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Sample records for affect plasma levels

  1. Nutritional and environmental factors affecting plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Keiko; Okame, Rieko; Katayama, Tetsuro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2010-10-01

    We examined which factors suppress the rise of ghrelin secretion under hunger in 16-h-starved rats, and compared the responses of plasma ghrelin and leptin levels to various exogenous and endogenous stimuli in intact rats. Although an acute expansion of the stomach by infusion of 6 ml air or 3 ml water in rats starved for 16 h did not change the level of plasma acyl-ghrelin 3 ml corn starch solution, corn oil, or 20% ethanol significantly decreased it. Vagotomy inhibited suppression by nutrients but not by ethanol. Chronic infusion of ethanol into the stomach for 3 weeks in free-feeding rats caused widespread injury of the stomach mucosa, and increased both plasma ghrelin levels and the number of ghrelin cells. In intact rats, low temperature did not change ghrelin levels, but increased leptin levels. On the other hand, restriction stress decreased plasma ghrelin levels, but had the reverse effect on plasma leptin levels. Although insulin decreased and 20% glucose increased plasma glucose levels, they both decreased plasma ghrelin levels. Insulin elevated plasma leptin levels, but glucose had no effect. These results indicate that 1) acyl-ghrelin secretion from the stomach under fasting condition is suppressed by nutrients but not by mechanical expansion of the stomach; 2) high and low environmental temperature, stress, or administration of insulin reciprocally affect plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin; and 3) an increase of stomach ghrelin cell number and plasma ghrelin levels after chronic ethanol treatment may be involved in restoration of gastric mucosae.

  2. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  3. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

  4. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  6. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. PMID:27344989

  7. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  8. Poststroke depression as a factor adversely affecting the level of oxidative damage to plasma proteins during a brain stroke.

    PubMed

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Niwald, Marta; Saluk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Poststroke depression, the second most serious psychosomatic complication after brain stroke, leads to delay of the rehabilitation process and is associated with an increased disability and cognitive impairment along with increase in term mortality. Research into the biochemical changes in depression is still insufficiently described. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the possible association between plasma protein oxidative/nitrative damages and the development of poststroke depression. We evaluated oxidative/nitrative modifications of specific proteins by measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups levels using ELISA test. Additionally, we checked differences in proteins thiol groups by spectrophotometric assay based on reaction between DTNB and thiols. We also evaluated catalase activity in erythrocytes measured as ability to decompose H2O2. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's rank. We observed significant (P < 0.001) differences in all oxidative/nitrative stress parameters in brain stroke patients compared to healthy group. Our research shows that oxidative damage of proteins is correlated with the degree of poststroke depression, while nitrative changes do not show any relationship. We demonstrate a positive correlation between the concentration of carbonyl groups and the Geriatric Depression Scale and a negative correlation between the degree of depression and the concentration of -SH groups or catalase activity.

  9. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine.

  10. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine. PMID:27105833

  11. Increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid modify the plasma cholesterol level and hepatic mass of scavenger receptor BI without affecting bile acid biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Loison, Carole; Mendy, François; Serougne, Colette; Lutton, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of increasing amounts of dietary myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2% of the total dietary energy) on the plasma and hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Six groups of hamsters received semi-purified diets containing 0.05% cholesterol and 12.5% lipids and differing only by the nature of the triglycerides (Safflower oil, lard, lard/coconut oil (1:1), milk fat, milk fat/coconut oil (1:1), coconut oil) for 3 weeks. A positive regression between the plasma cholesterol level and the dietary myristic acid level was observed (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001). However, it is noteworthy that the increase in plasma total cholesterol only reflects an increase in the level of HDL-cholesterol. In parallel, the mass SR-BI decreased linearly with the increased level of myristic acid in the diet, whereas the LDL-R did not change. This study shows that increasing amounts of myristic acid (0.03 to 4.2%) do not alter the cholesterol or bile acid metabolism and increase only the HDL-C. PMID:12216956

  12. Respiratory Mechanics and Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 6 Are Affected by Gas Humidification during Mechanical Ventilation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Olmos-Zúñiga, J. Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel O.; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Gutiérrez-González, Luis H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p = 0.77). This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05). Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p = 0.02). Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation. PMID:25036811

  13. Reduced plasma pyrophosphate levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lomashvili, Koba A; Khawandi, Wassim; O'Neill, W Charles

    2005-08-01

    Pyrophosphate (PPi) is a known inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation and has been shown to inhibit medial vascular calcification in vitamin D-toxic rats. It was demonstrated recently that endogenous production of PPi prevents calcification of rat aorta that are cultured in high concentrations of calcium and phosphate. For determining whether PPi metabolism is altered in hemodialysis patients, plasma levels and dialytic clearance of PPi were measured in stable hemodialysis patients. Predialysis plasma [PPi] was 2.26 +/- 0.19 microM in 38 clinically stable hemodialysis patients compared with 3.26 +/- 0.17 in 36 normal subjects (P < 0.01). Approximately 30% of plasma PPi was protein bound, and this was not altered in dialysis patients. There was a weak inverse correlation with age in normal individuals but not in dialysis patients. Plasma [PPi] in dialysis patients was correlated with plasma [PO4(3-)] (r = 0.56) but not with [Ca2+], parathyroid hormone, or the dose of dialysis, and levels did not vary between interdialytic periods of 2 and 3 d. Plasma [PPi] decreased 32 +/- 5% after standard hemodialysis in 17 patients. In vitro clearance of PPi by a 2.1-m2 cellulose acetate dialyzer was 36%, and the mean PPi removal in five patients was 43 +/- 5 micromol, consistent with a similar in vivo clearance. Cleared PPi was greater than the plasma pool but less than the estimated extracellular fluid pool. Erythrocyte PPi content decreased 24 +/- 4%, indicating that intracellular PPi is removed as well. It is concluded that plasma [PPi] is reduced in hemodialysis patients and that PPi is cleared by dialysis. Plasma levels in some patients were below those that have previously been shown to prevent calcification of vessels in culture, suggesting that altered PPi metabolism could contribute to vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. PMID:15958726

  14. Altered Levels of Acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer Plasma

    PubMed Central

    García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Serra-Basante, Carol; Alom, Jordi; Boopathy, Rathnam; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Background Many studies have been conducted in an extensive effort to identify alterations in blood cholinesterase levels as a consequence of disease, including the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in plasma. Conventional assays using selective cholinesterase inhibitors have not been particularly successful as excess amounts of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) pose a major problem. Principal Findings Here we have estimated the levels of AChE activity in human plasma by first immunoprecipitating BuChE and measuring AChE activity in the immunodepleted plasma. Human plasma AChE activity levels were ∼20 nmol/min/mL, about 160 times lower than BuChE. The majority of AChE species are the light G1+G2 forms and not G4 tetramers. The levels and pattern of the molecular forms are similar to that observed in individuals with silent BuChE. We have also compared plasma AChE with the enzyme pattern obtained from human liver, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain, by sedimentation analysis, Western blotting and lectin-binding analysis. Finally, a selective increase of AChE activity was detected in plasma from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. This increase correlates with an increase in the G1+G2 forms, the subset of AChE species which are increased in Alzheimer's brain. Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 78 kDa immunoreactive AChE protein band was also increased in Alzheimer's plasma, attributed in part to AChE-T subunits common in brain and CSF. Conclusion Plasma AChE might have potential as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis in AD and warrants further investigation. PMID:20090844

  15. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  16. During the Long Way to Mars: Effects of 520 Days of Confinement (Mars500) on the Assessment of Affective Stimuli and Stage Alteration in Mood and Plasma Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu; Lv, Ke; Wu, Bin; Bai, Yanqiang; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (p<0.05), and the correlation between psychological and biochemical data was identified (p<0.05). Overall, we concluded that the confined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon. PMID:24695321

  17. During the long way to Mars: effects of 520 days of confinement (Mars500) on the assessment of affective stimuli and stage alteration in mood and plasma hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu; Lv, Ke; Wu, Bin; Bai, Yanqiang; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (p<0.05), and the correlation between psychological and biochemical data was identified (p<0.05). Overall, we concluded that the confined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon.

  18. How High Glucose Levels Affect Tendon Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jess G

    2016-01-01

    Among the many factors playing a role in tendon disease, unregulated biochemical reactions between glucose and the collagen extracellular matrix are coming increasingly into focus. We have shown that formation of advanced glycation end-products that cross-link the collagen extracellular matrix can drastically affect cellular level mechanical properties of the matrix, and in turn affect cell-level biomechanical stimuli during physiological loading of the tissue. We suggest that these may adversely affect tendon cell response to matrix damage, as well as the quality of the consequent repair. If such mechanical feedback loops are altered, the ability of tendon cells to maintain tissue in a functional, healthy state may be compromised. Although key foundational elements of biochemical, biomechanical, and biological understanding are now in place, the full extent of how these aspects interact, including the precise mechanisms by which advanced glycation end-products pathologically disrupt connective tissue homeostasis and damage repair, are only beginning to be adequately appreciated. PMID:27535261

  19. Daily rhythms in plasma levels of homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz

    2004-01-01

    Background There is accumulated evidence that plasma concentration of the sulfur-containing amino-acid homocysteine (Hcy) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Both fasting levels of Hcy and post methionine loading levels are used as prognostic markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a daily rhythm in plasma Hcy under strictly controlled nutritional and sleep-wake conditions. We also investigated if the time during which methionine loading is performed, i.e., morning or evening, had a different effect on the resultant plasma Hcy concentration. Methods Six healthy men aged 23–26 years participated in 4 experiments. In the first and second experiments, the daily rhythm in Hcy as well as in other amino acids was investigated under a normal or an inverse sleep-wake cycle. In the third and fourth, Hcy concentrations were investigated after a morning and evening methionine loading. To standardize food consumption in the first two experiments, subjects received every 3 hours 150 ml of specially designed low-protein liquid food (Ensure® formula). Results In both the first and second experiments there was a significant daily rhythm in Hcy concentrations with a mid-day nadir and a nocturnal peak. Strikingly different 24-h patterns were observed in methionine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine. In all, the 24-h curves revealed a strong influence of both the sleep-wake cycle and the feeding schedule. Methionine loading resulted in increased plasma Hcy levels during both morning and evening experiments, which were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions There is a daily rhythm in plasma concentration of the amino acid Hcy, and this rhythm is independent of sleep-wake and food consumption. In view of the fact that increased Hcy concentrations may be associated with increased cardiovascular risks, these findings may have clinical implications for the health of rotating shift workers. PMID:15347422

  20. Dietary zinc depletion and repletion affects plasma proteins: an analysis of the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Wickwire, Kathie; Ho, Emily; Chung, Carolyn S.; King, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a problem worldwide. Current methods for assessing Zn status are limited to measuring plasma or serum Zn within populations suspected of deficiency. Despite the high prevalence of Zn deficiency in the human population there are no methods currently available for sensitively assessing Zn status among individuals. The purpose of this research was to utilize a proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry to identify protein biomarkers that were sensitive to changes in dietary Zn levels in humans. Proteomic analysis was performed in human plasma samples (n = 6) obtained from healthy adult male subjects that completed a dietary Zn depletion/repletion protocol, current dietary zinc intake has a greater effect on fractional zinc absorption than does longer term zinc consumption in healthy adult men. Chung et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 87 (5):1224–1229, 2008). After a 13 day Zn acclimatization period where subjects consumed a Zn-adequate diet, the male subjects consumed a marginal Zn-depleted diet for 42 days followed by consumption of a Zn-repleted diet for 28 days. The samples at baseline, end of depletion and end of repletion were pre-fractionated through immuno-affinity columns to remove 14 highly abundant proteins, and each fraction separated by 2DE. Following staining by colloidal Coomassie blue and densitometric analysis, three proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as affected by changes in dietary Zn. Fibrin β and chain E, fragment double D were observed in the plasma protein fraction that remained bound to the immuno-affinity column. An unnamed protein that was related to immunoglobulins was observed in the immunode-pleted plasma fraction. Fibrin β increased two-fold following the Zn depletion period and decreased to baseline values following the Zn repletion period; this protein may serve as a viable biomarker for Zn status in the future. PMID:23255060

  1. Dietary zinc depletion and repletion affects plasma proteins: an analysis of the plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Grider, Arthur; Wickwire, Kathie; Ho, Emily; Chung, Carolyn S; King, Janet

    2013-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a problem world-wide. Current methods for assessing Zn status are limited to measuring plasma or serum Zn within populations suspected of deficiency. Despite the high prevalence of Zn deficiency in the human population there are no methods currently available for sensitively assessing Zn status among individuals. The purpose of this research was to utilize a proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry to identify protein biomarkers that were sensitive to changes in dietary Zn levels in humans. Proteomic analysis was performed in human plasma samples (n = 6) obtained from healthy adult male subjects that completed a dietary Zn depletion/repletion protocol, current dietary zinc intake has a greater effect on fractional zinc absorption than does longer term zinc consumption in healthy adult men. Chung et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 87 (5):1224-1229, 2008). After a 13 day Zn acclimatization period where subjects consumed a Zn-adequate diet, the male subjects consumed a marginal Zn-depleted diet for 42 days followed by consumption of a Zn-repleted diet for 28 days. The samples at baseline, end of depletion and end of repletion were pre-fractionated through immuno-affinity columns to remove 14 highly abundant proteins, and each fraction separated by 2DE. Following staining by colloidal Coomassie blue and densitometric analysis, three proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as affected by changes in dietary Zn. Fibrin β and chain E, fragment double D were observed in the plasma protein fraction that remained bound to the immunoaffinity column. An unnamed protein that was related to immunoglobulins was observed in the immunodepleted plasma fraction. Fibrin β increased two-fold following the Zn depletion period and decreased to baseline values following the Zn repletion period; this protein may serve as a viable biomarker for Zn status in the future.

  2. Dietary zinc depletion and repletion affects plasma proteins: an analysis of the plasma proteome.

    PubMed

    Grider, Arthur; Wickwire, Kathie; Ho, Emily; Chung, Carolyn S; King, Janet

    2013-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a problem world-wide. Current methods for assessing Zn status are limited to measuring plasma or serum Zn within populations suspected of deficiency. Despite the high prevalence of Zn deficiency in the human population there are no methods currently available for sensitively assessing Zn status among individuals. The purpose of this research was to utilize a proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry to identify protein biomarkers that were sensitive to changes in dietary Zn levels in humans. Proteomic analysis was performed in human plasma samples (n = 6) obtained from healthy adult male subjects that completed a dietary Zn depletion/repletion protocol, current dietary zinc intake has a greater effect on fractional zinc absorption than does longer term zinc consumption in healthy adult men. Chung et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 87 (5):1224-1229, 2008). After a 13 day Zn acclimatization period where subjects consumed a Zn-adequate diet, the male subjects consumed a marginal Zn-depleted diet for 42 days followed by consumption of a Zn-repleted diet for 28 days. The samples at baseline, end of depletion and end of repletion were pre-fractionated through immuno-affinity columns to remove 14 highly abundant proteins, and each fraction separated by 2DE. Following staining by colloidal Coomassie blue and densitometric analysis, three proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as affected by changes in dietary Zn. Fibrin β and chain E, fragment double D were observed in the plasma protein fraction that remained bound to the immunoaffinity column. An unnamed protein that was related to immunoglobulins was observed in the immunodepleted plasma fraction. Fibrin β increased two-fold following the Zn depletion period and decreased to baseline values following the Zn repletion period; this protein may serve as a viable biomarker for Zn status in the future. PMID:23255060

  3. Plasma adropin level in patients with pseudoexfoliation.

    PubMed

    Oğurel, Tevfik; Oğurel, Reyhan; Topuz, Mustafa; Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma adropin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This retrospective case-control study included 35 patients with PEX and 35 individuals without PEX who served as controls. Plasma adropin levels with triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and haemoglobin A1c (HGBA1C) concentrations were measured in both groups. The mean serum adropin levels were 3.24 ± 0.95 ng/mL (range, 1.90-7.88 ng/mL) in patients with PEX syndrome and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 2.08-5.41 ng/mL) in PEX glaucoma patients. There was no statistically significant difference in mean adropin levels between PEX syndrome and PEX glaucoma patients. However, similar adropin levels were found in the PEX glaucoma patients and the control group (P > 0.05). The mean serum adropin levels were 3.34 ± 0.89 ng/mL (range, 1.90-5.39 ng/mL) in the PEX group and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 3.08-11.06 ng/mL) in the control group. The mean serum adropin level of the PEX group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HGBA1C, triglycerides levels, or body mass index (all P > 0.05). Adropin level is lower in patients with PEX. PMID:26861473

  4. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (p<.001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p=.031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r=-.408, p=.002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r=.267, p=.045) and DA/E (r=.271, p=.042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.

  5. Photoperiod effects on plasma cortisol levels in Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Audet, C; FitzGerald, G J; Guderley, H

    1986-01-01

    No diel variations of plasma cortisol levels were found in Gasterosteus aculeatus acclimated to two different photoperiod conditions: 14L:10D and 9L:15D. However, under long photoperiods, G. aculeatus exhibited higher plasma cortisol levels than under short photoperiods, suggesting that elevated plasma cortisol levels are associated with the spring migration and/or reproductive activities. This decrease of plasma cortisol levels is particularly marked in male G. aculeatus. Under the 9L:15D photoperiod, males had lower plasma cortisol levels than females, in contrast to 14L:10D, where no significant sex differences were found. PMID:3940931

  6. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies.

  7. GLUCOMANNAN AND GLUCOMANNAN PLUS SPIRULINA-ENRICHED SQUID-SURIMI ADDED TO HIGH SATURATED DIET AFFECT GLYCEMIA, PLASMA AND ADIPOSE LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN LEVELS IN GROWING FA/FA RATS.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; Méndez, María Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, M José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a very prevalent chronic disease. Among dietary factors for its prevention and treatment, interest has grown in satiating fibre (konjac glucomannan) and spirulina. Our previous studies suggest that glucomannan itself and/or in conjunction to spirulina displayed hypolipemic and antioxidant effects when incorporated to squid surimi as functional ingredients. The present study aims to determine whether glucomannan- enriched or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi improve plasma glucose and insulin levels in Zucker fa/fa rats fed a high saturated fat diet. Twenty four growing rats, divided into three groups, were given modified AIN-93M diets for seven weeks: 30% squid-surimi control diet (C), 30% glucomannan-enriched squid-surimi diet (G) and 30% glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched squid-surimi diet (GS). All rats became hyperglycemics and hyperinsulinemics, but G and GS diets induced significantly lower glucose levels (20%; p < 0.05) but did not modify insulinemia with respect to C diet. GS animals showed higher HOMA-D (p < 0.05) than C ones suggesting increased insulin availability. Plasma leptin and adiponectin decreased in G and GS vs. C group (p < 0.05). Adipose adiponectin increased significantly in G and GS vs. C rats (16-20 times, p < 0.01). Leptin in adipose tissue was higher in GS vs. G group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both glucomannan-diets were able to reduce hyperglycemia and increase adipose tissue adiponectin levels in fa/fa rats, suggesting an anti-hypertrophic and insulin-sensitizing adipokine effect in this tissue. Spirulina inclusion increased insulin availability. Although results are promising, the utility of consuming glucomannan surimis as part of usual diets demands future studies. PMID:26667726

  8. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp, maternal, and umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Sybulski, S; Goldsmith, W J; Maughan, G B

    1975-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in the fetal circulation prior to delivery. Fetal scalp plasma cortisol levels during labor were significantly lower than those in maternal peripheral plasma but significantly higher than those in cord plasma at delivery. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp plasma did not correlate significantly with those in either maternal or cord plasma. The greater cortisol concentrations in fetal scalp plasma relative to those in cord plasma could have been transient increases caused by fetal adrenal response to the stress of the scalp sampling procedure. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels in maternal and cord plasma, which may mean that a considerable part of the cortisol in the fetal circulation at delivery is of maternal origin.

  9. Plasma catecholamine levels and neurobehavioral problems in Indian firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ray, Manas R; Basu, Chandreyi; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Banik, Sampa; Lahiri, Twisha

    2006-05-01

    Firefighting is a stressful and hazardous job. Persons engaged in firefighting are highly exposed to work-related stress as well as to smoke containing a host of chemicals potentially harmful to human health. In order to elucidate whether firefighting affects neuroendocrine and behavioral responses of firefighters, plasma catecholamine (CA) levels and the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms in 62 firefighters (all males, mean age 43 yr) and 52 control subjects matched for age and sex were examined in this study. Self-reported neurobehavioral symptoms data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and personal interview. Concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Compared with matched controls, the firefighters showed higher prevalence (p<0.05) of neurobehavioral symptoms such as burning sensation in the extremities, tingling and numbness, transient loss of memory, and depression, but no significant difference was recorded in the prevalences of anxiety, vertigo and dizziness. The firefighters demonstrated a more than two-fold (p<0.05) rise in plasma levels of E and NE, but the plasma DA level was relatively unchanged. Controlling age and smoking as possible confounders, firefighting was found to be associated with raised E (OR=2.15; 95% CI, 0.98-4.52), and NE levels (OR=2.24 95% CI, 1.22-3.61). In conclusion, the job of firefighting appears to be associated with stimulation of sympathetic activity and a rise in the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms. PMID:16788283

  10. [Gastrointestinal disease with elevated plasma homocysteine level].

    PubMed

    Coll, P; Guttormsen, A B; Berstad, A

    1999-10-10

    Elevated plasma homocystein (tHcy) is a marker for functional deficiency of folate and/or cobalamin. Malabsorption of these vitamins occurs in various gastroenterologic diseases. A frequent mutation (C677T) in the gene coding for the enzyme methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is often associated with elevated values of tHcy. We have investigated 24 patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l for gastrointestinal disease that can contribute to such elevation. Of these, 19 were homozygous for mutated MTHFR, four were heterozygous and one was normal. We found two cases of probable celiac disease, one case of Crohn's disease and one case of ulcerative colitis. These four were homozygous for the C667T mutation. Furthermore, we found eight persons who were anacidic; four homozygous, three heterozygous and one normal. All had gastritis histologically, six had serum gastrin > 50 pmol/l, and four were already on treatment with cobalamin injections. Helicobacter pylori-infection was found in nine out of 22 persons. Gastrointestinal disease occurs frequently in patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l, but with the exception of conditions resulting in serious deficiency of cobalamin, these diseases alone do not seem sufficient to cause such high levels. We suggest that a reasonable approach to patients with homocystein values above 40 mumol/l is to exclude cobalamin deficiency, and that further investigations should be based upon thorough anamnesis and symptoms. PMID:10563175

  11. Ssh4, Rcr2 and Rcr1 affect plasma membrane transporter activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kota, Jhansi; Melin-Larsson, Monika; Ljungdahl, Per O; Forsberg, Hanna

    2007-04-01

    Nutrient uptake in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly regulated process. Cells adjust levels of nutrient transporters within the plasma membrane at multiple stages of the secretory and endosomal pathways. In the absence of the ER-membrane-localized chaperone Shr3, amino acid permeases (AAP) inefficiently fold and are largely retained in the ER. Consequently, shr3 null mutants exhibit greatly reduced rates of amino acid uptake due to lower levels of AAPs in their plasma membranes. To further our understanding of mechanisms affecting AAP localization, we identified SSH4 and RCR2 as high-copy suppressors of shr3 null mutations. The overexpression of SSH4, RCR2, or the RCR2 homolog RCR1 increases steady-state AAP levels, whereas the genetic inactivation of these genes reduces steady-state AAP levels. Additionally, the overexpression of any of these suppressor genes exerts a positive effect on phosphate and uracil uptake systems. Ssh4 and Rcr2 primarily localize to structures associated with the vacuole; however, Rcr2 also localizes to endosome-like vesicles. Our findings are consistent with a model in which Ssh4, Rcr2, and presumably Rcr1, function within the endosome-vacuole trafficking pathway, where they affect events that determine whether plasma membrane proteins are degraded or routed to the plasma membrane.

