Cu as CuO increased the rate of gain and efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Addition of CuSO4 to the diet of chicks challenged with LPS did not affect gain, intake, or feed efficiency compared to those of chicks fed the basal diet. Ceruloplasmin levels were higher in chicks challenged with LPS than in control chicks (P = 0.03), and this difference tended to be greater in chickens fed CuO than in chickens fed CuSO4 (P = 0.07). In chicks challenged with LPS, feeding CuO at all levels and feeding CuSO4 to give 10 or 15 mg/kg Cu increased ceruloplasmin levels above that of chicks fed the basal diet. Hepatic Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD were not influenced by dietary Cu level or source or LPS. Results of Experiment 2 were similar to those of Experiment 1 except that supplemental CuSO4 and CuO gave similar increases in gain and CuSO4 was more effective at increasing ceruloplasmin levels. Chicks given supplemental Cu had higher ceruloplasmin levels following challenge with LPS than

  4. Elevated plasma levels of F2 alpha isoprostane in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Collins, C E; Quaggiotto, P; Wood, L; O'Loughlin, E V; Henry, R L; Garg, M L

    1999-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with chronic lung infection, inflammation, and elevated indices of oxidative stress. Recently, isoprostanes were shown to be a reliable in vivo marker of oxidant injury with 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, shown to cause airflow obstruction and plasma exudation in guinea pig lung. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels, plasma antioxidants, and clinical status in CF. We hypothesized that plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels would be higher in subjects with CF compared to healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels were prospectively measured in 22 subjects with CF and nine healthy controls using an 8-isoprostane enzyme immunoassay kit along with plasma vitamins A, E, and beta-carotene. Plasma 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels were shown to be significantly elevated in the CF subjects compared to controls (319.6 +/- 52.6 vs. 145.0 +/- 21.0 pg/mL, P = 0.005). Plasma levels of antioxidants were significantly lower for the CF subjects compared to the controls (vitamin A, P < 0.003; vitamin E, P < 0.001; and beta-carotene, P < 0.01). This study confirms significantly elevated lipid peroxidation in CF using 8-iso-PGF2 alpha levels.

  5. Plasma B-Endorphin Levels in Patients with Self-Injurious Behavior and Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    B-endorphin and cortisol concentrations were examined in the plasma of mentally retarded adults who displayed symptoms of self-injurious behavior (SIB) (N=9), stereotypy (N=17), or SIB plus stereotypy (N=14). Compared to matched controls, patients with SIB plus stereotypy had elevated b-endorphin plasma, while cortisol levels were identical for…

  6. Plasma selenium levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Yan, Chonghuai; Liu, Gang; Niu, Yixin; Zhang, Weiwei; Lu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hongmei; Ning, Guang; Fan, Jiangao; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium exposure can induce liver insulin resistance and increased liver triglyceride concentrations in animals, which may link to an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, epidemiological studies investigating the association between elevated plasma selenium levels and NAFLD were not available. We aimed to investigate the association of selenium levels with the prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 8550 Chinese adults aged 40 yr or older in Shanghai, China. A questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory tests were conducted. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound after the exclusion of alcohol abuse and other liver diseases. Plasma selenium concentration was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The median concentration of plasma selenium was 213.0 μg/L. Elevated plasma selenium levels were associated with higher triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, post-loading plasma glucose, A1c, HOMA-IR, as well as ALT, AST and γ-GT (all P < 0.05). The odds ratios were substantially higher for NAFLD (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.13–2.18) in the highest selenium quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile, after adjustment for potential cofounder. The results of this study provided epidemiological evidence that increased plasma selenium level is associated with elevated prevalence of NAFLD. PMID:27853246

  7. BLOOD PLASMA LEVELS AND ELIMINATION OF SALTS OF 2-PAM IN MAN AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    salts of 2-PAM in varying amounts. A measurable amount of oxime was found in blood plasma within about 15 minutes; the concentration rose rapidly...level of oxime 3.5 fold. The biological half-life in man of the 2-PAM salts given orally, calculated from blood plasma values and urinary excretion rates

  8. Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jung; Huang, Po-Chao; Lu, Shao-Chun; Li, Yi-Hwei; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Bi-Fong; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chou, Hsu-Fang

    2002-02-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may result from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B-6 or vitamin B-12. Because vitamin B-12 deficiency is often associated with vegetarianism, this study was designed to examine the effect of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on B-vitamin status and plasma homocysteine levels. Female Buddhist lacto-vegetarians (n = 45; 31-45 y) and matched omnivores (n = 45) recruited in Hualien, Taiwan, were investigated. Taiwanese vegetarians consumed normal amount of folate, but only 21% of Taiwan Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA) values of vitamin B-12. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly higher levels of plasma folate (14.79 +/- 7.70 vs. 11.98 +/- 8.29 nmol/L), but lower levels of vitamin B-12 (207.7 +/- 127.1 vs. 403.5 +/- 138.9 pmol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (mean: 11.20 +/- 4.27 vs. 8.64 +/- 2.06 micromol/L; median: 10.5 vs. 8.5 micromol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine was inversely correlated with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in the vegetarian group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma folate, vitamin B-12 and creatinine were independent determinants of homocysteine variation and contributed to 38.6% of homocysteine variation in the vegetarians. Compared with the omnivores, vegetarians also had significantly lower serum levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, alanine and arginine, but higher levels of glycine. In the vegetarian group, fasting plasma homocysteine correlated negatively with serum threonine, lysine, histidine, arginine and cystine, and these amino acids contributed to 38.7% of homocysteine variation. In conclusion, the Buddhist nuns who consumed a lacto-vegetarian diet had mildly elevated fasting plasma homocysteine levels presumably due to lower levels of plasma vitamin B-12.

  9. Alterations in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with schizophrenia before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bun-Hee; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Ham, Byung-Joo; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Kim, Won-Joong; Trigo, Jose; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2015-07-30

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenetic factor, is a known neurotrophic factor. In this study, we examined plasma levels of VEGF in 50 patients with schizophrenia (SPR) and 50 healthy control subjects. We also explored any changes in plasma VEGF levels after 6-week treatment with antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia. All subjects with schizophrenia were either medication-naïve or medication-free for at least 4 weeks before assessment. Plasma VEGF levels in all subjects were significantly correlated with smoking duration, which was considered to be a significant covariate. Pre-treatment plasma VEGF levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. Post-treatment VEGF levels were significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia. Plasma VEGF levels in patients with schizophrenia did not exhibit significant correlation with the total or subscale scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) either at baseline or at the end of the 6-week treatment. In conclusion, our findings reveal that plasma VEGF levels before treatment were lower in patients with schizophrenia and that their VEGF levels increased after treatment. Thus, VEGF may have a neuroprotective role in the improvement of schizophrenia or in the treatment effects of antipsychotics.

  10. Neuroblastoma and bone metastases: clinical significance and prognostic value of Dickkopf 1 plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Granchi, Donatella; Corrias, Maria Valeria; Garaventa, Alberto; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Cangemi, Giuliana; Carlini, Barbara; Paolucci, Paolo; Giunti, Armando; Baldini, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The critical role of the Wnt pathway inhibition in sustaining the onset of bone lesions has been demonstrated in a variety of bone diseases and tumors, and it has been associated with cancer aggressiveness. We have previously demonstrated that neuroblastoma cells express Dickkopf 1 (Dkk1), an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway which prevents the differentiation of bone-forming cells. Since Dkk1 is a secreted factor, it could have potential clinical application as tumor marker for detecting bone metastasis and monitoring of disease. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of Dkk1 plasma levels in 92 children affected by neuroblastoma, including 32 with bone metastases. Fifty-seven children hospitalized for minor surgical problems served as control group. Circulating levels of Dkk1 were higher in healthy children than in normal adults and were comparable to those found in adult patients with aggressive tumors. No significant differences were found between neuroblastoma patients and controls and between patients with and without bone metastases. However, when only patients with metastatic neuroblastoma were considered, the highest Dkk1 levels were detected in patients that poorly responded to induction chemotherapy and in subjects with unamplified MYCN and three or more different metastatic sites. The 'Receiver Operating Characteristic' curve enabled us to identify a threshold value to distinguish patients who were unresponsive to induction treatment. The relationship between Dkk1 and drug resistance was supported by in vitro experiments, since an increased sensitivity to doxorubicin was found in neuroblastoma cells releasing low Dkk1 levels, either constitutively or experimentally following the treatment with specific siRNA. In conclusion, Dkk1 is released by neuroblastoma cells and is able to affect the balance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, thus favoring the onset of osteolytic metastases. Nevertheless, Dkk1 plasma

  11. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  12. Potential Role of Plasma Myeloperoxidase Level in Predicting Long-Term Outcome of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ±11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase >68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ±12 ng/mL; P=0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P=0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-mye-loperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625–6.563; P=0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up. PMID:22949765

  13. Potential role of plasma myeloperoxidase level in predicting long-term outcome of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ± 11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤ 68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase > 68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ± 12 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P = 0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-myeloperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625-6.563; P = 0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up.

  14. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  16. Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomoko; Han, Kyu-Ho; Hashimoto, Naoto; Yamauchi, Hiroaki; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2007-12-01

    We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.

  17. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45–95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65–95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45–64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R2 change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R2 change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects. PMID:28321189

  18. Plasma NOV/CCN3 Levels Are Closely Associated with Obesity in Patients with Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pakradouni, Jihane; Le Goff, Wilfried; Calmel, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Villard, Elise; Frisdal, Eric; Abifadel, Marianne; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Bittar, Randa; Bruckert, Eric; Clément, Karine; Fève, Bruno; Martinerie, Cécile; Guérin, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evidence points to a founder of the multifunctional CCN family, NOV/CCN3, as a circulating molecule involved in cardiac development, vascular homeostasis and inflammation. No data are available on the relationship between plasma NOV/CCN3 levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. This study investigated the possible relationship between plasma NOV levels and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Methods NOV levels were measured in the plasma from 594 adults with a hyperlipidemia history and/or with lipid-lowering therapy and/or a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2. Correlations were measured between NOV plasma levels and various parameters, including BMI, fat mass, and plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and C-reactive protein. NOV expression was also evaluated in adipose tissue from obese patients and rodents and in primary cultures of adipocytes and macrophages. Results After full multivariate adjustment, we detected a strong positive correlation between plasma NOV and BMI (r = 0.36 p<0.0001) and fat mass (r = 0.33 p<0.0005). According to quintiles, this relationship appeared to be linear. NOV levels were also positively correlated with C-reactive protein but not with total cholesterol, LDL-C or blood glucose. In patients with drastic weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y bariatric surgery, circulating NOV levels decreased by 28% (p<0.02) and 48% (p<0.0001) after 3 and 6 months, respectively, following surgery. In adipose tissue from obese patients, and in human primary cultures NOV protein was detected in adipocytes and macrophages. In mice fed a high fat diet NOV plasma levels and its expression in adipose tissue were also significantly increased compared to controls fed a standard diet. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that in obese humans and mice plasma NOV levels positively correlated with NOV expression in adipose tissue, and support a possible contribution of NOV to obesity-related inflammation. PMID:23785511

  19. Plasma Tau Levels in Cognitively Normal Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Fan, Ling-Yun; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Ya-Fang; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Horng, Herng-Er

    2017-01-01

    Using an ultra-sensitive technique, an immunomagnetic reduction assay, the plasma tau level can be measured to a limit of quantification of pg/ml. In total 126 cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (45-95 years old) were recruited. The plasma tau levels were significantly higher in the older group (aged 65-95 years) 18.14 ± 7.33 pg/ml than those in the middle-aged group (aged 45-64 years) 14.35 ± 6.49 pg/ml when controlled gender and ApoEε4 carrier status (F = 3.102, P = 0.029). The ApoEε4 carriers had higher plasma tau levels than the non-carriers when controlled age and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). Men had higher plasma tau levels than their women counterparts when controlled ApoEε4 carrier status and gender (F = 6.149, P = 0.001). The plasma tau levels were found to be positively associated with their ages (r = 0.359, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that age explained approximately 13% of the variance in the plasma tau levels, and explained more than 10% of the variance in the volumes of the hippocampus and white matter hypodensity (R(2) change 0.123~0.167, all P < 0.001), and explained less than 10% of the variance in the volume of the amygdala, and central part of the corpus callosum (R(2) change 0.085~0.097, all P = 0.001). However, the plasma tau levels do not further explain any residual variance in the volume of brain structures. In conclusion, the effect of age on the plasma tau levels should always be considered in clinical applications of this surrogate biomarker to middle-aged and elderly subjects.

  20. Local and System Level Considerations for Plasma-Based Techniques in Hypersonic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, Charles; Gaitonde, Datta

    2007-01-01

    The harsh environment encountered due to hypersonic flight, particularly when air-breathing propulsion devices are utilized, poses daunting challenges to successful maturation of suitable technologies. This has spurred the quest for revolutionary solutions, particularly those exploiting the fact that air under these conditions can become electrically conducting either naturally or through artificial enhancement. Optimized development of such concepts must emphasize not only the detailed physics by which the fluid interacts with the imposed electromagnetic fields, but must also simultaneously identify system level issues integration and efficiencies that provide the greatest leverage. This paper presents some recent advances at both levels. At the system level, an analysis is summarized that incorporates the interdependencies occurring between weight, power and flow field performance improvements. Cruise performance comparisons highlight how one drag reduction device interacts with the vehicle to improve range. Quantified parameter interactions allow specification of system requirements and energy consuming technologies that affect overall flight vehicle performance. Results based on on the fundamental physics are presented by distilling numerous computational studies into a few guiding principles. These highlight the complex non-intuitive relationships between the various fluid and electromagnetic fields, together with thermodynamic considerations. Generally, energy extraction is an efficient process, while the reverse is accompanied by significant dissipative heating and inefficiency. Velocity distortions can be detrimental to plasma operation, but can be exploited to tailor flows through innovative electromagnetic configurations.

  1. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement'eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  2. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  3. [Measurement and correlation analysis of plasma VEGF level in the patients of hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoni; Wang, Guangrong; You, Jinhui

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a glycoprotein that promotes endothelial regeneration, stimulates formation of collateral blood vessels and increases vascular permeability. The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF and FT3, FT4, TSH and to analyze the correlation of the level of VEGF and TSH, FT3, FT4, age and gender in the patients of hyperthyroidism. The relationship between hyperthyroidism and VEGF was investigated as well. The plasma level of VEGF in 45 hyperthyroidism patients and 27 healthy persons were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while plasma FT3, FT4, TSH were detected by chemiluminescence. The result showed that the plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients [(92.53 +/- 62.38) pg/mL] was significantly lower than that in the control group [(158.28 +/- 77.15) pg/mL] (P < 0.01). The plasma level of VEGF correlated with age, and that of those over 40Y was significantly higher than that of 40Y or younger (P < 0.05) in healthy group. Whereas there was no correlation among VEGF, TSH, FT3, FT4, age and gender in hyperthyroidism patients (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients was significantly lower than that in the control group. Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate the relationship between VEGF and hyperthyroidism.

  4. Plasma agouti-related protein levels in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Junko; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Akabayashi, Akira

    2006-10-01

    Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is the competitive antagonist of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) located at melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (MC3R and MC4R), and also acts as an MC4R inverse agonist. Hypothalamic AGRP controls food intake and body weight in rodents. It has also been found in human plasma. To study the possibility of disturbances in melanocortin receptor-related peptides in eating disorders, plasma AGRP, alpha-MSH, and leptin levels were measured in 18 female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) (age, 23.5+/-7.1 yr; body mass index (BMI) 14.5+/-1.8 kg/m(2)) and 17 age-matched female controls (age, 25.8+/-3.9 yr; BMI 20.2+/-1.6 kg/m(2)). Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting, and plasma peptides levels were measured using ELISA. Plasma AGRP levels increased significantly in AN patients when compared with controls (P<0.01) while plasma alpha-MSH levels were not significantly different. Plasma leptin levels decreased significantly in AN patients when compared with controls (P<0.001). In addition, plasma AGRP levels were negatively correlated with leptin (r=-0.41, P<0.01) and BMI (r=-0.40, P<0.05) in all subjects. In conclusion, plasma AGRP elevation may be related to energy homeostasis disturbance in AN, and in addition to leptin, peripheral AGRP levels could be used as a nutritional marker in AN patients.

  5. Plasma ficolin levels and risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Tanha, Nima; Pilely, Katrine; Faurschou, Mikkel; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-02-01

    Given the scavenging properties of ficolins, we hypothesized that variation in the plasma concentrations of the three ficolins may be associated with development of lupus nephritis (LN), type of LN, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and/or mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients attending a Danish tertiary rheumatology referral center were included. Plasma concentrations of ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 were determined and dichotomized by the median into high and low. LN was defined by clinical criteria; type of LN by renal biopsy; ESRD follow-up time was defined as time from onset of LN to the development of ESRD or censoring at the end of follow-up. The study included 112 SLE patients with median disease duration of 8 years of which 53 (47%) had LN at the time of inclusion. During a median follow-up of 10 years, five patients developed ESRD. Sixteen patients died. Odds ratios (ORs) of LN were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.7), 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7-9.7), and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) for patients with low ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 plasma levels, respectively. The distribution of histological classes differed between patients with high and low plasma levels of ficolin-1 (p = 0.009). Patients with high ficolin-1 plasma levels had an increased risk of ESRD. There was no association between the levels of the analyzed plasma ficolins and mortality. Low plasma ficolin-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of having LN. High plasma levels of ficolin-1 were associated with the histological subtype of LN and development of ESRD.

  6. Plasma and urine nitric oxide levels in healthy Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Elli, Murat; Söylemezoglu, Oguz; Erbas, Deniz; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Buyan, Necla; Ozkaya, Ozan; Hasanoglu, Enver

    2005-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important messenger molecule with a wide range of actions in virtually all cell systems and organs. In kidneys it participates in glomerular and medullary hemodynamics, tubuloglomerular feed-back, renin secretion, and extracellular fluid balance. Although the role of NO in regulating renal function in adults is well-established, it has recently been suggested that NO has a more critical role in maintaining basal renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the developing kidney. NO is rapidly metabolized to the stable end products nitrite and nitrate, which are more slowly excreted into the urine. Thus these metabolites can be recommended as useful markers of endogenous NO synthase activity, despite limited data about age-related changes in in-vivo NO production. The aims of this study were to determine age-related normal reference values of serum and urinary NO metabolites and to assess the probable relationship between these metabolites and the GFR. Normal levels of NO end products in blood and urine of 296 healthy children (117 female, 179 male) between the ages of 0 and 16 were investigated, as was whether these values change with age. Serum and urinary nitrate levels did not differ according to sex. Serum nitrate levels are higher in younger children, especially in the newborn period, and decrease with age. Nitrate levels in urine are higher in younger children with a peak in infancy (1 month to 1 year) and decrease with age. It was demonstrated that this decrease in serum and urinary nitrate levels with age parallels the increase in GFR. In conclusion, urinary NO products may be an indirect marker of serum NO levels and NO might have an important regulatory function both in the maintenance of renal function and in the maturation of the developing kidneys.

  7. Plasma homocysteine levels and genetic polymorphisms in folate metablism are associated with breast cancer risk in chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Folate plays a pivotal role in DNA synthesis, repair, methylation and homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Therefore, alterations in the folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism may lead to abnormal methylation proliferation, increases of tumor/neoplasia and vein thrombosis/cardiovascular risk. The serine hydroxymethyhransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase (MS), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) regulate key reactions in the folate and Hcy metabolism. Therefore, we investigated whether the genetic variants of the SHMT, MS, MTRR and CBS gene can affect plasma Hcy levels and are associated with breast cancer risk. Methods Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay on samples of 96 cases and 85 controls. Results (a) The SHMT 1420 T, MS 2756G, MTRR 66G allele frequency distribution showed significant difference between case and controls (p < 0.01 ~ 0.05). (b) The concentration of plasma Hcy levels of SHMT 1420TT was significantly lower than that of the wild type, while the plasma Hcy levels of MS 2756GG, CBS 699TT/1080TT significantly higher than that of the wild type both in case and controls. The plasma Hcy levels of MTRR 66GG was significantly higher than that of wild type in cases. The plasma Hcy levels of the same genotype in cases were significantly higher than those of controls except SHMT 1420CC, MS 2756AA, MTRR 66GG; (c) Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that SHMT C1420T (OR = 0.527, 95% CI = 0.55 ~ 1.24), MS A2756G (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.29 ~ 0.82), MTRR A66G (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 0.25 ~ 1.66) polymorphism is significantly associated with breast cancer risk. And elevated plasma Hcy levels were significantly linked to increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 1.89-6.24 for the highest tertile as compared with the lowest tertile). Conclusions The current

  8. Relationship Between Brain and Plasma Carbaryl Levels and Cholinesterase Inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbaryl is a N-methylcarbamate pesticide and, like others in this class, is a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes. Although studied for many years, there is a surprising lack of information relating tissue levels of carbaryl with ChE activity in the same animals...

  9. Effects of plasma D-dimer levels on early mortality and long-term functional outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Fang, Yuan; Ye, Feng; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao; Liu, Ming

    2014-08-01

    The activation of hemostatic systems has been detected in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. The influence of plasma D-dimer levels on clinical outcome remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of elevated plasma D-dimer levels on early mortality and long-term functional outcome in spontaneous ICH. A total of 259 spontaneous ICH patients (<24hours from ictus) between November 2010 and October 2011 were included. Clinical information and radiological findings were collected at admission. Spearman correlation analyses revealed that D-dimer concentrations were correlated with midline shift, hematoma volume, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) score and Glasgow Coma Scale score. Patients with subarachnoid extension had significantly higher D-dimer levels than those without SAH extension. Comparison of patients with IVH and those without yielded a similar result. Multivariate stepwise backward logistic analysis identified plasma D-dimer levels as an independent risk factor for 7 day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.017-1.504, p=0.033) and 3 month poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) (adjusted OR=2.279, 95% CI 1.130-6.595, p=0.026). The mechanisms by which elevated D-dimer affects the prognoses of spontaneous ICH patients remain unclear and require clarification in future studies.

  10. Elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Cui; Yuan, Hui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2016-11-26

    Emerging evidence suggests that two heparin-binding growth factor, midkine and pleiotrophin are implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including SLE. To investigate the plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels in SLE patients, as well as their correlation with major clinical parameters and interleukin-17 (IL-17) level in SLE, 83 SLE patients and 123 controls including 20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 21 Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients and 82 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Plasma midkine, pleiotrophin and IL-17 levels were detected by ELISA. Midkine and pleiotrophin levels were significantly higher in SLE, RA and SS patients compared with HCs (all P < 0.05). There were significantly lower midkine and pleiotrophin levels in SLE compared to SS (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). No significant differences in midkine and pleiotrophin levels were found between SLE and RA (P = 0.240 and P = 0.074, respectively). Both plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels were associated with rash and anti-SSA in SLE. In addition, both midkine and pleiotrophin levels were positively associated with IL-17 level in SLE (both P < 0.001). Area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for midkine and pleiotrophin were 0.606 (0.527-0.681) and 0.605 (0.526-0.680) respectively. In conclusion, elevated plasma midkine and pleiotrophin levels and their associations with rash, anti-SSA and IL-17 in SLE patients suggest their involvement in this disease.

  11. Factors associated with plasma IL-33 levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Won; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Sang Haak; Hwang, Hun Gyu; Kim, Yu Il; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Sang Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-33 promotes T helper (Th)2 immunity and systemic inflammation. The role of IL-33 in asthma has been widely investigated. IL-33 has also been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the clinical significance and usefulness of plasma IL-33 level in patients with COPD. Methods A total of 307 patients with stable COPD from 15 centers, who were in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort, were enrolled in this study. Plasma IL-33 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analyzed the association between IL-33 level and other clinical characteristics related to COPD. We also examined the features of patients with COPD who exhibited high IL-33 levels. Results IL-33 levels varied, but were very low in most patients. Eosinophil count was significantly correlated with a plasma IL-33 level. In addition, old age and current smoking were related to a low IL-33 level. Significantly more patients with a higher IL-33 level had chronic bronchitis compared with those with a low IL-33 level. Conclusion Plasma IL-33 level in patients with stable COPD was related to eosinophil count and chronic bronchitis phenotype. Further studies are needed to identify the precise mechanisms of IL-33/ST2 pathway in patients with COPD. PMID:28176939

  12. Increased plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Aksoy, Fatih; Icli, Atilla; Arslan, Akif; Yuksel, Ozlem; Ersoy, I Hakki; Varol, Simge; Dogan, Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Although fluoride induced inflammatory reactions have been shown in animals and in vitro humans, there are few studies about fluoride induced inflammatory reactions in human beings at clinical setting. We aimed to measure the plasma neopterin, a marker of activation of the monocyte/macrophage system, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with endemic fluorosis to investigate the possible role of inflammatory processes (monocyte/macrophage activity) in the underlying pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity at clinical level. Plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels were determined in endemic fluorosis patients and control subjects. Plasma neopterin levels were significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.40 ± 0.66 vs. 1.63 ± 0.27 ng/mL respectively; p < 0.001) and plasma hs-CRP levels were also significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.41 ± 1.23 vs. 1.93 ± 0.64 mg/L respectively; p < 0.001). Plasma neopterin levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) and serum hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). We have found that plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels are increased in patients with endemic fluorosis. We have concluded that inflammation play an important role in the pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

  13. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  14. Comparing Azole Plasma Trough Levels in Lung Transplant Recipients: Percentage of Therapeutic Levels and Intrapatient Variability

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Alexandra; Ihle, Franziska; Matthes, Sandhya; Ceelen, Felix; Zimmermann, Gregor; Kneidinger, Nikolaus; Schramm, Rene; Winter, Hauke; Zoller, Michael; Vogeser, Michael; Behr, Juergen; Neurohr, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study compared therapeutic azole plasma trough levels (APL) of the azole antimycotics itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), and posaconazole (POS) in lung transplant recipients and analyzed the influencing factors. In addition, intrapatient variability for each azole was determined. Methods: From July 2012 to July 2015, 806 APL of ITR, VOR, posaconazole liquid (POS-Liq), and posaconazole tablets (POS-Tab) were measured in 173 patients of the Munich Lung Transplantation Program. Therapeutic APL were defined as follows: ITR, ≥700 ng/mL; VOR, 1000–5500 ng/mL; and POS, ≥700 ng/mL (prophylaxis) and ≥1000 ng/mL (therapy). Results: VOR and POS-Tab reached the highest number of therapeutic APL, whereas POS-Liq showed the lowest percentage (therapy: ITR 50%, VOR 70%, POS-Liq 38%, and POS-Tab 82%; prophylaxis: ITR 62%, VOR 85%, POS-Liq 49%, and POS-Tab 76%). Risk factors for subtherapeutic APL of all azoles were the azole dose (ITR, P < 0.001; VOR, P = 0.002; POS-Liq, P = 0.006) and age over 60 years (ITR, P = 0.003; VOR, P = 0.002; POS-Liq, P = 0.039; POS-Tab, P < 0.001). Cystic fibrosis was a significant risk factor for subtherapeutic APL for VOR and POS-Tab (VOR, P = 0.002; POS-Tab, P = 0.005). Double lung transplantation (LTx) was significantly associated with less therapeutic APL for VOR and POS-Liq (VOR, P = 0.030; POS-Liq, P < 0.001). Concomitant therapy with 80 mg pantoprazole led to significantly fewer therapeutic POS APL as compared to 40 mg (POS-Liq, P = 0.015; POS-Tab, P < 0.001). VOR displayed the greatest intrapatient variability (46%), whereas POS-Tab showed the lowest (32%). Conclusions: Our study showed that VOR and POS-Tab achieve the highest percentage of therapeutic APL in patients with LTx; POS-Tab showed the lowest intrapatient variability. APL are significantly influenced by azole dose, age, cystic fibrosis, type of LTx, and comedication with proton-pump inhibitors. Considering the high number of subtherapeutic APL

  15. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Smith, Donald; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Mercado, Adriana; Aro, Antonio; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2004-10-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that maternal bone lead burden is associated with increasing maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels over the course of pregnancy and that this association is modified by rates of maternal bone resorption. A total of 193 Mexican women were evaluated (1997-1999) in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Whole blood lead and plasma lead levels were measured in each trimester. Urine was analyzed for cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone resorption. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured at 4 weeks postpartum. The relation between whole blood, plasma, and bone lead and NTx was assessed using mixed models. Plasma lead concentrations followed a U-shape, while NTx levels increased significantly during pregnancy. In a multivariate model, the authors observed a significant and positive interaction between NTx and bone lead when plasma lead was used as the outcome variable. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with plasma lead. Results for whole blood lead were similar but less pronounced. These results confirm previous evidence that bone resorption increases during pregnancy, with a consequential significant release of lead from bone, constituting an endogenous source of prenatal exposure. They also provide a rationale for testing strategies (e.g., nutritional supplementation with calcium) aimed at decreasing prenatal lead exposure.

  16. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Meeter, Lieke H.H.; Patzke, Holger; Loewen, Gordon; Dopper, Elise G.P.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; van Minkelen, Rick; van Swieten, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41) and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32) and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02), plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials. PMID:27703466

  17. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels

    PubMed Central

    Bershad, Anya K.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Seiden, Jacob A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”), appears to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of two other “social” drugs on plasma oxytocin levels: methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin. In Study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended three sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10mg or 20mg) or placebo under double blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In Study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received one beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither drug increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified. PMID:25853370

  18. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  19. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  20. PREDICTORS OF PLASMA AND URINARY CATECHOLAMINE LEVELS IN NORMOTENSIVE AND HYPERTENSIVE MEN AND WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Aditi R.; Chamarthi, Bindu; Williams, Gordon H.; Hopkins, Paul N.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2013-01-01

    Age, sex, hypertension and dietary sodium are proposed to affect plasma and urinary catecholamines. Yet no prior study has examined the simultaneous effects of these factors within the same study population, so results may have been confounded by factors not determined. We investigate, for the first time, the impact of simultaneously determined predictors of plasma and urinary catecholamines, and the relationship of catecholamines with the diagnosis of hypertension. Hypertensive and normotensive subjects (n=308) were studied off antihypertensives in liberal and low sodium balance. Twenty-four hour urinary catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) were measured. Plasma catecholamines were measured supine after overnight fast. Repeated measures multivariate linear regression models examined effect of sex, race, age, body mass index, dietary salt (liberal salt vs. low salt), hypertension status, and mean arterial pressure on plasma and urinary catecholamines. Logistic regression determined the relationship of catecholamines with diagnosis of hypertension. Dietary sodium restriction and increasing age predicted increased plasma and urinary norepinephrine, with sodium restriction having greatest effect. Female sex predicted lower urinary and plasma epinephrine. Neither plasma nor urinary catecholamines predicted the diagnosis of hypertension. In summary, specific demographic factors variably impact catecholamines and should be considered when assessing catecholamines in research and clinical settings. PMID:24226101

  1. Predictors of plasma and urinary catecholamine levels in normotensive and hypertensive men and women.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A R; Chamarthi, B; Williams, G H; Hopkins, P N; Seely, E W

    2014-05-01

    Age, sex, hypertension and dietary sodium are proposed to affect plasma and urinary catecholamines. Yet no prior study has examined the simultaneous effects of these factors within the same study population. So results may have been confounded by factors not determined. We investigate, for the first time, the impact of simultaneously determined predictors of plasma and urinary catecholamines and the relationship of catecholamines with the diagnosis of hypertension. Hypertensive and normotensive subjects (n=308) were studied off antihypertensives in liberal and low sodium balance. 24 h urinary catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) were measured. Plasma catecholamines were measured supine after overnight fast. Repeated measures multivariate linear regression models examined the effect of sex, race, age, body mass index (BMI), dietary salt (liberal salt vs low salt), hypertension status and mean arterial pressure (MAP) on plasma and urinary catecholamines. Logistic regression determined the relationship of catecholamines with diagnosis of hypertension. Dietary sodium restriction and increasing age predicted increased plasma and urinary norepinephrine, with sodium restriction having the greatest effect. Female sex predicted lower urinary and plasma epinephrine. Neither plasma nor urinary catecholamines predicted the diagnosis of hypertension. In summary, specific demographic factors variably impact catecholamines and should be considered when assessing catecholamines in research and clinical settings.

  2. Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration is strongly associated with altered levels of seminal plasma interferon-γ, interleukin-17, and interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jennifer C; Anton, Peter A; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O; Hoffman, Risa M

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (p<0.0001) was most strongly associated with seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission.

  3. Plasma D-lactate levels in diagnosis of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Cağlayan, Fatma; Cakmak, Murat; Cağlayan, Osman; Cavuşoglu, Turgut

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the possible use of D-lactate as a predictor in the diagnosis of appendicitis. C-reactive protein level (CRP) and leukocyte counts were also evaluated. Venous blood D-lactate, CRP, and leukocyte counts were measured preoperatively in 53 patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis, as well as in 20 healthy subjects. Levels of all three parameters in the surgical patients were significantly higher than in the control group (p <.05). Previous studies have shown that venous D-lactate is more specific to the intestine than CPR or leukocyte count. Based on our data, venous D-lactate, which had the lowest false-negative rate among these laboratory parameters, may be a useful diagnostic marker for appendicitis. None of these parameters were helpful in identifying the type of the appendicitis.

  4. Neural correlates of plasma acylated ghrelin level in individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Nakano, Masayuki; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Egashira, Kazuteru; Matsubara, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2012-09-14

    Anhedonic symptoms, which include loss of pleasure, appetite and motivation, are key symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and are thought to depend on a neural circuit of the mesolimbic system. The neuropeptide ghrelin plays a crucial role in appetite and reward. Little is known, however, about the role of ghrelin in MDD. We examined the association between morphometric change and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with MDD. Twenty-four patients with MDD and 24 healthy control subjects were studied. Plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin was measured after a period of fasting. Using voxel-based morphometry, we found a main effect of ghrelin on the volume of several brain regions. We then compared these regional volumes in patients with MDD versus healthy subjects. We also compared brain volumes between the two groups, controlling for ghrelin level. There was no significant difference in plasma acylated ghrelin level between patients with MDD and healthy subjects. In the MDD group, ghrelin levels positively correlated with the severity of reduced appetite. Ghrelin levels negatively correlated with gray matter volume of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the total sample. The patients with MDD showed significantly smaller VTA gray matter volume compared to healthy subjects. Controlling for the plasma acylated ghrelin level, patients with MDD showed significantly smaller gray matter volume of right substantia nigra compared to healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that plasma acylated ghrelin is associated with neural abnormalities of the pleasure/reward system and may be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  5. Venous thrombosis risk associated with plasma hypofibrinolysis is explained by elevated plasma levels of TAFI and PAI-1.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Mirjam E; Lisman, Ton; de Groot, Philip G; Meijers, Joost C M; le Cessie, Saskia; Doggen, Carine J M; Rosendaal, Frits R

    2010-07-08

    Elevated plasma clot lysis time (CLT) increases risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. It is unclear which fibrinolytic factors contribute to thrombosis risk. In 743 healthy control subjects we investigated determinants of CLT. By comparison with 770 thrombosis patients, we assessed plasma levels of fibrinolytic proteins as risk factors for a first thrombosis. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were the main determinants of CLT, followed by plasminogen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), prothrombin, and alpha2-antiplasmin. Fibrinogen, factor VII, X, and XI contributed minimally. These proteins explained 77% of variation in CLT. Levels of the fibrinolytic factors were associated with thrombosis risk (odds ratios, highest quartile vs lowest, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index: 1.6 for plasminogen, 1.2 for alpha2-antiplasmin, 1.6 for TAFI, 1.6 for PAI-1, and 1.8 for tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA]). Adjusting for acute-phase proteins attenuated the risk associated with elevated plasminogen levels. The risk associated with increased t-PA nearly disappeared after adjusting for acute-phase proteins and endothelial activation. TAFI and PAI-1 remained associated with thrombosis after extensive adjustment. In conclusion, CLT reflects levels of all fibrinolytic factors except t-PA. Plasminogen, TAFI, PAI-1, and t-PA are associated with venous thrombosis. However, plasminogen and t-PA levels may reflect underlying risk factors.

  6. The effect of glycemic index on plasma glucose and lactate levels during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Stannard, S R; Constantini, N W; Miller, J C

    2000-03-01

    Consumption of low glycemic index (GI) foods before submaximal endurance exercise may be beneficial to performance. To test whether this may also be true for high intensity exercise, 10 trained cyclists began an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 65 min after consuming equal carbohydrate portions of glucose (HGI), pasta (LGI), and a noncarbohydrate control (PL). Time to fatigue did not differ significantly (p = 0.05) between treatments. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after LGI vs. HGI from 15 to 45 min of rest postprandial. During exercise, plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after HGI vs. LGI from 200 W until exhaustion. Plasma lactate concentration following HGI was significantly higher than PL from 30 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 200-W workload. Plasma lactate concentration following LGI was significantly lower than after HGI from 45 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 100-W workload. At higher exercise intensities, there was no significant difference in plasma lactate levels between treatments. These findings suggest that a high GI carbohydrate meal (1 g/kg body wt) 65 min prior to exercise decreases plasma glucose and increases plasma lactate levels compared to a low GI meal, but not enough to be detrimental to incremental exercise performance.

  7. Modulation of C-reactive protein and plasma omega-6 fatty acid levels by phospholipase A2 gene polymorphisms following a 6-week supplementation with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, B L; Rudkowska, I; Couture, P; Lemieux, S; Julien, P; Vohl, M C

    2015-12-01

    This clinical trial investigated the impact of a six-week supplementation with fish oil and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes on total omega-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels in plasma phospholipids (PL) and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in 191 subjects. Interaction effects between SNPs and supplementation modulated total n-6 FAs and CRP levels in both men and women. Associations between SNPs and total n-6 FA levels and between SNPs and CRP levels were identified in men, independently of supplementation. Supplementation decreased total n-6 FAs without affecting plasma CRP levels. Changes in CRP levels correlated positively with changes in total n-6 FAs in men (r=0.25 p=0.01), but not in women. In conclusion, total n-6 FA levels in plasma PL and plasma CRP levels are modulated by SNPs within PLA2G4A and PLA2G6 genes alone or in combination with fish oil supplementation.

  8. Direct plasma irradiation affects expression of RNAs in cultured mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Mime; Tokaji, Hideto; Kumagai, Shinya

    2016-12-01

    The expression of RNAs in mouse NIH3T3 cells was altered by low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation. Cell culture liquid media were removed before plasma irradiation so that direct plasma effects can be assessed. After 5 s irradiation, the cells were cultured in media for 1 or 3 h and RNA expression was analyzed using a microarray. When analyzed 1 and 3 h after plasma irradiation, the upregulation of hypothetical transmembrane proteins and U3 small nucleolar RNAs was detected at both time points. Our results provide a basic principle for understanding the molecular mechanisms of plasma effects on mammalian cells.

  9. Genetic effects of an air discharge plasma on Staphylococcus aureus at the gene transcription level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zimu; Wei, Jun; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Zelong; Qian, Shulou; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Weidong; Sun, Qiang; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of gene expression regulation (at transcription level) in Staphylococcus aureus after different doses of atmospheric-pressure room-temperature air plasma treatments are investigated by monitoring the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma treatment influences the transcription of genes which are associated with several important bio-molecular processes related to the environmental stress resistance of the bacteria, including oxidative stress response, biofilm formation, antibiotics resistance, and DNA damage protection/repair. The reactive species generated by the plasma discharge in the gas phase and/or induced in the liquid phase may account for these gene expression changes.

  10. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Aaron J; Stuart, Ronald C; Attard, Courtney A; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A; Low, Malcolm J

    2014-04-15

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24-48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis.

  11. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Aaron J.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Attard, Courtney A.; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24–48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis. PMID:24518677

  12. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  13. Alteration in plasma corticosterone levels following long term oral administration of lead produces depression like symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Shamim, Saima; Batool, Zehra; Parveen, Tahira; Inam, Qurat-ul-ain; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2013-03-01

    Lead toxicity is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioral dysfunctions that may result in adverse effects on several organs, including the central nervous system. Long-term exposure to low levels of lead (Pb(2+)) has been shown to produce behavioral deficits in rodents and humans by affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These deficits are thought to be associated with altered brain monoamine neurotransmission and due to changes in glucocorticoids levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Pb(2+)exposure on growth rate, locomotor activity, anxiety, depression, plasma corticosterone and brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats. Rats were exposed to lead in drinking water (500 ppm; lead acetate) for 5 weeks. The assessment of depression was done using the forced swimming test (FST). Estimation of brain 5-HT was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Plasma corticosterone was determined by spectrofluorimetric method. The present study showed that long term exposure to Pb(2+) significantly decreased the food intake followed by the decrease in growth rate in Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control group. No significant changes in open field activity were observed following Pb(2+)exposure while significant increase in anxiogenic effect was observed. Increased plasma corticosterone and decreased 5-HT levels were exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to controls. A significant increase in depressive like symptoms was exhibited by Pb(2+)exposed rats as compared to control rats. The results are discussed in the context of Pb(2+) inducing a stress-like response in rats leading to changes in plasma corticosterone and brain 5-HT levels via altering tryptophan pyrrolase activity.

  14. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, Leonid V; Zakharova, Anna N; Kabachkova, Anastasia V; Kironenko, Tatyana A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  15. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Zakharova, Anna N.; Kabachkova, Anastasia V.; Kironenko, Tatyana A.; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons. PMID:28194116

  16. [Malondialdehyde and ceruloplasmin levels in plasma of patients with alimentary toxic infection].

    PubMed

    Nagoev, B S; Marzhokhova, M Iu

    2004-07-01

    The content of malonic dialdehyde and of ceruloplasmin in blood plasma was studied, as an indicator of the prooxidant-antioxidant system, in 84 patients, aged 21 to 63, with alimentary toxicoinfection. A higher level of malonic dialdehyde and a lower level of ceruloplasmin were detected, which depended on a disease stage and on a severity of the clinical course and pathologic progression.

  17. Preliminary results on plasma progesterone levels during pregnancy and superfetation in the hare, Lepus Europaeus.

    PubMed

    Caillol, M; Martinet, L

    1976-01-01

    Peripheral plasma progesterone levels were studied in pregnant hares. A rise occurred at the beginning of pregnancy, followed by a plateau from Days 10 to 35, and then a drop during the days just before parturition. No significant differences were noted between progesterone levels in pregnancies initiated at the pre-partum oestrus and those from other oestrous periods.

  18. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  19. Plasma BDNF Levels Vary in Relation to Body Weight in Females

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Anilkumar; Bruno, Davide; Sarreal, Antero S.; Hernando, Raymundo T.; Saint-Louis, Leslie A.; Nierenberg, Jay; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Pomara, Nunzio; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Buckley, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression as well as neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Recent studies show a role of BDNF in energy metabolism and body weight regulation. We examined BDNF levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from age matched elderly depressed and control subjects. Also, the association of BDNF levels with age, gender, body weight, body mass index (BMI), and cognitive performance was evaluated. We did not find any significant differences in plasma and CSF BDNF levels between depressed and control subjects. Plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with age (but not with BMI and body weight), when analyses were performed including both depressed and control subjects. A significant reduction in plasma BDNF levels was observed in females as compared to male subjects, and the change in BDNF levels were significantly and positively related to body weight in females. Furthermore, significant increases in Total Recall and Delayed Recall values were found in females as compared to males. In conclusion, the lower BDNF levels observed in females suggest that changes in peripheral BDNF levels are likely secondary to an altered energy balance. However, further studies using larger sample size are warranted. PMID:22768299

  20. Heat Transfer Affected by Transverse Magnetic Field using 3D Modeling of Arc Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Gas shielded metal arc welding is used to join the various metal because this is the high quality joining technology. Thus, this welding is used for a welding of large buildings such as bridges and LNG tanks. However, the welding defect caused by the heat transfer decrement may occur with increasing the wind velocity. This is because that the convection loss increases because the arc deflects to leeward side with increasing the wind velocity. In order to prevent from the arc deflection, it is used that the transverse magnetic field is applied to the arc. However, the arc deflection occurs with increasing the transverse magnetic field excessively. The energy balance of the arc is changed with increasing the convection loss caused by the arc deflection, and the heat transfer to the anode decreases. Therefore, the analysis including the arc and anode is necessary to elucidate the heat transfer to the anode. In this paper, the heat transfer affected by the transverse magnetic field using 3D modeling of the arc plasma is elucidated. The heat transfer to the anode is calculated by using the EMTF(electromagnetic thermal fluid) simulation with increasing the transverse magnetic field. As a result, the heat transfer decreased with increasing the transverse magnetic field.

  1. Effect of Streptozotocin on Plasma Insulin Levels of Rats and Mice: A Meta-analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Koksal, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the studies focusing on diabetic organisms, Streprozotocine (STZ) is a frequently used agent to induce diabetes in rats and mice. However the current studies do not represent practical importance of their statistical findings. For showing practical importance of the differences in plasma insulin levels of diabetic rats and mice induced by STZ, there should be a statistical synthesis regarding statistical findings of the studies. AIM: The purpose of this study is to make a meta-analysis of the studies on the effect of STZ on plasma insulin levels in diabetic rats and mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 39 effect sizes (37 studies) about levels of plasma insulin were analyzed by calculating individual effect sizes (d) and mean effect size. RESULTS: The effect sizes were between -13.7 and +65.3 and the mean effect size value (+9.33) represented a large effect indicating that STZ was an effective agent to significantly decrease plasma insulin levels of diabetic rats and mice. CONCLUSION: It can be said that the differences in plasma insulin levels between STZ-applied and no application groups has a practical importance in making animal model of diabetes. PMID:27275254

  2. Spatial Dependence of DNA Damage in Bacteria due to Low-Temperature Plasma Application as Assessed at the Single Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Privat-Maldonado, Angela; O’Connell, Deborah; Welch, Emma; Vann, Roddy; van der Woude, Marjan W.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature plasmas (LTPs) generate a cocktail of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) with bactericidal activity. The RNOS however are spatially unevenly distributed in the plasma. Here we test the hypothesis that this distribution will affect the mechanisms underpinning plasma bactericidal activity focussing on the level of DNA damage in situ. For the first time, a quantitative, single cell approach was applied to assess the level of DNA damage in bacteria as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the plasma jet. Salmonella enterica on a solid, dry surface was treated with two types of LTP: an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet (charged and neutral species) and a radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (neutral species). In both cases, there was an inverse correlation between the degree of DNA damage and the radial distance from the centre of the plasma, with the highest DNA damage occurring directly under the plasma. This trend was also observed with Staphylococcus aureus. LTP-generated UV radiation was eliminated as a contributing factor. Thus valuable mechanistic information can be obtained from assays on biological material, which can inform the development of LTP as a complementary or alternative therapy for (topical) bacterial infections. PMID:27759098

  3. Spatial Dependence of DNA Damage in Bacteria due to Low-Temperature Plasma Application as Assessed at the Single Cell Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privat-Maldonado, Angela; O’Connell, Deborah; Welch, Emma; Vann, Roddy; van der Woude, Marjan W.

    2016-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas (LTPs) generate a cocktail of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) with bactericidal activity. The RNOS however are spatially unevenly distributed in the plasma. Here we test the hypothesis that this distribution will affect the mechanisms underpinning plasma bactericidal activity focussing on the level of DNA damage in situ. For the first time, a quantitative, single cell approach was applied to assess the level of DNA damage in bacteria as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the plasma jet. Salmonella enterica on a solid, dry surface was treated with two types of LTP: an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet (charged and neutral species) and a radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (neutral species). In both cases, there was an inverse correlation between the degree of DNA damage and the radial distance from the centre of the plasma, with the highest DNA damage occurring directly under the plasma. This trend was also observed with Staphylococcus aureus. LTP-generated UV radiation was eliminated as a contributing factor. Thus valuable mechanistic information can be obtained from assays on biological material, which can inform the development of LTP as a complementary or alternative therapy for (topical) bacterial infections.

  4. Effect of Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang on seminal plasma cytokine levels in patients with idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Y; Akashi, T; Fuse, H

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two idiopathic infertile patients were treated with Oriental herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Hochu-ekki-to). Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after herb administration. There was an inverse correlation between seminal plasma IL-6 level and sperm concentration before treatment. After the administration of herb seminal plasma, sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. Seminal plasma IL-8 level did not change. Certain kinds of cytokine in the seminal plasma might play some role in improving semen quality with treatment.

  5. Genetic variants in PLG, LPA, and SIGLEC 14 as well as smoking contribute to plasma plasminogen levels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianyi; Ozel, Ayse B.; Ramdas, Shweta; McGee, Beth; Khoriaty, Rami; Siemieniak, David; Li, Hong-Dong; Guan, Yuanfang; Brody, Lawrence C.; Mills, James L.; Molloy, Anne M.; Ginsburg, David; Li, Jun Z.

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen is the precursor of the serine protease plasmin, a central enzyme of the fibrinolytic system. Plasma levels of plasminogen vary by almost 2-fold among healthy individuals, yet little is known about its heritability or genetic determinants in the general population. In order to identify genetic factors affecting the natural variation of plasminogen levels, we performed a genome-wide association study and linkage analysis in a sample of 3456 young healthy individuals who participated in the Genes and Blood Clotting Study (GABC) or the Trinity Student Study (TSS). Heritability of plasminogen levels was 48.1% to 60.0%. Tobacco smoking and female sex were associated with higher levels of plasminogen. In the meta-analysis, 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2 regions reached genome-wide significance (P < 5.0E-8). Of these, 9 SNPs were near the PLG or LPA genes on Chr6q26, whereas 2 were on Chr19q13 and 5′ upstream of SIGLEC14. These 11 SNPs represented 4 independent signals and collectively explained 6.8% of plasminogen level variation in the study populations. The strongest association was observed for a nonsynonymous SNP in the PLG gene (R523W). Individuals bearing an additional copy of this allele had an average decrease of 13.4% in plasma plasminogen level. PMID:25208887

  6. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-06-30

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  7. The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on fetal muscle development and plasma hormone concentrations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sen, U; Sirin, E; Yildiz, S; Aksoy, Y; Ulutas, Z; Kuran, M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on the muscle development of fetus and maternal-fetal plasma hormone concentrations in sheep were examined. Estrus was synchronized in 55 Karayaka ewes and were either fed ad libitum (well-fed, WF, n=23) or 0.5×maintenance (under-fed, UF, n=32) 6 days before and 7 days after mating. Non-pregnant ewes (WF, n=13; UF, n=24) and ewes carrying twins (WF, n=1) and female (WF, n=1; UF, n=3) fetuses were removed from the experiment. The singleton male fetuses from well-fed (n=8) and under-fed (n=5) ewes were collected on day 90 of gestation and placental characteristics, fetal BWs and dimensions, fetal organs and muscles weights were recorded. Maternal (on day 7 after mating) and fetal (on day 90 of pregnancy) blood samples were collected to analyze plasma hormone concentrations. Placental characteristics, BW and dimensions, organs and muscles weights of fetuses were not affected by maternal feed intake during the periconception period. Maternal nutrition level did not affect fiber numbers and the muscle cross-sectional area of the fetal longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST) muscles, but the cross-sectional area of the secondary fibers in the fetal LD and ST muscles from the UF ewes were higher than those from the WF ewes (P<0.05). Also, the ratio of secondary to primary fibers in the ST muscle were tended to be lower in the fetuses from the UF ewes (P=0.07). Maternal nutrition level during the periconception period did not cause any significant changes in fetal plasma insulin and maternal and fetal plasma IGF-I, cortisol, progesterone, free T3 and T4 concentrations. However, maternal cortisol concentrations were lower while insulin concentrations were higher in the WF ewes than those in the UF ewes (P<0.05). These results indicate that the reduced maternal feed intake during the periconception period may alter muscle fiber diameter without affecting fiber types, fetal weights and organ

  8. The effect of rapeseed meal and methimazole on levels of plasma hormones in growing broiler cockerels.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, R B; Sharp, P J; Klandorf, H; Scanes, C G; Harvey, S

    1979-11-01

    The effects of feeding a heat treated rapeseed meal, which has goitrogenic properties, on the concentrations of plasma pituitary and thyroid gland hormones was investigated in broiler cockerels of between 3 and 10 weeks of age. For purposes of comparison, two other groups were included in the study; one was fed the goitrogen, methimazole, and the other a normal control diet. The hormones measured were thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and luteinizing hormone (LH). In birds fed methimazole the thyroid glands were greatly enlarged, the concentrations of plasma T4 and T3 were depressed and the concentrations of growth hormone, prolactin, and LH were elevated. The high level of plasma LH in the birds fed methimazole was not due to the absence of sufficient concentrations of plasma testosterone to exert a negative feedback effect. Although the inclusion of rapeseed meal in the diet caused the thyroid glands to enlarge, the concentrations of all the hormones studied, with the exception of T3, were similar to those in the control birds. However, there was a tendency, which was more pronounced in birds of between 3 and 5 weeks of age, for rapeseed meal to depress the concentrations of plasma T4, GH, and LH and to increase the concentration of plasma prolactin. The most significant observation was that between 3 and 5 weeks of age the inclusion of rapeseed meal in the diet significantly (P less than .001) depressed the concentration of plasma T3.