  12. Plasma glutamine levels and falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Cowan, G; Planche, T; Agbenyega, T; Bedu-Addo, G; Owusu-Ofori, A; Adebe-Appiah, J; Agranoff, D; Woodrow, C; Castell, L; Elford, B; Krishna, S

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine deficiency is associated with increased rates of sepsis and mortality, which can be prevented by glutamine supplementation. Changes in glutamine concentration were examined in Ghanaian children with acute falciparum malaria and control cases. The mean (SD) plasma glutamine concentration was lower in patients with acute malaria (401 (82) mumol/L, n = 50) than in control patients (623 (67) mumol/L, n = 7; P < 0.001). Plasma glutamine concentrations all rose in convalescence. The mean (SD) increase in plasma glutamine was 202 (123) mumol/L (n = 18; P < 0.001) compared with acute infection. We conclude that acute falciparum malaria is associated with large decreases in plasma glutamine and these falls may increase susceptibility to sepsis and dyserythropoeisis.

  13. TDP-43 plasma levels are higher in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Esther; Kuiperij, H Bea; van Blitterswijk, Marka M; Veldink, Jan H; Schelhaas, H Jurgen; van den Berg, Leonard H; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate TDP-43 plasma levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 has been identified as a major component of protein inclusions in the brain of patients with ALS; mutations in the corresponding gene (TARDBP) have also been identified. Although increased TDP-43 levels have been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid, plasma levels have not yet been assessed in patients with ALS. TDP-43 levels were quantified by sandwich ELISA in plasma of 219 patients and 100 controls. In addition, we sequenced exon 6 of TARDBP, and performed longitudinal TDP-43 plasma measurements in a subset of patients. Results showed that TDP-43 plasma levels were significantly increased in patients with ALS (p=0.023) and we found a positive correlation with age in patients and controls. Longitudinal measurements of TDP-43 plasma levels showed an increase in only one patient, with stable levels in five others. Three TARDBP variations were identified in the ALS group (1.7%), but the association with TDP-43 plasma levels was ambiguous. In conclusion, our data indicate that TDP-43 plasma levels may have potential as a marker for ALS. A genotype-phenotype relationship could not, however, be established in this cohort.

  14. Plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Yuan; Kuang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Nie, Hao-Jie; Guo, Hong

    2008-10-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered active peptide isolated from the stomach. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the modification of plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. Men older than 65 years undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included. All patients with chronic atrophic gastritis underwent multiple biopsies. Fasting plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels were examined in 50 men with chronic atrophic gastritis and 50 healthy men. Plasma obestatin levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. Plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin to obestatin ratio was decreased in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. There was a significant relationship between atrophy and decreased obestatin. A negative correlation was found between circulating obestatin levels and body mass index (BMI) in healthy subjects, but not in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The data indicated that chronic atrophic gastritis influenced plasma obestatin levels as well as ghrelin to obestatin ratio in elderly men.

  15. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: the significance of differing plasma catecholamine concentrations in affected and unaffected limbs.

    PubMed

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Smythe, G A

    1991-10-01

    In 26 patients with features of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, venous blood was collected from painful and unaffected limbs. Levels of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline and its intracellular metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), were measured by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Plasma DHPG was lower on the painful side. Concentration of plasma noradrenaline was also lower on the painful side in patients with widespread allodynia, and in those with hyperhidrosis in the affected hand or foot. These findings do not support the widely held view that autonomic disturbances in reflex sympathetic dystrophy are due to sympathetic overactivity. Rather, they suggest that sweating and changes in peripheral blood flow result from supersensitivity to sympathetic neurotransmitters. After injury, supersensitivity to noradrenaline may also contribute to spontaneous pain and allodynia by disrupting efferent sympathetic modulation of sensation. This would explain why pain and allodynia are relieved by sympathetic blockade, and why noradrenaline rekindles pain in sympathectomized skin. PMID:1933231

  16. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

  17. Antibacterial plasma at safe levels for skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekema, B. K. H. L.; Hofmann, S.; van Ham, B. J. T.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2013-10-01

    Plasmas produce various reactive species, which are known to be very effective in killing bacteria. Plasma conditions, at which efficient bacterial inactivation is observed, are often not compatible with leaving human cells unharmed. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma settings for inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, without damaging skin cells in vitro under the same treatment conditions. An RF argon plasma jet excited with either continuous or time modulated (20 kHz, 20% duty cycle) voltages was used. To compare these two operation modes, only the input voltage was adjusted in order to obtain the same average power (1.7 W) for both modes. All other settings, i.e. gas flow, distance plasma tip to liquid surface, were kept constant. Bacteria or skin cells in physiological salt solution were exposed to direct non-contact plasma treatments. Short plasma treatments of up to 2 min resulted in a high reduction of bacterial numbers and did not affect dermal fibroblasts or keratinocytes. Bacterial inactivation has been previously ascribed to peroxynitrite, nitrite and H2O2 while eukaryotic cell viability is proposed to be reduced in the long term by the presence of H2O2 and is less affected by reactive nitrogen species. The remote RF plasma jet treatment was highly effective for bacterial inactivation while skin cell viability was preserved.

  18. Female presence affects male behavior and testosterone levels in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pinxten, Rianne; de Ridder, Elke; Eens, Marcel

    2003-08-01

    In this study, we confronted individually housed male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with a female conspecific for 60 min to study the consequences on behavior and plasma testosterone (T) concentrations. Control males experienced a similar procedure, the only difference being that they were tested in the absence of a female. Female presence significantly affected both behavior and plasma T levels of male starlings. Experimental males spent significantly more time singing in the nest box and flew significantly more into the nest box with green nesting material during female presentations than during control periods. Control males never showed these mate attraction behaviors. In total 5 of the 16 experimental males did not respond behaviorally to the female stimulus bird (NR males). In contrast to T levels of control males, plasma T concentrations of both experimental males that did respond to the female (R males) and of NR males (which only perceived the female stimulus) were positively influenced by female presentation. The time spent singing in the nest box by experimental males (R and NR males combined) during female presence tended to be positively correlated with changes in plasma T levels. Finally, before introduction of a female, plasma T levels of R males were significantly higher than those of NR males indicating that individually housed males respond to the presence of a female conspecific by increasing their mate attraction behaviors only when a threshold plasma T concentration has been reached. PMID:13129481

  19. [Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Márk, L; Erdei, F; Márki-Zay, J; Nagy, E; Kondacs, A; Katona, A

    2001-07-29

    In the latest years it became clear that beside traditional cardiovascular risk factors the high plasma homocysteine level increases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases too. Metaanalysis of 27 papers found that 10% of population's coronary risk is attributable to homocysteine and a 5 mumol/l increase in its plasma level elevates the coronary risk by as much as 0.5 mumol/l cholesterol increase. Recent studies have shown an inverse relation between the levels of plasma homocysteine and that of folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12. The latters are cofactors and substrates of the homocysteine and methionin metabolism. The plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein(a), Apo A1, Apo B and homocysteine concentrations were examined in 39 patients suffering from coronary artery disease treated in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Department of our hospital. Twenty of them were treated by folic acid and vitamin B6 for a three week period. The mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 15.60 +/- 6.14 mumol/l. In the treated subgroup the mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 17.3 +/- 7.00 mumol/l, the mean (+/- SD) plasma folic acid level was 8.58 +/- 4.6 mumol/l. After the three week treatment period (folic acid and vitamin B6) the plasma homocysteine level decreased by 26.5% (p = 0.012), that of folic acid increased by 68.7% (p = 0.002). From the plasma lipids the level of total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (6.7% and 10.4%, P < 0.05), caused by the strict diet during hospital treatment. As for the genetic polymorphism of the V677 gen of the metylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) enzyme there was a significant correlation with homocysteine level (r = 0.436, p = 0.010), and a negative, but not significant correlation with the folic acid level (r = -0.354).

  20. Differences in bisphenol A and estrogen levels in the plasma and seminal plasma of men with different degrees of infertility.

    PubMed

    Vitku, J; Sosvorova, L; Chlupacova, T; Hampl, R; Hill, M; Sobotka, V; Heracek, J; Bicikova, M; Starka, L

    2015-01-01

    The general population is potentially exposed to many chemicals that can affect the endocrine system. These substances are called endocrine disruptors (EDs), and among them bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used and well studied. Nonetheless, there are still no data on simultaneous measurements of various EDs along with steroids directly in the seminal fluid, where deleterious effects of EDs on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis are assumed. We determined levels of BPA and 3 estrogens using LC-MS/MS in the plasma and seminal plasma of 174 men with different degrees of infertility. These men were divided according their spermiogram values into 4 groups: (1) healthy men, and (2) slightly, (3) moderate, and (4) severely infertile men. Estradiol levels differed across the groups and body fluids. Slightly infertile men have significantly higher BPA plasma and seminal plasma levels in comparison with healthy men (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, seminal BPA, but not plasma BPA, was negatively associated with sperm concentration and total sperm count (-0.27; p<0.001 and -0.24; p<0.01, respectively). These findings point to the importance of seminal plasma in BPA research. Overall, a disruption of estrogen metabolism was observed together with a weak but significant impact of BPA on sperm count and concentration. PMID:26680493

  1. Plasma Kisspeptin Levels in Newborn Infants with Breast Enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Avni; Orbak, Zerrin; Polat, Harun; Çayır, Atilla; Erdil, Abdullah; Döneray, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Kisspeptin levels have been reported in children with premature thelarche, precocious puberty and adolescent gynecomastia, but there are no reports on kisspeptin levels in the neonatal period. This study aimed to investigate plasma kisspeptin hormone levels in newborns with and without breast enlargement. Methods: Plasma kisspeptin levels and other related biochemical variables were investigated in this prospective study conducted on 40 (20 girls and 20 boys) newborn infants with breast enlargement and on 40 healthy control infants (20 girls and 20 boys). Two-milliliter venous blood samples were taken in hemogram tubes with K2EDTA. Kisspeptin assays were performed using the enzyme-immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma kisspeptin levels were 0.6±0.2 ng/mL in the study group and 0.5±0.2 ng/mL in the control group. Plasma kisspeptin concentrations were significantly higher in the study group (p=0.039) and also showed a correlation with serum prolactin levels (p=0.006). Significant correlations were also determined between plasma kisspeptin and luteinizing hormone concentrations (p=0.05, r=0.312). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that plasma kisspeptin and serum prolactin levels may be involved in the physiopathology of breast enlargement in newborns. PMID:26831552

  2. Plasma Membrane Factor XIIIA Transglutaminase Activity Regulates Osteoblast Matrix Secretion and Deposition by Affecting Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jallad, Hadil F.; Myneni, Vamsee D.; Piercy-Kotb, Sarah A.; Chabot, Nicolas; Mulani, Amina; Keillor, Jeffrey W.; Kaartinen, Mari T.

    2011-01-01

    Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA), has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to ‘block –and-track’ enzyme(s) targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics. PMID:21283799

  3. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-08-22

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/ml in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/ml in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/ml in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/ml in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/ml (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  4. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/mL in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/mL in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/mL in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/mL in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/mL (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  5. [IGF-1 plasma levels evaluation in prolactinoma].

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Daniela; Naliato, Erika C O; Sarmet, Alair; Sato, Eduardo; Costa, Fernando S R; Violante, Alice H D

    2006-09-01

    Prolactinomas are the most frequent pituitary tumors and may co-secrete GH (growth hormone). IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) is the main responsible for GH actions and a parameter for the diagnosis of acromegaly. With the objective of identifying through a IGF-1 levels analysis, in the initial evaluation of prolactinoma patients, the existence of mixed tumors [GH and prolactin (PRL)], we studied 7 men and 27 women, aged between 19 and 72 years, confronting them with the results of basal and glucose stimulated (glucose tolerance test--GTT) GH levels, indicated when GH >0.4 ng/mL or IGF-1 levels were elevated. The prevalence of patients with GH >0.4 ng/mL and elevated IGF-1 was higher than expected; however, after GTT, no patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acromegaly. However, we suggest that, they should be submitted to IGF-1 evaluation, due to the risk of GH co-secretion in prolactinomas. Special attention should be paid to those who present a significant decrease of PRL levels without concomitant tumor size reduction.

  6. Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation.

    PubMed

    Tooley, G A; Armstrong, S M; Norman, T R; Sali, A

    2000-05-01

    To determine whether a period of meditation could influence melatonin levels, two groups of meditators were tested in a repeated measures design for changes in plasma melatonin levels at midnight. Experienced meditators practising either TM-Sidhi or another internationally well known form of yoga showed significantly higher plasma melatonin levels in the period immediately following meditation compared with the same period at the same time on a control night. It is concluded that meditation, at least in the two forms studied here, can affect plasma melatonin levels. It remains to be determined whether this is achieved through decreased hepatic metabolism of the hormone or via a direct effect on pineal physiology. Either way, facilitation of higher physiological melatonin levels at appropriate times of day might be one avenue through which the claimed health promoting effects of meditation occur.

  7. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels. PMID:841203

  8. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels.

  9. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Nemeth, S; Popova, I; Tigranian, R A; Noskov, V B; Serova, L; Grigoriev, I A

    1991-01-01

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this revcovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues. PMID:11537112

  10. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  11. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  12. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  13. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger (<50 years) and older women, more pronounced among women with higher physical activity levels (0.7 hrs/week for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-3.0), higher alcohol consumption (> or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  14. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  15. Increase in plasma thrombomodulin level in patients with vibration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanazuka, M; Shigekiyo, T; Toibana, N; Saito, S

    1996-04-01

    To determine whether endothelial cells are injured in vibration syndrome, we measured plasma levels of thrombomodulin (TM) in 100 patients with this syndrome using one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Plasma level of TM in patients with vibration syndrome was significantly higher than that in normal control (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the plasma TM level between patients with vibration syndrome and those with collagen disease. Plasma TM concentration in chain-saw operators was significantly higher than that in rock-drill operators (p < 0.05). Plasma TM value did not significantly differ between patients with vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and those without VWF. These results suggest that endothelial injury is present in patients with vibration syndrome, the degree of endothelial injury in patients with vibration syndrome equals that in patients with collagen disease, and the endothelial injury in chain-saw operators is greater than that in rock-drill operators. However, there was no difference in the degree of endothelial injury between patients with VWF and those without VWF.

  16. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  17. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers.

    PubMed

    House, R A

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum. PMID:1403189

  18. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  19. Methods for the determination of plasma or tissue glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Trent E; Rogers, Lynette K

    2012-01-01

    We present two different methods for determining levels of glutathione in complex biological samples and plasma. The DTNB/GR enzyme recycling method is sensitive and requires no specialized equipment. The HPLC method is particularly useful for situations in which sample amounts are limited. Detailed instructions for performing each method as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed in this chapter.

  20. Increased plasma homocysteine levels in shift working bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Martins, P; D'Almeida, V; Vergani, N; Perez, A; Tufik, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated an association between shift work and cardiovascular disease. There is also considerable epidemiological evidence that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Aims: To analyse plasma homocysteine levels in shift work bus drivers, and to investigate possible relations with sleep parameters and other biochemical factors. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 30 male shift working long-haul bus drivers in a Brazilian sample and analysed for plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and serum lipids. A group of 22 daytime workers, matched for age and body mass index served as controls. The incidence of mutations in the gene coding for methylene tetrahydrofolate, an enzyme which is related to hyperhomocysteinemia, was also assessed. Polysomnographic recordings were obtained from the target group. Results: Bus drivers showed significantly higher levels of plasma homocysteine than the control group (18.57 v 9.43 µM). Most of the other biochemical, behavioural, and molecular parameters did not differ between groups. Likewise, sleep parameters appeared to be within the normal range. Conclusions: The significantly increased plasma homocysteine levels in long-haul bus drivers did not appear to be secondary to other biochemical or behavioural problems in this group. These results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia may be involved in the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases observed in shift workers. PMID:12937187

  1. Degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine appears not to affect the cellular cholesterol distribution.

    PubMed

    Pörn, M I; Ares, M P; Slotte, J P

    1993-08-01

    To clarify the role of possible cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine interactions in cellular cholesterol distribution, we have used a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus to degrade the cell surface phosphatidylcholine of cultured human fibroblasts. Of cellular phosphatidylcholine, approximately 15% was susceptible to degradation by the phospholipase. In spite of the dramatic redistribution of cellular cholesterol that can be observed after sphingomyelin depletion, the degradation of cell surface phosphatidylcholine did not affect the distribution of cholesterol in fibroblasts. In cholesterol-depleted cells as well as in cholesterol-loaded cells, the size of the cell surface cholesterol pool (susceptible to cholesterol oxidase) remained unchanged after phosphatidylcholine degradation. The rate of cholesterol esterification with [3H]oleic acid and the rate of [3H]cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts to high density lipoproteins also remained unchanged after degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine. An increase in the level of [3H]cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins was observed after degradation of plasma membrane sphingomyelin with exogenous sphingomyelinase, in-contrast to earlier reports, where no such effect was observed. The results suggest that interactions between cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in the fibroblast plasma membranes are less important than cholesterol/sphingomyelin interactions for the asymmetric distribution of cellular cholesterol.

  2. Plasma relaxin levels in pregnant and lactating dogs.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B G; Goldsmith, L T; Lust, G

    1987-10-01

    The pattern of plasma relaxin has been studied during pregnancy and following parturition in two breeds of dogs, Labrador retrievers and beagle hounds. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals following mating and during pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. Relaxin, progesterone, and estradiol-17 beta were determined by specific double antibody radioimmunoassays. Immunoreactive relaxin (IR) was not detectable in plasma of male dogs, bitches in anestrous, or pseudopregnant bitches that had undergone an infertile mating. IR was first detectable in plasma in the third or fourth week of gestation in retrievers and beagles. IR levels rose to a peak of 4-5 ng/ml in both breeds. The peak plasma levels were reached 2-3 wk before whelping and declined significantly prior to that event. IR then persisted during lactation at a level of 0.5-2 ng/ml for 4-9 wk, but was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) at all time periods and persisted longer in labradors than in beagles. The secretion of relaxin did not parallel that of progesterone, which was highly elevated in the first samples drawn (during the first week of pregnancy), remained high through 5 or 6 wk of gestation, then slowly declined until the time of parturition, becoming undetectable during lactation. Plasma estradiol-17 beta was low after the second week of pregnancy in both breeds of dogs and became undetectable during lactation. The source of relaxin in the dog is not known currently, and its sites of secretion and role in pregnancy are currently under investigation in our laboratories. The dog is the first species in which plasma IR is detectable during lactation using antibody R6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Smoking, COPD and 3-Nitrotyrosine Levels of Plasma Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hongjun; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Peterson, Elena S.; Tan, Ruimin; Bigelow, Diana J.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Hoidal, John R.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide is a physiologically regulator of endothelial function and hemodynamics. Oxidized products of nitric oxide can form nitrotyrosine, which is a marker of nitrative stress. Cigarette smoking decreases exhaled nitric oxide, and the underlying mechanism may be important in the cardiovascular toxicity of cigarette smoke, although it is not clear if this effect results from decreased nitric oxide production or oxidation of nitric oxide to reactive, nitrating, species. These processes would be expected to have opposite effects on nitrotyrosine levels, a marker of nitrative stress. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we determine the effects of smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on circulating levels of nitrotyrosine, and thereby gain insight into the processes regulating nitrotyrosine formation. METHODS: A custom antibody microarray platform was used to analyze the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine modifications on 24 proteins in plasma. Plasma samples from 458 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Nitrotyrosine levels in circulating proteins were uniformly reduced in smokers but increased in COPD patients. We also observed a persistent suppression of nitrotyrosine in former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking broadly suppresses the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma proteins, suggesting that cigarette smoke suppresses endothelial nitric oxide production. In contrast, the increase in nitrotyrosine levels in COPD patients most likely results from inflammatory processes. This study provides the first evidence that smoking has irreversible effects on endothelial production of nitric oxide, and provides insight into how smoking could induce a loss of elasticity in the vasculature and a long-term increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Disuse atrophy, plasma corticosterone, and muscle glucocorticoid receptor levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole-body suspension on the time course and the extent of plasma corticosterone changes and the tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were investigated in rats subjected to seven days of whole-body suspension. Plasma corticosterone increased significantly on the first and the third days of suspension, but returned to control levels by day seven. Muscle glucocorticoid receptors exhibited a characteristic hormonal specificity (evaluated in competitive-displacement experiments). In controls, receptor site concentration in the slow-twitch soleus was comparable to that in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius and plantaris, but was significantly less than in the extensor; seven days of suspension resulted in significant differential effects on muscle receptor levels. The largest increase in receptor concentration was observed in the soleus in which it remained elevated after the receptor levels in other muscles returned to normal.

  5. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  6. Plasma level monitoring of antidepressants: theoretical basis and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Gram, L F; Kragh-Sørensen, P; Kristensen, C B; Møller, M; Pedersen, O L; Thayssen, P

    1984-01-01

    For TCAs there is a strong rationale for drug level monitoring in clinical therapy. Therapeutic drug concentration ranges have been established in controlled studies with NT, imipramine, and AT. It has been shown that by appropriate choice of antidepressant and close monitoring of drug levels, treatment with antidepressants in elderly and other risk patients can be carried out effectively and safely, reducing the use of electroconvulsive therapy. Finally, the practical clinical use of antidepressant concentration measurements is now feasible and not expensive, and the analytical procedures can be established in most hospital settings. On the basis of these premises the following can be concluded: Plasma level monitoring should be used as a routine for imipramine, NT, and AT. Further plasma level studies on other antidepressants and in overdose cases should be initiated. Plasma level monitoring is indispensable in clinical research on antidepressants (trials, new drugs, toxicology). Pharmacokinetic considerations may be useful to determine which receptor effects are clinically relevant in therapy and toxicology. PMID:6380231

  7. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

  8. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat. PMID:12672919

  9. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens.