  9. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    PubMed

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P < .001). A trend was observed for a lower Zn levels in seminal plasma of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Seminal Zn in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with sperm count (P < .01) and normal morphology of sperm (P < .001). There was a significantly positive correlation between seminal Zn with Ca (P < .01) and K (P < .01) levels in all specimens. In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  10. Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Rural Chinese Twins across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuelong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Guoying; Hong, Xiumei; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Xu, Xiping; Tang, Genfu; Hou, Fanfan; Huo, Yong; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Binyan

    2014-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10–66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25529062

  11. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  12. Exploring Factors Affecting Girls' Education at Secondary Level: A Case of Karak District, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Aslam, Hassan Danial; Habib, Muhammad Badar; Yasmeen, Kausar; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Akhtar, Zaitoon; Akhtar, Basreen

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the factors that affect girls' education at secondary school level in Karak District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan). All the female heads, teachers and students serving and studying at secondary school level in Karak District constituted the population of the study. The study was delimited to only 30 girls' secondary schools in…

  13. Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Taoping; Liu, Jun; Shan, Zhilei; Jin, Yilin; Chen, Sijing; Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-08-15

    Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 μg/L and 1.2 μg/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.

  14. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Wen; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xue-Bao; Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  15. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J

    1981-10-01

    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  16. Plasma and urine DNA levels are related to microscopic hematuria in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Eduardo Ferreira Pedroso; Abdalla, Tomás Elias; Arrym, Tiago Pedromonico; de Oliveira Delgado, Pamela; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; da Costa Aguiar Alves, Beatriz; de S Gehrke, Flávia; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Alves, Sarah; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; de Lima Pompeo, Antonio Carlos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2016-11-01

    a) Objective: An increase in cell-free DNA was observed in the plasma of many cancer patients. This major biomarker can be used to differentiate patients with malignant neoplasms from those with benign neoplasms or healthy patients. Depending on the characteristic of the tumor, there are qualitative variations in the circulating cell-free DNA. Today, studies on the concentration of fragments of circulating cell-free DNA and their respective sizes in patients with bladder cancer are not plentiful in the literature. A 100% effective plasma tumor marker, which would help in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer, is yet to be developed; therefore, cell-free DNA levels in the plasma may represent a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with this type of tumor. b) Design and methods: In this study we analyze the kinetics of plasma and urine DNA concentrations in patients with bladder cancer, relating them to the other clinical laboratory variables. c) Results: Patients with hematuria showed a positive correlation with urine DNA. d) Conclusion: An increase in plasma and urine DNA was unprecedentedly reported over time, a fact that may come in handy in the prognosis of patients. Furthermore, microscopic haematuria is correlated with plasma and urinary DNA levels.

  17. Significance of plasma lead levels in normal and lead-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Trinidad, E E

    1974-05-01

    Plasma lead (Pb) levels have been measured in normal and lead-intoxicated children, newborns, and children with sickle cell disease. The results in all groups were contant over a wide range of red cell Pb concentration. These results support the thesis that the red cell represents a large repository for Pb, maintaining plasma Pb concentration within closely defined limits, and that methods other than measurements of plasma Pb will be necessary to uncover a presumably dynamic transport system between red cell and plasma. Indeed, we have demonstrated in vitro that ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) lowers red cell Pb content according to a linear dose-response curve. Ca(2+) may thereby control Pb transport from red cell to plasma, and fluctuations in the concentration of Ca(2+) in serum and extracellular fluid may influence the toxic activities of Pb. In bone organ culture, changes in the concentration of Ca(2+) and phosphate in the medium alter the release of previously incorporated (210)Pb from fetal rat bones in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Therefore, both PTH and the ionic milieu of the medium apparently regulate bone Pb metabolism.We would expect that understanding further the dynamics of Pb transport in plasma and bone may lead to a more exact definition of the real hazards of low level Pb toxicity in children.

  18. Plasma fibrinogen levels are correlated with postoperative distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danhong; Zhou, Xia; Bao, Wuan; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Lei; Qiu, Guoqin; Sheng, Liming; Ji, Yongling; Du, Xianghui

    2015-11-10

    This study investigated the correlation of preoperative plasma fibrinogen level with distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 255 patients with ESCC who underwent surgery in Zhejiang cancer hospital (Hangzhou, China), between October 2006 and December 2009, were evaluated in this retrospective study. Population controls were selected from a pool of cancer-free subjects in the same region. Each patient and cancer-free people provided 3-mL pretreatment blood. Plasma fibrinogen level was measured by the Clauss method. The effects of hyperfibrinogenemia on locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Independent prognostic factors were identified in the multivariate Cox analysis. The proportion of hyperfibrinogenemia was higher in ESCC patients than those in controls (40.4% vs 13.6%). Subjects with hyperfibrinogenemia had a significantly higher risk of ESCC than those with normal plasma fibrinogen level (adjust OR = 4.61; 95% CI = 3.02-7.01, P < 0.001) after adjusted for age, sex and smoking status. The Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with hyperfibrinogenemia had worse DMFS, RFS and OS (P < 0.001). Tumor length, lymph node metastasis and plasma fibrinogen level were independent prognostic factors of ESCC (P < 0.05). Increased plasma fibrinogen level was significantly associated with elevated risk of ESCC. Preoperative plasma fibrinogen level was a predictor of distant metastasis and independently associated with prognosis of patients with ESCC.

  19. Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Plasma and Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-10 Levels After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Martinez, Pau; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Aguiló, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the response of interleukin (IL)-10, and also of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, to exercise and caffeine supplementation between plasma and blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs). Participants in the study (n = 28) were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to either caffeine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 14) treatments. One hour before completing a 15-km run competition, athletes took 6 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. Plasma and BMNCs were purified from blood samples taken before and after competition. Concentrations of interleukins (IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), caffeine, adrenaline, and cortisol were measured in plasma. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and cAMP levels were also determined in BMNCs. Exercise induced significant increases in IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels, with higher increases in the caffeine-supplemented group. After 2-hr recovery, these levels returned to almost preexercise values. However, no effect of caffeine on BMNC cytokines was observed. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 levels in BMNCs increased mainly at 2 hr postexercise. cAMP levels increased postexercise in plasma and after recovery in BMNCs, but no effects of caffeine were observed. In conclusion, caffeine did not modify cytokine levels in BMNCs in response to exercise. However, higher increases of IL-10 were observed in plasma after exercise in the supplemented participants, which could suppose an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory properties of exercise.

  20. Plasma D-lactic acid level: a useful marker to distinguish perforated from acute simple appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cetin, Selma; Uguralp, Sema; Sezgin, Nurzen; Karaman, Abdurrahman; Gozukara, Engin M

    2004-10-01

    Early diagnosis of perforated appendicitis is important for reducing morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to determine the value and utility of plasma D-lactic acid levels in identifying the type of appendicitis. In this clinical study, plasma D-lactic acid levels were assessed in 44 consecutive paediatric patients (23 with acute appendicitis, 21 with perforated appendicitis) before laparotomy. D-lactic acid levels were determined by an enzymatic spectrophotometric technique using a D-lactic acid dehydrogenase kit. Patients with perforated appendicitis had higher D-lactic acid levels (3.970 +/- 0.687 mg/dL) than patients in the control group (0.478 +/- 0.149 mg/dL) and patients with acute appendicitis (1.409 +/- 0.324 mg/dL; p < 0.05). For a plasma D-lactic acid level greater than 2.5 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity of the D-lactic acid assay were 96% and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 87%, the negative predictive value was 96%, and the diagnostic value was 91%. These results suggest that the measurement of plasma D-lactic acid levels may be a useful adjunct to clinical and radiological findings in distinguishing perforated from acute non-perforated appendicitis in children.

  1. Elevated hsa-miR-99a levels in maternal plasma may indicate congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    KEHLER, LARS; BIRO, ORSOLYA; LAZAR, LEVENTE; RIGO, JANOS; NAGY, BALINT

    2015-01-01

    The current standard for prenatal screening is mostly based on biochemical marker tests and the use of ultrasonography. There is no secure stand-alone screening marker for congenital heart defects (CHDs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that are associated with cardiogenesis enter the maternal peripheral bloodstream during pregnancy and allow non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The present study investigated the plasma expression profile of fetal hsa-miR-99a in maternal blood. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 39 pregnant patients, comprising 22 with CHD-positive fetuses and 17 with CHD-free controls. miRNAs were isolated from the maternal serum and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the expression of hsa-miR-99a. While the miRNA concentrations were almost identical among the affected and control groups (5.54 vs. 6.40 ng/µl), significantly upregulated hsa-miR-99a levels were identified in the affected group (1.78×10−2±3.53×10−2 vs. 1.09×10−3±3.55×10−3 ng/µl, P=0.038). In conclusion, according to the present study, hsa-miR-99a is involved in cardiac malformation and may serve as a biomarker during fetal development, and therefore presents as a candidate for monitoring cardiomyogenesis and potential use as a NIPT-biomarker for fetal CHD. PMID:26623032

  2. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  3. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  4. Experimental relationships between levels of corticosterone in plasma and feathers in a free-living bird.

    PubMed

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Marchant, Tracy A; Soos, Catherine; Machin, Karen L; Clark, Robert G

    2013-11-01

    Integrated measures of corticosterone (CORT), such as from feathers (CORTf), have intuitive appeal because they incorporate both the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion. An association between CORTf and plasma CORT has never been shown in wild birds, and it is unclear as to when and whether these measures should be correlated, given that they are fundamentally different yet related measures of physiology. We hypothesized that CORTf should correlate with instantaneous measurements of plasma CORT when the latter reflect sustained changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To test this, we experimentally manipulated levels of plasma CORT in wild nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) using 5 day time-release CORT pellets, and measured plasma CORT and growth parameters before, during and at the end of hormone manipulation (days 7, 9 and 11 post-hatch, respectively). CORTf and plasma CORT were significantly positively related only when the latter was at its highest and most variable among individuals (day 9). A similar relationship was expected at day 11, but plasma CORT had returned to near-original levels. Nestlings with higher CORTf were smaller, lighter and less likely to fledge, but we did not detect seasonal effects on CORTf. Our results clearly demonstrate that CORTf from free-living birds can reflect plasma CORT, but correlations may not always be expected, especially if elevations in plasma CORT are relatively modest and of short duration. Our work suggests that CORTf is best used to study the activity of the HPA axis over relatively long time frames and can be used effectively to advance avian ecology.

  5. Plasma Levels of Soluble Interleukin 1 Receptor Accessory Protein Are Reduced in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Chantal; Kulkarni, Hemant; Cummings, Nik; Diego, Vincent P.; Carless, Melanie A.; Shields, Katherine A.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Dyer, Thomas D.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Almasy, Laura; Zimmet, Paul; Moses, Eric K.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adipokines actuate chronic, low-grade inflammation through a complex network of immune markers, but the current understanding of these networks is incomplete. The soluble isoform of the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAP) occupies an important position in the inflammatory pathways involved in obesity. The pathogenetic and clinical influences of sIL1RAP are unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to elucidate whether plasma levels of sIL1RAP are reduced in obesity, using affluent clinical, biochemical, and genetic data from two diverse cohorts. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was conducted in two cohorts: the San Antonio Family Heart Study (n = 1397 individuals from 42 families) and South Asians living in Mauritius, n = 230). Main Outcome Measures: Plasma sIL1RAP levels were measured using an ELISA. The genetic basis of sIL1RAP levels were investigated using both a large-scale gene expression profiling study and a genome-wide association study. Results: A significant decrease in plasma sIL1RAP levels were observed in obese subjects, even after adjustment for age and sex. The sIL1RAP levels demonstrated a strong inverse association with obesity measures in both populations. All associations were more significant in females. Plasma sIL1RAP levels were significantly heritable, correlated with IL1RAP transcript levels (NM_134470), showed evidence for shared genetic influences with obesity measures and were significantly associated with the rs2885373 single-nucleotide polymorphism (P = 6.7 × 10−23) within the IL1RAP gene. Conclusions: Plasma sIL1RAP levels are reduced in obesity and can potentially act as biomarkers of obesity. Mechanistic studies are required to understand the exact contribution of sIL1RAP to the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:24915116

  6. Study of some parameters affecting noise level in textile spinning and weaving mills.

    PubMed

    el-Dakhakhny, A A; Noweir, M H; Kamel, N R

    1975-01-01

    Noise was evaluated in six spinning and five weaving halls located in three textile mills in Egypt. Spindle speed (rpm) and loom speed (picks per minutes) were found to be important parameters affecting the noise level in these mills. Reduction of the number of spinning machines to five spindles per square meter of floor area will probably bring the noise level below the TLV. In the weaving departments, the decrease in the number of looms will not effectively reduce the noise level.

  7. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  8. Coenzyme Q10, carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol levels in cord plasma from multiethnic subjects in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Franke, A A; Lai, J F; Morrison, C M; Pagano, I; Li, X; Halm, B M; Soon, R; Custer, L J

    2013-09-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10), carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol are the major circulating lipid-phase micronutrients (LPM) known to help mitigate oxidative damage and prevent chronic diseases. However, the functions of these compounds in newborns are little understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of studies reporting their concentrations in this population. We measured Q10, carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in cord plasma from 100 multiethnic subjects living in Hawaii using HPLC with diode array and electrochemical detection. Appropriate internal standards were used including, for the first time, custom designed oxidized (UN10) and reduced (UL10) Q10 analogues. These compounds reflected the oxidation of UL10 to UN10 that occurred during sample processing and analysis and thus permitted accurate adjustments of natively circulating Q10 levels. All LPM measured were much lower in cord than in peripheral plasma. Cord plasma levels of total carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol were approximately 10-fold, 3- to 5-fold and 1.5- to 3-fold lower than those in children or women. Cord plasma levels of total Q10 (TQ10; median, 113 ng/mL) were approximately 2-fold or 7- to 9-fold lower than peripheral plasma levels of neonates or children and adults, respectively. In contrast, the UN10/TQ10 ratio was substantially higher in cord (24%) than in peripheral plasma of children (3-4%) or adults (9%). Among the 5 ethnic groups in our cohort, no differences were observed in the levels of UN10, UL10, or TQ10. However, significant differences in many of the LPM were observed between ethnicities. More research is needed to explain these phenomena.

  9. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  10. Circulating tumor cell detection during chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer is not associated with plasma homocysteine levels.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Renata Nunes; Teixeira, Bianca Marinelli; Adami, Fernando; Kuniyoshi, Renata K; Alves, Beatriz C A; Gehrke, Flávia S; Vilas-Bôas, Viviane A; Azzalis, Ligia A; Junqueira, Virginia B C; Pereira, Edimar Cristiano; Fonseca, Fernando L A

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer remains the second most frequent type of cancer in the world and the first among women, and systemic chemotherapy is an adjuvant therapeutic modality that improves survival in a great part of patients. Women with breast cancer, however, frequently show a higher risk of thromboembolism, an event associated to hyperhomocysteinemia and the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC). Our aim is to correlate the presence of CTCs, detected by the analysis of CK19 and c-erbB2 gene expressions, and the homocysteine plasma levels in the peripheral blood in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Epithelial marker expression (CK19 and c-erbB2) and homocysteine levels were analyzed in a mononuclear fraction of the peripheral blood and plasma, respectively, obtained from 35 patients diagnosed with breast cancer at diagnosis and throughout chemotherapy treatment. No significant relation between the CK19 and c-erbB2 expressions and hyperhomocysteinemia was observed at any moment of the evaluation throughout the chemotherapy treatment (3 and 6 months after the onset). Among clinical data, only menopausal status showed a statistically significant correlation with homocysteine concentration. Although differences in the expressions of the analyzed epithelial markers were detected at 3 and 6 months of chemotherapy treatment, no relation between plasma homocysteine variations and the CK19 and c-erbB2 gene expressions was found in patients under chemotherapy treatment at any moment of the evaluation, suggesting that chemotherapy affects the expressions of the studied genes independently.

  11. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity are not affected by an acute increase of metabolic rate in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Beamonte-Barrientos, Rene; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the sources of variation in oxidative stress level is a challenging issue due to the implications of oxidative stress for late age diseases, longevity and life-history trade-offs. Reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress are mostly a by-product of energy metabolism and it is therefore often assumed that oxidative stress is proportional to energy consumption. In mammals, an increased metabolic rate induced by cold exposure generally increases oxidative stress. However, compared to mammals, birds generate fewer free radicals per ATP produced and hence it is not obvious that, in birds, a cold-induced increase of metabolic rate increase oxidative stress. We tested whether cold-induced increase in metabolic rate increased oxidative stress in zebra finches by exposing individuals to cold and warm overnight temperatures. We registered metabolic rate and plasma levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), a measure of oxidative damage. Metabolic rate was on average 88 % higher in cold compared to warm temperature, with females being stronger affected than males. However, temperature had no effect on plasma antioxidants or our measure of oxidative damage. Middle-age birds had higher levels of plasma antioxidants than younger and older birds, but age was unrelated to ROMs. Birds showed repeatability of plasma ROMs across temperatures but not of non-enzymatic antioxidants. In contrast to similar studies in mammals, our results do not show evidence of increased oxidative stress in plasma after an acute cold-induced increase of metabolic rate but research in more bird species is needed to assess the generality of this pattern.

  12. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rasheed, Omar F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men. Methods The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years) were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43) and azoospermia (n=35). 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years) were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000) in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000) in all the infertility groups studied. Conclusion Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur. PMID:22043332

  13. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  14. Lack of association between plasma leptin levels and appetite in children with iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Topaloglu, A K; Hallioglu, O; Canim, A; Duzovali, O; Yilgor, E

    2001-01-01

    A negative correlation between leptin and appetite or food intake has been shown in healthy individuals. However, the role of leptin in clinical conditions characterized by anorexia has not been established. One of the well-known clinical features of iron-deficiency anemia is poor appetite. We examined the changes in plasma leptin levels in relation to expected improvement in appetite with iron treatment in children with iron deficiency. In 24 infants and small children (mean age +/- standard deviation = 19.6 +/- 7.7 months) with iron deficiency, we studied plasma leptin levels before and after iron therapy. After 15.0 +/- 2.4 wk of iron treatment, serum ferritin levels improved significantly, with accompanying increases in their subjective appetite scores and food intakes. However, as their mean age and plasma leptin levels adjusted their body mass indexes were unchanged. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with appetite score (r = 0.680, P < 0.001) and food intake (r = 0.480, P < 0.01). Leptin correlated only with body mass index (r = 0.405, P < 0.01). Lack of association between plasma leptin levels and degree of appetite in iron-deficient children treated with iron suggests a leptin-independent mechanism for the observed increase in appetite.

  15. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  16. [Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein in patients with high estrogen levels].

    PubMed

    Ricoux, R; Pontet, M; Tresca, J P; Engler, R

    1994-01-01

    The monitoring of inflammatory activity in patients with a high level of estrogen is controversial because the significance of a raised estradiol level on C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations is a debated question. This prompted us to assay CRP by a sensitive Elisa in a sample of 30 patients with ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization, thus with high levels of estradiol. For 15 of these women, six to nine plasma samples were analyzed allowing a kinetic study of plasma levels of CRP, estradiol and sex steroid-binding plasma protein (SBP). No significant correlation was found between the concentrations of estradiol and CRP for the 30 patients. In the kinetic study, as mean estradiol levels rose exponentially from 50 to 1400 ng/l between day 5 and 14, the CRP level tended to vary markedly from one patient to another and sometimes from day to day, but there was never any relation with estradiol level. Furthermore, CRP did not significantly modify the slope of the regression line between estradiol concentration and the day of the menstrual cycle. In contrast, the effect of estradiol on SBP was clear, which supports the absence of estradiol effect on CRP level.

  17. Determinants of plasma glucose level and diabetic status in a northern Canadian Indian population.

    PubMed Central

    Young, T K; Sevenhuysen, G P; Ling, N; Moffatt, M E

    1990-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 704 Indians aged 20 to 64 years in six remote communities in northern Ontario and Manitoba to determine the factors associated with the fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and diabetic status, defined by past history and current fasting plasma glucose level. Multivariate analyses for the 671 subjects with complete data showed that triglyceride level, age and body mass index (BMI) were significant predictors of the log fasting plasma glucose level and the log glycosylated hemoglobin level; for the latter, waist/hip ratio, history of diabetes mellitus among first-degree relatives and low level of education were additional predictors. Significant risk factors for diabetes as a dichotomous variable included triglyceride level, age, BMI and family history of diabetes. Although energy intake per unit of body weight was lower among subjects with diabetes than those without diabetes, possibly reflecting the lower physical activity level of diabetic subjects, the former consumed significantly more "calorie-adjusted" protein and less carbohydrate than the latter. The findings are consistent with studies in other populations. Further study is needed to determine the natural history of diabetes and its metabolic consequences and to assess the effect of dietary alteration and promotion of physical activity on the incidence of the disease. PMID:2322914

  18. Major Abdominal Surgery Increases Plasma Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Belizon, Avraham; Balik, Emre; Feingold, Daniel L.; Bessler, Marc; Arnell, Tracey D.; Forde, Kenneth A.; Horst, Patrick K.; Jain, Suvinit; Cekic, Vesna; Kirman, Irena; Whelan, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of angiogenesis that is necessary for wound healing and also promotes tumor growth. It is anticipated that plasma levels would increase after major surgery and that such elevations may facilitate tumor growth. This study's purpose was to determine plasma VEGF levels before and early after major open and minimally invasive abdominal surgery. Methods: Colorectal resection for cancer (n = 139) or benign pathology (n = 48) and gastric bypass for morbid obesity (n = 40) were assessed. Similar numbers of open and laparoscopic patients were studied for each indication. Plasma samples were obtained preoperatively and on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 3. VEGF levels were determined via ELISA. The following statistical methods were used: Fisher exact test, unmatched Student t test, Wilcoxon's matched pairs test, and the Mann Whitney U Test with P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: The mean preoperative VEGF level of the cancer patients was significantly higher than baseline level of benign colon patients. Regardless of indication or surgical method, on POD3, significantly elevated mean VEGF levels were noted for each subgroup. In addition, on POD1, open surgery patients for all 3 indications had significantly elevated VEGF levels; no POD1 differences were noted for the closed surgery patients. At each postoperative time point for each procedure and indication, the open group's VEGF levels were significantly higher than that of the matching laparoscopic group. VEGF elevations correlated with incision length for each indication. Conclusion: As a group colon cancer patients prior to surgery have significantly higher mean VEGF levels than patients without tumors. Also, both open and closed colorectal resection and gastric bypass are associated with significantly elevated plasma VEGF levels early after surgery. This elevation is significantly greater and occurs earlier in open surgery patients. The

  19. C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and plasma homocysteine levels among Thai vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Kajanachumpol, Saowanee; Atamasirikul, Kalayanee; Tantibhedhyangkul, Phieuvit

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia among vegetarians and vegans is caused mostly by vitamin B12 deficiency. A C-to-T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene results in a thermolabile MTHFR, which may affect homocysteine (Hcy) levels. The importance of this gene mutation among populations depends on the T allele frequency. Blood Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T mutation status were determined in 109 vegans and 86 omnivores aged 30 - 50 years. The vegans had significantly higher Hcy levels than the omnivores, geometric means (95 % CI) 19.2 (17.0 - 21.7) µmol/L vs. 8.53 (8.12 - 8.95) µmol/L, p < 0.001. A C-to-T mutation in the vegans increased plasma Hcy, albeit insignificantly; geometric means 18.2 µmol/L, 20.4 µmol/L, and 30.0 µmol/L respectively in CC, CT, and TT MTHFR genotypes. There was also a significant decrease in serum folate; geometric means 12.1 ng/mL, 9.33 ng/mL, and 7.20 ng/mL respectively, in the CC, CT, and TT mutants, p = 0.006, and particularly, in the TT mutant compared with the CC wild type, 7.20 ng/mL vs. 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.023. These findings were not seen in the omnivores. It was concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia is prevalent among Thai vegans due to vitamin B12 deficiency. C-to-T MTHFR mutation contributes only modestly to the hyperhomocysteinemia.

  20. Purification of swine carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme III and measurement of its levels in tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Nishita, T; Harada, T; Sakanoue, H; Arai, S; Itoh, S; Orito, K; Arishima, K

    2014-02-01

    The changes in the levels of carbonic anhydrase isozyme III (CA-III) in swine plasma and urine have not been previously determined or reported. CA-III is relatively specific to skeletal muscles, and should therefore be a useful diagnostic marker for muscle diseases. We isolated CA-III from swine muscle tissues and determined CA-III levels in the plasma and urine from both healthy and diseased pigs. The levels of CA-III in the tissues of female swine (age, 3 months) and plasma of young swine (age, 1-5 months) and adult female pigs (age, 2-3 years) were determined using the ELISA system for swine CA-III. The mean (± SD) levels of CA-III in the skeletal muscles were 3.8 ± 3.2 mg/g (wet tissue), and in the plasma, 230 ± 193 ng/ml at 1 month, 189 ± 208 ng/ml at 2 months, 141 ± 148 ng/ml at 3 months, 78 ± 142 ng/ml at 4 months and 53 ± 99 ng/ml at 5 months. The mean level of CA-III in the plasma samples from 2- to 3-year-old pigs was 18 ± 60 ng/ml. CA-III in the plasma samples was found to decrease from 1 month until 3 years of age (p < 0.01). We performed far-western blotting to clarify the cause of the observed decrease in CA-III in plasma. Our results demonstrated that CA-III is bound to the transferrin and albumin. In addition, we determined that the levels of CA-III in plasma and urine samples were higher in diseased swine compared with the healthy pigs.

  1. Genetic Markers Associated with Plasma Protein C Level in African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Munir, M. Shahzeb; Weng, Lu-Chen; Tang, Weihong; Basu, Saonli; Pankow, James S.; Matijevic, Nena; Cushman, Mary; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein C is an endogenous anticoagulant protein with anti-inflammatory properties. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the levels of circulating protein C in European Americans. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of plasma protein C concentration with approximately 2.5 million SNPs in 2,701 African Americans in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Seventy-nine SNPs from the 20q11 and 2q14 regions reached the genome-wide significance threshold of 5 × 10−8. A missense variant rs867186 in the PROCR gene at 20q11 is known to affect protein C levels in individuals of European descent and showed the strongest signal (P = 9.84 × 10−65) in African Americans. The minor allele of this SNP was associated with higher protein C levels (β = 0.49 μg/ml; 10% variance explained). In the 2q14 region, the top SNPs were near or within the PROC gene: rs7580658 (β = 0.15 μg/ml; 2% variance explained, P = 1.7 × 10−12) and rs1799808 (β = 0.15 μg/ml; 2% variance explained, P = 2.03 × 10−12). These two SNPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with another SNP rs1158867 that resides in a biochemically functional site and in weak to strong LD with the top PROC variants previously reported in individuals of European descent. In addition, two variants outside the PROC region were significantly and independently associated with protein C levels: rs4321325 in CYP27C1 and rs13419716 in MYO7B. In summary, this first GWA study for plasma protein C levels in African Americans confirms the associations of SNPs in the PROC and PROCR regions with circulating levels of protein C across ethnic populations and identifies new candidates for protein C regulation. PMID:25376901

  2. Dexamethasone decreases plasma levels of the prochiral fenbendazole and its chiral and achiral metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, S; Small, J; Jones, D G; McKellar, Q A

    2003-07-01

    1. The effect of co-administration of either short- or long-acting formulations of DXM on hepatic function and the plasma pharmacokinetic behaviour of prochiral fenbendazole (FBZ) and its metabolites was evaluated in sheep. 2. Neither DXM treatment markedly affected any of the biochemical markers of hepatic function tested. In contrast, both formulations significantly modified the plasma pharmacokinetic behaviour of FBZ and its metabolites. 3. Plasma FBZ concentrations and the associated area under the time-concentration curves were significantly lower, although the plasma detection period was longer (72 versus 48 h) in the DXM pretreated animals compared with those given FBZ alone. 4. DXM also appeared to alter the pattern of FBZ absorption, possibly through effects on abomasal pH. The shape of the plasma concentration-time curves for oxfendazole (OFZ) and fenbendazole sulphone (FBZSO(2)) were similar to FBZ, raising the possibility that DXM treatment may have altered the liver biotransformation of the parent drug. 5. The concentrations of the (+) chiral metabolite of OFZ were significantly lower in DXM pretreated animals compared with those given FBZ alone. The trend was similar for the (-) antipode, although the differences between DXM pretreated and non-pretreated animals were not statistically significant.

  3. Factors Affecting VUV Emission Spectrum near Lyman-{alpha} from a Hydrogen Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, K.; Kasuya, T.; Shimamoto, S.; Wada, M.; Kimura, Y.; Nishiura, M.

    2011-09-26

    Vacuum ultra violet (VUV) emission spectra from plasmas near walls of different metallic materials were measured to estimate the effect upon the local production rate of vibrational excited hydrogen molecules due to plasma wall interaction. Among Cu, Mo, Ni, Ta and Ti, the intensity of band spectrum around Lyman-{alpha} had become the largest when Cu wall was used while it was the smallest for Ti. The role of particle reflection from the plasma electrode surface upon the H{sup -} production by a pure electron volume process is discussed.

  4. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  5. Plasma hepcidin levels and anemia in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study.

    PubMed

    den Elzen, Wendy P J; de Craen, Anton J M; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Swinkels, Dorine W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2013-03-01

    Hepcidin, an important regulator of iron homeostasis, is suggested to be causally related to anemia of inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the role of plasma hepcidin in anemia among older persons from the general population. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a population-based study of 85-year olds in Leiden, the Netherlands. Eighty-five-year old inhabitants of Leiden were enrolled between September 1997 and September 1999. At the age of 86, plasma hepcidin was determined with time of flight mass spectrometry in 490 participants [160 (32.7%) male, 114 (23.3%) with anemia]. Anemia was defined according to criteria of the World Health Organization (hemoglobin level <13 g/dL for men and hemoglobin <12 g/dL for women). The median plasma hepcidin level was 3.0 nM [interquartile range (IQR) 1.8-4.9]. We found strong correlations between plasma hepcidin and body iron status, C-reactive protein and erythropoietin levels. Significantly higher hepcidin levels were found in participants with anemia of inflammation (P<0.01), in participants with anemia of kidney disease (P=0.01), and in participants with unexplained anemia (P=0.01) than in participants without anemia. Participants with iron-deficiency anemia had significantly lower plasma hepcidin levels than participants without anemia (P<0.01). In conclusion, older persons with anemia of inflammation have higher hepcidin levels than their counterparts without anemia. The potential clinical value of hepcidin in future diagnostic algorithms for anemia has to be explored.

  6. In vivo evaluation of the effects of hydraulic calcium silicate dental cements on plasma and liver aluminium levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Kadriye; Can Demirdöğen, Birsen; Öncel Torun, Zeynep; Erdem, Onur; Çetinkaya, Serdar; Akay, Cemal

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to test whether the presence of three hydraulic calcium silicate dental cements--MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex, and Theracal LC--in the dental extraction socket of an in vivo model, would affect the levels of aluminium (Al) in the plasma and liver. Following anesthesia, the right upper incisor of each male Wistar albino rat was extracted and polyethylene tubes filled with MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex, or Theracal LC were inserted into the depth of the extraction socket and gingival tissue was sutured. The rats were killed 7, 30, or 60 d after the operation. Blood and liver samples were obtained from the rats before they were killed, and the levels of Al were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma Al levels were higher in the rats in which the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements were implanted, especially MTA Angelus and MTA Fillapex, compared with control rats. In liver samples, however, the differences in Al level were not statistically significant. Our results show that Al might have been released into the circulation from the three dental cements tested, especially MTA Angelus and MTA Fillapex. Further research should be carried out on the possible biological effects of Al liberated from dental cements.

  7. Effect of Antiepileptic drugs on plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aynaci, F M; Orhan, F; Orem, A; Yildirmis, S; Gedik, Y

    2001-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs may alter plasma lipid status in epileptic patients. We conducted a study to assess the effect of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and valproate on plasma levels of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B in 22 epileptic children. The children were separated as group 1, seven children, mean age 1.6+/-0.2 years, treated with phenobarbital, 5 mg/kg/day, twice daily; group 2, seven children, mean age 9.8+/-1.2 years, treated with carbamazepine, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily; and group 3, eight children, mean age 6.8+/-0.6 years, treated with valproate, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily. Plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels were studied before (pretreatment) and at 3 and 6 months of treatment. Friedman two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis, and the results were expressed as the mean and standard error of the mean. The mean age of children in group 1 was significantly low, compared with groups 2 and, 3 (P < .001). The mean pretreatment lipid levels between the groups were not significant. The increase in lipoprotein (a) at 3 and 6 months and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 6 months was statistically significant in group 1 (P < .025). We suggest a careful monitoring of plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) and other lipids in epileptic children treated with antiepileptic drugs.

  8. Marihuana attenuates the rise in plasma ethanol levels in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Lukas, S E; Benedikt, R; Mendelson, J H; Kouri, E; Sholar, M; Amass, L

    1992-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine if plasma ethanol levels are altered as a result of smoking marihuana. Fifteen healthy adult male volunteers who used ethanol and marihuana on a casual basis participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: placebo, low-dose, or high-dose marihuana. The marihuana dose was held constant and each subject drank three different doses of ethanol on 3 separate days spaced at least 1 week apart. Subjects drank either placebo or ethanol at doses of 0.35 g/kg (7.60 mmol/kg) or 0.70 g/kg (15.19 mmol/kg). Thirty minutes after drinking they smoked either a placebo marihuana cigarette, or one containing either 1.26% or 2.53% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Plasma ethanol levels rose sharply after the 0.7 g/kg dose and peaked at 50 minutes after drinking began (78.25 +/- 4.95 mg/dl). When subjects smoked the high-dose marihuana cigarettes after the 0.7 g/kg dose of ethanol, peak plasma ethanols levels were only 54.80 +/- 8.32 mg/dl at 105 minutes after drinking began. These alterations in plasma ethanol levels paralleled a reduction in the duration of ethanol- and marihuana-induced subjective effects after high doses of both drugs. These data suggest that marihuana may alter ethanol bioavailability.

  9. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Orhan; Bilen, Habip; Keles, Sadullah; Alp, H. Hakan; Keleş, Mevlüt Sait; Yıldırım, Kenan; Öndaş, Osman; Pınar, L. Can; Civelekler, Mustafa; Baykal, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP) and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) concentration. METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50). The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50). Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in both groups. RESULTS Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10) levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively. CONCLUSION The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24195048

  10. Effect of frequency of dosing of plant sterols on plasma cholesterol levels and synthesis rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the effects of plant sterols (PS) consumed as a single dose (single) at breakfast or as three doses consumed with breakfast, lunch and dinner (divided) on plasma lipoprotien levels and cholesterol endogenous fractional synthesis rate (FSR). A randomized, placebo-controll...

  11. Affinity proteomics discovers decreased levels of AMFR in plasma from Osteoporosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Qundos, Ulrika; Drobin, Kimi; Mattsson, Cecilia; Hong, Mun‐Gwan; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Solomon, David; Uhlén, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Affinity proteomic approaches by antibody bead arrays enable multiplexed analysis of proteins in body fluids. In the presented study, we investigated blood plasma within osteoporosis to discovery differential protein profiles and to propose novel biomarkers candidates for subsequent studies. Experimental design Starting with 4608 antibodies and plasma samples from 22 women for an untargeted screening, a set of 72 proteins were suggested for further analysis. Complementing these with targets from literature and other studies, a targeted bead array of 180 antibodies was built to profile for 92 proteins in plasma samples of 180 women from two independent population‐based studies. Results Differential profiles between osteoporosis patients and matched controls were discovered for 12 proteins in at least one of the two study sets. Among these targets, the levels of autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) were concordantly lower in plasma of female osteoporosis patients. Subsequently, verification of anti‐AMFR antibody selectivity was conducted using high‐density peptide and protein arrays, and Western blotting. Conclusions and clinical relevance Further validation in additional study sets will be needed to determine the clinical value of the observed decrease in AMFR plasma levels in osteoporosis patients, but AMFR may aid our understanding of disease mechanisms and could support existing tools for diagnosis and monitoring of patient mobility within osteoporosis. PMID:25689831

  12. Plasma Ghrelin Levels Are Associated with Anorexia but Not Cachexia in Patients with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Susanne; Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Becker, Annemarie; de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Verheul, Henk M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The ghrelin receptor is one of the new therapeutic targets in the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Previous studies revealed that plasma ghrelin levels were high in patients with anorexia nervosa and low in obese subjects. We studied to what extent ghrelin levels are related with anorexia and cachexia in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: Fasted ghrelin levels were determined as well as anorexia and cachexia in patients with stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer before chemotherapy. Total plasma ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Anorexia was measured with the FAACT-A/CS questionnaire (cut-off value ≤ 37). Cachexia was determined as >5% weight loss (WL) in 6 months or >2% WL in 6 months in combination with low BMI or low muscle mass. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to assess differences in plasma ghrelin levels between four groups: patients with (+) or without (−) anorexia (A) or cachexia (C). Multiple regression analyses were performed to assess differences in plasma ghrelin levels between patients C+ and C− and patients with A+ and A− (adjusted for age and sex). Results: Forty patients with stage III (33%) or stage IV (68%) were recruited, of which 50% was male. Mean age was 59.6 ± 10.3 years. Sixteen patients had no anorexia or cachexia (A−C−), seven patients had both anorexia and cachexia (A+C+), ten patients had anorexia without cachexia (A+C−) and seven patients had cachexia without anorexia (A−C+). The levels of total plasma ghrelin were significantly different between the four groups of patients with or without anorexia or cachexia (p = 0.032): the A+C− patients had significantly higher ghrelin levels [median (IQR): 1,754 (1,404–2,142) compared to the A−C+ patients 1,026 (952–1,357), p = 0.003]. A+ patients had significantly higher ghrelin levels compared A− patients (C+ and C− combined, β: 304, p = 0.020). Plasma ghrelin levels were not significantly different in C+ patients

  13. Common α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor polymorphisms do not affect plasma membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Carl M; Sorensen, Matt W; Angelotti, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Various naturally occurring polymorphic forms of human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified and linked to diverse pathological diseases, including receptors for vasopressin type 2 (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). In most cases, polymorphic amino acid mutations disrupt protein folding, altering receptor function as well as plasma membrane expression. Other pathological GPCR variants have been found that do not alter receptor function, but instead affect only plasma membrane trafficking (e.g., delta opiate and histamine type 1 receptors). Thus, altered membrane trafficking with retained receptor function may be another mechanism causing polymorphic GPCR dysfunction. Two common human α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor (AR) variants have been identified (α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs), but pharmacological analysis of ligand binding and second messenger signaling has not consistently demonstrated altered receptor function. However, possible alterations in plasma membrane trafficking have not been investigated. We utilized a systematic approach previously developed for the study of GPCR trafficking motifs and accessory proteins to assess whether these α2 AR variants affected intracellular trafficking or plasma membrane expression. By combining immunofluorescent microscopy, glycosidic processing analysis, and quantitative fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS), we demonstrate that neither variant receptor had altered intracellular localization, glycosylation, nor plasma membrane expression compared to wild-type α2 ARs. Therefore, pathopharmacological properties of α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs do not appear to be due to altered receptor pharmacology or plasma membrane trafficking, but may involve interactions with other intracellular signaling cascades or proteins.

  14. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    PubMed

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  15. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal.

  16. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Plasma Total Homocysteine Levels: Impact of Population-wide Folate Fortification

    PubMed Central

    Nagele, Peter; Meissner, Konrad; Francis, Amber; Födinger, Manuela; Saccone, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Folate metabolism is an important target for drug therapy. Drug-induced inhibition of folate metabolism often causes an elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma tHcy levels are influenced by several non-genetic (e.g., folate intake, age, smoking) as well as genetic factors. Over the last decade, several countries have implemented a nation-wide folate fortification program of all grain products. This investigation sought to determine the impact of folate fortification on the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the variability of plasma tHcy. Methods Two cohorts were compared in this study, one from the U.S. (with folate fortification, n=281), and one from Austria (without folate fortification, n=139). Several environmental factors as well as previously identified gene variants important for tHcy levels (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G) were examined for their ability to predict plasma tHcy in a multiple linear regression model. Results Non-genetic, environmental factors had a comparable influence on plasma tHcy between the two cohorts (R2 ~ 0.19). However, after adjusting for other covariates, the tested gene variants had a substantially smaller impact among patients from the folate fortified cohort (R2= 0.021) compared to the non-folate fortified cohort (R2= 0.095). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was the single most important genetic factor. Male gender, smoking and folate levels were important predictors for non-folate fortified patients; age for folate fortified. Conclusions Population-wide folate fortification had a significant effect on the variability of plasma tHcy and reduced the influence of genetic factors, most importantly the MTHFR 677TT genotype, and may be an important confounder for a personalized drug therapy. PMID:21597397

  17. The relation between serum sex steroid levels and plasma cell infiltrates in endometritis.

    PubMed

    Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Teisala, K; Aine, R; Rantala, I; Heinonen, P K; Miettinen, A; Laine, S; Paavonen, J

    1989-01-01

    We measured serum levels of progesterone and estradiol among 35 patients with endometritis confirmed by endometrial biopsy. The onset of symptoms took place predominantly in the proliferative phase of the cycle. A negative correlation was found between the serum progesterone levels and the histopathologic severity of plasma cell endometritis. Our results suggest that the hormonal status contributes to the immune response and susceptibility to endometrial infection.

  18. Plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels are associated with mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Carolyn S.; Liu, Kathleen D.; Kangelaris, Kirsten; Hansen, Helen; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Ware, Lorraine B.; Alkhouli, Mustafa F.; Abbot, Jason; Matthay, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Thombomodulin (TM) is an activator of protein C and a biomarker for endothelial injury. We hypothesized that (1) elevated plasma levels would be associated with clinical outcomes and (2) polymorphisms in the TM gene would be associated with plasma levels. Patients We studied 449 patients enrolled in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) for whom both plasma and DNA were available. We used logistic regression and receiver operator curves (ROC) to test for associations between soluble TM (sTM) and mortality at 60 days. Measurements and results Plasma sTM levels were higher in non-survivors than survivors at baseline [median 147 (IQR, 95–218) vs. 89 (56–129) ng/mL, p < 0.0001] and on day 3 after study enrollment [205 (146–302) vs. 127 (85–189), p < 0.0001]. The odds of death increased by 2.4 (95 %CI 1.5–3.8, p < 0.001), and by 2.8 (1.7–4.7, P < 0.001) for every log increase in baseline and day 3 sTM levels, respectively, after adjustment for age, race, gender, severity of illness, fluid management strategy, baseline creatinine, and non-pulmonary sepsis as the primary cause of ARDS. By ROC analysis, plasma sTM levels discriminated between non-survivors and survivors [AUC = 72 % (66–78 %) vs. AUC = 54 % for severity based on Berlin criteria). Addition of sTM improved discrimination based on APACHE III from 77 to 80 % (P < 0.03). sTM levels at baseline were not statistically different among subjects stratified by genotypes of tag SNPs in the TM gene. Conclusions Higher plasma sTM levels are associated with increased mortality in ARDS. The lack of association between the sTM levels and genetic variants suggests that the increased levels of sTM may reflect severity of endothelial damage rather than genetic heterogeneity. These findings underscore the importance of endothelial injury in ARDS pathogenesis and suggest that, in combination with clinical markers, sTM could contribute to risk stratification. PMID:25643902

  19. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 levels and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Skuladottir, G V; Cohen, A; Arnar, D O; Hougaard, D M; Torfason, B; Palsson, R; Indridason, O S

    2016-01-01

    Low circulating levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) have been associated with an increased risk of adverse effects after cardiac surgery. The metabolites, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, provide a good index of vitamin D status. In this study, we examined the association between preoperative plasma levels of total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 and the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following open heart surgery. The levels of plasma 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in 118 patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valvular surgery, were measured immediately prior to surgery and on postoperative day 3 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients who developed POAF had higher median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2 than those who remained in sinus rhythm (SR) (P = 0·003), but no significant difference was noted in levels of 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D between the two groups (P > 0·05). By univariate analysis, patients with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D2 levels above the median had higher frequency of POAF (P < 0·05) and the incidence of POAF increased significantly with each higher quartile of preoperative plasma levels of 25(OH)D2 (P = 0·001), an association that was independent of confounding factors. In both the SR and POAF groups, the median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and total 25(OH)D were lower (P < 0·05) on the third postoperative day compared with preoperatively. Our findings demonstrate that higher plasma levels of 25(OH)D2 are associated with increased risk of POAF, while this is not the case for 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D. The reason for these discrepant results is not clear but warrants further study.

  20. Decreased Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Possible Factor of Vascular Dysregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Palasik, Witold; Bik, Wojciech; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with possible involvement of vascular dysregulation secondary to endothelial dysfunction caused by destruction of the vessel wall. Vascular dysregulation leads to excessive vasoconstriction or insufficient vasodilatation, resulting in vasospasm mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent and long-lasting mediator. Vascular dysregulation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some eye disorders and it has been hypothesized that it is a vascular risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to estimate endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels in patients with MS. Material/Methods The MS group consisted of 39 patients (9 males, 30 females), mean age: 38.8±10.02 years, range: 22–62. The control group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers (3 males and 24 females), mean age: 37.4±10.88 years, range: 20–62; clinically, in a non-active stage of the disease. ET-1 plasma levels were measured using the Endothelin-1 ELISA Kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co., Japan). Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for independent groups. Results Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels were significantly lower in MS patients compared to healthy controls: mean value 0.55±0.44 pg/ml (146.05±118.27 fmol/ml) vs. 0.95±0.48 pg/ml (252.83±127.16 fmol/ml); P=0.012. Conclusions Significantly decreased ET-1 plasma levels in the MS patients could reflect the non-active disease at the time of ET-1 measurements or the effects of immunomodulatory treatment, but it cannot be excluded that decreased ET-1 plasma levels in these patients might result from vascular dysregulation. PMID:25864450

  1. Gene-diet interactions on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.

    PubMed

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Dewailly, Eric; Hegele, Robert A; Boiteau, Véronique; Dubé-Linteau, Ariane; Abdous, Belkacem; Giguere, Yves; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-03-14

    The Inuit population is often described as being protected against CVD due to their traditional dietary patterns and their unique genetic background. The objective of the present study was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population. Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n 553) were analysed via regression models which included the following: genotypes for thirty-five known polymorphisms (SNP) from twenty genes related to lipid metabolism; dietary fat intake including total fat (TotFat) and saturated fat (SatFat) estimated from a FFQ; plasma lipid levels, namely total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TAG. The results demonstrate that allele frequencies were different in the Inuit population compared with the Caucasian population. Further, seven SNP (APOA1 - 75G/A (rs670), APOB XbAI (rs693), AGT M235T (rs699), LIPC 480C/T (rs1800588), APOA1 84T/C (rs5070), PPARG2 - 618C/G (rs10865710) and APOE 219G/T (rs405509)) in interaction with TotFat and SatFat were significantly associated with one or two plasma lipid parameters. Another four SNP (APOC3 3238C>G (rs5128), CETP I405V (rs5882), CYP1A1 A4889G (rs1048943) and ABCA1 Arg219Lys (rs2230806)) in interaction with either TotFat or SatFat intake were significantly associated with one plasma lipid variable. Further, an additive effect of these SNP in interaction with TotFat or SatFat intake was significantly associated with higher TC, LDL-C or TAG levels, as well as with lower HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the present study supports the notion that gene-diet interactions play an important role in modifying plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.

  2. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.05). A weak but significant positive correlation between plasma silicon and simvastatin levels (r = 0.3, p < 0.05) was observed; this may be due to the fact that simvastatin contains silicon dioxide as an inactive ingredient. The mean simvastatin concentration was 9.02 ng/ml. All hypotheses were verified at the significance level of p < 0.05. A statistically significant decrease in the plasma calcium concentration of postmenopausal women, treated with simvastatin suggests that simvastatin may play a role in calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Positive correlation of simvastatin concentration with silicon level in the plasma suggests that both might prompt the positive effect of osteoarthritis treatment.

  3. Development of a label-free immunosensor system for detecting plasma cortisol levels in fish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Hibi, Kyoko; Ren, Huifeng; Endo, Hideaki

    2016-02-01

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. In the present study, we describe a novel label-free immunosensor for detecting plasma cortisol levels. The method is based on immunologic reactions and amperometric measurement using cyclic voltammetry. For the immobilization of the antibody on the surface of sensing electrode, we used a self-assembled monolayer of thiol-containing compounds. Using this electrode, we detect the CV signal change caused by the generation of antigen-antibody complex. The immunosensor showed a response to cortisol levels, and the anodic peak value linearly decreased with a correlation coefficient of 0.990 in diluted plasma. The specificity of the label-free immunosensor system was investigated using other steroid hormones, such as 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, progesterone, estriol, estradiol, and testosterone. The specific detection of cortisol was suggested by a minimal change from -0.32 to 0.51 μA in the anodic peak value of the other steroid hormones. The sensor system was used to determine the plasma cortisol levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and the results were compared with those of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). A good correlation was obtained between values determined using both methods (correlation coefficient 0.993). These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish plasma samples.

  4. Cognitive style, alprazolam plasma levels, and treatment response in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Uhlenhuth, E H; Starcevic, Vladan; Qualls, Clifford; Antal, Edward J; Matuzas, William; Javaid, Javaid I; Barnhill, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated an anxiety-prone cognitive style (measured by the Anxious Thoughts and Tendencies Questionnaire, AT&T) as a predictor of the acute response to increasing alprazolam plasma levels in panic disorder. Panic disorder patients (n=26) were treated with escalating doses of alprazolam for 4 weeks, then a fixed dose of 1 mg four times a day for 4 weeks. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, trough alprazolam plasma levels; clinical, self-report, and performance measures; and vital signs were assessed. Panic attack data were from daily diaries. The repeated response measures were analyzed in relation to alprazolam plasma levels using SAS GENMOD, with patients classified as high or low on the baseline AT&T. Panic attacks, anticipatory anxiety, fear, avoidance, overall agoraphobia, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and clinicians' global ratings improved with increasing alprazolam plasma levels. Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 Anger-Hostility; Profile of Mood States Vigor, Confusion, and Friendliness; and speed and accuracy of performance worsened. Patients with high AT&T scores were worse throughout the study on situational panics, fear, avoidance, overall agoraphobia, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Clinical Global Improvement; most Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 clusters; Profile of Mood States Anxiety, Depression, and Confusion; and Continuous Performance Task omissions. We conclude that in panic disorder: (1) alprazolam has a broad spectrum of clinical activity related to plasma levels in individual patients; (2) sedation, disinhibition, and performance deficits may persist for at least a month after dose escalation ends; (3) marked anxiety-prone cognitions predict more symptoms throughout treatment, but do not modify the response to alprazolam and therefore should not influence the choice of alprazolam as treatment.

  5. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated.

  6. Plasma of Argon Affects the Earliest Biological Response of Different Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Canullo, L; Genova, T; Tallarico, M; Gautier, G; Mussano, F; Botticelli, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the early cell response and protein adsorption elicited by the argon plasma treatment of different commercially available titanium surfaces via a chair-side device. Sterile disks made of grade 4 titanium (n= 450, 4-mm diameter) with 3 surface topographies (machined, plasma sprayed, and zirconia blasted and acid etched) were allocated to receive 4 testing treatments (2% and 10% protein adsorption and cell adhesion with MC3T3-E1 and MG-63). Furthermore, the specimens were divided to undergo 1) argon plasma treatment (10 W, 1 bar for 12 min) in a plasma reactor, 2) ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for 2 h (positive control group), or 3) no treatment (control group). Pretreatment surface analyses based on a scanning electron microscope and profilometer images were also performed. Profilometric analysis demonstrated that the evaluated specimens perfectly suit the standard parameters. The use of argon plasma was capable of affecting the quantity of proteins adsorbed on the different surfaces, notwithstanding their roughness or topographic features at a low fetal bovine serum concentration (2%). UV light treatment for 2 h attained similar results. Moreover, both the plasma of argon and the UV light demonstrated a significant increase in the number of osteoblasts adherent at 10 min in all tested surfaces. Within its limitations, this in vitro study highlights the potential biological benefits of treating implant surfaces with plasma of argon or UV, irrespective of the roughness of the titanium surface. However, in vivo experiments are needed to confirm these preliminary data and settle the rationale of a treatment that might be clinically relevant in case of bone-reparative deficiencies.

  7. Follow-up measurements of Nevirapine plasma levels over a prolonged period.

    PubMed

    Sienz, M; Zilly, M; Ebigbo, A; Knipper, A; Winzer, R; Klinker, H; Langmann, Peter

    2004-08-31

    Over a period of more than four years of treatment, 177 Nevirapine plasma levels were taken from 27 patients. The values showed a high inter-patient variability and a lower intra-patient variability. Differences in body weight turned out to be the main reason for inter-patient variability. Treatment over a prolonged period did not result in any change in plasma concentrations. Adjusting dosage by means of therapeutic drug monitoring would appear to be a reasonable way of maximising patient benefit from treatment.