  10. Plasma estrogen levels during pregnancy in the western spotted skunk.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, R; Mead, R A

    1984-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain an estrogen profile throughout gestation in the western spotted skunk with special emphasis on relating changes in estrogen levels to blastocyst development. Blood samples were collected from 130 pregnant animals by cardiac puncture and plasma estrogen levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Estrogen levels varied throughout the period of embryonic diapause, with mean levels ranging between 3 to 18 pg/ml. There was a tendency for estrogen levels to be less variable and somewhat lower during the 15 days immediately prior to blastocyst implantation than during the preceding period. Plasma estrogen levels in skunks with delayed implanting blastocysts (diameters of 1.1 mm or less) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than those in females with activating blastocysts (i.e., diameters of 1.2 mm or greater), again suggesting that estrogen levels were reduced during the period immediately preceding implantation. However, the exact physiological significance, if any, of this modest reduction in estrogen levels remains to be determined.

  11. Positive relationship between plasma leptin level and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Anoop; Xiao, Jie

    2010-10-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors involved in hypertension development. Animal studies suggest that higher leptin levels may activate the sympathetic nervous system and cause elevations in blood pressure (BP). However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and hypertension in humans. Also it is not clear whether this association is present among women as well as men. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and hypertension in a representative sample of US adults. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5599; 54.7% women). Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (women: <7.68, 7.68 to 13.18, 13.19 to 21.70, >21.70 fg/L; men: <2.64, 2.64 to 4.36, 4.37 to 7.12, >7.12 fg/L). Hypertension was defined as BP-reducing medication use or having systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg. We found that higher plasma leptin levels were positively associated with hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. Compared with quartile 1 of leptin (referent), the odds ratio (95% CI) of hypertension associated with quartile 4 was 1.89 (1.24 to 2.09; P for trend=0.0036). Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and hypertension by sex and body mass index categories also showed a consistent positive association. In conclusion, higher plasma leptin levels are associated with hypertension both among women as well as men in a representative sample of US adults.

  12. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  13. Plasma FGF23 levels increase rapidly after acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Waikar, Sushrut; Pereira, Renata; Havasi, Andrea; Leaf, David E.; Goltzman, David; Pajevic, Paola Divieti; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are elevated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). In order to determine how early this increase occurs we used a murine folic acid nephropathy model and found that plasma FGF23 levels increased significantly from baseline already after 1 hour of AKI, with an 18-fold increase at 24 hours. Similar elevations of FGF23 levels were found when AKI was induced in mice with osteocyte-specific parathyroid hormone receptor ablation or the global deletion of parathyroid hormone or vitamin D receptor, indicating that the increase in FGF23 was independent of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D signaling. Furthermore, FGF23 levels increased to a similar extent in wild-type mice maintained on normal or phosphate-depleted diets prior to induction of AKI, indicating that the marked FGF23 elevation is at least partially independent of dietary phosphate. Bone production of FGF23 was significantly increased in AKI. The half-life of intravenously administered recombinant FGF23 was only modestly increased. Consistent with the mouse data, plasma FGF23 levels rose 15.9-fold by 24 hours following cardiac surgery in patients who developed AKI. The levels were significantly higher than in those without postoperative AKI. Thus, circulating FGF23 levels rise rapidly during AKI in rodents and humans. In mice this increase is independent of established modulators of FGF23 secretion. PMID:23657144

  14. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  15. Fluctuations in plasma oestradiol levels in normal men.

    PubMed

    Kicóvíc, P M; Luisi, M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Franchi, F

    1980-01-01

    Plasma levels of oestradiol were measured in blood samples obtained from 6 normal men every 12 minutes for two 4-hour periods: between 08.00 and 12.00h and between 18.00 and 22.00h. Circulating oestradiol was measured by radioimmunoassay after chromatographic separation on microcolumns of Sephadex LH-20. Mean values of oestradiol concentrations and coefficients of variation for two 4-hour periods were calculated for each subject and for the whole group. Data were statistically evaluated by means of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Rapid fluctuations in plasma oestradiol levels were observed in all subjects. The pattern of the fluctuations was found to be irregular and different in each subject. The mean concentration and coefficient of variation were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in the morning, suggesting the possibility of a circadian rhythm in the secretion of oestradiol in men.

  16. Plasma oxytocin levels predict social cue recognition in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Koenig, James I; Gold, James M; Frost, Katherine H; Buchanan, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated with endogenous oxytocin. The current study explored the association between endogenous oxytocin levels and lower- and higher-level social cognition in 40 individuals diagnosed with SZ and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). All participants received the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT), which presents participants with videotaped interpersonal vignettes and subsequent true/false questions related to concrete or abstract aspects of social interactions in the vignettes. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ and CN did not differ on SCRT hits, but SZ had more false positives and lower sensitivity scores than CN. Higher plasma oxytocin levels were associated with better sensitivity scores for abstract items in CN and fewer false positives for concrete items in individuals with SZ. Findings indicate that endogenous oxytocin levels predict accurate encoding of lower-level socially relevant information in SZ. PMID:25673435

  17. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Syamala, Shirmila; Xiao, Jie; Muntner, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n = 5820, 53.6% women). Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L). CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent), the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78); P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults. PMID:22666590

  18. Decreased Plasma BDNF Levels of Patients with Somatization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most abundant and important neurotrophins, is known to be involved in the development, survival, maintenance, and plasticity of neurons in the nervous system. Some studies have suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia. Similarly, it is likely that the alteration of BDNF may be associated with the neuro-modulation that contributes to the development of somatization disorder. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an abnormality of plasma BDNF levels in patients with somatization disorder, and to analyze the nature of the alteration after pharmacotherapy using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The plasma BDNF levels of the patients with a somatization disorder were significantly lower compared with those of the control volunteers (83.61±89.97 pg/mL vs. 771.36±562.14 pg/mL); moreover, the plasma BDNF levels of those patients who received an antidepressant were significantly increased after the treatment (118.13±91.45 pg/mL vs. 72.92±88.21 pg/mL). Conclusion These results suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of somatization disorder. PMID:27757131

  19. Plasma bupivacaine levels following single dose intraarticular instillation for arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meinig, R P; Holtgrewe, J L; Wiedel, J D; Christie, D B; Kestin, K J

    1988-01-01

    Arthroscopy of the knee was performed using 30 ml single dose intraarticular instillations of 0.5% or 0.25% solutions of bupivacaine (Marcaine). A total of 18 patients (mean age, 34 years), divided into two groups, participated in this study. Venous plasma levels were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 240 minute intervals following a single instillation into the knee joint. All patients had suspected traumatic internal derangement of the knee. Electrocardiogram tracings, blood pressure, and neurologic assessment were monitored at each venous sampling interval or more often if clinically indicated. The type and amount of supplemental anesthesia were also recorded. None of our 18 patients required a general anesthetic because of pain although the following procedures were performed: meniscectomy, plica release, abrasion chondroplasty, loose body retrieval, and limited meniscal repair. A new methodology for the measurement of plasma bupivacaine using the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer is described. Monitoring specific molecular mass fragments allows the measurement of picogram per milliliter levels of bupivacaine. The highest peak plasma concentration occurred 20 minutes after instillation of 30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. The 625 +/- 225 ng/ml level was well below the 2,500 to 4,000 ng/ml reported to elicit early subjective CNS symptoms of bupivacaine toxicity. Thus, a single dose intraarticular instillation of 30 ml 0.5% or 0.25% bupivacaine is convenient, efficacious, and pharmacologically safe for routine clinical arthroscopy.

  20. Calling rate, corticosterone plasma levels and immunocompetence of Hypsiboas albopunctatus.

    PubMed

    Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Braz; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Flanagan, Sarah Perry; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    During the breeding season, male anuran amphibians produce advertisement calls. Androgens play a permissive role in the activation of calling activity, which is often positively correlated to androgen plasma levels and testes mass. Additionally, calling effort is also correlated to corticosterone plasma levels (hereinafter referred to as CORT), which is associated with the mobilization of energy substrates to sustain the high energy flux associated with this activity. However, high CORT also has many immunosuppressive effects and might interfere with reproduction. Consequently, CORT might mediate a compromise between reproductive effort and immunocompetence in anurans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between calling rate, immunocompetence, and CORT in Hypsiboas albopunctatus, a midsize anuran occurring in South America. To understand these relationships, we conducted focal observations of calling behavior, followed by blood collection for CORT measurements and evaluation of some immune parameters. Our results showed that individuals with larger testes had higher calling rates, and those with higher calling rates showed lower cell-mediated immune response (swelling response to phytohaemagglutinin), although these relationships were not mediated by CORT. Furthermore, males calling early in the evening showed high CORT, and individuals with lower body condition index had higher CORT. We conclude that calling activity shows a cost in terms of cellular immune response in H. albopunctatus, but this compromise does not appear to be mediated by glucocorticoid plasma levels. PMID:27364933

  1. HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Saxena, D.; Chen, Z.; Norman, R.G.; Phelan, J.A.; Laverty, M.; Fisch, G.S.; Corby, P.M.; Abrams, W.; Malamud, D.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes. PMID:22821240

  2. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  3. Neural Affective Mechanisms Predict Market-Level Microlending.

    PubMed

    Genevsky, Alexander; Knutson, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Humans sometimes share with others whom they may never meet or know, in violation of the dictates of pure self-interest. Research has not established which neuropsychological mechanisms support lending decisions, nor whether their influence extends to markets involving significant financial incentives. In two studies, we found that neural affective mechanisms influence the success of requests for microloans. In a large Internet database of microloan requests (N = 13,500), we found that positive affective features of photographs promoted the success of those requests. We then established that neural activity (i.e., in the nucleus accumbens) and self-reported positive arousal in a neuroimaging sample (N = 28) predicted the success of loan requests on the Internet, above and beyond the effects of the neuroimaging sample's own choices (i.e., to lend or not). These findings suggest that elicitation of positive arousal can promote the success of loan requests, both in the laboratory and on the Internet. They also highlight affective neuroscience's potential to probe neuropsychological mechanisms that drive microlending, enhance the effectiveness of loan requests, and forecast market-level behavior.

  4. Plasma Osteopontin Level in Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Shawky Abdelhamid; Mohamed, Nagwa Abdel Ghaffar; Fawzy, Mary Wadie; Moustafa, Doaa Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein and is frequently associated with various tumors. Objectives We sought to investigate the clinical usefulness of the level of plasma OPN, compared to α-fetoprotein (AFP), as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to evaluate its diagnostic value in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratory features of HCC and NAFLD. Patients and Methods The study was performed on 120 subjects classified into 5 groups: Group I included 25 chronic non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients; Group II encompassed 25 patients with chronic HCV infection with liver cirrhosis; Group III comprised 25 patients with chronic HCV with liver cirrhosis and HCC; Group IV was comprised of 25 patients with NAFLD; and Group V consisted of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. All the participants were subjected to history taking and clinical and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations as well as the following laboratory investigations: liver function tests, complete blood count, blood sugar, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibodies, HCV-RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (for Groups I, II, and III) and serum AFP and plasma OPN levels. Results There were statistically significant differences in plasma OPN levels between the HCC group (401 ± 72 ng/mL) and the other groups, between the cirrhotic group (258.3 ± 35 ng/mL) and the non-cirrhotic group (HCV group, 168.7 ± 41 ng/mL; fatty liver group, 106.7 ± 35 ng/mL), and between the chronic non-cirrhotic HCV group and the fatty liver group (I and IV) and the controls (35.1 ± 6 ng/mL). In the HCC group, the diagnostic value of OPN was comparable to that of AFP at a cutoff value of 280 ng/mL, achieving sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 100%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. Regarding the validity of plasma OPN as a predictor of fatty change, our results revealed a diagnostic accuracy

  5. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  6. [Determination of cefixime blood plasma levels by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Pisarev, V V; Zaĭtseva, K V; Smirnova, L B; Belolipetskaia, V G; Kibal'chich, D A; Koltunov, I E

    2009-01-01

    For comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of Cemidexor (capsules of 100 mg) and Suprax (capsules of 400 mg), a method of HPLC with quantitative determination of cefixime (the active substance in the drugs) in the blood plasma of patients with UV detection was developed. The data teproducibility with an account of the admissibility criterion was observed within the interval of all the concentrations (0.06-10 mcg/ml). The accuracy and correctness of the method also corresponded to the admissibility criteria. The lower limit of the quantitative determimation of the cefexime blood plasma levels was 0.06 mcg/ml. The pharmacokinetics was studied with the open crossed randomized method. The results were used for calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters required for estimation of the bioequivalence of the drugs. The statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters showed that Cemidoxor and Suprax were bioequivalent.

  7. Comparable Low-Level Mosaicism in Affected and Non Affected Tissue of a Complex CDH Patient

    PubMed Central

    Veenma, Danielle; Beurskens, Niels; Douben, Hannie; Eussen, Bert; Noomen, Petra; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Grijseels, Els; Lequin, Maarten; de Krijger, Ronald; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Van Opstal, Dian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the detailed clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a prenatally detected complex Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) patient with a mosaic unbalanced translocation (5;12). High-resolution whole genome SNP array confirmed a low-level mosaicism (20%) in uncultured cells, underlining the value of array technology for identification studies. Subsequently, targeted Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization in postmortem collected tissues demonstrated a similar low-level mosaicism, independently of the affected status of the tissue. Thus, a higher incidence of the genetic aberration in affected organs as lung and diaphragm cannot explain the severe phenotype of this complex CDH patient. Comparison with other described chromosome 5p and 12p anomalies indicated that half of the features presented in our patient (including the diaphragm defect) could be attributed to both chromosomal areas. In contrast, a few features such as the palpebral downslant, the broad nasal bridge, the micrognathia, microcephaly, abnormal dermatoglyphics and IUGR better fitted the 5p associated syndromes only. This study underlines the fact that low-level mosaicism can be associated with severe birth defects including CDH. The contribution of mosaicism to human diseases and specifically to congenital anomalies and spontaneous abortions becomes more and more accepted, although its phenotypic consequences are poorly described phenomena leading to counseling issues. Therefore, thorough follow–up of mosaic aberrations such as presented here is indicated in order to provide genetic counselors a more evidence based prediction of fetal prognosis in the future. PMID:21203572

  8. Increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; De Groot, E R; Felt-Bersma, R J; Nuijens, J H; Strack Van Schijndel, R J; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Thijs, L G; Aarden, L A

    1989-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is likely to be an important mediator of the inflammatory response. We measured levels of this cytokine in plasma samples from 37 patients with sepsis or septic shock obtained at the time of admission to the intensive care unit and related these levels to hemodynamic and biochemical parameters as well as to clinical outcome. In 32 of the 37 patients, increased levels of IL-6 were found, occasionally up to 7,500 times the normal level. The highest IL-6 levels were encountered in patients who suffered from septic shock (P value of the difference between patients with and without shock less than .0001). In addition, IL-6 significantly correlated with plasma lactate (P less than .0001), heart rate (P = .05) and, inversely, with mean arterial pressure (P = .01) and platelet counts (P = .0002). Significant correlations of IL-6 with the anaphylatoxins C3a (P = .0001) and C4a (P = .0002) and with the main inhibitor of the classical pathway of complement, C1-inhibitor (inverse correlation, P = .05), were also observed. IL-6 on admission appeared to be of prognostic significance: levels were higher in septic patients who subsequently died than in those who survived (P = .0003), in particular when only patients with septic shock were considered (P less than .0001). All nine septic patients with levels of less than 40 U/mL on admission survived, whereas 89% of the nine patients with levels exceeding 7,500 U/mL died. These data provide evidence for a role of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of septic shock. Further studies are needed to reveal whether IL-6 in sepsis is directly involved in mediating lethal complications or whether it is to be considered as an "alarm hormone" that reflects endothelial cell injury probably mediated by the anaphylatoxines.

  9. Daily illuminance levels affect pituitary prolactin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M L; Porkka-Heiskanen, T; Alila, A; Kajander, S; Stenberg, D; Johansson, G

    1989-04-01

    The 24-h patterns of melatonin, PRL, and gonadotropins in male rats maintained under natural lighting conditions have been found to differ from the patterns in rats kept under artificial lighting. In the present experiments we studied the role of different daily illuminances as a possible causative factor for the variation of the hormonal patterns. Three groups of male rats were kept under artificial lighting conditions (12 h on/12 h off), where the daily illuminance was 550, 110 or 25 lux. After a 7-day adaptation period the pineal content of melatonin, the serum levels of LH, FSH and PRL, and the pituitary content of these hormones were measured by RIAs in samples taken at 10.00, 13.00, 22.00 and 01.00 h. The patterns of pineal melatonin were equal in all three groups. The variation of daily illuminance did not change the serum levels of LH, FSH and PRL or the pituitary content of the gonadotropins. However, the pituitary content of PRL during the light phase was inversely related to the illuminance. The results suggest that the intensity of daily lighting in the studied range does not affect the patterns of melatonin or gonadotropins, but the synthesis of prolactin may be significantly regulated by the daily illuminance level.

  10. Incinerator operating conditions affect combustion gas levels of dioxins, furans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    New research shows levels of dioxins and furans can be minimized by good combustion practices at a garbage-burning incinerator, according to results of the Combustion and Emissions Research Project at the VICON Incinerator Facility. The project focused on how a wide range of combustion conditions and different types of refuse quality affected the amount of dioxins and furans formed and destroyed during the combustion process. The results of the research show concentrations of dioxins and furans among the lowest measured at any incinerator. Tests were conducted over a broad range of operating conditions, with furnace temperatures as low as 1300 degrees and as high as 1900 degrees Fahrenheit. The only increase in dioxins and furans during testing occurred when incinerator temperatures were reduced below 1500 degrees Fahrenheit.

  11. Plasma Kisspeptin Levels in Girls with Premature Thelarche

    PubMed Central

    Çetin, Dilek; İlhan, Nevin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Premature thelarche (PT) is defined as isolated breast development without secondary sex characteristics in girls below the age of eight. We aimed to determine whether the level of kisspeptin, which plays a role in the release of gonadotropins, is associated with PT. Methods: The patient group included children with PT aged 3-8 years (n=20) and the control group included healthy children in the same age range (n=20). Height standard deviation scores (HSDSs), bone maturation and growth velocity were evaluated in the two groups. Basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were also measured in the two groups by immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA). A gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test was also conducted in the patient group and the peak levels of FSH and LH were determined. Kisspeptin levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results: No differences were found between the groups in terms of age, HSDS, annual growth rate and bone age. While the plasma basal FSH, LH and E2 levels in the patient and control groups did not show statistically significant differences, PRL levels were higher in the patient group (p<0.05). Peak LH response to GnRH test was at the prepubertal level (<5 ng/mL) in patients with PT. In the patient group, kisspeptin levels were significantly higher compared to the levels in the control group (2.96±1.21 ng/dL vs. 1.19±0.41 ng/dL; p<0.05), and kisspeptin levels showed a significant correlation with PRL, FSH, LH, and E2 levels (p<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, plasma kisspeptin levels were found to be higher in patients with PT and to show a positive correlation with increased PRL levels. Kisspeptin is one of the neuropeptides that plays a role in the onset of puberty. Our results support the hypothesis that PT may result from the temporary activation of central stimulants. Conflict of interest:None declared

  12. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  13. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  14. Seminal plasma trace metal levels in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, E B; Evans, D R; Harris, W A; Powell, L C

    2000-05-01

    This study compares the seminal plasma trace metal levels of hospital workers with groups of industrial workers in a petroleum refinery, smelter, and chemical plant. The metals measured were the essential metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, and manganese) and the toxic metals (lead, cadmium, and aluminum). The group mean +/- SE metal level for each group (50 subjects per group) was calculated, and the statistical significance of the group mean differences of the industrial groups with the hospital group (control) was determined by the Student's t-test. The differences observed in the smelter group were increased copper and zinc (p < or = 0.001) and decreased nickel, cobalt, and manganese (p < or = 0.001, < or = 0.01). The refinery group differences were increased copper, zinc, and nickel (p < or = 0.001) but decreased cobalt and manganese (p < or = 0.001). The chemical group differences were increased zinc (p < or = 0.001) and decreased cobalt (p < or = 0.001). The seminal plasma levels of the toxic metals lead and aluminum were increased in each of the industrial groups (p < or = 0.001). Concurrent differences were (1) decreased accumulation of nickel, cobalt, and manganese in the smelter group, (2) decreased cobalt and manganese in the refinery group, and (3) only decreased cobalt in the chemical group. PMID:11051584

  15. Effect of +Gz on plasma levels of calcitonin gene related peptide, endothelin and renal function in pilots.

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Ji, G; Dai, D; Wang, X; Xiao, L

    1998-02-01

    The effect of positive acceleration on plasma levels of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), and endothelin as well as renal function in pilots were observed in this study. 20 pilots were exposed to +2.5 Gz 10 s and +3.0 Gz 10 s with an interval of 5 min without anti-G suits. Samples of plasma and serum were taken 2Omin before and after exposure. Plasma levels of CGRP and endothelin after the exposure were significantly increased (P<0.01), but alkaline phosphatase(AKP), blood levels of beta 2-microglobulin(beta 2-MG), Ca2+ in serum showed no significant change (P>0.05) as compared with those before exposure. There was a correlation between CGRP and endothlin (r=0.772, P<0.01). It is concluded that positive acceleration(+2.5, +3.0Gz) could increase plasma levels of CGRP and endothlin but did not affect renal function.

  16. The affective domain: behaviors important in entry-level practice.

    PubMed

    Bedford, M R

    1984-06-01

    Affective behaviors, those associated with attitudes, beliefs, and values, were identified by a Delphi panel of dietetic experts. Statements converged through four rounds into a set of behaviors categorized into five components: human, technical, conceptual, personal, and professional. One group of registered dietitians rated each of these statements from most to least important within each component. Another group rated each statement using the scale 1 = absolutely essential to 4 = not of concern. Mean rankings within each of the five components tended to have a small range. Mean ratings of the statements indicated respondents considered all of the behaviors to be essential or at least important. For an additional analysis, ratings of statements were subjected to principal components analysis. Inspection of the varimax-rotated factor matrix revealed that all but 1 of the 41 behavior statements could be grouped in an additional way to yield six internally consistent scales: initiative/flexibility, professional commitment, interpersonal, personal responsibility, leadership, and personal commitment. Additional research should be done to determine the practicality of utilizing these behavior statements to evaluate the performance of dietitians both at the entry level and at more advanced levels.

  17. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  18. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  19. Heating and cooling of the nitroglycerin patch application area modify the plasma level of nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Klemsdal, T O; Gjesdal, K; Bredesen, J E

    1992-01-01

    19 healthy volunteers wore a nitroglycerin patch releasing 10 mg per 24 h for 2 h. Subsequently, the skin area surrounding the patch was exposed to 15 min of local heating with an infrared bulb (Group A, n = 10), or local cooling with an ice-pack (Group B, n = 9). The patch was protected by an insulating shield (Styrofoam). After 10 min of heating, the median (Walsh) plasma nitroglycerin level increased from 3.1 to 7.6 nmol.l-1. Body temperature remained constant. After 15 min of cooling the median plasma level had dropped from 2.1 to 1.4 nmol.l-1. The results demonstrate that changes in skin temperature may cause extensive short-term changes in the bioavailability of nitroglycerin. Presumably, a subcutaneous or cutaneous reservoir builds up during transdermal treatment, and changes in regional cutaneous blood flow affect the rate of drainage from the reservoir into the systemic circulation.