  8. Cyclic GMP levels in the rat brain and plasma during clinical death and after resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A

    1993-01-01

    Changes of cGMP content in the rat brain and plasma have been evaluated by means of the radioimmunologic method after 5-min clinical death and up to 2 hours after resuscitation. Ischemia produced a decrease of cGMP in the brain, however, at the 15th min after resuscitation a reversible significant rise of nucleotide concentration was noted. In plasma at the end of ischemia and in the postischemic period a significant decrease of cGMP level was observed. The mechanisms of cGMP regulation in the central nervous system and the significance of the obtained results are discussed.

  9. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. PMID:27647996

  10. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  11. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  12. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  13. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increase in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. The authors suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

    2012-01-01

    With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

  15. Changes in Affective Profiles of Postsecondary Students in Lower-Level Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys and research on second language (L2)/foreign language acquisition help explain the challenges that postsecondary students in lower-level foreign language (FL) courses may experience. The present study extends this line of research by examining changes in students' affective profiles in a two-year Japanese program (n = 382) at an…

  16. Neutral models as a way to evaluate the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commonly used landscape model to simulate wetland change – the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model(SLAMM) – has rarely been explicitly assessed for its prediction accuracy. Here, we evaluated this model using recently proposed neutral models – including the random constraint matc...

  17. Effect of Cognitive Entry Behaviors and Affective Entry Characteristics on Learning Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çaliskan, Muhittin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cognitive entry behaviors and affective entry characteristics on learning level was investigated. The study was conducted on 258 first year students attending the Faculty of Education in the autumn semester of the 2011-2012 academic year. The study was conducted using the relational survey model and data was collected…

  18. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  19. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  20. Plasma levels of TGF-β1 in homeostasis of the inflammation in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lidiane de Souza; Okumura, Jéssika Viviani; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Belini Júnior, Édis; de Oliveira, Renan Garcia; Mimura, Kallyne Kioko Oliveira; Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Oliani, Sonia Maria; Bonini Domingos, Claudia Regina

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) represents a chronic inflammatory condition with complications triggered by the polymerization of hemoglobin S (Hb S), resulting in a series of cellular interactions mediated by inflammatory cytokines, as the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which plays an important role in inflammation resolution. This study assessed the relation between SCD inflammation and the plasma concentration of TGF-β1, and also checked the influence of the presence of -509C/T polymorphism in TGFB1 gene on TGF-β1 plasma values. The plasma levels of TGF-β1 were quantified by ELISA in 115 patients with SCD (genotypes SS, SD-Los Angeles, Sβ-thalassemia and SC) and in 58 individuals with no hemoglobinopathies (Hb AA), as the control group. The -509C/T polymorphism in TGFB1 gene was screened by PCR-RFLP. The correlation between TGF-β1 plasma levels and the inflammation was based on its association with the count of platelets, total white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophils in the peripheral blood. Patients with SCD showed plasma levels of TGF-β1 higher than the control group, especially the Hb SS genotype, followed by the group with Hb SD. Polymorphism investigation showed no interference in the values obtained for the cytokine in the groups evaluated. All SCD groups showed TGF-β1 levels positively correlated to the platelets and WBC counts. The original data obtained in this study for SCD support the involvement of TGF-β1 in regulating of the inflammatory response and suggest that this marker possibly may become a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of the disease.

  1. In vivo evidence that Agxt2 can regulate plasma levels of dimethylarginines in mice.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Anja; Maas, Renke; König, Jörg; Mieth, Maren; Weiss, Norbert; Jarzebska, Natalia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Rodionov, Roman N

    2013-01-04

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse cardiovascular clinical outcomes. Both dimethylarginines can be degraded by alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (Agxt2), which is also the key enzyme responsible for the degradation of endogenously formed β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB). In the present study we wanted to investigate the effect of BAIB on Agxt2 expression and Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines. We infused BAIB or saline intraperitoneally for 7days in C57/BL6 mice via minipumps. Expression of Agxt2 was determined in liver and kidney. The concentrations of BAIB, dimethylarginines and the Agxt2-specific ADMA metabolite α-keto-δ-(N(G),N(G)-dimethylguanidino)valeric acid (DMGV) was determined by LC-MS/MS in plasma and urine. As compared to controls systemic administration of BAIB increased plasma and urine BAIB levels by a factor of 26.5 (p<0.001) and 25.8 (p<0.01), respectively. BAIB infusion resulted in an increase of the plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations of 27% and 31%, respectively, (both p<0.05) and a 24% decrease of plasma DMGV levels (p<0.05), while expression of Agxt2 was not different. Our data demonstrate that BAIB can inhibit Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines and show for the first time that endogenous Agxt2 is involved in the regulation of systemic ADMA, SDMA and DMGV levels. The effect of BAIB excess on endogenous dimethylarginine levels may have direct clinical implications for humans with the relatively common genetic trait of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria.

  2. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  3. Levels of vitamin C In the blood plasma patients treated with coronary artery bypass grafting increases significantly after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kleszczewski, Tomasz; Modzelewska, Beata; Lisowska, Anna; Buzun, Leszek; Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    One strong risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD), which affects the levels of vitamin C in the blood is cigarette smoking. The supplementary effects of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is smoking cessation by patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the level of vitamin C in the blood plasma one day before and one month after CABG. Human blood were collected from 20 patients (men); 1day before and 1 month after CABG. All patients were smoker and after CABG they declared their not smoking. The concentration of vitamin C in the blood plasma was assayed by FIA method with spectrophotometric detection. The mean value of the vitamin C concentration 1day before CABG was 12.36±2.84μmol/L (mean±SD), 1 month after CABG 40.07±10.95μmol/L (mean±SD). The average increase in the concentration of vitamin C was 3.27±0.73 times (mean±SD) and showed significant positive correlations (Pearson r=0.657, p=0.002). It should be consider incorporating the recommendations of preoperative smoking cessation for at least one month prior to CABG and/or additional supplementation. In addition it would be relevant to monitor the level of vitamin C in the patients' blood in the preoperative period.

  4. Levels of plasma soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1) in normal Indian adult population.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, B; Raju, K R; Anand, V; Malu, S; Padmanabhan, S; Tiwari, S C; Das, N; Srivastava, L M

    1999-07-01

    A decrease in the membrane anchored erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1) is reported as an acquired phenomenon in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases with concomitant rise in soluble CR1 (sCR1) levels in plasma. There is a need to establish the normal range of sCR1 in Indian adults to assess the function and disease association of this protein. The plasma sCR1 levels of 50 healthy individuals have been estimated by an indigenously developed sandwich ELISA. sCR1 levels from 26 patients suffering from nephropathies had also been assayed which was much higher than the normal controls. This observation suggests sCR1 as a potential market for the assessment of disease activity in nephropathies.

  5. Correlation between Saliva and Plasma Levels of Endothelin Isoforms ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3.

    PubMed

    Gurusankar, Roma; Kumarathasan, Prem; Saravanamuthu, Anusha; Thomson, Errol M; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Although saliva endothelins are emerging as valuable noninvasive cardiovascular biomarkers, reports on the relationship between isoforms in saliva and plasma remain scarce. We measured endothelins in concurrent saliva and plasma samples (n = 30 males; age 18-63) by HPLC-fluorescence. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations among all isoforms between saliva and plasma: big endothelin-1 (BET-1, 0.55 ± 0.27 versus 3.35 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.38, p = 0.041), endothelin-1 (ET-1, 0.52 ± 0.21 versus 3.45 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.53, p = 0.003), endothelin-2 (ET-2, 0.21 ± 0.07 versus 1.63 ± 0.66 pmol/mL; r = 0.51, p = 0.004), and endothelin-3 (ET-3, 0.39 ± 0.19 versus 2.32 ± 1.44 pmol/mL; r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Correlations of BET-1, ET-1, and ET-3 within each compartment were positive in both plasma (p < 0.05) and saliva (p ≤ 0.1), whereas ET-2 was not significantly correlated with other isoforms in either plasma or saliva. For all isoforms, concentrations varied on average fivefold between individuals (90th/10th percentiles); individuals with high plasma endothelin levels generally had high saliva endothelin levels. Our results reveal that salivary ET isoform profiles portray the plasmatic profiles and support the view of coordinated regulation of ET-1 and ET-3, but distinct regulatory pathways for ET-2.

  6. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Shanshan; Xiao, Zeping; Lin, Zhiguang; Qiu, Yongming; Jin, Yichao; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-30

    A number of studies have been done to investigate the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study we aimed to test the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and PTSD. We solicited 65 subjects having recently experienced road traffic accidents (RTA) conforming to screening criteria. They were given follow-up examinations after one month, three months, and six months. PTSD was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). All participants were divided into two groups: a group with PTSD and a group without PTSD. There were no significant differences in plasma BDNF levels between the two groups at either the 48h or six-month examination. Within the PTSD group, no significant differences were found in plasma BDNF levels between the two examinations. BDNF levels in those without PTSD showed a higher trend over time after trauma. Higher BDNF levels may be an important protective factor for the prevention of traumatized subjects from developing PTSD.

  7. Genetic Influences on Plasma Homocysteine Levels in African Americans and Yoruba Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Ramanan, Vijay K; Lai, Dongbing; Foroud, Tatiana M; Lane, Katie; Murrell, Jill R; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gureje, Oye; Kling, Mitchel A; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Hendrie, Hugh C; Saykin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine, a metabolite involved in key cellular methylation processes seems to be implicated in cognitive functions and cardiovascular health with its high levels representing a potential modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. A better understanding of the genetic factors regulating homocysteine levels, particularly in non-white populations, may help in risk stratification analyses of existing clinical trials and may point to novel targets for homocysteine-lowering therapy. To identify genetic influences on plasma homocysteine levels in individuals with African ancestry, we performed a targeted gene and pathway-based analysis using a priori biological information and then to identify new association performed a genome-wide association study. All analyses used combined data from the African American and Yoruba cohorts from the Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project. Targeted analyses demonstrated significant associations of homocysteine and variants within the CBS (Cystathionine beta-Synthase) gene. We identified a novel genome-wide significant association of the AD risk gene CD2AP (CD2-associated protein) with plasma homocysteine levels in both cohorts. Minor allele (T) carriers of identified CD2AP variant (rs6940729) exhibited decreased homocysteine level. Pathway enrichment analysis identified several interesting pathways including the GABA receptor activation pathway. This is noteworthy given the known antagonistic effect of homocysteine on GABA receptors. These findings identify several new targets warranting further investigation in relation to the role of homocysteine in neurodegeneration.

  8. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  9. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Orsó, Evelyn; Wallner, Stefan; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163). Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation. PMID:26466367

  10. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  11. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-27

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Human plasma levels of POPs, and diet among native people from Uelen, Chukotka.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Brustad, Magritt; Odland, Jon Oyvind; Doudarev, Alexey A; Miretsky, Georgy I; Chaschin, Valery; Burkow, Ivan C; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-08-01

    Some of the people living in the Chukotka Peninsula of Russia depend heavily on marine mammals, but little is known of the exact dietary patterns and plasma levels of POPs among these populations. In this study, POPs levels in plasma from 50 participants from the isolated community of Uelen (Bering Strait) were determined and related to dietary information obtained through a food frequency questionnaire. The intake of marine mammals was high and the combined intake of blubber from walrus, seal and whale was a significant predictor (p < 0.01) of plasma concentrations of sum PCBs and borderline for sum CDs (p = 0.02) and sum DDTs (p = 0.04). There was a significant gender difference in the levels of POPs, and among women there was a significant increase with age. Extensive breastfeeding and lower blubber intake among women could be possible explanations for this gender difference. Despite the high intake of blubber the plasma levels of PCBs and DDTs were lower than some of those reported for the East Coast of Greenland. The geometric mean values for sum PCBs (17 congeners) and sum DDTs were 1316 ng g(-1) lipids and 563 ng g(-1) lipids, respectively. PCB 163, which partly co-eluted with PCB 138, was found in high concentrations (40% of PCB 138). This raises questions regarding the validity of using PCB 138 and PCB 153 to calculate the level of Arochlor 1260. The geometric mean of sum CDs was 518 ng g(-1) lipids. Concentrations of beta-HCH (geometric mean; 410 ng g(-1) lipids) were higher than observed for other native populations depending on marine mammals. Transportation of beta-HCH by ocean currents through the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean or regional point sources might explain these elevated levels.

  13. Habitat fragmentation differentially affects trophic levels and alters behavior in a multi-trophic marine system.

    PubMed

    Rielly-Carroll, Elizabeth; Freestone, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    Seagrass, an important subtidal marine ecosystem, is being lost at a rate of 110 km(2) year(-1), leading to fragmented seagrass seascapes. Habitat fragmentation is predicted to affect trophic levels differently, with higher trophic levels being more sensitive, stressing the importance of a multi-trophic perspective. Utilizing the trophic relationship between the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), where adult blue crabs prey on juvenile blue crabs, and juvenile blue crabs prey on small hard clams, we examined whether predation rates, abundance, and behavior of predators and prey differed between continuous and fragmented seagrass in a multi-trophic context at two sites in Barnegat Bay, NJ. We tested the hypothesis that fragmented habitats would differentially affect trophic levels within a tri-trophic system, and our results supported this hypothesis. Densities of adult blue crabs were higher in fragmented than continuous habitats. Densities of juvenile blue crabs, the primary predator of hard clams, were lower in fragmented habitats than continuous, potentially due to increased predation by adult blue crabs. Clams experienced lower predation and burrowed to a shallower depth in fragmented habitats than in continuous habitat, likely due in part to the low densities of juvenile blue crabs, their primary predator. Our results suggest that while trophic levels are differentially affected, the impact of habitat fragmentation may be stronger on intermediate rather than top trophic levels in some marine systems.

  14. Effects of light on plasma somatolactin levels in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Thomas, P

    1998-07-01

    The effects of illumination on circulating somatolactin (SL) levels were studied in red drum sampled at various times during a 24-h light-dark cycle (l2L:l2D) and during a 24-h period of constant light. Plasma SL concentrations were low in red drum sampled during the light phase (0.6 +/- 0.05-1.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). The levels were significantly elevated during the early-dark phase (5.8 +/- 1.0 ng/ml) and declined during the late-dark phase (0.39 +/- 0.05 ng/ml). In contrast, plasma SL levels remained low. (0.4 +/- 0.1-1.3 +/- 0.4 ng/ml) in fish sampled through a 24-h constant light period following a 1-week exposure to the light-dark cycle. Circulating SL levels were also significantly elevated during the early-dark phase in fish maintained under a reversed light-dark cycle. The role of the eyes in mediation the SL response to light was evaluated by comparing circulating SL levels in optic-tract sectioned and enucleated fish with those of intact (control) fish. Plasma SL concentrations were significantly higher in optic-tract sectioned and enucleated fish (6.5 +/- 0.9-13.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml) than in control fish (0.6 +/- 0.05-3.9 +/- 0.7 ng/ml) during both the early-dark phase and the early-light phase of the 24-h light-dark cycle. The absence of significant changes in plasma SL levels between the light and dark phases in optic-tract sectioned and enucleated fish appears to be due to a loss of light perception in these fish. Moreover, intact and sham-operated red drum maintained in constant darkness had dramatically increased plasma SL levels (18.8 +/- 2.0-24.8 +/- 1.8 ng/ml). The present results are consistent with our earlier findings that plasma SL levels are elevated in fish kept in constant darkness and in a dark-background tank (reduction in overall light levels) during the light phase. Taken together, these results suggest that plasma SL levels are elevated in red drum in the absence of light and in response to low illumination. Interestingly, the integument of the

  15. Plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels are increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Fu; Cao, Jiang; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Xu, Rong-Liang; Huang, Xin-Miao; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zheng, Xing

    2010-02-01

    Obestatin, encoded by the same gene as ghrelin, was first described as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. We investigated fasting plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats. We found that ghrelin levels, obestatin levels and the ratio of ghrelin to obestatin were significantly higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats than Wistar-Kyoto rats. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively correlated; however, heart period and baroreflex sensitivity were negatively correlated with ghrelin levels. Systolic blood pressure was positively correlated, whereas baroreflex sensitivity was negatively correlated with obestatin levels. In addition, systolic blood pressure was a significantly independent variable of ghrelin levels, obestatin levels, and the ghrelin to obestatin ratio in a multiple regression analysis. Our data suggests that there is a disturbance of ghrelin and obestatin in the circulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats and the ghrelin/obestatin system might play a role in blood pressure regulation.

  16. Dependence of radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2013-06-01

    We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as \\chi_r=\\chi_r^{(0)} \\{1+ c_0\\,(\\omega_b/\

  17. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, p<0.0037), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (24.2±5.6, p<0.001), recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa (64.2±16.1, p = 0.01) and healthy obese patients (51±3.2, p<0.001) compared to controls (187.7±28.6). Bulimic patients (197.4±42.7) and constitutional thinness patients (264.3±35.8) were similar to controls. Conclusions Low IL-7 is part of the adaptive profile in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa, confirming its difference with constitutional thinness. Healthy obesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  18. Plasma Oxytocin and Arginine-Vasopressin Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in China: Associations with Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Dai, Yu-Chuan; Wu, Jing; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Shui; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by impairments of social interaction and the presence of obsessive behaviors. The "twin" nonapeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are known to play regulatory roles in social behaviors. However, the plasma levels and behavioral relevance of OXT and AVP in children with ASD have seldom been investigated. It is also unknown whether their mothers have abnormal plasma peptide levels. Here, using well-established methods of neuropeptide measurement and a relatively large sample size, we determined the plasma levels of the two neuropeptides in 85 normal children, 84 children with ASD, and 31 mothers from each group of children. As expected, children with ASD had lower plasma OXT levels than gender-matched controls (P = 0.028). No such difference was found for plasma AVP concentrations. Correlation analysis showed that ASD children with higher plasma OXT concentrations tended to have less impairment of verbal communication (Rho = -0.22, P = 0.076), while those with higher plasma AVP levels tended to have lower levels of repetitive use of objects (Rho = -0.231, P = 0.079). Unlike the findings in children, maternal plasma OXT levels showed no group difference. However, plasma AVP levels in the mothers of ASD children tended to be lower than in the mothers of normal children (P = 0.072). In conclusion, our results suggest that the OXT system is dysregulated in children with ASD, and that OXT and AVP levels in plasma seem to be associated with specific autistic symptoms. The plasma levels of OXT or AVP in mothers and their ASD children did not seem to change in the same direction.

  19. Increased plasma levels of CK-18 as potential cell death biomarker in patients with HELLP syndrome.

    PubMed

    John, K; Wielgosz, S; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Bantel, H; Hass, R

    2013-10-24

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome represents a life-threatening pregnancy disorder with high fetal and maternal mortality, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Although apoptosis has been implicated in HELLP syndrome, its pathogenic role remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the detection of apoptosis by novel plasma biomarkers is of diagnostic value in HELLP patients. For this purpose, we analyzed two biomarkers that specifically detect apoptosis or overall cell death of epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes or placental trophoblasts, through the release of caspase-cleaved or total (caspase-cleaved and uncleaved) cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) in plasma of HELLP patients compared with pregnant as well as non-pregnant healthy women. In addition, caspase activation and cell death were determined in placental tissues of HELLP patients and individuals with normal pregnancy. In contrast to pregnant or non-pregnant healthy controls, we observed significantly increased levels of both caspase-cleaved and total CK-18 in plasma of HELLP patients. Following delivery, CK-18 levels rapidly decreased in HELLP patients. Caspase activation and cell death were also elevated in placental tissues from HELLP patients compared with healthy pregnant women. These data demonstrate not only that apoptosis is increased in HELLP syndrome, but also that caspase-cleaved or total CK-18 are promising plasma biomarkers to identify patients with HELLP syndrome. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate the utility of these biomarkers for monitoring disease activity in HELLP syndrome.

  20. Comparison of plasma bismuth levels after oral dosing with basic bismuth carbonate or tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Madaus, S; Schulte-Frohlinde, E; Scherer, C; Kämmereit, A; Schusdziarra, V; Classen, M

    1992-04-01

    In 20 healthy subjects plasma bismuth concentration was measured after single oral doses of basic bismuth carbonate or tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate. The drugs were administered in the fasted state or immediately after ingestion of a standard breakfast. After basic bismuth carbonate, plasma bismuth rose to concentrations between 0.7 and 2.6 micrograms/L in the fasted state, while after the meal the maximal level was only 1.3 micrograms/L. In contrast to these very low levels after basic bismuth carbonate, the administration of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate was paralleled by an increase of plasma bismuth to concentrations between 15 and 232 micrograms/L with a mean peak value of 64 +/- 15.3 (S.E.M.) micrograms/L in the fasted state. Postprandial ingestion of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate attenuated the peak concentrations to 10.9 +/- 6.3 micrograms/L. One subject, however, had a value of 120 micrograms/L. This study demonstrates that basic bismuth carbonate leads to very low plasma bismuth concentrations, which are far below the critical range that might eventually be associated with bismuth neurotoxicity. Therefore this compound can be considered potentially useful for bismuth therapy of gastrointestinal disorders.

  1. [Efavirenz and nevirapine plasma levels in HIV-infected patients with hemophilia].

    PubMed

    Martorell, Marta; López, Rosa M; Ribera, Esteban; Ruiz, Isabel; Tural, Cristina; Puig, Lluís; Monterde, Josep

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efavirenz and nevirapine plasma levels in HIV-infected hemophilic patients seen in two hospitals in Barcelona. Plasma levels of these drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at four-month intervals, together with viral load and CD4 cell count. Nineteen patients treated with efavirenz and 8 with nevirapine were included, and 68 efavirenz and 31 nevirapine determinations were performed. Mean study time was 12 months. Median efavirenz plasma concentration was 2.95 .g/ml (interval: 1.54-5.26 .g/ml) in patients with favorable virological response and 1.86 .g/ml (0.82-4.88 .g/ml) in patients with detectable viral load (p = 0.32). Nevirapine plasma concentrations were 4.41 .g/ml (3.50-6.72 .g/ml) and 3.12 .g/ml (2.44-3.80 .g/ml) respectively (p = 0.18).

  2. Cardiotrophin-1 plasma levels are associated with the severity of hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Monserrat, Lorenzo; López, Begoña; González, Arantxa; Hermida, Manuel; Fernández, Xusto; Ortiz, Martín; Barriales-Villa, Roberto; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Díez, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Aims Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine that induces hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plasma CT-1 is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods and results The study was performed in 124 patients with HCM. All patients underwent a full clinical evaluation and an echocardiogram. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by the measurement of the maximal LV wall thickness and the Spirito's LVH score. Plasma CT-1 was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with controls, patients with HCM exhibited higher (P < 0.001) plasma CT-1 levels. Significant correlations were found between CT-1 and maximal LV wall thickness (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and the Spirito's LVH score (r = 0.287, P = 0.006) in HCM patients. In addition, the levels of CT-1 were higher (P = 0.02) in patients with severe LVH (maximal LV wall thickness ≥30 mm) than in patients with mild or moderate LVH (maximal LV wall thickness <30 mm). Conclusions These findings show that plasma CT-1 is associated with the severity of LVH in patients with HCM. Further studies are required to ascertain whether CT-1 is a diagnostic biomarker of this cardiomyopathy. PMID:21059734

  3. Cytostatic drugs are without significant effect on digitoxin plasma level and renal excretion.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Wilke, J; Rietbrock, N

    1982-11-01

    In three patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.5 mg digitoxin before and 24 hr after combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured 0 to 168 hr after digitoxin and the areas under plasma concentration-time curves *(AUCs) were calculated. In 10 patients receiving 0.1 mg digitoxin, daily plasma glycoside concentration and daily renal excretion were measured before and after COPP, COP, or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, cytosine-arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP) treatment schemes. In contrast to previous reports on digoxin, cytostatic drug therapy does not lead to a reduction in steady-state digitoxin plasma levels and daily renal excretion. During cytostatic therapy attainment of peak digitoxin level was delayed after a single dose, showing that the rate of digitoxin absorption was reduced, but that the AUCs and renal excretion of digitoxin (parameters of the extent of digitoxin absorption) were not diminished. Since the absorption rate is not clinically relevant in patients on long-term glycoside therapy, our results indicate that digitoxin is preferable to digoxin in such patients.

  4. Long term efficacy of paroxetine in major depression: A study with plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Mauri, M C; Laini, V; Bitetto, A; Boscati, L; Scalvini, M; Mapelli, L; Rudelli, R

    1999-01-01

    Depressive disorders can be regarded as recurrent and chronic conditions that may reduce the quality of life and work output of patients. Data on the long-term efficacy of paroxetine appear to indicate that it is an effective maintenance treatment. Our aim was to measure paroxetine concentrations in plasma in order to optimize its clinical efficacy and tolerability during long-term treatment. We studied 35 patients aged 23-70 years, suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (recurrent). These patients received 10-50 mg of paroxetine once a day for one year; they were evaluated at baseline, after 2 weeks and then after 1,2,6,9 and 12 months by BPRS, HRS-D and HRS-A rating scales, and at the same time, any side-effects were assessed and samples for paroxetine plasma determination were also collected. Results confirmed the efficacy and tolerability of paroxetine for long-term treatment. We observed a curvilinear relationship between plasma paroxetine levels and improvement on the HRS-D with greater clinical amelioration at plasma levels between 20 and 70 ng/ml.

  5. New level-resolved collision data for neutral argon, benchmarked against the ALEXIS plasma experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Nicholas; Loch, Stuart; Ballance, Connor; Thomas, Ed

    2016-10-01

    Performing spectroscopic measurements of emission lines in low temperature laboratory plasmas is challenging because the plasma is often neutral-dominated and not in thermal equilibrium. The densities and temperatures are such that coronal models do not apply; meaning that generalized collisional-radiative (GCR) methods must be employed to theoretically analyze atomic processes. However, for most noble gases, detailed, level-resolved atomic data for neutral and low-charge states does not exist in the literature. We report on a new project, where we use existing atomic physics codes to calculate level-resolved atomic data for neutral and low charge states of argon and compare with previously published, term-resolved theoretical results. In addition, we use the Atomic Structure and Data Analysis (ADAS) suite of codes to calculate a GCR model for low temperature neutral argon, which we compare to published measurements of argon optical emission cross sections. Finally, we compare synthetic spectra generated from our data with observations taken from the Auburn Linear Experiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS) in an attempt to develop new optical plasma diagnostics for electron temperature and plasma density measurements. This project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Grant Number: DE-FG02-00ER54476.

  6. Effects of plasma microfields on radiative transitions from atomic levels above the ionization threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J.; Jacobs, V. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of plasma electric microfields on line-like optical features arising from atomic levels above the ionization threshold are investigated within the framework of the quasi-static and single-frequency dynamic-field theories of spectral-line broadening. The 2p(23)P to 1s2p(3)P and 2s2p(3)P to 1s2s(3)S transitions in helium and helium-like ions are treated as examples. The mixing of the doubly excited levels in the perturbing microfields produces Stark broadening of the emission lines and induces autoionization of the 2p(23)P level, which, unlike the 2s2p(3)P level, is metastable against autoionization in the field-free environment. Determination of the complete Stark-broadening profiles in thermal plasmas is complicated by the need to include the effects of both the (quasi-static) ion and the (dynamic) electron fields. Under nonequilibrium conditions, where electric fields from either electron or ion plasma waves can far exceed nearby particle fields, the calculation and interpretation of the line shapes may be simplified and could provide a diagnostic probe of the wave-field properties.

  7. Plasma metabolite levels predict bird growth rates: A field test of model predictive ability.

    PubMed

    Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M

    2011-09-01

    Bird growth rates are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick growth rates. Based on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic models of body mass, and tarsus and wing length growth rates in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive model obtained during the fastest growth period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' growth rates, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in growth rate. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of growth rates. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the models in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and model-predicted growth rates between groups. Both, measured and predicted growth rates, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick growth rates when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once.

  8. Effect of sodium intake on gene expression and plasma levels of ANF in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lattion, A.L.; Aubert, J.F.; Flueckiger, J.P.; Nussberger, J.; Waeber, B.; Brunner, H.R. )

    1988-08-01

    The effect of short- and long-term sodium loading and sodium restriction on the gene expression as well as on circulating plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) was evaluated in normotensive Wistar rats. These rats were fed either a low-, a regular-, or a high-sodium diet (regular diet and 1% saline as drinking fluid) and studied after 1 and 3 wk. The ANF mRNA was determined in pooled atria and ventricles of the different groups of rats, using the dot-blot technique. Plasma ANF levels were measured with a radioimmunoassay. After 1 wk on the high-sodium diet, ANF mRNA was increased in right atria and ventricles together with circulating ANF levels when compared with animals maintained for the same period on a low-sodium diet. After 3 wk on the various diets, the differences in cardiac ANF mRNA and in plasma ANF levels had disappeared. Gene expression of ANF was also looked for in different areas of the brain, lung, thyroid, adrenals, and the kidney; no hybridization was detected in any of these organs. These data suggest that in rats, the transcription of the ANF gene and peptide release is enhanced only during short-term adaptation to dietary sodium loading.

  9. Increased Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Contribute to Intracerebral Hemorrhage during Thrombolysis after Concomitant Stroke and Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sajjad; Planz, Oliver; Schwaninger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis is the only approved therapy for acute stroke. However, life-threatening complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can develop after intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Both infection and thrombolysis during cerebral ischemia disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). tPA can induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is known to be involved in BBB disruption. However, it has still not been investigated whether preexisting influenza virus infection during thrombolysis after acute stroke affects systemic levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1 and whether increased systemic MMP-9 levels affect ICH. This study aimed to investigate the influence of influenza virus infection on plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after thrombolysis in acute stroke, and to determine whether the infection correlates with intracerebral bleeding. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected by administering 1 × 105 plaque-forming units of human influenza (H1N1) virus intranasally. After 3 days of infection the middle cerebral artery was occluded for 45 min and then reperfused. Intravenous tPA (10 mg/kg) treatment was started 10 min after stroke onset. Twenty-four hours after stroke onset, mice were deeply anesthetized with ketamine, venous blood was drawn from the caval vein and centrifuged at 2,000 rpm, and the supernatant was collected and frozen at −80°C. Plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were quantified by using ELISA. Results After stroke, plasma MMP-9 was significantly increased in mice with a concomitant influenza infection that were treated with tPA (9.99 ± 0.62 ng/ml, n = 7) as compared to noninfected control mice that were treated with tPA (4.74 ± 0.48 ng/ml, n = 8). Moreover, plasma levels of TIMP-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, were also significantly increased in mice treated with tPA after concomitant infection and stroke (42.17 ± 7.02 ng/ml, n = 7) as compared to noninfected control mice that were treated with t

  10. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  11. Cold plasma inactivates salmonella on grape tomatoes in a commercial PET plastic container without affecting quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The number of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of fresh tomatoes has increased. Little research has been conducted on the effects of direct treatment of cold plasma (CP) on the microbial decontamination and preservation of bulk tomatoes packaged in comme...

  12. Antisense inhibition of apolipoprotein (a) to lower plasma lipoprotein (a) levels in humans

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Mark J.; Viney, Nick; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, genetic association, and Mendelian randomization studies have provided strong evidence that lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent causal risk factor for CVD, including myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and calcific aortic valve stenosis. Lp(a) levels >50 mg/dl are highly prevalent (20% of the general population) and are overrepresented in patients with CVD and aortic stenosis. These data support the notion that Lp(a) should be a target of therapy for CVD event reduction and to reduce progression of aortic stenosis. However, effective therapies to specifically reduce plasma Lp(a) levels are lacking. Recent animal and human studies have shown that Lp(a) can be specifically targeted with second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that inhibit apo(a) mRNA translation. In apo(a) transgenic mice, an apo(a) ASO reduced plasma apo(a)/Lp(a) levels and their associated oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) levels by 86 and 93%, respectively. In cynomolgus monkeys, a second generation apo(a) ASO, ISIS-APO(a)Rx, significantly reduced hepatic apo(a) mRNA expression and plasma Lp(a) levels by >80%. Finally, in a phase I study in normal volunteers, ISIS-APO(a)Rx ASO reduced Lp(a) levels and their associated OxPL levels up to 89 and 93%, respectively, with minimal effects on other lipoproteins. ISIS-APO(a)Rx represents the first specific and potent drug in clinical development to lower Lp(a) levels and may be beneficial in reducing CVD events and progression of calcific aortic valve stenosis. PMID:26538546

  13. Temperature and dietary starch level affected protein but not starch digestibility in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

    PubMed

    Couto, A; Enes, P; Peres, H; Oliva-Teles, A

    2012-06-01

    A study was carried out with gilthead sea bream juveniles to assess the effect of water temperature (18 and 25°C) and dietary pregelatinized starch level (10, 20 and 30%) on digestibility of protein and starch and on the activity of proteolytic and amylolytic enzymes. ADC of pregelatinized starch was very high (>99%) irrespectively of dietary inclusion level, and it was not affected by water temperature. ADC of protein was also high (>90%) but improved at the higher water temperature. Dietary starch interacted with protein digestibility, which decreased as dietary starch level increased. Temperature affected both acid and basic protease activities, with acid protease activity being higher at 25°C and basic protease activity being higher at 18°C. However, total proteolytic activity and amylase activities were not affected by water temperature. Dietary carbohydrate exerted no effect on proteolytic or amylolitic activities. It is concluded that gilthead sea bream juveniles digest pregelatinized starch very efficiently irrespective of water temperature, due to adjustments of amylase activity to cope with temperature differences. Pregelatinized starch interacts negatively with protein digestibility, with the ADC of protein decreasing as dietary starch levels increase.

  14. Inverse Correlation Between Plasma Adropin and ET-1 Levels in Essential Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xinyi; Gu, Haibo; Chen, Jianchang; Wang, Luchen; Harding, Pamela; Xu, Weiting

    2015-10-01

    Adropin is a recently identified bioactive protein that promotes energy homeostasis by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, adropin has also been reported to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Also, ET-1, as a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction, is a key regulator in hypertension. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to detect the relationship between plasma adropin and ET-1 levels in hypertension. A total of 123 participants, diagnosed with primary hypertension on the basis of World Health Organization criteria (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg), and 58 normotensive subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study from October 2011 to December 2013. All study participants were older than 18 years of age. Adropin and ET-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that plasma adropin levels were significantly lower in hypertensives compared with controls (3.18 ± 1.00 vs 4.21 ± 1.14 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Plasma ET-1 levels were higher in hypertensives than controls (2.60 ± 1.14 vs 1.54 ± 0.66 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Adropin had a negative correlation with DBP (r = -0.40, P < 0.001), SBP (r = -0.49, P < 0.001), and adjusted for age, body mass index, SBP, DBP, glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and Cr, there was a negative correlation between ET-1 and adropin (r = -0.20, P = 0.04). In multivariate logistic regression analysis of the variables, ET-1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.84; 95% CI, 2.16-6.81; P < 0.001) and adropin (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99 -1.0; P <  .001) were found to be independent predictors for hypertension.In conclusion, decreased plasma adropin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in hypertension. Adropin is an independent predictor for hypertension, and may influence blood pressure by protecting endothelial function.

  15. Social context-dependent relationships between mouse dominance rank and plasma hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Cait M; Lee, Won; Romeo, Russell D; Curley, James P

    2017-03-15

    The associations between social status and endogenous testosterone and corticosterone have been well-studied across taxa, including rodents. Dominant social status is typically associated with higher levels of circulating testosterone and lower levels of circulating corticosterone but findings are mixed and depend upon numerous contextual factors. Here, we determine that the social environment is a key modulator of these relationships in Mus musculus. In groups of outbred CD-1 mice living in stable dominance hierarchies, we found no evidence of simple linear associations between social rank and corticosterone or testosterone plasma levels. However, in social hierarchies with highly despotic alpha males that socially suppress other group members, testosterone levels in subordinate males were significantly lower than in alpha males. In less despotic hierarchies, where all animals engage in high rates of competitive interactions, subordinate males had significantly elevated testosterone compared to agonistically inhibited subordinates from despotic hierarchies. Subordinate males from highly despotic hierarchies also had elevated levels of corticosterone compared to alpha males. In pair-housed animals, the relationship was the opposite, with alpha males exhibiting elevated levels of corticosterone compared to subordinate males. Notably, subordinate males living in social hierarchies had significantly higher levels of plasma corticosterone than pair-housed subordinate males, suggesting that living in a large group is a more socially stressful experience for less dominant individuals. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering social context when analyzing physiological data related to social behavior and using ethologically relevant behavioral paradigms to study the complex relationship between hormones and social behavior.

  16. Prospective multicentre study of the effect of voluntary plasmapheresis on plasma cholesterol levels in donors

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Bray, M; Wisdom, C; Wada, S; Johnson, BR; Grifols-Roura, V; Grifols-Lucas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives LDL apheresis is used to treat patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, and low-volume plasmapheresis for plasma donation may similarly lower cholesterol levels in some donors. This study was designed to assess the effect of plasmapheresis on total, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels in a plasma donor population. Materials and Methods This was a prospective, unblinded longitudinal cohort study in which a blood sample was obtained for analysis before each donation. Data from 663 donors were analysed using a multivariable repeated measures regression model with a general estimating equations approach with changes in cholesterol as the primary outcome measure. Results The model predicted a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol for both genders and all baseline cholesterol levels (P < 0·01). The greatest total cholesterol decreases (women, −46·8 mg/dL; men, −32·2 mg/dL) were associated with high baseline levels and 2–4 days between donations. Small but statistically significant increases (P ≤ 0·01) in HDL cholesterol were predicted for donors with low baseline levels. Conclusions These results suggest that, in donors with elevated baseline cholesterol levels, total and LDL cholesterol levels may decrease during routine voluntary plasmapheresis. PMID:23517282

  17. Plasma C-Reactive Protein Levels Are Associated With Improved Outcome in ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ednan K.; Khan, Uzma A.; Januzzi, James L.; Gong, Michelle N.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Christiani, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) has been studied as a marker of systemic inflammation and outcome in a number of diseases, but little is known about its characteristics in ARDS. We sought to examine plasma levels of CRP in patients with ARDS and their relationship to outcome and measures of illness severity. Methods: We measured CRP levels in 177 patients within 48 h of disease onset and tested the association of protein level with 60-day mortality, 28-day daily organ dysfunction scores, and number of ventilator-free days. Results: We found that CRP levels were significantly lower in nonsurvivors when compared with survivors (p = 0.02). Mortality rate decreased with increasing CRP decile (p = 0.02). An increasing CRP level was associated with a significantly higher probability of survival at 60 days (p = 0.005). This difference persisted after adjustment for age and severity of illness in a multivariable model (p = 0.009). Multivariable models were also used to show that patients in the group with higher CRP levels had significantly lower organ dysfunction scores (p = 0.001) and more ventilator-free days (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Increasing plasma levels of CRP within 48 h of ARDS onset are associated with improved survival, lower organ failure scores, and fewer days of mechanical ventilation. These data appear to be contrary to the established view that CRP is solely a marker of systemic inflammation. PMID:19411291

  18. Influence of level of barley supplementation on plasma carotenoid content and fat spectrocolorimetric characteristics in lambs fed a carotenoid-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, F; do Prado, I N; Prache, S

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated changes in plasma carotenoid concentration and fat reflectance spectrum characteristics and color in lambs fed a carotenoid-rich diet with low-level (L, 100 g/lamb/day) or high-level (H, 400 g/lamb/day) of barley supplementation for 75 days before slaughter. Each treatment used 24 Romane male lambs that were individually penned indoors. Plasma carotenoid concentration at slaughter was 16% lower in H lambs than in L lambs. H lambs had heavier and fatter carcasses than L lambs. Yellowness and redness of perirenal fat were slightly lower in H lambs than in L lambs. The absolute value of the mean integral (AVMI) calculated from the reflectance spectrum of the fat in the 450-510 nm band was not affected by the treatment. Yellowness, chroma and AVMI of subcutaneous fat were not affected by the treatment but decreased with initial animal's liveweight.

  19. Preoperative plasma leptin levels predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Wu; Shi, Jun-Wu; Yang, Ping-Shan; Wu, Zhu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Leptin is considered to be a modulator of the immune response. Hypoleptinemia increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of plasma leptin level to predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. Postoperative delirium (pod) was evaluated using the Confusion Assessment Method. Prolonged postoperative delirium (ppod) was defined as delirium lasting more than 4 weeks. Plasma leptin levels of 186 elderly patients and 186 elderly controls were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma leptin level was substantially lower in patients than in controls (4.6±2.2ng/ml vs. 7.5±1.8ng/ml, P<0.001). It was identified as an independent predictor for pod [odds ratio, 0.385; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.286-0.517; P<0.001] and ppod (odds ratio, 0.283; 95% CI, 0.152-0.527; P<0.001) using a multivariate analysis, and had high area under receiver operating characteristic curve for pod [area under curve (AUC), 0.850; 95% CI, 0.790-0.898] and ppod (AUC, 0.890; 95% CI, 0.836-0.931). The predictive value of leptin was markedly bigger than that of age for pod (AUC, 0.705; 95% CI, 0.634-0.770; P=0.002) and ppod (AUC, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.642-0.777; P=0.019). In a combined logistic-regression model, leptin improved the AUC of age to 0.890 (95% CI, 0.836-0.931) (P<0.001) for pod and 0.910 (95% CI, 0.860-0.947) (P=0.005) for ppod. Thus, preoperative plasma leptin level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict delirium and also prolonged delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

  20. Bothrops jararaca Venom Metalloproteinases Are Essential for Coagulopathy and Increase Plasma Tissue Factor Levels during Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Karine M.; Alves, André F.; Barbaro, Katia C.; Santoro, Marcelo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Methods/Principal Findings Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. Conclusions SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering

  1. [Effect of the treatment on hemodynamic indicators and plasma testosterone level in patients with juvenile hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zanozdra, N S; Chernoguz, L S; Kupchinskaia, E G; Krishchuk, A A; Savitskiĭ, S Iu; Popova, L I

    1990-07-01

    The effect of anapriline, corinfar and reserpine on parameters of hemodynamics and plasma testosterone was evaluated in 60 juvenile hypertension patients who achieved pronounced hypotensive response. It was established that the level of sex hormones tended to diminution by the end of the treatment month 1 or 2, this drop being more noticeable in reserpine administration. Basing on this evidence it would be beneficial for patients suffering from juvenile hypertension in need of chemotherapy to take courses of the above drugs.

  2. Elevated levels of angiogenic cytokines in the plasma of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann-Benzakein, E; Ma, M N; Rubbia-Brandt, L; Mentha, G; Ruefenacht, D; Sappino, A P; Pepper, M S

    2000-01-01

    Although in the normal healthy organism angiogenesis is a tightly regulated process, under a variety of circumstances it may contribute to disease states. These include the growth of solid tumors, the hematogenous spread of tumor cells and the growth of metastasis. Our aim was to measure the levels of 5 angiogenic cytokines in the plasma of patients with a variety of cancers, to establish a plasmatic angiogenic profile. We prospectively obtained blood samples in citrated tubes from 40 healthy individuals and 75 patients with a variety of solid tumors. Patients who had received any form of treatment in the preceeding 6 months were excluded from the study. Plasma levels of the following 5 cytokines were determined by ELISA: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In some cases, additional samples were taken 4 and 15 days after surgical removal of the tumor. Our findings demonstrate, that firstly, compared to the tumor group VEGF was almost always undetectable or present at very low levels in healthy individuals; secondly, a threshold value for HGF was found to exist between the 2 groups (healthy vs. tumor); and thirdly, there was a clear relationship between plasma levels of VEGF and HGF and extension of disease (i.e., without or with metastases). The timing of blood sampling in the post-operative period was found to be critical, particularly with regard to VEGF and HGF. The existence of a systemic angiogenic profile in the plasma of cancer patients may be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic tool and may help in the future to monitor the responses of individual patients to anti-tumor and, particularly, anti-angiogenic therapy.

  3. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels in patients with multiple sclerosis are associated with male gender.

    PubMed

    Zoccolella, Stefano; Tortorella, Carla; Iaffaldano, Pietro; Direnzo, Vita; D'Onghia, Mariangela; Paolicelli, Damiano; Livrea, Paolo; Trojano, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels exert several neurotoxic actions and vascular dysfunctions that may be involved in pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). The effective role of Hcy in MS however remains to be determined. The aim of this work was to compare plasma Hcy levels in MS patients and neurological disease controls (NDC) and to evaluate their relationships with clinical and demographic variables. In this cross-sectional study, we examined plasma Hcy levels in 217 patients with MS [53 clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS, 134 relapsing remitting (RR), 23 secondary progressive (SP) and seven primary progressive (PP) MS], recruited among patients attending a tertiary clinical center in southern Italy and in 219 age/sex-matched controls. Median Hcy levels were slightly higher in MS patients compared to NDC (9.1 μmol/l; range, 3.4-35.9 vs. 8.6, range 3.5-27.4; p = 0.02). Median Hcy concentrations were increased in males more than in females in the MS population (10.4 vs. 8.4; p < 0.0001), whereas no differences across genders were found in NDC (9.1 vs. 8.5). Hcy levels were higher in male MS patients compared to the male NDC patients (p = 0.001). Patients with CIS had lower Hcy (7.5 μmol/l; p = 0.004) compared to patients with RR (9.5 μmol/l), SP (10.1 μmol/l) and PP (9.9 μmol/l). Median Hcy concentration was higher in patients with disease duration longer than 22 months (9.7 vs. 8.6 μmol/l; p = 0.02). Plasma Hcy levels are increased in patients with definite MS. Higher Hcy levels are associated with male sex, suggesting a role of Hcy in neurodegenerative processes of MS, which are prominent in male patients.

  4. Photoperiod regulation of plasma growth hormone levels during induced smoltification of underyearling Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, B T; Hemre, G I; Bjørnevik, M; Hansen, T

    2000-07-01

    Earlier studies have established that increased daylength increases plasma growth hormone (GH) levels during spring smoltification of yearling Atlantic salmon. Recently, the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry has started the production of underyearling ("summer") smolts. This involves fast juvenile growth on continuous light (24L), the transfer of juveniles over 8 cm in length to short day (12L) for 6 weeks in the summer, followed by transfer to 24L for another 6 weeks before transfer to seawater in late October. Three groups were studied in fresh water from July to the following May in order to elucidate the GH response to this photoperiod manipulation: one group was kept on 24L throughout (long-day group), while the other two groups were exposed to short day from July 15th. Of these, one was brought back onto long day on September 1st (winter group) while the other was kept on short day (short-day group). Plasma GH levels of the long-day group were around 1.6 ng/ml throughout the study. The short-day transfer suppressed GH levels to 0.7 ng/ml within 2 weeks (short-day and winter groups). The long-day transfer (winter group) increased GH levels to 11 ng/ml within 3 weeks, and this elevation of GH levels was sustained for about 3 months, before declining to pretreatment levels. The study demonstrates that underyearling Atlantic salmon react to increased daylength in a way similar to traditional yearling smolts. It also demonstrates for the first time that decreased daylength can suppress plasma GH levels in fish. It is concluded that winter photoperiod manipulation causes an out-of-season initiation and completion of the parr-smolt transformation of underyearling Atlantic salmon and that growth hormone plays a major role in this process.

  5. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and to the CSA fraction formed by type 1 and 2a fibers (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). However, when adjusted for body height and age by multiple regression, MG yielded a largely improved prediction of total CSA (multiple r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and of fiber type 1 and 2a CSA (multiple r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The correlations between CK and these muscle parameters were weaker, and elevated CK values were observed in 20% of control subjects despite a prior abstinence from exercise for 5 days. In conclusion, plasma MG, when adjusted for anthropometric parameters unaffected by weight, may be considered as a novel marker of muscle mass (CSA) indicating best the mass of MG-rich type 1 and 2a fibers as well as VO(2)max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer

  6. Association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of cardiovascular markers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Liu, Mengling; Wójcik, Oktawia; Parvez, Faruque; Rahaman, Ronald; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob L; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-06-15

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relation between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, soluble E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) using baseline data from 668 participants (age, >30 years) in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2007-2008). Both well water arsenic and urinary arsenic were positively associated with plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1. For every 1-unit increase in log-transformed well water arsenic (ln μg/L) and urinary arsenic (ln μg/g creatinine), plasma soluble VCAM-1 was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.03) and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07) times greater, respectively. There was a significant interaction between arsenic exposure and higher body mass index, such that the increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble VCAM-1 associated with arsenic exposure were stronger among people with higher body mass index. The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that could be modified by body mass index and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Decrease in NTproBNP plasma levels indicates clinical improvement of acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Di Somma, Salvatore; Magrini, Laura; Mazzone, Marinella; De Leva, Raffaella; Tabacco, Fabio; Marino, Rossella; Talucci, Veronica; Ferri, Enrico; Forte, Paola; Cardelli, Patrizia; Gentiloni, Nicola; Pittoni, Valerio

    2007-03-01

    Thirty-seven consecutive patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) admitted to emergency departments for acute dyspnea were investigated. Ten patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 10 patients with hypertension crisis were also included as controls. For each patient, a plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) concentration measurement was performed at admission, 4, 12, and 24 hours later, and on the day of discharge. In patients with ADHF, the observation of a progressive reduction to a complete relief of symptoms of heart failure was accompanied by a reduction of 58% of NTproBNP plasma levels on the day of discharge. Amelioration of symptoms was accompanied by improvement of physiologic parameters and New York Heart Association functional class. In the control population (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypertension crisis patients), no significant variation of NTproBNP levels in comparison with those at admission was found at each time point. In conclusion, a plasma profile obtained with sequential measurements indicates that a significant decrease in NTproBNP levels is associated with the clinical improvement of patients with ADHF at the time of discharge.

  8. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  9. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

  10. Pyometra in bitches induces elevated plasma endotoxin and prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite levels.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2alpha metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17beta) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The gamma-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  11. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  12. Does the Maritime Continent region affect sea level change of the eastern Indian Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, W.; Lee, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Maritime Continent region, in particular, the Indonesian Sea, regulates the oceanic communication between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Previous studies suggest that the freshwater transported from the South China Sea to the Indonesian Sea affects the magnitude and structure of the Indonesian throughflow, and the strong tidal mixing in the Indonesian Sea alters the time mean vertical structure of the water mass carried from the Pacific to the Indian Oceans. Sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean is known to be affected by those in the northwestern Pacific via coastal Kelvin wave propagation through the Indonesian Sea. However, whether the Maritime Continent region influences sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean has not been investigated. In this study, we used Argo floats and satellite altimeter data to study the near decadal change of sea level during the 2005-2013 period. We found that the steric sea level change in eastern Indian Ocean cannot be fully explained by either local forcing or the transmission of steric signal from the western Pacific. This implicates the potential role of the Maritime Continent region in regulating sea level changes in the eastern Indian Ocean.

  13. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  14. Changes in plasma lipid and glucose levels during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chics.

    PubMed

    Evans, A J; Bannister, D W; Whitehead, C C; Siller, W G; Wight, P A

    1977-11-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were measured during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks. Intial studies indicated that behavioural and clinical changes characteristically associated with the syndrome were observed only during the 24 h preceding death. A more detailed examination of the blood changes was made on fasted birds. Typically, affected birds could be distinguished from healthy fasted birds by a hypoglycaemia which developed within 2.5 h of the removal of food, and a slightly higher and more sustained elevation of free fatty acid levels. Triglyceride values were not generally different from those found in normal birds. Although moderate to large amounts of lipid were occasionally observed in the kidneys of healthy fasted birds, only in affected birds was significant lipid infiltration of the kidneys associated with a similar level of lipid infiltration of the liver. In extreme cases death from fatty liver and kidney syndrome could occur within 4 h of the removal of food.