  20. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly.We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index.The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435).Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  1. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  2. Boysenberry Polyphenols Suppressed Elevation of Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Shigeru; Noguchi, Akane; Nagakura, Yuta; Kobori, Kinji; Ohta, Tatsuo; Sakaguchi, Ei; Ichiyanagi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Boysenberry, a hybrid Rubus berry, is mainly cultivated in New Zealand. We previously reported that consumption of boysenberry juice (BBJ) exhibited anti-obesity effects in high-fat feeding rats. In this study, we focused on the suppressive effect of BBJ and its fraction on triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. BBJ effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and was separated into four fractions (Fr1, Fr2, Fr3 and Fr4) by HP-20 column chromatography. Among all the fractions, Fr3, the ellagic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent inhibition against pancreatic lipase in vitro with Fr2, the anthocyanin-rich fraction, second. Authentic ellagic acid equivalent in Fr3 showed poor activity against pancreatic lipase. Then, each fraction was orally administered with corn oil to rats fitted with a jugular catheter to examine the effects of each fraction on plasma triglyceride levels. Both Fr2 and Fr3 effectively suppressed the plasma triglyceride level elevation at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. These findings demonstrated that BBJ contains chemical components which inhibit triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26440637

  3. Hfq affects mRNA levels independently of degradation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bacterial Lsm protein, Hfq, is an RNA chaperone involved in many reactions related to RNA metabolism, such as replication and stability, control of small RNA activity and polyadenylation. Despite this wide spectrum of known functions, the global role of Hfq is almost certainly undervalued; its capacity to bind DNA and to interact with many other proteins are only now beginning to be taken into account. Results The role of Hfq in the maturation and degradation of the rpsO mRNA of E. coli was investigated in vivo. The data revealed a decrease in rpsO mRNA abundance concomitant to an increase in its stability when Hfq is absent. This indicates that the change in mRNA levels in hfq mutants does not result from its modification of RNA stability. Moreover, a series of independent experiments have revealed that the decrease in mRNA level is not a consequence of a reduction of translation efficiency and that Hfq is not directly implicated in translational control of rpsO expression. Reduced steady-state mRNA levels in the absence of Hfq were also shown for rpsT, rpsB and rpsB-tsf, but not for lpp, pnp or tRNA transcripts. The abundance of chimeric transcripts rpsO-lacZ and rpsB-lacZ, whose expression was driven by rpsO and rpsB promoters, respectively, was also lower in the hfq null-mutants, while the β-galactosidase yield remained about the same as in the parent wild-type strain. Conclusions The data obtained suggest that alteration of rpsO, rpsT and rpsB-tsf transcript levels observed under conditions of Hfq deficiency is not caused by the post-transcriptional events, such as mRNA destabilization or changes in translation control, and may rather result from changes in transcriptional activity. So far, how Hfq affects transcription remains unclear. We propose that one of the likely mechanisms of Hfq-mediated modulation of transcription might operate early in the elongation step, when interaction of Hfq with a nascent transcript would help to overcome

  4. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya; Challapalli, Srinivas; Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao; Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  5. [Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations Reference values for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are not available for Colombian populations. A representative sample of a working-class population was used to establish these values to provide reference data for use by the social security system. Two working-class populations were sampled from the Aburrá Valley (Aburrá) and eastern Antioquia (Oriente). Cholinesterase activity was measured in 827 workers, with ages spanning 18-49 years, 415 from Aburrá and 412 people from Oriente. Three methods were used to measure cholinesterase: Michel, EQM and Monotest The average values by Michel and EQM were not statistically different between regions (Michel: Aburrá, 1.11, and East, 1.13 deltas pH/hora; EQM: Aburrá, 2.55, and Oriente, 2.48 U/ml). By the Monotest, the enzyme average was statistically higher in Aburra than in Oriente (5,743 and 5,459 U/L respectively; p = 0 .012). By region and technique, men had significantly higher enzymatic levels than women. Within both regions and sexes, no statistically significant difference among the three aged groups was noted. Our obtained Colombian values differed significantly from foreign reference values: Michel and Monotest levels were higher and EQM levels were lower. For making clinical and epidemiologic decisions in Colombia related to these data, the values obtained for the Colombian populations are preferred over values derived from external sources. PMID:14968922

  6. Effect of Pressure Level on the Performance of an Auto-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelvin, Loh; Abhijit, Kushari

    2010-08-01

    Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT) are micro-propulsion devices used in satellites for station keeping. Conventionally the plasma discharge in a PPT is initiated by a spark plug. The primary objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a PPT that does not need a spark plug to initiate the plasma discharge. If the spark plug is eliminated, the size of the thrusters can be reduced and arrays of such thrusters can be manufactured using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques, which can provide tremendous control authority over the satellite positioning. A parallel rail thruster was built and its performances were characterized inside a vacuum chamber to elucidate the effect of vacuum level on the performance. The electrical performance of the thruster was quantified by measuring the voltage output from a Rogowski coil, and the thrust produced by the developed thruster was estimated by measuring the force exerted by the plume on a light weight pendulum, whose deflection was measured using a laser displacement sensor. It was observed that the thruster can operate without a spark plug. In general, the performance parameters such as thrust, mass ablation, impulse bit, and specific impulse per discharge, would increase with the increase in pressure up to an optimum level due to the increase in discharge energy as well as the decrease in the total impedance of the plasma discharge. The thrust efficiency is found to be affected by the discharge energy.

  7. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M.; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregnant WKY dams completed gestation with and without T4 administration and their adult male offspring were tested. Measures included depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in both plasma and specific brain regions. In addition, the expression of two proteins affecting thyroid hormone trafficking and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT-8) and iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), and of several behavior-altering molecules, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (prepro-TRH) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), were determined in the hippocampus and amygdala of the offspring. Prenatal T4 treatment of WKYs did not affect adult depressive behavior but increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased plasma levels of THs. In the hippocampus of males treated with T4 in utero, Dio3 and MCT-8 protein levels were increased, while in the amygdala, there were increases of free T4, MCT-8, GR, prepro-TRH protein and CRH mRNA levels. These results show that T4 administration in utero programs adult peripheral and amygdalar thyroid hormone levels divergently, and that the resulting upregulation of anxiety-related genes in the amygdala could be responsible for the exacerbated anxiety-like behavior seen in WKYs after prenatal T4 treatment. PMID:20005050

  8. Effect of citrate anticoagulants on factor VIII levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    Rock, G; Tittley, P; Fuller, V

    1988-01-01

    The citrate anticoagulants used during blood collection have been developed for their benefits to red cells. The concentrations in which they are used are strictly regulated in the United States: citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) is used in a 1:8 ratio for the collection of whole blood, whereas 4 percent sodium citrate (NaCit) is used in a 1:10 ratio for manual plasmapheresis. Acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (ACD-A) or formula B (ACD-B) and NaCit are commonly used in a 1:12 or 1:15 ratio during automated plasmapheresis. These anticoagulants have different initial and final pH values and citrate concentrations and different effects on the recovery of factor VIII (FVIII) in the plasma. NaCit has a higher initial pH (6.64) than ACD-A (4.98), ACD-B (5.60), or CPDA (5.12). The effects of these different anticoagulants on plasma constituents obtained from six healthy subjects were studied. In standard citrate concentrations, the FVIII level was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the NaCit used for manual plasmapheresis than in either of the ACD solutions used in automated plasmapheresis (104 U/dl vs. 153 and 160 U/dl). When various ratios of NaCit to blood were used, the pH increased from 7.62 at a 1:10 dilution to 7.65 at a 1:50 dilution. As expected, a progressive decrease in anticoagulant level was associated with an increase in ionized calcium and also in the level of FVIII, with the latter values rising from 104 U per dl at 1:10 to 137 at 1:20 and 148 U per dl at 1:30. Clot formation was detected only at a ratio of 1:35.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Topical vasoconstrictor (oxymetazoline) does not affect histamine-induced mucosal exudation of plasma in human nasal airways.

    PubMed

    Svensson, C; Pipkorn, U; Alkner, U; Baumgarten, C R; Persson, C G

    1992-03-01

    Mucosal exudation of almost unfiltered plasma proteins, plasma-derived mediators and fluid has recently been advanced as a major respiratory defence mechanism. Oxymetazoline chloride is a commonly used decongestant agent. By reducing blood flow it may reduce mucosal exudation and thus compromise the mucosal defence capacity. This study examines the effect of topically applied oxymetazoline on histamine-induced plasma exudation into human nasal airways. Twelve normal volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over and placebo-controlled study with pretreatment with a single dose oxymetazoline chloride (5 micrograms or 50 micrograms; a dose previously known to reduce nasal mucosal blood flow by almost 50%) prior to the histamine challenge sequence. Nasal lavages were performed every 10 min for 140 min, and three histamine challenges were performed at 30-min intervals during this period. The concentrations of two exudative indices, N-alpha-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME)-esterase activity and albumin, were measured in the nasal lavage fluids. Nasal symptoms (sneezing, nasal secretion and blockage) were assessed by a scoring technique. Histamine induced all three symptoms with correlatively raised levels of the biochemical markers for plasma exudation. Oxymetazoline chloride caused a significant decrease in nasal stuffiness, but did not influence the other nasal symptoms or the histamine-induced plasma exudation. It is concluded that histamine-induced plasma exudation is not influenced by topical oxymetazoline. Thus, an important airway defence reaction such as plasma exudation may be little affected by topical alpha-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  11. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T; Borregaard, Niels; Modéer, Thomas U; Andersson, Mats L; Pütsep, Katrin L-A

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic accuracy revealed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.8%) for hCAP-18 ELISA. The correlation coefficient of the hCAP-18 ELISA versus immunoblotting was (R = 0.831) and that of the peptide LL-37 ELISA versus immunoblotting was (R = 0.405) (P < 0.001). Plasma hCAP-18 levels thus displayed high diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low in conditions in which the neutrophil antibacterial propeptide hCAP-18 is deficient, i.e. severe congenital neutropenia and neutrophil-specific granule deficiency, and in conditions in which bone marrow myelopoiesis is negatively affected. PMID:26119962

  12. Relationship between whole plasma calcitonin levels, calcitonin secretory capacity, and plasma levels of estrone in healthy women and postmenopausal osteoporotics.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J Y; Deroisy, R; Albert, A; Denis, D; Lecart, M P; Collette, J; Franchimont, P

    1989-03-01

    The exact role of calcitonin (CT) in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis remains unknown. Whole plasma calcitonin (iCT) basal levels, metabolic clearance rate (MCR), and production rate (PR) of CT were measured in 9 premenopausal and 16 postmenopausal women, including 11 osteoporotics (OP). Basal iCT levels were statistically lower in postmenopausal women than in the premenopausal group (P less than 0.01) and strongly correlated (r = 0.72; P less than 0.001) with estrone circulating levels (E1). MCR were similar in all groups. PR were similar in eugonadal women between 22 (mean +/- SD = 30.9 +/- 9.9 micrograms/d) and 37 yr (mean +/- SD = 25.5 +/- 11.1 micrograms/d) premenopausal women. In healthy postmenopausal women PR were reduced, but not significantly (mean +/- SD = 19.5 +/- 6.95 micrograms/d), whereas osteoporotic patients presented a highly significant reduction of CT PR (mean +/- SD = 9.8 +/- 4 micrograms/d) (P less than 0.01). Because there is a strong relationship between E1 and PR (r = 0.64; P less than 0.001), CT secretory capacity appears to be modulated by estrogen circulating levels. This modulation leads to a menopause-related decrease in iCT. In osteoporotics, an independent impairment of CT production drastically lowers PR and basal iCT levels. CT might be one of the determining factors in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. Luteinizing hormone levels are positively correlated with plasma amyloid-beta protein levels in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Verdile, Giuseppe; Yeap, Bu B; Clarnette, Roger M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Burkhardt, Melanie S; Chubb, S A Paul; De Ruyck, Karl; Rodrigues, Mark; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Bruce, David G; Martins, Ralph N

    2008-06-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis during aging has been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and developing dementia. Compared to controls, men with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been shown to have lower serum testosterone levels and higher serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. As serum free testosterone concentration is negatively correlated with LH in older men, the independent contributions of these hormones to the pathogenesis of AD warrants further clarification. To explore this notion, we measured plasma amyloid-beta (Abeta), serum testosterone, serum LH and other biochemical parameters in 40 cognitively normal elderly men. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum LH concentration is the only parameter that significantly correlates with plasma Abeta levels in these men (r=0.5, p=0.041). These results suggest that increased serum LH concentration, rather than lower serum free testosterone, is associated with the accumulation of Abeta in plasma. Larger, longitudinal human studies are needed to determine the significance of LH in the pathogenesis of AD.

  14. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  15. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  16. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  17. Lower Oxytocin Plasma Levels in Borderline Patients with Unresolved Attachment Representations.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Padberg, Frank; Mauer, Maria-Christine; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Bauriedl-Schmidt, Christine; Sabass, Lena; Sarubin, Nina; Falkai, Peter; Renneberg, Babette; Zill, Peter; Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT) system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball). The majority of BPD patients (63.2%) but no HCs showed unresolved (disorganized) attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  18. FXR agonist GW4064 increases plasma glucocorticoid levels in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Menno; van der Sluis, Ronald J; Li, Zhaosha; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Groen, Albert K; Van Berkel, Theo J C

    2012-10-15

    Since high expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been detected in glucocorticoid-producing adrenocortical cells, we evaluated the potential role of FXR in adrenal glucocorticoid production. FXR agonist GW4064 increased fasting plasma corticosterone levels (+45%; P<0.01) in C57BL/6 mice, indicative of enhanced adrenal steroidogenesis. GW4064 treatment did not affect plasma ACTH levels, adrenal weight, or adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) mRNA and protein expression, respectively, increased 1.9-fold (P<0.01) and 1.5-fold, which suggests a stimulated lipoprotein-associated cholesterol uptake into the adrenals upon GW4064 treatment. In line with an enhanced flux of cellular cholesterol into the steroidogenic pathway, adrenal unesterified and esterified cholesterol stores were 21-41% decreased (P<0.01) upon GW4064 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown that the FXR agonist GW4064 stimulates plasma corticosterone levels in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings suggest a novel role for FXR in the modulation of adrenal cholesterol metabolism and glucocorticoid synthesis in mice.

  19. Feeding milk replacer instead of whole milk affects blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Lepczyński, A; Herosimczyk, A; Ożgo, M; Skrzypczak, W F

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of feeding milk or milk-replacer on the blood plasma proteome and lipid profile in calves during the second week of life. Feeding milk-replacer significantly decreased the expression of plasma apoA-I. Age of calves affected apoA-I expression, which was higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day of life. A significant effect of interaction between diet and age was also observed. The expression of apoA-IV, was significantly affected by diet and was lower in calves fed milk replacer. Expression of this protein was significantly lower at the 8th day of life and was up-regulated in the calves fed milk-replacer at the second week of life. Calves fed milk-replacer had greater expression of haptoglobin, which differed significantly between days of blood sampling, being higher on the 8th than on the 11th and 14th day. The interactive effect of diet and age affected haptoglobin expression, which was successively down-regulated in calves fed milk re- placer. Diet had a significant effect on the plasma lipid profile. Animals fed milk had a greater concentration of TC, HDLC and LDLC. The composition of milk-replacer, especially fat source, is probably the main factor that affects expression of proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and level of components of lipid profile in calves fed formula. We claim that the initially increased level of haptoglobin, followed by its decrease during the second week of life in calves fed milk-replacer may indicate the presence of short-term stress induced by changes in the feeding system. PMID:25928915

  20. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5). PMID:23756043

  1. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  2. Change in Plasma Cytokine Levels During Risperidone Treatment in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Careaga, Milo; Bent, Stephen; Ashwood, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Atypical antipsychotics decrease irritability in autism. They also affect the cytokine network. Psychological stress, depression, and, possibly, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We sought to determine if risperidone treatment led to changes in plasma cytokine levels. Methods: Forty-five subjects from an open-label study of risperidone treatment of children and adolescents with ASD, ages 4–18 years, had an analysis of 27 different cytokines at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment using multiplex assays (Millipore) and read on the Luminex 100™ platform. We examined changes in each of the cytokine levels in the entire group, and also compared changes in cytokines in responders versus nonresponders. Results: After 8 weeks of risperidone treatment, 2 of the 27 plasma cytokines showed statistically significant decreases in median levels: Eotaxin (p=0.0003) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p=0.0024). Six of the 48 subjects met two criteria for responders to risperidone, and the median values of interleukin (IL)-5 were significantly higher (p=0.005) in the overall responder group than in nonresponders. Conclusions: Two cytokines, eotaxin and MCP-1, which have previously been identified as abnormally elevated in children with autism, decreased during treatment with risperidone. This suggests a possible mechanism of action of risperidone treatment and a balancing of the immune system in affected subjects in this very preliminary study. PMID:24828014

  3. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  4. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  5. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose-response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions.

  6. Cortisol and ACTH plasma levels in maternal filicides and violent psychiatric women.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Gradante, Federica; Gradante, Giuseppe; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Maternal filicide may be considered the result of significant interactions between increased individual vulnerability and overwhelming environmental stress. The present study examined whether the biological vulnerability to stress and psychotic depression in criminally insane filicidal women was associated with an imbalance of stress-related hormones. Early-morning plasma levels of hormones associated with depression and chronic stress, i.e., thyroid hormones, Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were measured in 10 filicidal inpatients recovered in a high-security psychiatric hospital for the criminally insane and 10 matched psychiatric, non-filicidal, criminal mothers with comparable traumatic/abuse records. Filicidal mothers had higher than normative Cortisol levels and significantly higher ACTH levels than both the normative values and plasma levels of non-filicidal women. Levels of thyroid hormones fell within normal ranges, without between-groups differences. In addition, while psychiatric controls had the expected Cortisol-ACTH positive correlation, mothers who killed their children revealed no relationship between the two hormones. HPA in the group of filicide perpetrators was altered despite they had received antidepressant pharmacological treatment. The observed imbalance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis indicates a possible filicides' reduced sensitivity of the adrenal glands to ACTH, probably due to the pre-hospitalization long-term affective stress which preceded child homicide. The results reveal the existence of large psycho-biological stress-sensitivity in filicides, and careful post-discharge psychiatric follow-up of such women is recommended. PMID:23375405

  7. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.

    1987-06-29

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field. 5 figs.

  8. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1989-01-01

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  9. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W.

    1989-03-14

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electrical pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  10. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. I. Argon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Culver, Cody; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2014-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from excited atomic states are ubiquitous in material processing plasmas. The highly energetic photons can induce surface damage by driving surface reactions, disordering surface regions, and affecting bonds in the bulk material. In argon plasmas, the VUV emissions are due to the decay of the 1s{sub 4} and 1s{sub 2} principal resonance levels with emission wavelengths of 104.8 and 106.7 nm, respectively. The authors have measured the number densities of atoms in the two resonance levels using both white light optical absorption spectroscopy and radiation-trapping induced changes in the 3p{sup 5}4p→3p{sup 5}4s branching fractions measured via visible/near-infrared optical emission spectroscopy in an argon inductively coupled plasma as a function of both pressure and power. An emission model that takes into account radiation trapping was used to calculate the VUV emission rate. The model results were compared to experimental measurements made with a National Institute of Standards and Technology-calibrated VUV photodiode. The photodiode and model results are in generally good accord and reveal a strong dependence on the neutral gas temperature.

  11. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  12. Experimental investigation on plasma parameter profiles on a wafer level with reactor gap lengths in an inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ju-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook; Kim, Young-Cheol

    2015-07-15

    The gap length effect on plasma parameters is investigated in a planar type inductively coupled plasma at various conditions. The spatial profiles of ion densities and the electron temperatures on the wafer level are measured with a 2D probe array based on the floating harmonic method. At low pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameters rarely changed by various gap lengths, which indicates that nonlocal kinetics are dominant at low pressures. However, at relatively high pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameter changed dramatically. These plasma distribution profile characteristics should be considered for plasma reactor design and processing setup, and can be explained by the diffusion of charged particles and the local kinetics.

  13. Are Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels Reflective of Amygdala Activation during the Processing of Negative Emotions? A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Motoki, Kosuke; Sugiura, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects) and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with trait plasma OT (anxiolytic effects) and AVP (anxiogenic effects) levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female) using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men. PMID:27092094

  14. Are Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels Reflective of Amygdala Activation during the Processing of Negative Emotions? A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Motoki, Kosuke; Sugiura, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects) and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with trait plasma OT (anxiolytic effects) and AVP (anxiogenic effects) levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female) using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men. PMID:27092094

  15. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  16. Does smoking, age or gender affect the protein phenotype of extracellular vesicles in plasma?

    PubMed

    Bæk, R; Varming, K; Jørgensen, M M

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in several diseases, which have formed the basis for the potential use of EV analyses in a clinical setting. The protein phenotype of EVs can provide information on the functionality of the vesicles and may be used for identification of disease-related biomarkers. With this extensive study of 161 healthy individuals it was elucidated that certain markers of plasma EVs are influenced by demographic variations such as gender, age and smoking status. When the purpose is to use EVs as a diagnostic tool, it should be emphasized how important it is to choose the correct demographic group when comparing marker levels of plasma EVs. PMID:27470710

  17. Elevated levels of plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-09-01

    Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that

  18. Biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, K; Lenzinger, E; Hornik, K; Schönbeck, G; Hatzinger, R; Langer, G; Sieghart, W; Aschauer, H N

    1997-01-01

    Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) induced by neuroleptics such as haloperidol. The effects of biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels on EPS were studied in 29 chronically ill schizophrenics. The results show relationships between biperiden dose and biperiden plasma levels (BPL), and between BPL and haloperidol plasma levels (HPL). Neither BPL nor HPL seem to influence EPS.

  19. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  20. Elevated Levels of Procoagulant Plasma Microvesicles in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burton, James O.; Hamali, Hassan A.; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K.; Goodall, Alison H.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144+ ve) and PMVs (CD42b+ ve) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  1. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  2. Nitrogen dioxide assimilation as affected by light level

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, H. ); Ormond, D.; Marie, B. )

    1989-04-01

    The air pollutant NO{sub 2} is absorbed and assimilated by plants to serve as a source of nitrogen but only to a limited extent. The objective of this research was to identify the constraints on NO{sub 2} assimilation. Differential light levels were used to manipulate carbohydrate metabolites available for nitrogen assimilation. Bean plants were grown at four light levels with or without nutrient nitrate and exposed to 0.25 ppm NO{sub 2} for 6h each day. Growth of roots and shoots was inhibited by NO{sub 2} in both the presence and absence of nutrient nitrate. The inhibition was most pronounced at the lowest light level. Light level similarly influenced the effect of nitrate and of NO{sub 2} on soluble protein, nitrate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen in the root and shoot tissues. Two experiments demonstrated that the injurious effects of NO{sub 2} are more pronounced at low light than at high light and that more NO{sub 2} is assimilated into soluble shoot protein at higher light levels.

  3. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  4. Affect and Digital Learning at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Yaacov J.; Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to examine the efficiency of SMS based cell-phone vocabulary learning as compared to email vocabulary delivery and snail mail vocabulary delivery at the university level. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 241 first year university students studied English vocabulary in their mandatory English foundation…

  5. CHILDHOOD BLOOD LEAD LEVELS NOT AFFECTED BY HOUSING COMPLIANCE STATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a secondary analysis of data from the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of Philadelphia (July 1, 1999 through September 1, 2004), the authors evaluated the effect of housing compliance status and time to achieve compliance on changes in children's blood lead levels. ...

  6. Fruiting Branch K+ Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K+ contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha-1) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (Vmax) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K+ was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K+ accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K+ absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  7. Fruiting Branch K(+) Level Affects Cotton Fiber Elongation Through Osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Wenqing; Chen, Binglin; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in cotton plants results in reduced fiber length. As one of the primary osmotica, K(+) contributes to an increase in cell turgor pressure during fiber elongation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fiber length is affected by K deficiency through an osmotic pathway, so in 2012 and 2013, an experiment was conducted to test this hypothesis by imposing three potassium supply regimes (0, 125, 250 kg K ha(-1)) on a low-K-sensitive cultivar, Siza 3, and a low-K-tolerant cultivar, Simian 3. We found that fibers were longer in the later season bolls than in the earlier ones in cotton plants grown under normal growth conditions, but later season bolls showed a greater sensitivity to low-K stress, especially the low-K sensitive genotype. We also found that the maximum velocity of fibre elongation (V max) is the parameter that best reflects the change in fiber elongation under K deficiency. This parameter mostly depends on cell turgor, so the content of the osmotically active solutes was analyzed accordingly. Statistical analysis showed that K(+) was the major osmotic factor affecting fiber length, and malate was likely facilitating K(+) accumulation into fibers, which enabled the low-K-tolerant genotype to cope with low-K stress. Moreover, the low-K-tolerant genotype tended to have greater K(+) absorptive capacities in the upper fruiting branches. Based on our findings, we suggest a fertilization scheme for Gossypium hirsutum that adds extra potash fertilizer or distributes it during the development of late season bolls to mitigate K deficiency in the second half of the growth season and to enhance fiber length in late season bolls. PMID:26834777

  8. Effect of exercise on the plasma BDNF levels in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington F; Lacerda, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Arrieiro, Arthur N; Fonseca, Sueli F; Amorim, Mateus R; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Miranda, Aline S; Coimbra, Cândido C; Brito-Melo, Gustavo E A

    2014-06-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease in the elderly population worldwide. The alleviation of the symptoms associated with this disease can be achieved with physical exercise that induces a cascade of molecular and cellular processes. Of the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be the most affected by physical activity. Moreover, BDNF seems to have a negative modulatory role in inflammation, and its production by skeletal muscle cells or by cells of the immune system drives the immunoprotective role of physical activity in situations of chronic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma BDNF concentrations in elderly individuals presenting with knee osteoarthritis. To accomplish this, sixteen volunteers (mean age 67 ± 4.41 years) presenting with clinically and radiographically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis were evaluated during acute exercise (1 session of 20 min on a treadmill) and after chronic exercise (12 weeks of aerobic training, consisting of a 50-min walk 3 times per week). Additionally, both a functional assessment (during a 6-min walk) and a pain perception assessment were performed at the start and at the end of physical exercises (training). The plasma BDNF concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the population studied, acute exercise increased the levels of BDNF only before the 12-week training period (p < 0.001). Moreover, the training augmented the plasma concentrations of BDNF (p < 0.0001) and improved clinical parameters (functional p < 0.001; pain perception p < 0.01).

  9. Factors affecting the levels of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiwei; Zuo, Yuegang

    Measurements of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and several meteorological and chemical parameters were made for 34 rain events which occurred in Miami, Florida between April, 1995 and October, 1996. The measured H 2O 2 concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 38.6 μM with an average concentration of 6.9 μM. A strong seasonal dependence for H 2O 2 concentrations was observed during this period, with highest concentrations in the summer and lower levels in the winter, which corresponds to the stronger solar radiation and higher vaporization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the summer and fall, and the weaker sunlight and lower vaporization in the winter and spring. Measurements also showed a significant increase trend of H 2O 2 with increasing ambient rainwater temperature. Rains that were out from lower latitude were exposed to higher solar irradiation and contained relatively higher levels of H 2O 2 than those from the north. All these observations indicate that photochemical reactions that involved volatile organic compounds are the predominant source of H 2O 2 observed in rainwater. During several individual rainstorms, H 2O 2 concentration was found to increase as a function of time due to electrical storm activities. This finding suggests that lightning could be an important factor that determines the level of H 2O 2 during thunderstorms. Statistical data showed that the highest concentrations of H 2O 2 were observed only in rains containing low levels of nonsea-salt sulfate (NSS), nitrate and hydrogen ion. H 2O 2 concentrations in continental originated rains were much lower than marine originated ones, indicating that air pollutants in continental rains could significantly deplete the H 2O 2 concentration in atmospheric gas-phase, clouds and rainwater.

  10. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  11. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  12. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  13. Associations of Plasma FGF2 Levels and Polymorphisms in the FGF2 Gene with Obesity Phenotypes in Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ruo-Han; Guo, Yan; Dong, Shan-Shan; Weng, Gai-Zhi; Yan, Han; Zhu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jia-Bin; Yang, Tie-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes influencing obesity related traits are largely unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) could influence adipocyte differentiation. However, the association of FGF2 polymorphisms and obesity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the associations of both the plasma FGF2 levels and SNPs in FGF2 gene with obesity phenotypes in Han Chinese populations. Plasma FGF2 levels were measured and subjected to association analyses in 62 subjects. Eleven SNPs in FGF2 were genotyped and tested for associations in a discovery sample of 1,300 subjects. SNPs significantly associated with obesity were subjected to replication in another independent sample of 1,035 subjects. We found that plasma FGF2 levels were positively correlated with fat mass (P = 0.010). Association analyses in the discovery sample identified three SNPs (rs1449683, rs167428, rs308442) significantly associated with fat mass after multiple testing adjustments (P < 0.0045). Subsequent replication study successfully validated one SNP (rs167428) associated with fat mass (Pcombine = 3.46 × 10−5). eQTL analyses revealed that SNPs associated with obesity also affected FGF2 expression. Our findings suggested that high plasma FGF2 level correlated with increased risk of obesity, and FGF2 gene polymorphisms could affect individual variances of obesity in Han Chinese population. PMID:26879180

  14. How Temperature and Water levels affect Polar Mesospheric Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. L.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V.

    2012-12-01

    Using the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument data, which is part of the Aeronomy in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission, we compare the albedo and ice water content measurements of CIPS with the Navy Operation Global Atmospheric Prediction System - Advanced Level Phyiscs and High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) temperature and water vapor data in order to derive a greater understanding of cloud formation and physics. We particularly focus on data from June 2007 and July 2007 in this case study because of particular cloud structures and formations during this time period for future studies.

  15. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  16. Correlations between Plasma Levels of Anionic Uremic Toxins and Clinical Parameters in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Yuichi; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Ideuchi, Hideki; Oda, Masako; Takeda, Kiyotaka; Saitoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    When the kidney is seriously impaired, various uremic toxins (UTs) accumulate in the body, often exerting unfavorable effects on physiological functions and drug pharmacokinetics. To prevent this, it is important to determine plasma UT levels accurately in chronic kidney disease patients. Although attempts to predict plasma UT levels using biomarkers have been made, the correlation between UT levels and the markers is not yet fully understood. In this study, we assessed the correlations among plasma levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS), indoleacetic acid (IA), and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) in 20 hemodialysis patients and evaluated the relationship between the plasma levels of UTs and clinical parameters, such as serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), with special focus on IS. There were no correlations among the plasma levels of the three UTs before and immediately after hemodialysis. However, a significant correlation was observed between plasma IS levels and Scr before hemodialysis (r=0.643, p=0.002), with the correlation becoming much stronger when using the data obtained immediately after hemodialysis (r=0.744, p<0.001). Further, plasma IS levels showed a significant negative correlation with eGFR (r=-0.558, p=0.011). However, no correlations were observed for IA or CMPF. The results obtained from this study suggest that plasma IS levels can be predicted from Scr values, although the precise mechanism behind the correlation remains to be clarified. PMID:27477735

  17. Effects of prolonged physical exercise and fasting upon plasma testosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Ferre, P; Serrurier, B; Merino, D; Pesquies, P C

    1982-01-01

    Prolonged physical exercise and fasting in male rats were studied to determine the effect of these two treatments on plasma testosterone level. Blood and tissue samples were drawn after 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, and 7 h treadmill running, and after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of fasting. Both treatments resulted in a significant fall in plasma testosterone, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), plasma Insulin (IRI) and in liver and muscle glycogen stores. In the course of these two treatments the injection of a supra maximal dose of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) produced a rise in plasma testosterone similar to that in control rats. This indicates that the decrease of plasma LH may be responsible for the decrease in plasma testosterone, which is time-related with the decrease in glycogen stores. The possible metabolic role of the decrease in plasma testosterone is discussed. PMID:6889494

  18. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals. PMID:26713322

  19. Prions are affected by evolution at two levels.

    PubMed

    Wickner, Reed B; Kelly, Amy C

    2016-03-01

    Prions, infectious proteins, can transmit diseases or be the basis of heritable traits (or both), mostly based on amyloid forms of the prion protein. A single protein sequence can be the basis for many prion strains/variants, with different biological properties based on different amyloid conformations, each rather stably propagating. Prions are unique in that evolution and selection work at both the level of the chromosomal gene encoding the protein, and on the prion itself selecting prion variants. Here, we summarize what is known about the evolution of prion proteins, both the genes and the prions themselves. We contrast the one known functional prion, [Het-s] of Podospora anserina, with the known disease prions, the yeast prions [PSI+] and [URE3] and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of mammals.

  20. Dietary levels of acrylamide affect rat cardiomyocyte properties.

    PubMed

    Walters, Brandan; Hariharan, Venkatesh; Huang, Hayden

    2014-09-01

    The toxic effects of acrylamide on cytoskeletal integrity and ion channel balance is well-established in many cell types, but there has been little examination regarding the effects of acrylamide on primary cardiomyocytes, despite the importance of such components in their function. Furthermore, acrylamide toxicity is generally examined using concentrations higher than those found in vivo under starch-rich diets. Accordingly, we sought to characterize the dose-dependent effects of acrylamide on various properties, including cell morphology, contraction patterns, and junctional connexin 43 staining, in primary cardiomyocytes. We show that several days exposure to 1-100 μM acrylamide resulted in altered morphology, irregular contraction patterns, and an increase in the amount of immunoreactive signal for connexin 43 at cell junctions. We conclude that dietary levels of acrylamide may alter cellular function with prolonged exposure, in primary cardiomyocytes.

  1. Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Amos, W; Harwood, J

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be

  2. Factors affecting levels of genetic diversity in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Amos, W; Harwood, J

    1998-02-28

    Genetic variability is the clay of evolution, providing the base material on which adaptation and speciation depend. It is often assumed that most interspecific differences in variability are due primarily to population size effects, with bottlenecked populations carrying less variability than those of stable size. However, we show that population bottlenecks are unlikely to be the only factor, even in classic case studies such as the northern elephant seal and the cheetah, where genetic polymorphism is virtually absent. Instead, we suggest that the low levels of variability observed in endangered populations are more likely to result from a combination of publication biases, which tend to inflate the level of variability which is considered 'normal', and inbreeding effects, which may hasten loss of variability due to drift. To account for species with large population sizes but low variability we advance three hypotheses. First, it is known that certain metapopulation structures can result in effective population sizes far below the census size. Second, there is increasing evidence that heterozygous sites mutate more frequently than equivalent homozygous sites, plausibly because mismatch repair between homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides extra opportunities to mutate. Such a mechanism would undermine the simple relationship between heterozygosity and effective population size. Third, the fact that related species that differ greatly in variability implies that large amounts of variability can be gained or lost rapidly. We argue that such cases are best explained by rapid loss through a genome-wide selective sweep, and suggest a mechanism by which this could come about, based on forced changes to a control gene inducing coevolution in the genes it controls. Our model, based on meiotic drive in mammals, but easily extended to other systems, would tend to facilitate population isolation by generating molecular incompatabilities. Circumstances can even be

  3. Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma of euthyroid subjects.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Tatár, P; Angyal, R; Strec, V; Aksamitová, K; Vigas, M; Jánosová, H

    1987-05-01

    The effect of sauna on thyroid function parameters and its modification by glucose was studied in young euthyroid male volunteers. A 30-minute stay in sauna resulted in an increase in plasma TSH; the response was exaggerated if glycemia had been increased by oral glucose intake at the beginning of the experiment. Plasma rT3 also increased in sauna, this response was, however, blunted by the higher glycemia. TSH response to sauna was definitely present in young men (aged 20 to 25) and absent in middle-aged ones (50 to 55). To explore the mechanism of the effect of increased glycemia, TRH tests were performed and dopamine infusions were administered with and without glucose pretreatment. Increased glycemia did not affect TSH and T3 response to TRH in young volunteers; however, 90 minutes after the administration, plasma rT3 levels were significantly lower in glucose pretreated subjects than in those receiving TRH injections after water pretreatment. Simultaneous infusion of glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of dopamine infusion on plasma TSH. It was concluded that glucose directly modulates the effect of sauna on plasma TSH at a suprapituitary level, while the inhibiting effect of glucose on plasma rT3 response to sauna and TRH is probably mediated by the insulin effect on thyroid hormone metabolism. PMID:3106755

  4. High plasma levels of MCP-1 and eotaxin provide evidence for an immunological basis of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhifang; Cherryholmes, Gregory; Mao, Allen; Marek, Claudia; Longmate, Jeffrey; Kalos, Michael; Amand, R Paul St; Shively, John E

    2008-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FMS), a predominantly female (85%) syndrome, affects an estimated 2% of the US population with skeletal muscle ache, fatigue, headache, and sleep disorder. The pathogenesis of FMS is unknown and there is no laboratory test for diagnosis. In this study, plasma levels of 25 cytokines and chemokines in 92 female patients with FMS and 69 family members were measured compared to 77 controls. Trans-endothelial migration of normal leukocytes in response to FMS plasma and the cytokine profile of human myoblasts were analyzed. High levels of MCP-1 (P<0.001) and eotaxin (P<0.01) were found in patients and family members compared to controls. Patients (56/92) treated with the single agent guaifenesin (>3 months) had higher levels of eotaxin than those not treated (P<0.01). Diluted plasma from patients increased the migration of normal eosinophils and monocytes, but not neutrophils, through an endothelial/Matrigel barrier only when mast cells are included in the lower wells (P<0.05). Furthermore, myoblasts can secrete MCP-1, eotaxin, and IP-10, while treatment with MCP-1 caused secretion of IL-1beta, eotaxin and IP-10. FMS is associated with inflammatory chemokines, that MCP-1 and eotaxin may contribute to the symptoms of FMS, and that similar cytokine profiles found in family members support the idea that FMS has a genetic component. Furthermore, the chemokine profile associated with FMS has direct effects on the migration of eosinophils and monocytes in the presence of mast cells, and skeletal muscle itself may secrete.

  5. Effects of aspartame and glucose administration on brain and plasma levels of large neutral amino acids and brain 5-hydroxyindoles.

    PubMed

    Yokogoshi, H; Roberts, C H; Caballero, B; Wurtman, R J

    1984-07-01

    Administration of the artificial sweetener aspartame (L-aspartylphenylalanylmethyl ester; 200 mg/kg) by gavage to rats caused large increments in brain and plasma levels of phenylalanine and its product tyrosine. Glucose administration (3 g/kg, by gavage, a dose sufficient to cause insulin-mediated reductions in plasma levels of the large neutral amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine) also elevated brain phenylalanine and tyrosine, and enhanced the increments caused by the aspartame, nearly doubling the rise in brain phenylalanine. Each animal's brain phenylalanine or tyrosine levels were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.99, respectively) with its plasma phenylalanine or tyrosine ratios, affirming that aspartame's effects on the brain amino acids result from the changes it produces in plasma composition. As described previously, glucose consumption increased brain tryptophan levels, and consequently, brain levels of the 5-hydroxyindoles serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Aspartame alone had no effect on these compounds but completely blocked the changes in 5-hydroxyindoles caused by glucose. Each animal's brain level of tryptophan (r = 0.89) and 5-hydroxyindoles (r = 0.74) was also significantly correlated with its plasma tryptophan ratio, affirming that the effects of glucose or aspartame on these brain constituents also result from the changes they produce in plasma composition. The aspartame-glucose combination also reduced brain levels of leucine, isoleucine, and valine to a significantly greater extent than aspartame or glucose alone. These observations indicate that high aspartame doses can generate major neurochemical changes in rats, especially when consumed along with carbohydrate-containing foods. However, they should not in any way be interpreted as demonstrating that aspartame significantly affects the human brain.

  6. The effect of ionization on the populations of excited levels of C IV and C V in tokamak edge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, K. D.; Coffey, I. H.; Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-02-01

    The main populating and depopulating mechanisms of the excited energy levels of ions in plasmas with densities <1023-1024 m-3 are electron collisional excitation from the ion's ground state and radiative decay, respectively, with the majority of the electron population being in the ground state of the ionization stage. Electron collisional ionization is predominately expected to take place from one ground state to that of the next higher ionization stage. However, the question arises as to whether, in some cases, ionization can also affect the excited level populations. This would apply particularly to those cases involving transient events such as impurity influxes in a laboratory plasma. An analysis of the importance of ionization in populating the excited levels of ions in plasmas typical of those found in the edge of tokamaks is undertaken for the C IV and C V ionization stages. The emphasis is on those energy levels giving rise to transitions of most use for diagnostic purposes (n ≤ 5). Carbon is chosen since it is an important contaminant of JET plasmas; it was the dominant low Z impurity before the installation of the ITER-like wall and is still present in the plasma after its installation. Direct electron collisional ionization both from and to excited levels is considered. Distorted-wave flexible atomic code calculations are performed to generate the required ionization cross sections, due to a lack of atomic data in the literature. Employing these data, ionization from excited level populations is not found to be significant in comparison with radiative decay. However, for some energy levels, ionization terminating in the excited level has an effect in the steady-state of the order of the measurement errors (±10%). During transient events, ionization to excited levels will be of more importance and must be taken into account in the calculation of excited level populations. More accurate atomic data, including possible resonance contributions to the

  7. The influence of bone and blood lead on plasma lead levels in environmentally exposed adults.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Avila, M; Smith, D; Meneses, F; Sanin, L H; Hu, H

    1998-01-01

    There is concern that previously accumulated bone lead stores may constitute an internal source of exposure, particularly during periods of increased bone mineral loss (e.g., pregnancy, lactation, and menopause). Furthermore, the contribution of lead mobilized from bone to plasma may not be adequately reflected by whole-blood lead levels. This possibility is especially alarming because plasma is the main circulatory compartment of lead that is available to cross cell membranes and deposit in soft tissues. We studied 26 residents of Mexico City who had no history of occupational lead exposure. Two samples of venous blood were collected from each individual. One sample was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-magnetic sector mass spectrometry for whole-blood lead levels. The other sample was centrifuged to separate plasma, which was then isolated and analyzed for lead content by the same analytical technique. Bone lead levels in the tibia and patella were determined with a spot-source 109Cd K-X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean lead concentrations were 0.54 microg/l in plasma, 119 microg/l in whole blood, and 23.27 and 11.71 microg/g bone mineral in the patella and tibia, respectively. The plasma-to-whole-blood lead concentration ratios ranged from 0.27% to 0.70%. Whole-blood lead level was highly correlated with plasma lead level and accounted for 95% of the variability of plasma lead concentrations. Patella and tibia lead levels were also highly correlated with plasma lead levels. The bivariate regression coefficients of patella and tibia on plasma lead were 0.034 (p<0. 001) and 0.053 (p<0.001), respectively. In a multivariate regression model of plasma lead levels that included whole-blood lead, patella lead level remained an independent predictor of plasma lead level (ss = 0.007, p<0.001). Our data suggest that although whole-blood lead levels are highly correlated with plasma lead levels, lead levels in bone (particularly trabecular bone) exert an additional

  8. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  9. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  10. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia. A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39–44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65–3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41–4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2–3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33–2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35–2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06–0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99–3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61–0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2–0.23]), age of the mother (B –0.03 [95% CI: –0.03, –0.02]), and family size (B –0.14 [95% CI: –0.18,–0.11]). PMID:27495044

  11. Low doses of estradiol partly inhibit release of GH in sheep without affecting basal levels.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, A; Davenport, G; Coleman, E S; Sartin, J L

    2009-10-01

    Estradiol increases basal growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep and cattle. This study sought to determine the effects of estradiol on GH-releasing hormone (GRH)-stimulated GH release in sheep. Growth hormone secretory characteristics, the GH response to GRH, and steady-state GH mRNA concentrations were determined in castrated male lambs treated with 2 different doses of estradiol 17-beta for a 28-d experimental period. Although no differences between treatments in mean GH, basal GH, or GH pulse number were observed after 28 d of estradiol treatment, GH pulse amplitude was greater (P < 0.05) in the 2.00-cm implant-treated animals than in the control and 0.75-cm implant group. The effect of estradiol treatment on GRH-stimulated GH release revealed differences between the control and estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.05). The 15-min GH responses to 0.075 microg/kg hGRH in the control, 0.75-cm, and 2.00-cm implant groups, respectively, were 76 +/- 10, 22.6 +/- 2.1, and 43.6 +/- 15.0 ng/mL. Growth hormone mRNA content was determined for pituitary glands from the different treatment groups, and no differences in steady-state GH mRNA levels were observed. There were no differences in the mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I, cortisol, T(3), or T(4) from weekly samples. Growth hormone release from cultured ovine pituitary cells from control sheep was not affected by estradiol after 72 h or in a subsequent 3-h incubation with estradiol combined with GRH. These data suggest that estradiol has differing actions on basal and GRH-stimulated GH concentrations in plasma, but the increase in pulse amplitude does not represent an increased pituitary sensitivity to GRH. PMID:19616401

  12. Mucosal IgG Levels Correlate Better with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Load and Inflammation than Plasma IgG Levels

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Marloes; Ahout, Inge M. L.; de Jonge, Marien I.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal vaccination is currently considered a strategy against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. In RSV-infected infants, high mucosal IgG levels correlated better with reduced RSV load and lower mucosal CXCL10 levels than plasma IgG levels. For future vaccination strategies against RSV, more focus should be on the mucosal humoral immune response. PMID:26656116

  13. The relevance of an elevation in the plasma vasopressin levels to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attack.