  15. Plasma and urine renalase levels and activity during the recovery of renal function in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Quelhas-Santos, Janete; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Ferreira, Inês; Carvalho, Catarina; Coentrão, Luís; Vaz, Raquel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Pestana, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Renalase is a recently described enzyme secreted by the kidney into both plasma and urine, where it was suggested to degrade catecholamines contributing to blood pressure control. While there is a controversy regarding the relationship between renal function and plasma renalase levels, there is virtually no data in humans on plasma renalase activity as well as on both urine renalase levels and activity. We prospectively examined the time course of plasma and urine renalase levels and activity in 26 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving a cadaver kidney transplant (cadaver kidney recipients [CKR]) before surgery and during the recovery of renal function up to day 90 post transplant. The relationship with sympathetic and renal dopaminergic activities was also evaluated. The recovery of renal function in CKR closely predicted decreases in plasma renalase levels (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001), urine renalase levels (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) and urine renalase activity (r = 0.56; P < 0.03), but did not predict changes in plasma renalase activity (r = -0.02; NS). Plasma norepinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = 0.64, P < 0.002) as well as with urine renalase levels and activity (r = 0.47 P < 0.02; r = 0.71, P < 0.0005, respectively) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.002). By contrast, plasma epinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = -0.62, P < 0.003). A significant negative relationship was observed between urine dopamine output and urine renalase levels (r = -0.48; P < 0.03) but not with urine renalase activity (r = -0.33, NS). We conclude that plasma and urine renalase levels closely depend on renal function and sympathetic nervous system activity. It is suggested that epinephrine-mediated activation of circulating renalase may occur in renal transplant recipients with good recovery of

  16. Plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuefeng; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Qun; Fan, Yongqian; Lin, Weilong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), bone turnover biomarkers (BTB), and bone mineral density (BMD) with osteoporotic fracture (OPF) in elderly people. Methods Eighty-two patients (aged 65 years or older) admitted to our orthopedics department between October 2014 and May 2015 were randomly divided into three groups: 1) OPF group: 39 cases with the mean age 81.82±5.49 years, which included 24 females and 15 males; 2) high-energy fracture (HEF) group: 22 cases with the mean age 78.88±5.75 years, which included 16 females and six males; 3) non-bone-fracture group: 21 cases with mean age 79.75±5.47 years without bone fracture, which included 14 females and seven males. Plasma Hcy, BTB, and BMD were measured. Analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in either age or sex among the three groups. There were significant differences in plasma Hcy and hip BMD between the OPF and HEF groups; there was also significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, and hip BMD between the OPF and non-fracture groups. There was no difference in lumbar spine BMD between the OPF group and the other two groups. There was no significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, hip or lumbar spine BMD between the HEF and non-fracture group. There was no significant difference in procollagen type I N-propeptide of type I collagen, serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, and parathyroid hormone among the three groups. Plasma Hcy was linearly correlated with age and serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, but not correlated with either hip or lumbar spine BMD or any other BTBs. Conclusion In this study, we found that the plasma Hcy level in elderly patients with OPF is higher than that of nonosteoporotic patients. It is not correlated with BMD, but positively correlated with bone resorption markers. An increased Hcy

  17. Relationship between plasma matrix metalloproteinase levels, pulmonary function, bronchodilator response, and emphysema severity

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Hong, Yoonki; Lim, Myoung Nam; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airway and lung. A protease–antiprotease imbalance has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism for COPD. We evaluated the relationship between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels and COPD severity. Methods Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 were measured in 57 COPD patients and 36 normal controls. The relationship between MMP levels and lung function, emphysema index, bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life was examined using general linear regression analyses. Results There were significant associations of MMP-1 with bronchodilator reversibility and of MMP-8 and MMP-9 with lung function. Also, MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 levels were correlated with the emphysema index, independent of lung function. However, MMP-12 was not associated with lung function or emphysema severity. Associations between MMP levels and bronchial wall thickness, pulmonary artery pressure, and quality of life were not statistically significant. Conclusion Plasma levels of MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-9 are associated with COPD severity and can be used as a biomarker to better understand the characteristics of COPD patients. PMID:27313452

  18. Dose, Plasma Level, and Treatment Outcome Among Methadone Patients in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Hillhouse, Maureen; Du, Jiang; Pan, Shujun; Alfonso, Ang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zhirong; Yuan, Weijun; Ling, Walter; Zhao, Min

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels of methadone in participants receiving methadone for the treatment of opioid dependence. After stabilization on methadone for four weeks, blood samples from 95 participants were collected between treatment weeks 4 and 12, before and after receiving doses of methadone, and its blood levels were measured. A multiple linear regression model was used to examine the association between methadone blood levels and the outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Outcome differences between participants who had high (≥2) or low (<2) peak-to-trough ratios were also compared using an independent sample t-test. The blood level of methadone was not correlated with the clinical outcome of MMT with the moderate range of doses given. However, the retention of patients who had a free peak-to-trough ratio >2 was significantly poorer than those whose ratio was <2. Thus, monitoring plasma methadone levels is unlikely to be effective for guiding dosing decisions in situations where compliance with MMT is already very high or when the methadone dose is no longer the dominant factor in determining the clinical outcome. However, monitoring plasma methadone levels is still helpful for guiding the dosage for patients with a rapid metabolism.

  19. Robust computational method for fast calculations of multicharged ions lineshapes affected by a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, E.; Oks, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transport phenomena in plasmas, such as, e.g., resistivity, can be affected by electrostatic turbulence that frequently occurs in various kinds of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Transport phenomena are affected most significantly by a low-frequency electrostatic turbulence—such as, e.g., ion acoustic waves, also known as ionic sound—causing anomalous resistivity. In this case, for computing profiles of spectral lines, emitted by plasma ions, by any appropriate code for diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to calculate the distribution of the total quasistatic field. For a practically important situation, where the average turbulent field is much greater than the characteristic ion microfield, we develop a robust computational method valid for any appropriate distribution of the ion microfield at a charged point. We show that the correction to the Rayleigh distribution of the turbulent field is controlled by the behavior of the ion microfield distribution at large fields—in distinction to the opposite (and therefore, erroneous) result in the literature. We also obtain a universal analytical expression for the correction to the Rayleigh distribution based on the asymptotic of the ion microfield distribution at large fields at a charged point. By comparison with various known distributions of the ion microfield, we show that our asymptotic formula has a sufficiently high accuracy. Also exact computations are used to verify the high accuracy of the method. This robust approximate, but accurate method yields faster computational results than the exact calculations and therefore should be important for practical situations requiring simultaneous computations of a large number of spectral lineshapes (e.g., for calculating opacities)—especially for laser-produced plasmas.

  20. Association between seminal plasma zinc level and asthenozoospermia: a meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Taravati, A; Tohidi, F

    2016-08-01

    Zinc is proposed to have an important role in the morphology, viability and motility of spermatozoa. There are inconsistent reports on the association between seminal plasma zinc concentration and male infertility. For this purpose, papers reporting the level of seminal zinc among asthenozoospermic groups were selected and used for further analysis. This meta-analysis of previous published studies was performed to obtain more precise information on the association between seminal plasma zinc and asthenozoospermia. Relevant studies for inclusion were identified after preliminary investigation of research papers published on electronic databases up to February 2015. Eight reports and 475 subjects were finally included in the meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, a statistically significant reduction in seminal plasma zinc concentrations was observed in asthenozoospermic infertile men. Random-effects method was used to evaluate the summary effect size due to the presence of significant heterogeneity. The effect of zinc on asthenozoospermia was significant (Hedge's G effect size = -0.506, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.998 to -0.014, P = 0.044). Taken together, despite of significant statistical heterogeneity between studies, our findings were indicative of significant association between zinc concentration and asthenozoospermia. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that seminal plasma zinc concentration is negatively associated with male infertility.

  1. Methods for isolation of cell-free plasma DNA strongly affect DNA yield.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, Michael; Schmidt, Bernd; Weickmann, Sabine; Fersching, Debora M I; Leszinski, Gloria S; Siegele, Barbara; Stötzer, Oliver J; Nagel, Dorothea; Holdenrieder, Stefan

    2011-11-20

    Extracellular nucleic acids are present in plasma, serum, and other body fluids and their analysis has gained increasing attention during recent years. Because of the small quantity and highly fragmented nature of cell-free DNA in plasma and serum, a fast, efficient, and reliable isolation method is still a problem and so far there is no agreement on a standardized method. We used spin columns from commercial suppliers (QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit from Qiagen; NucleoSpin Kit from Macherey-Nagel; MagNA Pure isolation system from Roche Diagnostics) to isolate DNA from 44 plasma samples in parallel at laboratories in Berlin and Munich. DNA in all samples was quantified by real-time PCR on a LightCycler 480 using three different targets (GAPDH, ß-globin, ERV). The quantities of cell-free DNA for the different isolation methods and genes varied between medians of 1.6 ng/mL and 28.1 ng/mL. This considerable variation of absolute DNA values was mainly caused by the use of different isolation methods (p<0.0001). Comparable results were achieved by the use of the genes GAPDH and ERV while higher values were obtained by use of ß-globin. The laboratory site had only minor influence on DNA yield when manual extraction methods were used.

  2. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  3. Changes in plasma catecholamines levels as preclinical biomarkers in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, A R; Ugryumov, M V

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the changes in the concentrations of blood plasma catecholamines as possible biomarkers of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the mouse experimental model of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). A significant decrease was detected in the levels of dopamine and L-DOPA in the PD preclinical stage model as a result of the catecholamines systemic metabolism disfunction. In the PD early clinical stage models, the level of L-DOPA and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid decreased, which is consistent with the results of blood tests in untreated patients.

  4. Prolactin plasma levels and D2-dopamine receptor occupancy measured with IBZM-SPECT.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, S; Schlösser, R; Hiemke, C; Nickel, O; Bockisch, A; Hahn, K

    1996-04-01

    By the application of 123([123I]IBZM), an iodine-labelled dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, brain D2 receptors in humans can be visualized with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The ratio of IBZM binding to striatal regions versus binding to frontal cortex (ST/FC ratio) provided a semiquantitative measurement of D2 receptor binding in the striatum. This study investigated the relationship between receptor occupancy and plasma prolactin levels in 12 male patients treated with haloperidol, benperidol or clozapine. Prolactin levels were positively correlated with D2 receptor occupancy, reflecting at least in part a comparable dopamine receptor antagonism in different dopaminergic pathways.

  5. Strain Observation Affected by Groundwater-Level Change in Seismic Precursor Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Daiyong; Zhang, Jingfa

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater extraction is one of the most typical disturbance factors for strain observation in seismic precursor monitoring. The statistic regression method is used to study based on the relation between the variation of strain and the groundwater level. The least square regression linear model is built between the annual variation of Sangzi groundwater level and the Xiaoxinzhuang strain data. Such model meets t test with significance level α = 0. 0 5, which confirms that groundwater-level change in each year affects strain measurement significantly and strain's trend variation is related to groundwater-level change. Consequently, a new correction method about strain data is put forward based on the groundwater-level annual variation to eliminate the trend change. Results indicate that the accumulated residual deformation causes the horizontal displacement and strain change, which is on account of that the amount of groundwater recharge is less than that of extraction around Xiaoxinzhuang cave, the phreatic surface continues to descend, and residual deformation accumulates and leads to local subsidence area. Therefore, the decline trend change of strain is related to groundwater-level change and is not seismic precursor.

  6. Strain Observation Affected by Groundwater-Level Change in Seismic Precursor Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Daiyong; Zhang, Jingfa

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater extraction is one of the most typical disturbance factors for strain observation in seismic precursor monitoring. The statistic regression method is used to study based on the relation between the variation of strain and the groundwater level. The least square regression linear model is built between the annual variation of Sangzi groundwater level and the Xiaoxinzhuang strain data. Such model meets t test with significance level α = 0. 0 5 , which confirms that groundwater-level change in each year affects strain measurement significantly and strain's trend variation is related to groundwater-level change. Consequently, a new correction method about strain data is put forward based on the groundwater-level annual variation to eliminate the trend change. Results indicate that the accumulated residual deformation causes the horizontal displacement and strain change, which is on account of that the amount of groundwater recharge is less than that of extraction around Xiaoxinzhuang cave, the phreatic surface continues to descend, and residual deformation accumulates and leads to local subsidence area. Therefore, the decline trend change of strain is related to groundwater-level change and is not seismic precursor.

  7. Non-patient related variables affecting levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in urine biospecimens.

    PubMed

    Kirk, M J; Hayward, R M; Sproull, M; Scott, T; Smith, S; Cooley-Zgela, T; Crouse, N S; Citrin, D E; Camphausen, K

    2008-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic protein proposed to be an important biomarker for the prediction of tumour growth and disease progression. Recent studies suggest that VEGF measurements in biospecimens, including urine, may have predictive value across a range of cancers. However, the reproducibility and reliability of urinary VEGF measurements have not been determined. We collected urine samples from patients receiving radiation treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and examined the effects of five variables on measured VEGF levels using an ELISA assay. To quantify the factors affecting the precision of the assay, two variables were examined: the variation between ELISA kits with different lot numbers and the variation between different technicians. Three variables were tested for their effects on measured VEGF concentration: the time the specimen spent at room temperature prior to assay, the addition of protease inhibitors prior to specimen storage and the alteration of urinary pH. This study found that VEGF levels were consistent across three different ELISA kit lot numbers. However, significant variation was observed between results obtained by different technicians. VEGF concentrations were dependent on time at room temperature before measurement, with higher values observed 3-7 hrs after removal from the freezer. No significant difference was observed in VEGF levels with the addition of protease inhibitors, and alteration of urinary pH did not significantly affect VEGF measurements. In conclusion, this determination of the conditions necessary to reliably measure urinary VEGF levels will be useful for future studies related to protein biomarkers and disease progression.

  8. Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Konuk, N.; Tekın, I. O.; Ozturk, U.; Atik, L.; Atasoy, N.; Bektas, S.; Erdogan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim. Recent research implicated place of an immune mechanism in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite increasing evidence involvement of cytokine release in OCD, results of the studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of the cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in OCD patients. Methods. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured in 31 drug-free outpatients with OCD, and 31-year age and sex-matched healthy controls. TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in blood were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Both TNF-α and IL-6 levels showed statistically significant increases in OCD patients compared to controls (P < .000, P < .001, resp.). In addition, the age of onset was negatively correlated with TNF-α level (r = −.402, P = .025) and duration of illness was weakly correlated with IL-6 levels (r : .357; P : .048) in patients group. Conclusion. OCD patients showed increases in TNF-α and IL-6 levels compared to the healthy controls. This study provides evidence for alterations in the proinflamatory cytokines which suggest the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:17497035

  9. Plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant female rat-kangaroo (Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Rose, R W

    1992-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels were measured in female bettongs (small macropodid marsupials) under two natural regimes: (1) during "delayed" gestation (initiated by removal of pouch young, RPY) and (2) during the pregnancy prior to pouch vacation when a young still occupies the pouch (i.e., during lactation). Basal levels of progesterone were 0.15-0.5 ng/ml. There was a transient peak of progesterone (0.7 ng/ml) early in gestation at Day 4 RPY. After Day 6 RPY, progesterone levels remained elevated (1.2-1.5 ng/ml) until they dropped sharply to basal levels on the day of birth. This pattern of progesterone secretion during delayed gestation is similar to that seen in other marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby. There was no significant difference between the progesterone profiles of the two experimental groups. We deduce, then, that lactation had no effect on corpus luteum function (as assessed by plasma progesterone levels) in the pregnant bettong.

  10. Mosapride citrate, a 5-HT₄ receptor agonist, increased the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in non-diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Masuda, Kiyomi; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Mosapride citrate, a selective agonist of the 5-hydroxytryptaine (5-HT)₄ receptor, is typically used to treat heartburn, nausea, and vomiting associated with chronic gastritis or to prepare for a barium enema X-ray examination. Mosapride citrate reportedly improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. As mosapride citrate activates the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that mosapride citrate affects incretin secretion. We examined the effect of the administration of mosapride citrate on the plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, and plasma incretin levels before breakfast and at 60, 120, and 180 min after breakfast in men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to exclude gastropathy. Mosapride citrate was administered according to two different intake schedules (C: control (no drug), M: mosapride citrate 20 mg) in each of the subject groups. The area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose levels was smaller in the M group than in the C group. The time profiles for the serum insulin levels at 60 and 120 min after treatment with mosapride citrate tended to be higher, although the difference was not statistically significant. The AUCs of the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were significantly larger in the M group than in the C group. No significant difference in the AUC of the plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) level was observed between the two groups. Our results suggest that mosapride citrate may have an antidiabetic effect by increasing GLP-1 secretion.

  11. Investigation of the Plasma Nitrite Levels and Oxidant–Antioxidant Status in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    BOZKURT, Hakan; NEYAL, Abdurrahman; GEYİK, Sırma; TAYSI, Seyithan; ANARAT, Rüksan; BULUT, Mesut; NEYAL, Ayşe Münife

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. In the present study, we assessed the nitrite level, which is an indirect indicator of nitric oxide (NO), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), which may be associated with endotel dysfunction. We investigated the difference between the groups and the relationship among the severity of comorbid conditions. Methods This study was conducted in 39 OSA patients confirmed by polysomnography and 40 healthy subjects (controls). The OSA group consisted of 10 women and 29 men and the control group consisted of 20 women and 20 men. Polysomnographic revealed mild OSA in two, moderate in 7 and severe in 30 cases. We measured plasma TAS, TOS and nitrite levels from venous blood. The OSI value was obtained by dividing the TOS and TAS values. Values were compared with the control group and between patient groups. Results A high body mass index (BMI), cardiovasculer diseases (CVD) and the use of medication for co-morbid diseases were more prevalent in the OSA group (p=.001, p=.029 and p=.006, respectively). The median plasma TOS level and OSI in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OUA) group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p=.001 and p=.001, respectively). The plasma median nitrite level and TAS did not show any significant difference between the OSA and the control groups. None of the parameters revealed a significant difference between severe and moderate OSA cases. Conclusion Our findings in the present study revealed that the oxidant–antioxidant balance shifted toward the oxidant side in OSA cases; however, the NO level did not change. These findings together may point out that some molecules other than NO may have a role in the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction and also in the disturbed oxidant–antioxidant balance in OSA.

  12. Plasma levels of zinc, copper, and ceruloplasmin in patients after undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Böyük, Abdullah; Banlı, Oktay; Gümüş, Metehan; Evliyaoğlu, Osman; Demirelli, Salih

    2011-12-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) causes significant weight loss in morbidly obese adults. However, its consequences on nutritional status still remain unclear. There are a few studies determining the nutritional status after LAGB and none have focused on the serum levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (CP). We aimed to investigate the effects of LAGB surgery on plasma Zn, Cu, and CP levels. Thirty patients with LAGB with morbid obesity were included. Blood samples were collected preooperatively and in the postoperative third month to determine plasma Zn, Cu, and CP levels. The mean preoperative and postoperative body mass indexes (BMI) were 44.9 ± 7.4 kg/m(2) and 44.1 ± 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. The mean weight loss was 12.9 ± 3.3 kg at the postoperative third month. The postoperative Zn (500 ± 130 ng/ml), Cu (280 ± 80 ng/ml), and CP (23.9 ± 8.8 mg/dl) values were statistically significantly lower than the preooperative Zn (740 ± 230 ng/ml), Cu (370 ± 80 ng/ml) and CP (33.3 ± 15.7 mg/dl) levels (p < 0.05). Decreases in the plasma levels of Zn, Cu, and CP were seen postoperatively following LAGB surgery. The nutritional status of LAGB-applied patients should be monitored and mineral supplementation may be considered.

  13. Adiponectin plasma levels are increased by atorvastatin treatment in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Martín-Ventura, Jose L; Gómez-Guerrero, Carmen; Masramon, Xavier; de Teresa, Eduardo; Farsang, Csaba; Gaw, Allan; Gensini, GianFranco; Leiter, Lawrence A; Langer, Anatoly; Egido, Jesús

    2008-05-31

    Adiponectin can suppress atherogenesis by inhibiting the adherence of monocytes, reducing their phagocytic activity, and suppressing the accumulation of modified lipoproteins in the vascular wall. Contradictory data have been reported about the effect of statins on adiponectin plasma levels. In this work, adiponectin plasma levels were measured in 102 statin-free subjects from the Spanish population of the Achieve Cholesterol Targets Fast with Atorvastatin Stratified Titration (ACTFAST) study, a 12-week, prospective, multi-centre, open-label trial which enrolled subjects with coronary heart disease, coronary heart disease-equivalent or a 10-year coronary heart disease risk >20%. Subjects were assigned to atorvastatin (10-80 mg/day) based on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration at screening. For comparison, age and gender-matched blood donors (N=40) were used as controls. Control subjects did not present hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and history of cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin levels were diminished in patients at high cardiovascular risk compared with control subjects [4166 (3661-4740) vs 5806 (4764-7075) ng/ml respectively; geometric mean (95% CI); P<0.0001]. In the whole population, atorvastatin treatment increased adiponectin levels [9.7 (3.2-16.7);% Change (95% CI); P=0.003]. This increment was in a dose-dependent manner; maximal effect observed with atorvastatin 80 mg/d [24.7 (5.7-47.1); P=0.01]. Adiponectin concentrations were positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol both before and after atorvastatin treatment. No association was observed between adiponectin and LDL-cholesterol before and after atorvastatin treatment. In conclusion, atorvastatin increased adiponectin plasma levels in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, revealing a novel anti-inflammatory effect of this drug.

  14. Subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of endothelin-1 among young and healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Tobias; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Leuppi, Joerg D; Miedinger, David; Werthmüller, Ursina; Estis, Joel; Todd, John; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for vascular disease and other adverse outcomes. These associations may be at least partly due to early endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated endothelial dysfunction (ED). Therefore, we assessed the relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea and plasma levels of ET-1. Methods We performed a population-based study among 1255 young and healthy adults aged 25–41 years. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index >35 kg/m2 were exclusion criteria. Plasma levels of ET-1 were measured using a high-sensitivity, single-molecule counting technology. The relationships between subclinical sleep apnoea (OSA indices: respiratory event index (REI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean night-time blood oxygen saturation (SpO2)) and ET-1 levels were assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Median age of the cohort was 35 years. Median ET-1 levels were 2.9 (IQR 2.4–3.6) and 2.5 pg/mL (IQR 2.1–3.0) among patients with (n=105; 8%) and without subclinical sleep apnoea (REI 5–14), respectively. After multivariable adjustment, subclinical sleep apnoea remained significantly associated with plasma levels of ET-1 (β=0.13 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.20) p=0.0002 for a REI 5–14; β=0.10 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.16) p=0.003 for an ODI≥5). Every 1% decrease in mean night-time SpO2 increased ET-1 levels by 0.1 pg/mL, an association that remained significant after multivariable adjustment (β=0.02 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.033) p=0.02). Conclusions In this study of young and healthy adults, we found that participants with subclinical sleep apnoea had elevated plasma ET-1 levels, an association that was due to night-time hypoxaemia. Our results suggest that ED may already be an important consequence of subclinical sleep apnoea.

  15. Aromatase inhibitors in obese breast cancer patients are not associated with increased plasma estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Diorio, Caroline; Lemieux, Julie; Provencher, Louise; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Vachon, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Obesity, in postmenopausal women, has been associated to a higher breast cancer incidence and worst prognosis. Some studies suggested a decrease in aromatase inhibitors (AI) efficacy in obese postmenopausal breast cancer patients, although estradiol levels were not measured. The purpose of the present study was to verify if estradiol levels are measurable in postmenopausal women under AI. If achievable, the goal is to compare the estradiol levels in lean versus obese postmenopausal women under AI treatment for non-metastatic breast cancer. Postmenopausal women were recruited in accordance to one of these four groups: lean [body mass index (BMI) of 18-25 kg/m(2)] under AI (n = 30), obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) under AI (n = 30), lean AI-naïve (n = 10), and obese AI-naïve (n = 10). Lean and obese women were matched according to their age. Estradiol levels were measured in plasma using an ELISA. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess the significance of the differences between the groups. Estradiol levels in postmenopausal women under AI varied from 0 to 94.65 pg/ml with a median value of 0.98 pg/ml. Obese AI-naïve women had higher estradiol levels than lean AI-naïve women (p = 0.03). There was no difference in estradiol levels between lean and obese women under AI (p = 0.76). Despite very low plasma levels, it is possible to measure the estradiol levels in postmenopausal women under AI treatment. Our results suggest that the known impact of obesity on recurrence risk in women under AI treatment may not be due to incomplete aromatase inhibition. Further works are needed to examine closely the aromatase-independent pathways that are linking obesity to breast cancer risk and recurrence.

  16. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  17. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  18. Cells deficient in the FANC/BRCA pathway are hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, John R; Nakamura, Ayumi; Tano, Keizo; Luke, April M; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Gillespie, David A F; Sale, Julian E; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Bishop, Douglas K; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an aliphatic monoaldehyde and is a highly reactive environmental human carcinogen. Whereas humans are continuously exposed to exogenous formaldehyde, this reactive aldehyde is a naturally occurring biological compound that is present in human plasma at concentrations ranging from 13 to 97 micromol/L. It has been well documented that DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) likely play an important role with regard to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde. However, little is known about which DNA damage response pathways are essential for cells to counteract formaldehyde. In the present study, we first assessed the DNA damage response to plasma levels of formaldehyde using chicken DT40 cells with targeted mutations in various DNA repair genes. Here, we show that the hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is detected in DT40 mutants deficient in the BRCA/FANC pathway, homologous recombination, or translesion DNA synthesis. In addition, FANCD2-deficient DT40 cells are hypersensitive to acetaldehyde, but not to acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. Human cells deficient in FANCC and FANCG are also hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde. These results indicate that the BRCA/FANC pathway is essential to counteract DPCs caused by aliphatic monoaldehydes. Based on the results obtained in the present study, we are currently proposing that endogenous formaldehyde might have an effect on highly proliferating cells, such as bone marrow cells, as well as an etiology of cancer in Fanconi anemia patients.

  19. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  20. Effects of controlled exposure of sunlight on plasma and skin levels of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Biesalski, H K; Hemmes, C; Hopfenmuller, W; Schmid, C; Gollnick, H P

    1996-03-01

    We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study in 20 healthy young female students (skin type II + III, body mass index 18-22) in order to evaluate the efficacy of 10 weeks of moderate dose (30 mg/d) beta-carotene (BC) on plasma and skin beta-carotene levels during 12 days of time and intensity controlled sunlight exposure at sea level (30 degrees latitude, Red Sea, Eilath, Israel). After 12 days of controlled sun exposure (total UV dose of about 10.000J/cm2), plasma beta-carotene decreased in the placebo (p < 0.01) and beta-carotene group (not significant). In addition cutaneous beta-carotene decreased significantly in both groups. Plasma alpha-tocopherol decreased significantly (p < 0.01) during exposure time in both groups. In the supplemented group, however, the decrease of a-tocopherol was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than in the placebo group. We conclude that sunlight influences the beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol content of blood and tissues.