    PubMed

    Aoki, M; Asai, M; Nishihori, T; Mizuta, K; Ito, Y; Ando, K

    2007-11-01

    An elevation of plasma vasopressin levels has been frequently observed in Meniere's disease patients. However, little is known regarding the mechanism behind this elevation. The plasma vasopressin levels and plasma osmolality were therefore determined in 18 diagnosed Meniere's disease patients and 20 patients with other types of vertigo, who required admission for severe vertigo attacks. All participants were given questionnaires regarding their clinical and psychological status, including their stress levels and depression status, to evaluate environmental stress events. The plasma vasopressin levels of Meniere's disease patients in the acute phase (4.1 +/- 1.37 pg/ml) were significantly higher compared with with those of other vertigo patients in the acute phase (2.1 +/- 0.41 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). The average plasma osmolality of the Meniere's disease group was higher than that of the other vertigo patients group (P < 0.05). No significant difference in reported stress levels, depression status and prevalence of primary headache between the groups was observed. The plasma vasopressin showed no significant correlation with the patients' clinical data (occurrence of emesis or nausea, prevalence of primary headache, depression status and stress). No correlation between the plasma vasopressin and the plasma osmolarity was observed in the Meniere's disease group. These results suggest that the elevation of plasma vasopressin in the acute phase of Meniere's disease is therefore related to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attacks, and the results obtained may provide helpful information for distinguishing between Meniere's disease and other various inner ear diseases.

  14. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in Han Chinese heroin-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-02-02

    BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of long-term heroin use. Thus, we investigated the relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentrations and the BDNF Val66Met nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in heroin-dependent patients. The pretreatment expression levels of plasma BDNF and the BDNF Val66Met SNP in 172 heroin-dependent patients and 102 healthy controls were checked. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients (F = 52.28, p < 0.0001), but the distribution of the SNP was not significantly different. Nor were plasma BDNF levels significantly different between Met/Met, Met/Val, and Val/Val carriers in each group, which indicated that the BDNF Val66Met SNP did not affect plasma BDNF levels in our participants. In heroin-dependent patients, plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the length of heroin dependency. Long-term (>15 years) users had significantly lower plasma BDNF levels than did short-term (<5 years) users. We conclude that plasma BDNF concentration in habitual heroin users are not affected by BDNF Val66Met gene variants, but by the length of the heroin dependency.

  15. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential.

  16. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:27698956

  17. Neonatal handling and gender modulate brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone levels following repeated stressors in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Pondiki, Stavroula; Papaioannou, Agapi; Alikaridis, Filaretos; Stamatakis, Antonis; Gerozissis, Kyriaki; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2004-01-01

    Neonatal handling affects the response to repeated stress in a sexually dimorphic manner. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these gender-dependent effects, we investigated the consequences of neonatal androgenization and handling on adult stress reactivity by determining: (a) immobility time during repeated forced swimming, (b) plasma corticosterone levels, and (c) brain serotonin and dopamine levels and turnover after either repeated forced swimming, or repeated forced swimming followed by repeated restraint stress. In neonatally androgenized females, immobility time was lower in the handled than in the non-handled rats, a pattern resembling that of the males, suggesting that the sexually dimorphic effect of handling on immobility time can be attributed to the organizational effects of testosterone. No differences were found between androgenized females and females injected neonatally with vehicle, indicating that the gender differences in circulating corticosterone are not due to the organizational effects of testosterone. The stress of a neonatal injection interacted with neonatal handling resulting in lower plasma corticosterone and hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin levels in the neonatally injected handled animals following repeated forced swimming. The serotonergic system appears to be sensitive to both the organizational actions of testosterone and the effects of handling, since handled androgenized females had higher serotonin levels and decreased turnover following repeated forced swimming stress, compared to those injected neonatally with vehicle. Handling resulted in increased hypothalamic and striatal serotonin levels in both males and females following repeated forced swimming. Our results reveal that handling has gender-dependent effects on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and brain monoaminergic system reactivity to stress and that these effects can be attributed to both the organizational and activational effects of gonadal

  18. Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in Early and Recent Classes of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-01-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  19. Plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate in early and recent classes of fish.

    PubMed

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-10-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NO in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n=167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NO was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NO differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NO in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NO, levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  20. PLASMA SOLUBLE SGP130 LEVELS ARE INCREASED IN OLDER SUBJECTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME. THE ROLE OF INSULIN RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Galvani, Matteo; Maggio, Marcello; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Cherubini, Antonio; Guralnik, Jack M.; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Increased interleukin-6 plasma levels have been reported in metabolic syndrome (MS); nevertheless, it is unclear whether interleukin-6 activity is exerted through direct signalling only or also through the “trans-signalling”. This issue is important to clarify since signalling and “trans-signalling” affect different tissues. We investigated the relationship between MS and the interleukin-6 system in an older population. Methods Data from 997 older community dwelling individuals (age ≥ 65 years; females: 56.2%) enrolled the InChianti study were analyzed. Interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130) were measured on plasma by ELISA. MS was defined by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria; 309 individuals (31%) resulted affected by MS. Results Subjects with MS had higher interleukin-6 and sgp130 levels compared to controls; a trend toward higher levels of sIL-6R was also observed. The risk of having MS was increased in individuals with high sIL-6r or/and sgp130 levels, independent of age, gender, and interleukin-6 levels. Elevated sgp130 levels were associated with higher plasma glucose, HOMA, triglycerides, and with diabetes both in subjects with and without MS. Although the risk of high sgp130 levels was generally associated with MS (O.R.:1.77, 95%C.I.: 1.39-2.25), this excess of risk was not present in MS phenotypes excluding the criteria “elevated glucose” or “elevated triglycerides”. Furthermore, the association between sgp130 and MS disappeared after adjustment for HOMA. Conclusions We found that older individuals with MS have increased sgp130 plasma levels compared with controls; nevertheless, our data suggest that this association might be mediated by insulin resistance. PMID:20869059

  1. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. Methods We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Results The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P < 0.001). In addition, dietary EPA, C22:5 n-3 and DHA were significantly correlated with the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids and DHA, with the Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.35 (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with those in the lowest fish intake quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a significantly higher DHA level (adjusted mean difference, 0.99 ± 0.10%, test for trend, P < 0.001). Similar patterns between dietary DHA intake and plasma DHA levels were found. However, the association between dietary fish intake and plasma EPA was not significant (test for trend, P = 0.69). Conclusions The dietary intakes of fish and of long chain n-3 fatty acids, as determined by the food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PMID:23414574

  2. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI  =  1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

  3. Plasma levels of vasoactive regulatory peptides in patients receiving regular hemodialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Hegbrant, J; Thysell, H; Ekman, R

    1992-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of 10 vasoactive regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 23 stable patients with chronic renal failure receiving regular hemodialysis treatment (RDT) and compared with those of healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide, beta-endorphin, methionine-enkephalin, motilin, neuropeptide Y, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of calcitonin gene-related peptide was not statistically different from that of the controls. The plasma concentration of gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was lowered in the RDT-patients. The arterial blood pressure correlated with the plasma levels of motilin and neuropeptide Y. We conclude that patients with chronic renal failure receiving RDT have increased concentrations of 8 out of 10 measured vasoactive regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of vasoactive peptides may contribute to the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to impaired renal function.

  4. Reduction of Cellular Expression Levels Is a Common Feature of Functionally Affected Pendrin (SLC26A4) Protein Variants

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Vanessa C S; Bernardinelli, Emanuele; Zocal, Nathalia; Fernandez, Jhonathan A; Nofziger, Charity; Castilho, Arthur M; Sartorato, Edi L; Paulmichl, Markus; Dossena, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Sequence alterations in the pendrin gene (SLC26A4) leading to functionally affected protein variants are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of syndromic and nonsyndromic deafness. Considering the high number of SLC26A4 sequence alterations reported to date, discriminating between functionally affected and unaffected pendrin protein variants is essential in contributing to determine the genetic cause of deafness in a given patient. In addition, identifying molecular features common to the functionally affected protein variants can be extremely useful to design future molecule-directed therapeutic approaches. Here we show the functional and molecular characterization of six previously uncharacterized pendrin protein variants found in a cohort of 58 Brazilian deaf patients. Two variants (p.T193I and p.L445W) were undetectable in the plasma membrane, completely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and showed no transport function; four (p.P142L, p.G149R, p.C282Y and p.Q413R) showed reduced function and significant, although heterogeneous, expression levels in the plasma membrane. Importantly, total expression levels of all of the functionally affected protein variants were significantly reduced with respect to the wild-type and a fully functional variant (p.R776C), regardless of their subcellular localization. Interestingly, reduction of expression may also reduce the transport activity of variants with an intrinsic gain of function (p.Q413R). As reduction of overall cellular abundance was identified as a common molecular feature of pendrin variants with affected function, the identification of strategies to prevent reduction in expression levels may represent a crucial step of potential future therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring the transport activity of dysfunctional pendrin variants. PMID:26752218

  5. Multi-Level iterative methods in computational plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, D.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Brackbill, J.U.; Chacon, L.; Lapenta, G.

    1999-03-01

    Plasma physics phenomena occur on a wide range of spatial scales and on a wide range of time scales. When attempting to model plasma physics problems numerically the authors are inevitably faced with the need for both fine spatial resolution (fine grids) and implicit time integration methods. Fine grids can tax the efficiency of iterative methods and large time steps can challenge the robustness of iterative methods. To meet these challenges they are developing a hybrid approach where multigrid methods are used as preconditioners to Krylov subspace based iterative methods such as conjugate gradients or GMRES. For nonlinear problems they apply multigrid preconditioning to a matrix-few Newton-GMRES method. Results are presented for application of these multilevel iterative methods to the field solves in implicit moment method PIC, multidimensional nonlinear Fokker-Planck problems, and their initial efforts in particle MHD.

  6. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  7. Plasma fenfluramine levels, weight loss, and side effects.

    PubMed Central

    Innes, J A; Watson, M L; Ford, M J; Munro, J F; Stoddart, M E; Campbell, D B

    1977-01-01

    Fifty women with refractory obesity received fenfluramine for 20 weeks. Every two weeks details of weight change, drug dose, degree of anorexia, and any side effects were recorded and plasma was obtained for fenfluramine and norfenfluramine measurements. Of the 41 patients available for final analysis 26 achieved a maximum plateau dose of 160 mg/day. Plasma fenfluramine concentrations did not correlate with the degree of anorexia or with the incidence of side effects other than the severity of dream disturbance. There was a highly significant relation between weight loss and plasma fenfluramine and norfenfluramine concentrations and also between weight loss and the presence of sustained anorexia. Women who achieved mean plateau concentrations over 200 ng/ml lost a mean 8.8 kg while those with concentrations less than 100 ng/ml lost a mean of only 2.1 kg. When fenfluramine is prescribed in refractory obesity the dose should be increased stepwise until either satisfactory weight loss is achieved or troublesome side effects appear. PMID:589167

  8. Effect of deafferentation of the rat tongue on plasma corticosterone, aldosterone, angiotensin and ACTH levels

    SciTech Connect

    Polyntsev, Yu.V.; Serova, O.N.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of deafferentation of the tongue on the plasma level of hormones involved in regulation of the sodium ion level -- aldosterone, corticosterone, ACTH, and angiotensin -- was studied. Plasma hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the important role of orosensory and taste perception in the processes of regulation of the sodium balance in the body. The experiments in this study were conducted on rats.

  9. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  10. Coronary sinus plasma beta endorphin levels in cardioischemic patients undergoing PTCA.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Negri, M; Tonnarini, G; Borgia, M C; Martuscelli, E; Nigri, A; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P

    1998-01-01

    Plasma beta-endorphin levels were studied in the coronary sinus of 8 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). All the patients had ECG ischemic signs and pain during the inflation of the balloon. No significant changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels were observed during PTCA-induced ischemia. Baseline coronary sinus plasma beta-endorphin levels were found to be elevated when compared with peripheral ones which would suggest an accumulation of beta-endorphin in the ischemic heart. PMID:10503168

  11. Higher Plasma ApoE Levels are Associated with Low-Normal Thyroid Function: Studies in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L J N; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dullaart, R P F

    2016-07-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may confer higher plasma triglycerides, but relationships with plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E, which plays an important role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma apoE with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) in euthyroid subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, lipids, and apoE were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM subjects and 82 nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype was also determined. Free T4 was slightly higher in T2DM (p=0.030), but TSH levels were not different vs. nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype distribution was not different between the groups. None of the participants had the ε2/ε2 genotype. Plasma triglycerides were higher in T2DM (p=0.037). ApoB and apoE levels were not different between the groups. In all subjects combined, multivariable analysis showed that plasma triglycerides (p=0.039), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (p=0.030), and apoE levels (p=0.002) were each independently and positively associated with TSH after adjustment for age, sex, T2DM and the presence of the APOE ε3 allele. Furthermore, the associations of TSH with apoE remained present after adjustment for either triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, or apoB (p=0.005 to 0.023). The presence of T2DM did not modify the relationships of TSH with these (apo) lipoprotein variables (p=0.11 to 0.36). In conclusion, low-normal thyroid function, as indicated by higher TSH levels within the euthyroid range, may influence the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by affecting apoE regulation.

  12. Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence of the important role played by the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of symptoms of depression and eating disorders. To investigate the role of ghrelin and its considered counterpart, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in the development of bulimic and depressive symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion, we administered the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial to 29 healthy controls and 20 subjects with fully recovered bulimia nervosa (rBN). We found a decrease between preprandial and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels (p<0.0001) and a postprandial rise in plasma PYY levels (p<0.0001) in both conditions in the entire study population. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased in the entire study population after treatment with AMPT compared to placebo (p<0.006). AMPT-induced changes in plasma ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with AMPT-induced depressive symptoms (p<0.004). Plasma ghrelin and plasma PYY levels were also negatively correlated (p<0.05). We did not observe a difference in ghrelin or PYY response to catecholamine depletion between rBN subjects and healthy controls, and there was no correlation between plasma ghrelin and PYY levels and bulimic symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion. These findings suggest a relationship between catecholamines and ghrelin with depressive symptoms.

  13. Plasma B-Endorphin Levels in Patients with Self-Injurious Behavior and Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    B-endorphin and cortisol concentrations were examined in the plasma of mentally retarded adults who displayed symptoms of self-injurious behavior (SIB) (N=9), stereotypy (N=17), or SIB plus stereotypy (N=14). Compared to matched controls, patients with SIB plus stereotypy had elevated b-endorphin plasma, while cortisol levels were identical for…

  14. Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jung; Huang, Po-Chao; Lu, Shao-Chun; Li, Yi-Hwei; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Bi-Fong; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chou, Hsu-Fang

    2002-02-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may result from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B-6 or vitamin B-12. Because vitamin B-12 deficiency is often associated with vegetarianism, this study was designed to examine the effect of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on B-vitamin status and plasma homocysteine levels. Female Buddhist lacto-vegetarians (n = 45; 31-45 y) and matched omnivores (n = 45) recruited in Hualien, Taiwan, were investigated. Taiwanese vegetarians consumed normal amount of folate, but only 21% of Taiwan Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA) values of vitamin B-12. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly higher levels of plasma folate (14.79 +/- 7.70 vs. 11.98 +/- 8.29 nmol/L), but lower levels of vitamin B-12 (207.7 +/- 127.1 vs. 403.5 +/- 138.9 pmol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (mean: 11.20 +/- 4.27 vs. 8.64 +/- 2.06 micromol/L; median: 10.5 vs. 8.5 micromol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine was inversely correlated with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in the vegetarian group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma folate, vitamin B-12 and creatinine were independent determinants of homocysteine variation and contributed to 38.6% of homocysteine variation in the vegetarians. Compared with the omnivores, vegetarians also had significantly lower serum levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, alanine and arginine, but higher levels of glycine. In the vegetarian group, fasting plasma homocysteine correlated negatively with serum threonine, lysine, histidine, arginine and cystine, and these amino acids contributed to 38.7% of homocysteine variation. In conclusion, the Buddhist nuns who consumed a lacto-vegetarian diet had mildly elevated fasting plasma homocysteine levels presumably due to lower levels of plasma vitamin B-12.

  15. Plasma ghrelin levels in association with left ventricular function and nutritional status in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    XU, LIBIN; YU, LEI; CHI, NING; WANG, WENHAO; LIU, GUOPING; SHI, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between ghrelin levels and the cardiac function and malnutrition of dialysis patients. The aim was to examine the conducive use of exogenous ghrelin to improve the malnutrition, protect the cardiovascular function with dialysis patients in the future. The study included 30 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and 30 hemodialysis (HD) patients undertaking treatment between March 2013 and March 2014. The control group included a total of 30 healthy physical examinees. The plasma ghrelin levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to collect the clinical materials and biochemical parameters. The plasma ghrelin levels were 4.28±1.07, 4.63±1.08 and 2.00±0.48 ng/ml in the CAPD, HD and control groups, respectively, and statistical significance was identified between the three groups; F=75.106, P<0.0001. The plasma ghrelin levels in the CAPD group were positively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r=0.506, P=0.004) and were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r=−0.556, P=0.001). The plasma ghrelin levels in the CAPD and HD groups were positively correlated with serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In conclusion, the plasma ghrelin levels of patients in the CAPD and HD groups were higher compared to those of the control group, which demonstrated that dialysis patients could not effectively remove the plasma ghrelin. The present study found that the plasma ghrelin levels were positively correlated with LVEF, and high levels of ghrelin will exhibit protective effects on the cardiovascular function of CAPD patients. Plasma ghrelin levels were positively correlated with Scr and BUN levels in CAPD and HD patients, and were negatively correlated with BMI in CAPD patients, which showed that ghrelin was correlated with malnutrition of dialysis patients. PMID:27347404

  16. Subjects with Low Plasma HDL Cholesterol Levels Are Characterized by an Inflammatory and Oxidative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Holven, Kirsten B.; Retterstøl, Kjetil; Ueland, Thor; Ulven, Stine M.; Nenseter, Marit S.; Sandvik, Marit; Narverud, Ingunn; Berge, Knut E.; Ose, Leiv; Aukrust, Pål; Halvorsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms for the possible atheroprotective effects of HDL cholesterol have still not been fully clarified, in particular in relation to clinical studies. Objective To examine the inflammatory, anti-oxidative and metabolic phenotype of subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Methods and Results Fifteen subjects with low HDL cholesterol levels (eleven males and four females) and 19 subjects with high HDL (three males and 16 females) were recruited. Low HDL cholesterol was defined as ≤10th age/sex specific percentile and high HDL-C was defined as ≥90 age/sex specific percentile. Inflammatory markers in circulation and PBMC gene expression of cholesterol efflux mediators were measured. Our main findings were: (i) subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels were characterized by increased plasma levels of CRP, MMP-9, neopterin, CXCL16 and ICAM-1 as well as low plasma levels of adiponectin, suggesting an inflammatory phenotype; (ii) these individuals also had reduced paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in plasma and PON2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) accompanied by increased plasma levels of oxidized LDL suggesting decreased anti-oxidative capacity; and (iii) PBMC from low HDL subjects also had decreased mRNA levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, suggesting impaired reverse cholesterol transport. Conclusion Subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative phenotype that could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerotic disorders in these subjects with low HDL levels. PMID:24244297

  17. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  18. Plasma xanthine oxidase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Supnet, M C; David-Cu, R; Walther, F J

    1994-09-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury may affect morbidity and mortality in preterm and asphyxiated term infants. Reoxygenation of hypoxic tissues leads to the formation of free oxygen radicals by xanthine oxidase that may induce lipid peroxidation, enzyme inhibition, and DNA strand breakage. We measured arterial cord blood samples from 36 healthy term infants for baseline values and arterial blood sampled at 1 and 4 h after birth from 45 preterm infants admitted for intensive care for serial estimates of plasma xanthine oxidase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Mean +/- SEM plasma xanthine oxidase activity in cord blood of term infants was 2.3 +/- 0.4 mU/mL and lipid hydroperoxide levels were 2.6 +/- 0.3 nmol/mL. Eighteen of the 45 preterm infants met the criteria defining poor outcome (poor outcome group) and had lower umbilical arterial pH and base excess than the 27 preterm infants in the control group. Mean plasma xanthine oxidase activity increased from 2.7 +/- 0.4 at 1 h to 4.7 +/- 0.6 mU/mL at 4 h of age (p < 0.001) in the poor outcome group and decreased from 2.1 +/- 0.3 to 1.1 +/- 0.2 mU/mL (p = 0.004) in the control group. Lipid hydroperoxide levels in the poor outcome group increased from 2.8 +/- 0.6 nmol/mL at 1 h to 4.3 +/- 0.6 nmol/mL at 4 h of age (p < 0.001) and decreased from 2.1 +/- 0.6 to 1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/mL (p = 0.008) in the control group. At 4 h of age, xanthine oxidase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels were significantly higher in the poor outcome group than in the controls (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Potential Role of Plasma Myeloperoxidase Level in Predicting Long-Term Outcome of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ±11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase >68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ±12 ng/mL; P=0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P=0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-mye-loperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625–6.563; P=0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up. PMID:22949765

  20. The plasma torch for the vitrification of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peratt, A.L.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma torch technology provides a possible solution for radioactive material storage. During the past decade, plasma torches have been developed that produce temperatures as high as 25,000 F. Currently, the plasma torch finds application in solid waste vitrification and pyrolysis plants. Low-level radioactive waste is a topic of considerable interest for baseline technologies development, generally by means of low-temperature arc heating to characterize surrogate or low-level waste streams. High temperature plasma torches, the hottest members belonging to the family of plasma arc heaters, are efficient devices for reducing matter to its constituent elements but also the most complex in theory and operation. Characterization of the high energy density plasma instability that produces the intense heat, ranges from MHD computer modeling to stimulated Raman scattering by laser diagnostics. This paper describes the history of the plasma torch and the possible use of a 1-megawatt reverse polarity torch in a low-level radioactive waste testbed. Issues such as torch diagnostics, control, and the monitoring of radioactive gaseous, aqueous, solid, and plasma effluent streams are discussed.

  1. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  2. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  3. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  4. Increased Plasma Levels of Pentraxin 3 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tai-Yong; Niu, Xue-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally. It is essential to identify a prognostic predictor for CRC. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a glycoprotein that is secreted by a variety of human cells. It plays an important role in inflammation and immune regulation. Increasing evidence reveals that elevated PTX3 expression is related to poor prognosis in various cancers. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of plasma PTX3 level as a prognostic predictor in CRC. Total 184 CRC patients and 216 controls were included. Plasma levels of PTX3 were determined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. On admission, plasma PTX3 levels in CRC patients were higher than those in controls (11.8 ± 2.5 ng/ml vs. 3.1 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P < 0.001). After resection, plasma PTX3 levels in patients were decreased (6.0 ± 1.4 ng/ml, P = 0.007), and were elevated at the time of relapse (10.8 ± 2.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). During the 60-month follow-up period, 108 patients suffered from relapse. Plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml on admission were associated with relapse (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.74 ~ 6.29), and tumor-free survival rate in those patients with plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml was lower than that in other patients (P = 0.001). Furthermore, plasma PTX3 levels on admission showed positive linear correlations with plasma complement 3, 4 and 5b9 levels (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Therefore, we propose that PTX3 is an independent prognostic indicator in CRC. PMID:27568661

  5. Increased Plasma Levels of Pentraxin 3 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tai-Yong; Niu, Xue-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally. It is essential to identify a prognostic predictor for CRC. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a glycoprotein that is secreted by a variety of human cells. It plays an important role in inflammation and immune regulation. Increasing evidence reveals that elevated PTX3 expression is related to poor prognosis in various cancers. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of plasma PTX3 level as a prognostic predictor in CRC. Total 184 CRC patients and 216 controls were included. Plasma levels of PTX3 were determined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. On admission, plasma PTX3 levels in CRC patients were higher than those in controls (11.8 ± 2.5 ng/ml vs. 3.1 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P < 0.001). After resection, plasma PTX3 levels in patients were decreased (6.0 ± 1.4 ng/ml, P = 0.007), and were elevated at the time of relapse (10.8 ± 2.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). During the 60-month follow-up period, 108 patients suffered from relapse. Plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml on admission were associated with relapse (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.74 ~ 6.29), and tumor-free survival rate in those patients with plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml was lower than that in other patients (P = 0.001). Furthermore, plasma PTX3 levels on admission showed positive linear correlations with plasma complement 3, 4 and 5b9 levels (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Therefore, we propose that PTX3 is an independent prognostic indicator in CRC.

  6. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement'eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  7. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26082650

  8. NEU3 activity enhances EGFR activation without affecting EGFR expression and acts on its sialylation levels.

    PubMed

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Forcella, Matilde; Riva, Alice; Difrancesco, Carlotta; Molinari, Francesca; Martin, Vittoria; Papini, Nadia; Bernasconi, Barbara; Nonnis, Simona; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Monti, Eugenio; Fusi, Paola; Frattini, Milo

    2015-08-01

    Several studies performed over the last decade have focused on the role of sialylation in the progression of cancer and, in particular, on the association between deregulation of sialidases and tumorigenic transformation. The plasma membrane-associated sialidase NEU3 is often deregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), and it was shown that this enzyme co-immunoprecipitates in HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the molecular target of most recent monoclonal antibody-based therapies against CRC. To investigate the role of NEU3 sialidase on EGFR deregulation in CRC, we first collected data on NEU3 gene expression levels from a library of commercial colon cell lines, demonstrating that NEU3 transcription is upregulated in these cell lines. We also found EGFR to be hyperphosphorylated in all cell lines, with the exception of SW620 cells and the CCD841 normal intestinal cell line. By comparing the effects induced by overexpression of either the wild-type or the inactive mutant form of NEU3 on EGFR, we demonstrated that the active form of NEU3 enhanced receptor activation without affecting EGFR mRNA or protein expression. Moreover, through western blots and mass spectrometry analysis, we found that EGFR immunoprecipitated from cells overexpressing active NEU3, unlike the receptor from mock cells and cells overexpressing inactive NEU3, is desialylated. On the whole, our data demonstrate that, besides the already reported indirect EGFR activation through GM3, sialidase NEU3 could also play a role on EGFR activation through its desialylation. PMID:25922362

  9. Estimation of plasma and saliva levels of coenzyme Q10 and influence of oral supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sekine, K; Ota, N; Nishii, M; Uetake, T; Shimadzu, M

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)) levels in human saliva were measured by HPLC with a highly sensitive electrochemical detector (ECD) and a special concentration column. This HPLC system showed satisfactory analytical results within the standard range of 0.78-50 ng/ml. We also found a significant correlation between CoQ(10) levels in plasma and in saliva from parotid glands, while this correlation was lacking between plasma CoQ10 and CoQ10 in whole saliva. Unlike in plasma, there are some fluctuations of saliva CoQ(10) levels throughout the day. A good correlation was obtained by collecting parotid gland saliva at times between meals. The mean saliva CoQ(10) level for 55 healthy volunteers was 17.0 ng/ml (S.D. 6.8 ng/ml); approximately one fiftieth of that in plasma. Regarding the influence of oral supplementation, CoQ(10) was analyzed in plasma and parotid gland saliva from 20 healthy volunteers supplemented daily with 100 mg of CoQ(10) for the first week and 200 mg for the second. The plasma CoQ(10) levels of all volunteers increased to different extents in accordance with the CoQ(10) daily intake and the corresponding change in saliva showed almost the same trend.

  10. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Zhen-Bin; Huang, Yu-Xin; Zhao, Bao-Min; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Zhang, Bing-Hua; Wang, Qing-Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones. METHODS: A total of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively. Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay. RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24) remarkably changed also. CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range, the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder. PMID:16610038

  11. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  12. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. Aim To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. Results There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship. PMID:27727299

  13. Plasma fibrin clot phenotype independently affects intracoronary thrombus ultrastructure in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Jaroslaw; Bogaert, Jan; Sadowski, Marcin; Woznicka, Olga; Doulaptsis, Konstantinos; Ntoumpanaki, Maria; Ząbczyk, Michal; Nessler, Jadwiga; Undas, Anetta

    2015-06-01

    Determinants of intracoronary thrombus (ICT) composition in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether plasma fibrin phenotype and platelet reactivity affect ICT ultrastructure. We assessed the content of fibrin, platelets and erythrocytes including polyhedrocytes by scanning electron microscopy on the surface and inside ICT aspirated from 80 STEMI patients within 12 hours since chest pain onset. Plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks), which indicates the average pore size, lysis time (t50 %), platelet reactivity index (PRI) and ADP-induced platelet aggregation (ADP5, 20µM) were evaluated on admission. All patients received aspirin and 45 (56.3 %) 600 mg of clopidogrel, 80 (60-120) min prior to aspiration. Higher content of fibrin (61.6 vs 34.3 %, P< 0.0001) and platelets (8.2 vs 4.8 %, P=0.018) and lower erythrocyte content (15.8 vs 42.9 %, P< 0.0001) were found on ICT surface compared with its inner part. After adjustment for fibrinogen, in both ICT parts fibrin content was correlated with Ks (r≤-0.55, P< 0.0001) and t50 % (r≥ 0.29, P≤ 0.02) but not with PRI and ADP5,20µM. Polyhedrocytes were observed in 16 (20 %) patients and their large amount expressed as ≥ 50 % fields of view covered by polyhedrocytes was associated with the lower PRI values (40 vs 69 %, P=0.015), but not Ks or t50 %. By multivariate regression, Ks (β=-0.62, P< 0.0001), clopidogrel pretreatment (β=-0.36, P< 0.001), ischemia time (β=0.19, P=0.044) and family history (β=0.18, P=0.049) independently predicted fibrin content in the whole ICT (R²=0.65, P< 0.0001). Formation of denser plasma fibrin clots is independently associated with high fibrin content within the ICT in STEMI. PMID:25739375

  14. Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Different Levels of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Lundin, Ulrika; Gayrard, Nathalie; Mischak, Harald; Aparicio, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Weinberger, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Patients with CKD display altered plasma amino acid profiles. This study estimated the association between the estimated GFR and urinary and plasma amino acid profiles in CKD patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Urine and plasma samples were taken from 52 patients with different stages of CKD, and plasma samples only were taken from 25 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Metabolic profiling was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after phenylisothiocyanate derivatization. Results Most plasma amino acid concentrations were decreased in hemodialysis patients, whereas proline, citrulline, asparagine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and hydroxykynurenine levels were increased (P<0.05). Both plasma levels and urinary excretion of citrulline were higher in the group of patients with advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3 versus CKD stages 4 and 5; in plasma: 35.9±16.3 versus 61.8±23.6 µmol/L, P<0.01; in urine: 1.0±1.2 versus 7.1±14.3 µmol/mol creatinine, P<0.001). Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were higher in advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3, 0.57±0.29; CKD stages 4 and 5, 1.02±0.48, P<0.001), whereas urinary excretion was lower (2.37±0.93 versus 1.51±1.43, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusting on estimated GFR, serum albumin, proteinuria, and other covariates revealed associations between diabetes and plasma citrulline (P=0.02) and between serum sodium and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03). Plasma tyrosine to phenylalanine and valine to glycine ratios were lower in advanced CKD stages (P<0.01). Conclusion CKD patients have altered plasma and urinary amino acid profiles that are not corrected by dialysis. Depending on solutes, elevated plasma levels were associated with increased or decreased urinary excretion, depicting situations of uremic retention (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or systemic overproduction (citrulline). These results give some insight in

  15. Bombay phenotype is associated with reduced plasma-VWF levels and an increased susceptibility to ADAMTS13 proteolysis.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, James S; McKinnon, Thomas A J; Crawley, James T B; Lane, David A; Laffan, Michael A

    2005-09-15

    ABO blood group is an important determinant of plasma von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) levels, with lower levels in group O. Previous reports have suggested that ABO(H) sugars affect the susceptibility of VWF to ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 repeats-13) cleavage. To further test this hypothesis, we collected plasma from individuals with the rare Bombay blood group. VWF:Ag levels were significantly lower in Bombay patients (median, 0.69 IU/mL) than in groups AB, A, or B (P < .05) and lower than in group O individuals (median, 0.82 IU/mL). Susceptibility of purified VWF fractions to recombinant ADAMTS13 cleavage, assessed using VWF collagen-binding assay (VWF:CB), was increased in Bombays compared with either group O or AB. Increasing urea concentration (0.5 to 2 M) increased the cleavage rate for each blood group but eliminated the differences between groups. We conclude that reduction in the number of terminal sugars on N-linked glycan increases susceptibility of globular VWF to ADAMTS13 proteolysis and is associated with reduced plasma VWF:Ag and VWF:CB levels.

  16. Food restriction negatively affects multiple levels of the reproductive axis in male house finches, Haemorhous mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Valle, Shelley; Carpentier, Elodie; Vu, Bethany; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition influences reproductive functions across vertebrates, but the effects of food availability on the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in wild birds and the mechanisms mediating these effects remain unclear. We investigated the influence of chronic food restriction on the HPG axis of photostimulated house finches, Haemorhous mexicanus. Food-restricted birds had underdeveloped testes with smaller seminiferous tubules than ad libitum-fed birds. Baseline plasma testosterone increased in response to photostimulation in ad libitum-fed but not in food-restricted birds. Food availability did not, however, affect the plasma testosterone increase resulting from a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH) or a luteinizing hormone (LH) challenge. The number of hypothalamic GnRH immunoreactive (ir) but not proGnRH-ir perikarya was higher in food-restricted than in ad libitum-fed finches, suggesting inhibited secretion of GnRH. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)-ir and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ir were not affected by food availability. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was also not affected by food availability, indicating that the observed HPG axis inhibition did not result from increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This study is among the first to examine multilevel functional changes in the HPG axis in response to food restriction in a wild bird. The results indicate that food availability affects both hypothalamic and gonadal function, but further investigations are needed to clarify the mechanisms by which nutritional signals mediate these effects.

  17. Blood metal levels and third trimester maternal plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

    PubMed

    Au, Felicia; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Blais, Erica; Fisher, Mandy; Cakmak, Sabit; Basak, Ajoy; Gomes, James; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Prem

    2016-09-01

    While it is known that in utero exposure to environmental toxicants, namely heavy metals, can adversely affect the neonate, there remains a significant paucity of information on maternal biological changes specific to metal exposures during pregnancy. This study aims at identifying associations between maternal metal exposures and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are known to be engaged in pregnancy process. Third trimester maternal plasma (n = 1533) from a pregnancy cohort (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Study, MIREC) were analyzed for MMP-1,-2,-7,-9 and -10 by affinity-based multiplex protein array analyses. Maternal metal concentrations (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and manganese) in 1st and 3rd trimesters exhibited strong correlations (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) for the association between metal concentrations in quartiles and high (90%) and low (10%) maternal MMP levels. Significant (p < 0.05) metal exposure-related effects were observed with the different MMP isoform responses. MMP profiles were specific to the trimester at which the maternal blood metals were analyzed. Our findings suggest that the profiles of these MMP isoforms vary with the type of metal exposure, blood metal concentrations and the trimester at which metal levels were determined. These new findings on maternal metal-MMP relationships can guide future explorations on toxicity mechanisms relevant to metal exposure-mediated adverse birth outcomes.

  18. Blood metal levels and third trimester maternal plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

    PubMed

    Au, Felicia; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Blais, Erica; Fisher, Mandy; Cakmak, Sabit; Basak, Ajoy; Gomes, James; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Prem

    2016-09-01

    While it is known that in utero exposure to environmental toxicants, namely heavy metals, can adversely affect the neonate, there remains a significant paucity of information on maternal biological changes specific to metal exposures during pregnancy. This study aims at identifying associations between maternal metal exposures and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that are known to be engaged in pregnancy process. Third trimester maternal plasma (n = 1533) from a pregnancy cohort (Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Study, MIREC) were analyzed for MMP-1,-2,-7,-9 and -10 by affinity-based multiplex protein array analyses. Maternal metal concentrations (mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic and manganese) in 1st and 3rd trimesters exhibited strong correlations (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) for the association between metal concentrations in quartiles and high (90%) and low (10%) maternal MMP levels. Significant (p < 0.05) metal exposure-related effects were observed with the different MMP isoform responses. MMP profiles were specific to the trimester at which the maternal blood metals were analyzed. Our findings suggest that the profiles of these MMP isoforms vary with the type of metal exposure, blood metal concentrations and the trimester at which metal levels were determined. These new findings on maternal metal-MMP relationships can guide future explorations on toxicity mechanisms relevant to metal exposure-mediated adverse birth outcomes. PMID:27341154

  19. Relationship Between Brain and Plasma Carbaryl Levels and Cholinesterase Inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbaryl is a N-methylcarbamate pesticide and, like others in this class, is a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes. Although studied for many years, there is a surprising lack of information relating tissue levels of carbaryl with ChE activity in the same animals...

  20. Increased plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Aksoy, Fatih; Icli, Atilla; Arslan, Akif; Yuksel, Ozlem; Ersoy, I Hakki; Varol, Simge; Dogan, Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Although fluoride induced inflammatory reactions have been shown in animals and in vitro humans, there are few studies about fluoride induced inflammatory reactions in human beings at clinical setting. We aimed to measure the plasma neopterin, a marker of activation of the monocyte/macrophage system, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with endemic fluorosis to investigate the possible role of inflammatory processes (monocyte/macrophage activity) in the underlying pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity at clinical level. Plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels were determined in endemic fluorosis patients and control subjects. Plasma neopterin levels were significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.40 ± 0.66 vs. 1.63 ± 0.27 ng/mL respectively; p < 0.001) and plasma hs-CRP levels were also significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.41 ± 1.23 vs. 1.93 ± 0.64 mg/L respectively; p < 0.001). Plasma neopterin levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) and serum hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). We have found that plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels are increased in patients with endemic fluorosis. We have concluded that inflammation play an important role in the pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

  1. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Len A; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Krauss, Ronald M; Rubin, Edward M; Cohen, Jonathan C

    2002-11-15

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in approximately 16% of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n=419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12% of Caucasians, 14% of African-Americans and 28% of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25-50% of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  2. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  3. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Meeter, Lieke H.H.; Patzke, Holger; Loewen, Gordon; Dopper, Elise G.P.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; van Minkelen, Rick; van Swieten, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41) and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32) and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02), plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials.

  4. Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration is strongly associated with altered levels of seminal plasma interferon-γ, interleukin-17, and interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jennifer C; Anton, Peter A; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O; Hoffman, Risa M

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (p<0.0001) was most strongly associated with seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission.

  5. Acute modification in plasma lipid levels in ultramarathon runners.

    PubMed

    Emed, Luiz Gustavo Marin; Passaglia, Daniela Gunther; Guerios, Surya T; João, Paula G D; Moser, André I S; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Guarita-Souza, Luis Cesar; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; da Costa, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0.06 and 0.05, respectively), without significant modifications in high-density lipoprotein, LDL and ApoA1 levels (P = 0.16; 0.55 and 0.67). There was a marked reduction in ApoB levels (P < 0.001), correlated directly to the distance covered (Pearson R = 0.68). Accordingly, an increase in the LDL/ApoB ratio was observed. The stress of this physical activity was not associated to an increase in minimally modified LDL or oxidised LDL. Lipid profile levels were not acutely altered by prolonged physical activity. Similarly, there was no evidence of greater oxidation of LDL over a 24-h period of physical activity. The reduction in ApoB was directly proportional to the distance covered, suggesting an acute positive change in phenotype of LDL molecules.

  6. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. PMID:23820464

  7. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases.

  8. Relationship Between Plasma Adiponectin Level With Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin (ADPN) is an important anti-inflammatory marker with anti-atherogenic effects. However, its role in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be determined. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma adiponectin level with some inflammatory and metabolic markers in CKD patients. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma ADPN level in 42 CKD patients and 46 healthy persons with the same age and sex as control group. Then, we investigated the association between plasma ADPN level with some inflammatory and metabolic determinants in CKD patients. Results: Plasma ADPN level was significantly higher in CKD patients than control group (P = 0.04). It was directly correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.599, P < 0.001) and serum creatinine levels (r = 0.675, P < 0.001) and inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.570, P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.318, P = 0.04), C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = -0.548, P < 0.001) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) in CKD patients. Conclusions: These findings suggested that plasma ADPN level is inversely associated with GFR and directly correlate with HDL-cholesterol and inversely with some, but not all metabolic factors of CKD patients who were not undergone dialysis. PMID:24719803

  9. Ultrasound and estradiol plasma levels in threatened abortion.

    PubMed

    Melis, G B; Strigini, F; Fruzzetti, F; Paoletti, A M; Battistelli, P; Boldrini, A

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasound examination and unconjugated estriol assay were performed in 111 women with threatened abortion between the 6th and the 20th week of pregnancy. In viable pregnancies, fetal echoes and fetal heart movements were always observed by sonar from the 10th week onward and estradiol levels always increased above 30 pg/ml from the 13th week. Both ultrasound and estriol assay showed high percentages of uncertain prognostic indication on pregnancy outcome when examinations were performed during the first weeks of pregnancy. However, in the same period estriol levels higher than 30 pg/ml were always correlated with the favourable outcome of pregnancy, since no abortion occurred in subjects with detectable estriol values. During the second trimester ultrasound and estradiol results were normal in all viable pregnancies, while they were abnormal in 71.4% of pregnancies which failed to continue. Estriol values were always undetectable when fetuses could not be identified by sonar or they were dead. These data seem to demonstrate that both methods have similar prognostic value in patients with threatened abortion. However both sonar examination and estriol levels sometimes failed in predicting subsequent pregnancy interruptions, suggesting that abortions were not related to either fetal or placental alterations.

  10. Liver and plasma levels of descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) in vitamin K deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Harauchi, T; Takano, K; Matsuura, M; Yoshizaki, T

    1986-04-01

    Descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) is a precursor of prothrombin without biological activity, and it increases with vitamin K deficiency. We studied the time course changes in liver and plasma levels of PIVKA II during the progress of vitamin K deficiency in rats. Good correlation was observed between liver PIVKA II and plasma PIVKA II and between liver or plasma PIVKA II and plasma prothrombin in experiments in which rats were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet. Feeding of a vitamin K-deficient diet or fasting caused marked increases in liver and plasma PIVKA II in male rats and a weaker response in female rats. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, caused an abrupt increase in liver PIVKA II, but the increase in plasma PIVKA II was delayed about 3 hr. Plasma prothrombin decreased from about 30 min later. Factor VII decreased similarly to prothrombin, and changes in the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were slower than the changes in these substances. Sex differences were not seen in these warfarin actions. These observations indicate that liver and plasma PIVKA II are sensitive markers of vitamin K deficiency in rats, and assay of PIVKA II can be useful for analyzing the action mechanism of drugs which influence blood coagulation.

  11. Genetic effects of an air discharge plasma on Staphylococcus aureus at the gene transcription level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zimu; Wei, Jun; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Zelong; Qian, Shulou; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Weidong; Sun, Qiang; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of gene expression regulation (at transcription level) in Staphylococcus aureus after different doses of atmospheric-pressure room-temperature air plasma treatments are investigated by monitoring the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma treatment influences the transcription of genes which are associated with several important bio-molecular processes related to the environmental stress resistance of the bacteria, including oxidative stress response, biofilm formation, antibiotics resistance, and DNA damage protection/repair. The reactive species generated by the plasma discharge in the gas phase and/or induced in the liquid phase may account for these gene expression changes.

  12. Circadian plasma level profile of lisuride in rats and mice after continuous administration via the diet.

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Reissmann, F; Kühne, G; Schöbel, C

    1995-01-01

    Lisuride (Dopergin, CAS 18016-80-3), a dopamine D2 agonist, was administered to male and female rats and mice continuously via the diet for 14 days. The doses were 0.2 mg/kg/d in mice and 1 mg/kg/d in mice and rats. Plasma level profiles (0-22 or 24 h) were determined by measuring lisuride concentrations by radioimmunoassay. At all doses a plateau-like plasma level of lisuride was observed. A clear circadian rhythm of lisuride concentrations (highs during night, low levels during day) was found for male rats (1 mg/kg/d) and for male mice (0.2 mg/kg/d). Female animals did not show this phenomenon as pronounced. At the same dose of 1 mg/kg/d rats showed higher plasma levels than mice. For males the ratio of total AUCs was 1.9 and for female animals 8.6.

  13. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  14. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs. PMID:22864056

  15. Hereditary central diabetes insipidus: plasma levels of antidiuretic hormone in a family with a possible osmoreceptor defect.

    PubMed Central

    Toth, E L; Bowen, P A; Crockford, P M

    1984-01-01

    A large Canadian kindred of Irish extraction extending from Quebec to British Columbia with autosomal dominant diabetes insipidus responsive to exogenous antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is described. Out of 121 individuals 34 have been identified as affected in seven generations. The disorder is characterized by variability in age at onset and in severity, and by apparently spontaneous abatement in old age. The affected subjects do not appear to manifest hypertension or its sequelae. In three individuals tested the plasma ADH level was very low in spite of adequate osmotic stimulation. However, the level rose in two of them when they were given furosemide, which suggests an osmoreceptor defect and a normal ADH response to volume change. PMID:6498676

  16. The relationship between plasma homocysteine level and different treatment modalities in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Capkin, Erhan; Karkucak, Murat; Akyüz, Ayşe; Alver, Ahmet; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul Kucukali; Zengin, Elif

    2012-08-01

    To determine plasma homocysteine levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and their correlation with disease activity measurements. To examine the effects of different treatment modalities on homocysteine levels. One hundred eight patients diagnosed with AS according to New York criteria and 65 healthy individuals matched in terms of age and gender were enrolled in the study. Patients were given detailed physical examinations. The Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used for disease activity, the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI) for spinal mobility, the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) to determine functional status and the Bath AS Radiological Index (BASRI) for radiological analysis. Sedimentation rate (ESR) and C reactive protein (CRP) levels, acute phase reactants, were measured. Plasma homocysteine levels, serum interleukin (IL) -6 and serum tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α) levels were investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Plasma homocysteine levels in AS patients were statistically significantly lower compared with those in the healthy control group (P = 0.0001). There was no significant difference among sub-groups established on the basis of medical treatments and disease activity (BASDAI ≤4 and >4). No statistically significant correlation was determined between homocysteine level and disease activity parameters, radiological score and functional indices. A significant negative correlation was, however, established between age and homocysteine level in the AS group (P < 0.05, r = -0.426). Plasma homocysteine was lower in AS patients compared with the control group. This is not correlated with disease activation and medical treatment employed.