  1. Gender differences in plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Dobiásová, M; Adler, L; Francis, M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the association between plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and the presence of angiographically defined coronary artery disease (aCAD). Patients (346 men and 184 women) undergoing selective coronary angiography (SCA) were classified into groups with positive [aCAD(+)] and negative [aCAD(-)] findings and their age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking, plasma total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (apoB), Log(TG/HDL-C) and TC/HDL-C were determined. Concentration of plasma Lp(a) was estimated using the commercial solid phase two-side immunoradiometric assay of apolipoprotein apo(a). The plasma Lp(a) was significantly higher in both women and men with aCAD(+) compared to those with aCAD(-). While there was no significant difference in the Lp(a) level between men and women with aCAD(-) (median 138 vs. 145 units/l), the women with aCAD(+) had almost twice as high Lp(a) levels as men (median 442 vs. 274 units/l, p<0.001). Women with aCAD(+) had also significantly lower HDL cholesterol levels (1.09 vs. 1.20 mmol/l, p<0.05), higher triglycerides (1.82 vs. 1.46 mmol/l, p<0.05) and Log(TG/HDL-C) than women with aCAD(-). The differences in Lp(a) between positive and negative findings remained highly significant (p<0.001 in women, p<0.05 in men) after the adjustment for age, plasma HDL- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in logistic regression analyses. In logistic regression model the Lp(a) and Log(TG/HDL-C) and smoking in women but smoking and age in men were the most powerful predictors of positive aCAD findings. Our findings suggest that Lp(a) is more strongly associated with aCAD+ in women than in men.

  2. Connexin-deficiency affects expression levels of glial glutamate transporters within the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen

    2012-01-06

    The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate transport in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate transporter expression is also affected by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate transporters, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially affect the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate transporter expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate transport. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is affected in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex.

  3. Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. Results A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver–operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, α-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and α-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences

  4. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol(-1)) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields.

  5. Diazepam affects the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor density and their expression levels in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Caterina; Bolaris, Stamatis; Valcana, Theony; Margarity, Marigoula

    2005-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the occurrence of anxiety and affective disorders; however, the effects following an anxiolytic benzodiazepine treatment, such as diazepam administration, on the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones has not yet been investigated. The effect of diazepam on the in vitro nuclear T3 binding, on the relative expression of the TH receptors (TRs) and on the synaptosomal TH availability were examined in adult rat cerebral hemispheres 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose (5 mg/kg BW) of this tranquillizer. Although, diazepam did not affect the availability of TH either in blood circulation or in the synaptosomal fraction, it decreased (33%) the nuclear T3 maximal binding density (B(max)). No differences were observed in the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The TRalpha2 variant (non-T3-binding) mRNA levels were increased by 33%, whereas no changes in the relative expression of the T3-binding isoforms of TRs (TRalpha1, TRbeta1) were observed. This study shows that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam affects within 24 h, the density of the nuclear TRs and their expression pattern. The latest effect occurs in an isoform-specific manner involving specifically the TRalpha2 mRNA levels in adult rat brain.

  6. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  7. Soft mean spherical approximation for dusty plasma liquids: Level of accuracy and analytic expressions

    SciTech Connect

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; Angelis, U. de

    2015-08-15

    The soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the study of the thermodynamics of dusty plasma liquids, the latter treated as Yukawa one-component plasmas. Within this integral theory method, the only input necessary for the calculation of the reduced excess energy stems from the solution of a single non-linear algebraic equation. Consequently, thermodynamic quantities can be routinely computed without the need to determine the pair correlation function or the structure factor. The level of accuracy of the approach is quantified after an extensive comparison with numerical simulation results. The approach is solved over a million times with input spanning the whole parameter space and reliable analytic expressions are obtained for the basic thermodynamic quantities.

  8. Comparison of the blood plasma catecholamines level in thoroughbred and Arabian horses during the same-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Podolak, M; Kedzierski, W; Bergero, D

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in blood plasma of two racehorses breeds: Arabian and Thoroughbred during moderate intensity exercise performed in the same conditions. The increase in plasma E level just after exercise was higher in Thoroughbreds than in Arabians. During the whole test, the Arabians showed the higher levels of NE and DA as compared to those found in Thoroughbreds.

  9. Development of high-level streptomycin resistance affected by a plasmid in lactic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R P

    1986-08-01

    Some lactose-negative (Lac-) mutants of Streptococcus lactis C2 and ML3 exhibited development of very high level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug for 18 to 22 h. These drug-resistant mutants showed no loss of resistance even after 6 months of subculturing in broth without any drug. The parental Lac+ strains did not show mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance. The Lac+ characteristic of the parental strain was conjugally transferred to Lac- derivatives of C2 and ML3, showing the ability to mutate to high-level resistance. When transconjugants were analyzed for this characteristic, they showed both mutable and nonmutable Lac+ types. The results suggested that genetic information for mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance in lactic streptococci resides on the chromosome, and its expression is affected by a plasmid. The plasmid profiles of strains C2, ML3, C2 Lac-, ML3 Lac-, and two kinds of transconjugants confirmed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 5.5 megadaltons in strains showing no mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance, while strains missing such a plasmid exhibited high-level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug.

  10. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  11. Association of Plasma ADMA Levels with MRI Markers of Vascular Brain Injury: The Framingham Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikula, Aleksandra; Böger, Rainer H.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Maas, Renke; DeCarli, Charles; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Himali, Jayandra J.; Schulze, Friedrich; Au, Rhoda; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kase, Carlos S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wolf, Philip A.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, is a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Elevated circulating ADMA concentrations have been associated with systemic and carotid atherosclerosis, an elevated risk of developing stroke and with MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH). The relation of plasma ADMA to subclinical vascular brain injury has not been previously studied in a middle-aged, community-based sample. Methods In 2013 stroke-free Framingham Offspring (mean age 58±9.5yrs, 53% women) we related baseline plasma ADMA levels (1995–98) to subsequent brain MRI (1999–2004) measures of subclinical vascular injury: presence of silent brain infarcts (SBI) and large white matter hyperintensity volume (LWMH; defined as >1SD above age-specific mean). Results Prevalence of SBI and LWMH were 10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. In multivariable analyses adjusting for age-, sex- and traditional stroke risk factors, higher ADMA levels were associated with an increased risk of prevalent SBI (OR per SD increase in ADMA: 1.16, 95%CI: 1.01–1.33, p= 0.04).We observed that participants in the upper three age-specific quartiles of plasma ADMA had an increased prevalence of SBI (OR for Q2–4 versus Q1:1.43, 95%CI: 1.00–2.04, p<0.05). Prevalence of SBI in Q1and Q2–4 was 8.3% and 11.6%, respectively. Prevalence of LWMH did not differ according to ADMA concentrations. Conclusion Higher plasma ADMA was associated with increased prevalence of SBI after adjustment for traditional stroke risk factors. Thus, ADMA may be a potentially useful new biomarker of subclinical vascular brain injury, which is an important correlate of vascular cognitive impairment and risk of stroke. PMID:19644064

  12. A supersulfated low-molecular-weight heparin (IK-SSH) increases plasma levels of free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, B; Glusa, E; Hoppensteadt, D A; Breddin, H K; Amiral, J; Fareed, J

    1998-09-01

    Unfractionated as well as low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are known to cause an increase in blood levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To study the effect of a newly developed supersulfated LMWH (IK-SSH, Iketon Farmaceutici) on TFPI concentrations in human plasma, the compound was injected into volunteers at doses of 0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg intravenously or 0.33, 0.66 and 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. At certain known times blood was drawn and plasma levels of both total and free TFPI were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Baseline plasma concentrations of TFPI were 72.2+/-3.1 ng/ml for total and 10.8+/-0.8 ng/ml for free TFPI. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of IK-SSH led to a strong and long-lasting rise in TFPI levels which were increased more than 5-fold for total TFPI and more than 30-fold for free TFPI. Maximum TFPI levels were reached 5-10 min after intravenous and 60 min after subcutaneous administration. IK-SSH caused prolongation of ex-vivo clotting times in the APTT and Heptest assay, whereas thrombin time was not affected. Anticoagulant actions of IK-SSH showed a significant correlation to plasma concentrations of TFPI and they are thought to be based at least partially on the release of TFPI from vascular sites.

  13. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes.

  14. Performance Level Affects the Dietary Supplement Intake of Both Individual and Team Sports Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points 37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements. The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake. Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes. Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID

  15. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0-2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte.

  16. Plasma levels of intermedin (adrenomedullin-2) in healthy human volunteers and patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Gordon, Brian J; Lavery, Anita; Megaw, Katie; Kinney, Michael O; Harbinson, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD) is a member of the adrenomedullin/CGRP peptide family. Less is known about the distribution of IMD than for other family members within the mammalian cardiovascular system, particularly in humans. The aim was to evaluate plasma IMD levels in healthy subjects and patients with chronic heart failure. IMD and its precursor fragments, preproIMD(25-56) and preproIMD(57-92), were measured by radioimmunoassay in 75 healthy subjects and levels of IMD were also compared to those of adrenomedullin (AM) and mid-region proadrenomedullin(45-92) (MRproAM(45-92)) in 19 patients with systolic heart failure (LVEF<45%). In healthy subjects, plasma levels (mean+SE) of IMD (6.3+0.6 pg ml(-1)) were lower than, but correlated with those of AM (25.8+1.8 pg ml(-1); r=0.49, p<0.001). Plasma preproIMD(25-56) (39.6+3.1 pg ml(-1)), preproIMD(57-92) (25.9+3.8 pg ml(-1)) and MRproAM(45-92) (200.2+6.7 pg ml(-1)) were greater than their respective bioactive peptides. IMD levels correlated positively with BMI but not age, and were elevated in heart failure (9.8+1.3 pg ml(-1), p<0.05), similarly to MRproAM(45-92) (329.5+41.9 pg ml(-1), p<0.001) and AM (56.8+10.9 pg ml(-1), p<0.01). IMD levels were greater in heart failure patients with concomitant renal impairment (11.3+1.8 pg ml(-1)) than those without (6.5+1.0 pg ml(-1); p<0.05). IMD and AM were greater in patients receiving submaximal compared with maximal heart failure drug therapy and were decreased after 6 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy. In conclusion, IMD is present in the plasma of healthy subjects less abundantly than AM, but is similarly correlated weakly with BMI. IMD levels are elevated in heart failure, especially with concomitant renal impairment, and tend to be reduced by high intensity drug or pacing therapy.

  17. Trend analysis of plasma insulin level around parturition in relation to parity in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Rosi, F

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of parity on plasma insulin level around parturition in Saanen goats. On d -14, -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 from parturition, plasma glucose, NEFA, free AA, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were analyzed in 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous goats. At parturition, BW of primiparous goats was about 75% of that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001) and then their milk production was lower than that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001). At parturition, glucose increased (P < 0.01) in both primiparous and multiparous goats and then decreased (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation, remaining higher (P < 0.01) in primiparous than multiparous goats until the end of the study period. In both groups, free AA decreased (P < 0.01) at parturition, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation without difference between groups. Only in multiparous goats, plasma NEFA increased at parturition (P < 0.01), returning to prepartum levels on d 14 (P < 0.01). Changes in glucose and AA could have been caused by cortisol, which increased (P < 0.01) at parturition in both primiparous and multiparous goats, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 7 of lactation, without difference between the parity groups. In multiparous goats, insulin decreased soon after parturition (P < 0.05), remaining at low levels until the end of the study period, whereas in primiparous goats, insulin did not vary until d 14 of lactation, when it decreased (P < 0.05) also in this group. Therefore, between d 3 and 14 of lactation, insulin was higher in primiparous than multiparous goats (P < 0.05). Only in primiparous goats, at kidding, insulin was negatively correlated to BW (P < 0.01), and after parturition it was negatively correlated with milk yield (P < 0.05) and plasma NEFA (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that higher insulin levels in primiparous Saanen goats, which are still immature at their first breeding season, acted to limit both the mobilization of bodily reserves

  18. Dienogest, a selective progestin, reduces plasma estradiol level through induction of apoptosis of granulosa cells in the ovarian dominant follicle without follicle-stimulating hormone suppression in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, S; Shimizu, Y; Nagaoka, T; Tokado, H; Imada, K; Mizuguchi, K

    2008-07-01

    Dienogest is a selective progestin that has been shown to arrest ovarian follicular development in women, without affecting gonadotropin secretion. As luteal progesterone or exogeneous progestins are known to suppress ovarian folliculogenesis via the inhibition of gonadotropin secretion, this action of dienogest on ovaries seems to be unique. To examine the underlying mechanism of the antifolliculogenic effect of dienogest, female cynomolgus monkeys were treated with a single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg dienogest on day 7 of the menstrual cycle. Plasma FSH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone levels were measured up to 15 days after dosing. In an additional experiment, ovaries were excised 24 h after dosing for histological examinations. As a result, plasma E2 level declined within 24 h after dosing, while dienogest did not decreased FSH level prior to E2 decline. After decline of E2 level, the low level of E2 was sustained for more than 11 days. It is considered that a single oral dose of dienogest induced atresia of the dominant follicle. In the histological examination, two out of three animals showed decline in E2 level. The ovarian dominant follicles from these animals showed apoptotic changes in granulosa cells with scattered aromatase expression within 24 h after dosing. These results indicate that the induction of atresia of the ovarian dominant follicle by direct action would be a possible mechanism of dienogest to inhibit plasma E2 level.

  19. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. II. Rare-gas plasmas and Ar-molecular gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Culver, Cody; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2015-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions from excited plasma species can play a variety of roles in processing plasmas, including damaging the surface properties of materials used in semiconductor processing. Depending on their wavelength, VUV photons can easily transmit thin upper dielectric layers and affect the electrical characteristics of the devices. Despite their importance, measuring VUV fluxes is complicated by the fact that few materials transmit at VUV wavelengths, and both detectors and windows are easily damaged by plasma exposure. The authors have previously reported on measuring VUV fluxes in pure argon plasmas by monitoring the concentrations of Ar(3p{sup 5}4s) resonance atoms that produce the VUV emissions using noninvasive optical emission spectroscopy in the visible/near-infrared wavelength range [Boffard et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 021304 (2014)]. Here, the authors extend this technique to other rare-gases (Ne, Kr, and Xe) and argon-molecular gas plasmas (Ar/H{sub 2}, Ar/O{sub 2}, and Ar/N{sub 2}). Results of a model for VUV emissions that couples radiation trapping and the measured rare-gas resonance level densities are compared to measurements made with both a calibrated VUV photodiode and a sodium salicylate fluorescence detection scheme. In these more complicated gas mixtures, VUV emissions from a variety of sources beyond the principal resonance levels of the rare gases are found to contribute to the total VUV flux.

  20. Lipoprotein(a) plasma levels and the risk of cancer: the PRIME study.

    PubMed

    Marrer, Émilie; Wagner, Aline; Montaye, Michèle; Luc, Gérald; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Bingham, Annie; Arveiler, Dominique; Velten, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Although experimental studies have shown lipoprotein(a) antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects, the association of lipoprotein(a) levels with cancer in population studies remains elusive and poorly documented. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between lipoprotein(a) plasma levels and the incidence of cancer over 10 years of follow-up. Data from two French centres of the PRIME cohort were used, representing 5237 men aged 50-59 years and free from a history of cancer at baseline. Data on medical history, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaire. Lipoprotein(a) plasma levels were analysed from fasting blood samples collected at baseline. The relationship between lipoprotein(a) levels and first incident cancer was studied using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models for all-site and the main-site-specific cancers, adjusted for various potential confounders including age, centre, smoking status and alcohol consumption. During follow-up, 456 new cancers were identified. No significant association was found between lipoprotein(a) and the all-site or main-site-specific cancers (hazard ratios for quartiles 2-4 vs. 1, respectively: 1.24, 1.11, 1.29, P=0.23). However, a higher risk seemed to be observed for highest lipoprotein(a) levels in all sites, lung, colorectal or tobacco/alcohol-related cancers. For prostate cancer, the lowest risk was observed for the highest levels of lipoprotein(a) (P=0.12). In conclusion, no evident association was found between the lipoprotein(a) levels and the incidence of cancer. Nevertheless, a higher cancer risk seemed to be observed for the highest lipoprotein(a) levels. Further research focusing on the lipoprotein(a) qualitative structure, that is, apolipoprotein(a) polymorphism could help clarify this highly complex relation.

  1. Factors affecting the plasma insulin concentration shortly after accidental injury in man.

    PubMed Central

    Frayn, K N; Maycock, P F; Little, R A; Yates, D W; Stoner, H B

    1987-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on plasma insulin concentrations in the acutely injured. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations have been measured in 504 patients within 8 h of injury, and related to the severity of injury as assessed by the injury severity score (ISS). As in previous surveys of injured patients, an extremely wide range of insulin concentrations was found (2-141 mU/l). Most of the variability occurred at lower severities of injury. In very severely injured patients (ISS greater than or equal to 30), insulin concentrations were uniformly suppressed (less than 20 mU/l), especially in relation to the hyperglycaemia in these patients. Two small subgroups, patients dying within 3 h of injury and known psychiatric patients on psycho-active drugs, differed from the general pattern in displaying elevated insulin concentrations despite very severe injuries. The results bear out the idea that insulin secretion is usually acutely suppressed by adrenaline after severe injury; after less severe injuries, however, the response is much less uniform. PMID:3304325

  2. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  3. Basal Plasma Levels of Copeptin are Elevated in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease after Bowel Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Melander, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interactions between the enteric nervous system, neuropeptides, and the immune system is growing. The aim of this study was to examine basal plasma levels of a variety of peptide precursors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In two middle-aged cohorts, Malmö Preventive Medicine (n = 5,415) and Malmö Diet and Cost Study (n = 6,103), individuals with the diagnosis of IBD were identified. Medical records were scrutinized. Three controls were matched for each patient. Copeptin, midregional fragments of adrenomedullin, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide, and proenkephalin A, as well as N-terminal protachykinin A and proneurotensin were analyzed in the plasma. Sixty-two IBD patients were identified. The only difference between patients and controls was higher copeptin levels in the patients compared with controls (P = 0.006), with higher copeptin levels in resected than unresected patients (P = 0.020). There was no difference in any precursor levels between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, between different distributions of disease lesions, or between different treatments. PMID:26244009

  4. Nerve growth factor plasma levels and ventricular repolarization in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guideri, F; Acampa, M; Calamandrei, G; Aloe, L; Zappella, M; Hayek, Y

    2004-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurological developmental disorder. In this syndrome, the high incidence of sudden death is correlated with an alteration of ventricular repolarization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasmatic levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in Rett patients with prolonged corrected QT (QTc) interval in comparison with those of Rett patients with normal QTc. We observed 23 female Rett patients (9.9+/-4.7 years). NGF plasma levels and QTc interval were measured in all patients. Student t-test was performed for statistical analysis. NGF plasma levels were significantly lower in Rett patients with QTc interval prolongation (QTc > 0.44 sec) in comparison with Rett patients with a normal QTc interval (4.5+/-4.5 vs 11+/-8.3 pg/ml, p = 0.02). The alteration of NGF levels, observed in Rett patients with a long QTc interval, may explain the presence of an altered ventricular repolarization associated with a higher risk of cardiac arrhythmias.

  5. Acute gastric pH changes alter intraluminal but not plasma peptide levels.

    PubMed

    Mueller, C R; Ure, T; O'Dorisio, T M; Barrie, R J; Woltering, E A

    1991-12-01

    Gastric acidity is influenced by systemic and local peptide effects. Previous work by others has shown that intraluminally secreted peptides may have a role in local control of gastric acidity; however, the response of these peptides to acute changes in gastric pH is unknown. To determine the effects of acute changes in pH on systemic and intraluminal peptide levels, 14 normal volunteers underwent placement of a nasogastric tube after an overnight fast. Blood and gastric fluid were analyzed on a control day, 2 hours after completion of 24 hours of aluminum-magnesium antacid therapy and after 24 hours of H2 blockade. Plasma and acid-alcohol-extracted gastric peptide levels were measured with specific radioimmunoassays. Specimens were subdivided into two groups: 28 gastric fluid specimens with a pH less than 4 and 10 specimens with a pH greater than 4. In the patients with a pH greater than 4, the luminal peptides, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, substance P, and gastrin, were decreased by 50% to 90% and gastrin-releasing peptide was decreased by 36% compared with specimens with a pH less than 4. Conversely, intraluminal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and calcitonin levels were elevated by 60% and 27%, respectively, in the samples with a pH greater than 4. Intraluminal peptide concentrations are responsive to changes in intragastric pH; however, this response was not seen in plasma peptide levels.

  6. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M; Wiest, Michelle M; German, J Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D

    2009-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH(2)-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism.

  7. Targeted mutation of plasma phospholipid transfer protein gene markedly reduces high-density lipoprotein levels

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xian-cheng; Bruce, Can; Mar, Jefferson; Lin, Min; Ji, Yong; Francone, Omar L.; Tall, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been proposed that the plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) facilitates the transfer of phospholipids and cholesterol from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) into high-density lipoproteins (HDL). To evaluate the in vivo role of PLTP in lipoprotein metabolism, we used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and produced mice with no PLTP gene expression. Analysis of plasma of F2 homozygous PLTP–/– mice showed complete loss of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, and partial loss of free cholesterol transfer activities. Moreover, the in vivo transfer of [3H]phosphatidylcholine ether from very-low-density proteins (VLDL) to HDL was abolished in PLTP–/– mice. On a chow diet, PLTP–/– mice showed marked decreases in HDL phospholipid (60%), cholesterol (65%), and apo AI (85%), but no significant change in non-HDL lipid or apo B levels, compared with wild-type littermates. On a high-fat diet, HDL levels were similarly decreased, but there was also an increase in VLDL and LDL phospholipids (210%), free cholesterol (60%), and cholesteryl ester (40%) without change in apo B levels, suggesting accumulation of surface components of TRL. Vesicular lipoproteins were shown by negative-stain electron microscopy of the free cholesterol– and phospholipid-enriched IDL/LDL fraction. Thus, PLTP is the major factor facilitating transfer of VLDL phospholipid into HDL. Reduced plasma PLTP activity causes markedly decreased HDL lipid and apoprotein, demonstrating the importance of transfer of surface components of TRL in the maintenance of HDL levels. Vesicular lipoproteins accumulating in PLTP–/– mice on a high-fat diet could influence the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:10079112

  8. Increased plasma chemokine levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butler, Merlin G; Hossain, Waheeda; Sulsona, Carlos; Driscoll, Daniel J; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by loss of paternally expressed genes from the 15q11-q13 region and reportedly rearranged as a cause of autism. Additionally, increased inflammatory markers and features of autism are reported in PWS. Cytokines encoded by genes involved with inflammation, cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion play a role in neurodevelopment and could be disturbed in PWS as abnormal plasma cytokine levels are reported in autism. We analyzed 41 plasma cytokines in a cohort of well-characterized children with PWS between 5 and 11 years of age and unaffected unrelated siblings using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Data were analyzed using ANOVA testing for effects of diagnosis, gender, body mass index (BMI) and age on the 24 cytokines meeting laboratory criteria for inclusion. No significant effects were observed for age, gender or BMI. The log-transformed levels of the 24 analyzable cytokines were examined simultaneously using MANOVA adjusting for age and gender and a main effect of diagnosis was found (P-value <0.03). Four of 24 plasma cytokine levels (MCP1, MDC, Eotaxin, RANTES) were significantly higher in children with PWS compared with controls and classified as bioinflammatory chemokines supporting a disturbed immune response unrelated to obesity status. BMI was not statistically different in the two subject groups (PWS or unaffected unrelated siblings) and chemokine levels were not correlated with percentage of total body fat. Additional studies are required to identify whether possible early immunological disturbances and chemokine inflammatory processes found in PWS may contribute to neurodevelopment and behavioral features.

  9. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  10. Maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins in pregnancy in relation to maternal and fetal plasma levels at delivery.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Alison R; McNeill, Geraldine; Campbell, Doris M; Martindale, Sheelagh; Devereux, Graham; Seaton, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins is associated with maternal and cord plasma levels at delivery. Women were recruited in early pregnancy in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital and habitual diet during pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire mailed at 34 weeks gestation. Blood samples were taken at recruitment (n 1149) and maternal (n 1149) and cord blood samples (n 747) taken at delivery for analyses of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene. Maternal plasma levels of vitamin E and beta-carotene at delivery were significantly higher than levels in early pregnancy while levels of vitamins A and C were significantly lower. Positive correlations were observed for maternal levels of all the vitamins between early pregnancy and delivery. At delivery, maternal plasma concentrations of vitamins A, E and beta-carotene were significantly higher than cord levels, while maternal levels of vitamin C were significantly lower. There were significant correlations between maternal and cord plasma concentrations for beta-carotene and vitamin C but not for vitamins A or E. Maternal dietary intakes were positively correlated with maternal plasma levels of vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in early pregnancy, with maternal plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C at delivery and with cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C. The results from the present study show that, in this population, maternal diet influences cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C, but not vitamins A and E.

  11. Low plasma adiponectin level, white blood cell count and Helicobacter pylori titre independently predict abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Yee; Tong, Peter C; Ko, Gary T; Ma, Ronald C; Ozaki, Risa; Kong, Alice P; Yang, Xilin; Ho, Chung-Shun; Lam, Christopher C; Chan, Juliana C

    2009-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with insulin sensitizing effect while chronic inflammation damages pancreatic beta-cells leading to reduced insulin response. We aimed to prove the hypothesis that adiponectin levels and inflammatory markers (white blood cell counts [WCC], Helicobacter pylori [HP] titers, high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) may interact to affect risk of diabetes. We studied 288 Chinese men (age-median: 41.0 years, IQR: 35.3-46.0 years) being recruited from the community in Hong Kong. The mean adiponectin level was 5.39+/-2.81 microg/ml and 40.9% (n=107) had low adiponectin level (<4 microg/ml). On multiple regression analysis, adiponectin was negatively associated with diabetes, HOMA insulin resistance top quartile, plasma glucose (PG) and 2h insulin; and positively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity index. WCC was independently associated with PG and 15' insulin, and negatively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity top quartile. HP titre was associated with 30' PG level and diabetes. hs-CRP did not enter the multivariable model. In conclusion, adiponectin, WCC and HP titer are independent predictors for hyperglycemia and reduced insulin sensitivity in Chinese men. These findings may explain the high risk for diabetes in Chinese population despite their relatively low adiposity.

  12. Plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 are increased in patients with β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Tselepis, Alexandros D.; Hahalis, George; Tellis, Constantinos C.; Papavasiliou, Eleni C.; Mylona, Panagiota T.; Kourakli, Alexandra; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated the plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 activity and mass as a function of plasma lipid levels, LDL subclass profile, and oxidative stress in patients with β-thalassemia. Thirty-five patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) and 25 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) participated in the study. Lp-PLA2 activity and mass were measured in total plasma, in apolipoprotein (apo)B-depleted plasma (HDL-Lp-PLA2), and in LDL subclasses. Lp-PLA2 activity produced and secreted from peripheral blood monocytes in culture was also determined. Patients with β-thalassemia are characterized by a predominance of small-dense LDL particles, increased oxidative stress, and very high plasma levels<