  17. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  18. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  19. Spatial Dependence of DNA Damage in Bacteria due to Low-Temperature Plasma Application as Assessed at the Single Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Privat-Maldonado, Angela; O’Connell, Deborah; Welch, Emma; Vann, Roddy; van der Woude, Marjan W.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature plasmas (LTPs) generate a cocktail of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS) with bactericidal activity. The RNOS however are spatially unevenly distributed in the plasma. Here we test the hypothesis that this distribution will affect the mechanisms underpinning plasma bactericidal activity focussing on the level of DNA damage in situ. For the first time, a quantitative, single cell approach was applied to assess the level of DNA damage in bacteria as a function of the radial distance from the centre of the plasma jet. Salmonella enterica on a solid, dry surface was treated with two types of LTP: an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet (charged and neutral species) and a radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (neutral species). In both cases, there was an inverse correlation between the degree of DNA damage and the radial distance from the centre of the plasma, with the highest DNA damage occurring directly under the plasma. This trend was also observed with Staphylococcus aureus. LTP-generated UV radiation was eliminated as a contributing factor. Thus valuable mechanistic information can be obtained from assays on biological material, which can inform the development of LTP as a complementary or alternative therapy for (topical) bacterial infections. PMID:27759098

  20. Modeling of plasma-based CO2 conversion: lumping of the vibrational levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, Antonin; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-08-01

    Although CO2 conversion by plasma technology is gaining increasing interest, the underlying mechanisms for an energy-efficient process are still far from understood. In this work, a reduced non-equilibrium CO2 plasma chemistry set, based on level lumping of the vibrational levels, is proposed and the reliability of this level-lumping method is tested by a self-consistent zero-dimensional code. A severe reduction of the number of equations to be solved is achieved, which is crucial to be able to model non-equilibrium CO2 plasmas by 2-dimensional models. Typical conditions of pressure and power used in a microwave plasma for CO2 conversion are investigated. Several different sets, using different numbers of lumped groups, are considered. The lumped models with 1, 2 or 3 groups are able to reproduce the gas temperature, electron density and electron temperature profiles, as calculated by the full model treating all individual excited levels, in the entire pressure range investigated. Furthermore, a 3-groups model is also able to reproduce the shape of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) and gives the most reliable prediction of the CO2 conversion. A strong influence of the vibrational excitation on the plasma characteristics is observed. Finally, the limitations of the lumped-levels method are discussed.

  1. EEG alterations in patients treated with clozapine in relation to plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Haring, C; Neudorfer, C; Schwitzer, J; Hummer, M; Saria, A; Hinterhuber, H; Fleischhacker, W W

    1994-02-01

    It is well known that psychotropic drugs can induce EEG alterations. Dose dependence seems established; however, there are no data concerning the impact of plasma levels. The authors investigated the influence of clozapine plasma levels on the frequency of EEG alterations. Data from 29 inpatients (18 male, 11 female, 31.7 +/- 10.2 years) receiving clozapine in a dose range between 25 and 600 mg were collected prospectively. There was no psychotropic or anticholinergic comedication. All patients had normal EEGs before taking clozapine. Fifteen patients showed pathological changes (group 2) and 14 no changes (group 1). Discriminant analysis showed that EEG changes are dependent on plasma levels (P = 0.0009, plasma levels in group 1 mean 81.6 ng/ml, +/- SD 64.6, in group 2 235.7 ng/ml, +/- 169.8). A total of 72.4% of the patients were correctly classified as having either pathological EEG changes or none by this analysis. Variables such as dose, age, sex, weight and duration of treatment were not statistically relevant. It can therefore be suggested that clozapine plasma levels are a valid indicator for the appearance of electrophysiological reactions. PMID:7846212

  2. High levels of subgenomic HCV plasma RNA in immunosilent infections

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Flavien; Stramer, Susan; Rehermann, Barbara; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Cooper, Stewart; Bangsberg, David; Hahn, Judith; Tobler, Leslie; Busch, Michael; Delwart, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A genetic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in rare blood donors who remained HCV seronegative despite long-term high-level viremia revealed the chronic presence of HCV genomes with large in frame deletions in their structural genes. Full-length HCV genomes were only detected as minority variants. In one immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected donor the truncated HCV genome transiently decreased in frequency concomitant with delayed seroconversion and re-emerged following partial seroreversion. The long-term production of heavily truncated HCV genomes in vivo suggests that these viruses retained the necessary elements for RNA replication while the deleted structural functions necessary for their spread in vivo was provided in trans by wild type helper virus in co-infected cells. The absence of immunological pressure and a high viral load may therefore promote the emergence of truncated HCV subgenomic replicons in vivo. PMID:17493654

  3. Gingival, Plasma and Salivary Levels of Melatonin in Periodontally Healthy Individuals and Chronic Periodontitis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Thodur Madapusi; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontal disease is an inflammatory condition affecting tooth supporting structures in which dysregulated immune response and oxidative stress mediate tissue destruction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone is a regulator of circadian rhythm, an antioxidant and an immunomodulator. Previous studies have shown lowered melatonin levels in saliva, plasma and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with periodontal disease. Till date no study has assessed the melatonin levels in gingival tissues. Materials and Methods: Five healthy individuals and 15 chronic periodontitis patients were recruited for this pilot study. 5ml of whole saliva, 2 ml peripheral blood and gingival tissue samples were obtained from each individual at 8.00 am in fasting state. Melatonin assay was performed with a commercially available ELISA kit. Statistical analysis was done to assess the difference in mean melatonin levels among the groups. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in mean melatonin levels between healthy individuals and chronic periodontitis patients in saliva (p=.266) and plasma (p=.933) samples, whereas in gingival tissue samples (p=.015), the melatonin levels were significantly lowered in chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the presence of melatonin in gingival tissue. Furthermore, melatonin levels are lowered in gingival tissues of chronic periodontitis patients. PMID:25954699

  4. Genetic variants in PLG, LPA, and SIGLEC 14 as well as smoking contribute to plasma plasminogen levels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianyi; Ozel, Ayse B.; Ramdas, Shweta; McGee, Beth; Khoriaty, Rami; Siemieniak, David; Li, Hong-Dong; Guan, Yuanfang; Brody, Lawrence C.; Mills, James L.; Molloy, Anne M.; Ginsburg, David; Li, Jun Z.

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen is the precursor of the serine protease plasmin, a central enzyme of the fibrinolytic system. Plasma levels of plasminogen vary by almost 2-fold among healthy individuals, yet little is known about its heritability or genetic determinants in the general population. In order to identify genetic factors affecting the natural variation of plasminogen levels, we performed a genome-wide association study and linkage analysis in a sample of 3456 young healthy individuals who participated in the Genes and Blood Clotting Study (GABC) or the Trinity Student Study (TSS). Heritability of plasminogen levels was 48.1% to 60.0%. Tobacco smoking and female sex were associated with higher levels of plasminogen. In the meta-analysis, 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2 regions reached genome-wide significance (P < 5.0E-8). Of these, 9 SNPs were near the PLG or LPA genes on Chr6q26, whereas 2 were on Chr19q13 and 5′ upstream of SIGLEC14. These 11 SNPs represented 4 independent signals and collectively explained 6.8% of plasminogen level variation in the study populations. The strongest association was observed for a nonsynonymous SNP in the PLG gene (R523W). Individuals bearing an additional copy of this allele had an average decrease of 13.4% in plasma plasminogen level. PMID:25208887

  5. Exploring Factors Affecting Girls' Education at Secondary Level: A Case of Karak District, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Aslam, Hassan Danial; Habib, Muhammad Badar; Yasmeen, Kausar; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Akhtar, Zaitoon; Akhtar, Basreen

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the factors that affect girls' education at secondary school level in Karak District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan). All the female heads, teachers and students serving and studying at secondary school level in Karak District constituted the population of the study. The study was delimited to only 30 girls' secondary schools in…

  6. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  7. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60), 0.33 (0.17–0.65), and 0.19 (0.09–0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  8. The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on fetal muscle development and plasma hormone concentrations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sen, U; Sirin, E; Yildiz, S; Aksoy, Y; Ulutas, Z; Kuran, M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on the muscle development of fetus and maternal-fetal plasma hormone concentrations in sheep were examined. Estrus was synchronized in 55 Karayaka ewes and were either fed ad libitum (well-fed, WF, n=23) or 0.5×maintenance (under-fed, UF, n=32) 6 days before and 7 days after mating. Non-pregnant ewes (WF, n=13; UF, n=24) and ewes carrying twins (WF, n=1) and female (WF, n=1; UF, n=3) fetuses were removed from the experiment. The singleton male fetuses from well-fed (n=8) and under-fed (n=5) ewes were collected on day 90 of gestation and placental characteristics, fetal BWs and dimensions, fetal organs and muscles weights were recorded. Maternal (on day 7 after mating) and fetal (on day 90 of pregnancy) blood samples were collected to analyze plasma hormone concentrations. Placental characteristics, BW and dimensions, organs and muscles weights of fetuses were not affected by maternal feed intake during the periconception period. Maternal nutrition level did not affect fiber numbers and the muscle cross-sectional area of the fetal longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST) muscles, but the cross-sectional area of the secondary fibers in the fetal LD and ST muscles from the UF ewes were higher than those from the WF ewes (P<0.05). Also, the ratio of secondary to primary fibers in the ST muscle were tended to be lower in the fetuses from the UF ewes (P=0.07). Maternal nutrition level during the periconception period did not cause any significant changes in fetal plasma insulin and maternal and fetal plasma IGF-I, cortisol, progesterone, free T3 and T4 concentrations. However, maternal cortisol concentrations were lower while insulin concentrations were higher in the WF ewes than those in the UF ewes (P<0.05). These results indicate that the reduced maternal feed intake during the periconception period may alter muscle fiber diameter without affecting fiber types, fetal weights and organ

  9. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. PMID:26603557

  10. Plasma and tissue levels of neuropeptide y in experimental septic shock: relation to hemodynamics, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Kuncová, Jitka; Sýkora, Roman; Chvojka, Jiří; Svíglerová, Jitka; Stengl, Milan; Kroužecký, Aleš; Nalos, Lukáš; Matějovič, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent vasoconstrictor released from the sympathetic nerves, has been suggested to counterbalance sepsis-induced vasodilation. Thus, the changes in plasma and tissue NPY concentrations in relation to hemodynamic variables and inflammatory markers in a porcine model of moderate septic shock were investigated. Susceptibility of NPY to be removed by continuous hemofiltration in two settings has been also studied. Thirty-four domestic pigs were divided into five groups: (i) control group; (ii) control group with conventional hemofiltration; (iii) septic group; (iv) septic group with conventional hemofiltration; and (v) septic group with high-volume hemofiltration. Sepsis induced by fecal peritonitis continued for 22 h. Hemofiltration was applied for the last 10 h. Hemodynamic and inflammatory parameters (heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and NPY) were measured before and at 12 and 22 h of peritonitis. NPY tissue levels were determined in the left ventricle and mesenteric and coronary arteries. Sepsis induced long-lasting increases in the systemic NPY levels without affecting its tissue concentrations. Continuous hemofiltration at any dose did not reduce sepsis-induced elevations in NPY plasma concentrations, nor did it affect the peptide tissue levels. The increases in NPY systemic levels were significantly correlated with changes in the systemic vascular resistance. The results support the hypothesis of NPY implication in the regulation of the vascular resistance under septic conditions and indicate that NPY clearance rate during hemofiltration does not exceed the capacity of perivascular nerves to release it.

  11. U-shaped relation between plasma oxytocin levels and behavior in the trust game.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Monakhov, Mikhail; Mok, Helen P; Tong, Terry; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    Trust underpins much of social and economic exchanges across human societies. In experimental economics, the Trust Game has served as the workhorse for the study of trust in a controlled incentivized setting. Recent evidence using intranasal drug administration, aka 'sniffing', suggests that oxytocin (OT) can function as a social hormone facilitating trust and other affiliative behaviors. Here we hypothesized that baseline plasma OT is a biomarker that partially predicts the degree of trust and trustworthiness observed in the trust game. Using a large sample of 1,158 participants, we observed a significant U-shaped relationship between plasma OT with the level of trust, and marginally with the level of trustworthiness, especially among males. Specifically, subjects with more extreme levels of plasma OT were more likely to be trusting as well as trustworthy than those with moderate levels of plasma OT. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of the biological basis of human trust and underscore the usefulness of peripheral plasma OT measures in characterizing human social behavior.

  12. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    PubMed

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P < .001). A trend was observed for a lower Zn levels in seminal plasma of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Seminal Zn in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with sperm count (P < .01) and normal morphology of sperm (P < .001). There was a significantly positive correlation between seminal Zn with Ca (P < .01) and K (P < .01) levels in all specimens. In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  13. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I plasma levels in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Jasper, H; Cassinelli, H

    1993-01-01

    The cause of the growth retardation present in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets has not been totally elucidated. There has been a previous report of a growth hormone deficit in a group of these patients. To verify this abnormality we studied two groups of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, one with (n = 6) and the other without (n = 7) treatment with calcitriol and oral phosphates. All patients in both groups showed a normal growth hormone response (> 10 micrograms/l) to standard stimulatory tests and normal IGF-I plasma levels. Mean IGF-I plasma levels were not significantly different (untreated 1.46 +/- 0.80 U/ml, treated 1.25 +/- 0.69 U/ml) and the mean logarithmic deviation of IGF-I plasma levels from both groups did not differ from normal. In summary, we found no abnormalities of the growth hormone-IGF-I axis in our patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

  14. Evaluation of cisplatin plasma levels in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fleres, Francesco; Saladino, Edoardo; Catanoso, Rosaria; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Mandolfino, Tommaso; Cucinotta, Eugenio; Macrì, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Peritoneal surface malignancies have long been regarded as incurable, however, they can be treated with cytoreductive surgery in addition to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This approach is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, unless hyperhydration is provided in a timely manner. Methods Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent. Plasma levels of cisplatin (CDDP), a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, were measured before, during, and after the procedure. This was done in order to identify the window of highest risk as a function of drug concentrations, assuming a dose-dependent effect. Results Plasma levels of CDDP peak during perfusion. The concentration remains high until the 4th post-operative day and returns to pre-operative levels by the 7th post-operative day. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ensuring hyperhydration as well as infusing albumin and fresh frozen plasma may be of particular value for at least the first 4 days after the procedure. PMID:27385136

  15. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  16. Distribution and determinants of plasma homocysteine levels in rural Chinese twins across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuelong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Guoying; Hong, Xiumei; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Xu, Xiping; Tang, Genfu; Hou, Fanfan; Huo, Yong; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Binyan

    2014-12-01

    Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10-66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25529062

  17. RNAi-mediated downregulation of poplar plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) changes plasma membrane proteome composition and affects leaf physiology.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhen; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uehlein, Norbert; Zimmer, Ina; Mühlhans, Stefanie; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Palme, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Block, Katja

    2015-10-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are one subfamily of aquaporins that mediate the transmembrane transport of water. To reveal their function in poplar, we generated transgenic poplar plants in which the translation of PIP genes was downregulated by RNA interference investigated these plants with a comprehensive leaf plasma membrane proteome and physiome analysis. First, inhibition of PIP synthesis strongly altered the leaf plasma membrane protein composition. Strikingly, several signaling components and transporters involved in the regulation of stomatal movement were differentially regulated in transgenic poplars. Furthermore, hormonal crosstalk related to abscisic acid, auxin and brassinosteroids was altered, in addition to cell wall biosynthesis/cutinization, the organization of cellular structures and membrane trafficking. A physiological analysis confirmed the proteomic results. The leaves had wider opened stomata and higher net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates as well as greater mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). Based on these results, we conclude that PIP proteins not only play essential roles in whole leaf water and CO2 flux but have important roles in the regulation of stomatal movement. PMID:26248320

  18. Quantitative plasma proteome analysis reveals aberrant level of blood coagulation-related proteins in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Hua; Wu, Chih-Ching; Liu, Shu-Chen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Chen, Chi-De; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yu, Jau-Song

    2011-05-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), one of the most common cancers in Southeast Asia, is not easily diagnosed until advanced stages. To discover potential biomarkers for improving NPC diagnosis, we herein identified the aberrant plasma proteins in NPC patients. We first removed the top-seven abundant proteins from plasma samples of healthy controls and NPC patients, and then labeled the samples with different fluorescent cyanine dyes. The labeled samples were then mixed equally and fractionated with ion-exchange chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Proteins showing altered levels in NPC patients were identified by in-gel tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS. When the biological roles of the 45 identified proteins were assessed via MetaCore™ analysis, the blood coagulation pathway emerged as the most significantly altered pathway in NPC plasma. Plasma kallikrein (KLKB1) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) were chosen for evaluation as the candidate NPC biomarkers because of their involvement in blood coagulation. ELISAs confirmed the elevation of their plasma levels in NPC patients versus healthy controls. Western blot and activity assays further showed that the KLKB1 active form was significantly increased in NPC plasma. Collectively, our results identified the significant alteration of blood coagulation pathway in NPC patients, and KLKB1 and TAT may represent the potential NPC biomarkers.

  19. Significance of plasma lead levels in normal and lead-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Trinidad, E E

    1974-05-01

    Plasma lead (Pb) levels have been measured in normal and lead-intoxicated children, newborns, and children with sickle cell disease. The results in all groups were contant over a wide range of red cell Pb concentration. These results support the thesis that the red cell represents a large repository for Pb, maintaining plasma Pb concentration within closely defined limits, and that methods other than measurements of plasma Pb will be necessary to uncover a presumably dynamic transport system between red cell and plasma. Indeed, we have demonstrated in vitro that ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) lowers red cell Pb content according to a linear dose-response curve. Ca(2+) may thereby control Pb transport from red cell to plasma, and fluctuations in the concentration of Ca(2+) in serum and extracellular fluid may influence the toxic activities of Pb. In bone organ culture, changes in the concentration of Ca(2+) and phosphate in the medium alter the release of previously incorporated (210)Pb from fetal rat bones in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Therefore, both PTH and the ionic milieu of the medium apparently regulate bone Pb metabolism.We would expect that understanding further the dynamics of Pb transport in plasma and bone may lead to a more exact definition of the real hazards of low level Pb toxicity in children.

  20. Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Taoping; Liu, Jun; Shan, Zhilei; Jin, Yilin; Chen, Sijing; Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-08-15

    Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 μg/L and 1.2 μg/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.

  1. Interleukin-6 plasma levels and socioeconomic status in Brazilian elderly community-dwelling women.

    PubMed

    de Britto Rosa, Nayza Maciel; de Queiroz, Bárbara Zille; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; di Sabatino Santos, Mary Luci Avelar; Oliveira, Daniela Matos Garcia; Narciso, Fabrícia Mendes E Silva; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2011-01-01

    Aging is related to a chronic increase in inflammatory cytokines. Adverse socioeconomic conditions are associated with increased plasma levels of these molecules, especially interleukin (IL)-6. Considering the differential profile of elderly Brazilians regarding their socioeconomic and cultural aspects, the objectives of this study were: to assess the correlation and differences between levels of IL-6 and socioeconomic status (education and income) in elderly women. IL-6 levels were measured using ELISA. The Spearman test was used to determine the correlation between IL-6 and socioeconomic status, and the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for cytokine level differences across education and income. IL-6 showed a significant inverse correlation with education (r = -0.205, p = 0.014) and income (r = -0.185, p = 0.028). Differences in IL-6 levels were registered across the education variables. The results corroborate evidence that low socioeconomic status is related to higher IL-6 plasma levels in elderly women.

  2. Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Plasma and Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-10 Levels After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Martinez, Pau; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Aguiló, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the response of interleukin (IL)-10, and also of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, to exercise and caffeine supplementation between plasma and blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs). Participants in the study (n = 28) were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to either caffeine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 14) treatments. One hour before completing a 15-km run competition, athletes took 6 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. Plasma and BMNCs were purified from blood samples taken before and after competition. Concentrations of interleukins (IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), caffeine, adrenaline, and cortisol were measured in plasma. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and cAMP levels were also determined in BMNCs. Exercise induced significant increases in IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels, with higher increases in the caffeine-supplemented group. After 2-hr recovery, these levels returned to almost preexercise values. However, no effect of caffeine on BMNC cytokines was observed. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 levels in BMNCs increased mainly at 2 hr postexercise. cAMP levels increased postexercise in plasma and after recovery in BMNCs, but no effects of caffeine were observed. In conclusion, caffeine did not modify cytokine levels in BMNCs in response to exercise. However, higher increases of IL-10 were observed in plasma after exercise in the supplemented participants, which could suppose an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory properties of exercise.

  3. Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Plasma and Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-10 Levels After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Martinez, Pau; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Aguiló, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the response of interleukin (IL)-10, and also of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, to exercise and caffeine supplementation between plasma and blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs). Participants in the study (n = 28) were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to either caffeine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 14) treatments. One hour before completing a 15-km run competition, athletes took 6 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. Plasma and BMNCs were purified from blood samples taken before and after competition. Concentrations of interleukins (IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), caffeine, adrenaline, and cortisol were measured in plasma. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and cAMP levels were also determined in BMNCs. Exercise induced significant increases in IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels, with higher increases in the caffeine-supplemented group. After 2-hr recovery, these levels returned to almost preexercise values. However, no effect of caffeine on BMNC cytokines was observed. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 levels in BMNCs increased mainly at 2 hr postexercise. cAMP levels increased postexercise in plasma and after recovery in BMNCs, but no effects of caffeine were observed. In conclusion, caffeine did not modify cytokine levels in BMNCs in response to exercise. However, higher increases of IL-10 were observed in plasma after exercise in the supplemented participants, which could suppose an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory properties of exercise. PMID:26132827

  4. The Bidirectional Effect between Momentary Affective States and Exercise Duration on a Day Level

    PubMed Central

    Schöndube, Anna; Kanning, Martina; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-documented positive effect of exercise on health outcomes, most people do not succeed in exercising regularly. In addition to several other influences, affective states seem to support exercise participation. Associations between exercise and affect have been shown in the laboratory. However, the dynamic relation between affect and exercise in daily life is not yet well-understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the bi-directional effect of momentary affective states on naturally occurring exercise and vice versa in healthy participants in real-life environments by applying an ecological momentary assessment design. We hypothesized that (1) exercise duration is positively associated with affective states on a day level, (2) affective states in the morning predict subsequent exercise duration, and (3) exercise duration predicts affective states in the evening on that respective day. Data from N = 60 students aged between 19 and 32 years were analyzed. Affect and exercise duration were assessed daily over a period of 20 days via an electronic diary. Multilevel analysis revealed that positive affective valence was positively associated with exercise duration (p = 0.003) on a day level. In addition, the more the participants exercised that respective day, the better and more content they felt in the evening (p = 0.009). Energetic arousal in the morning significantly predicted subsequent exercise duration (p = 0.045). The findings indicate that it would be worthwhile to focus more on within-subject analyses when analyzing the dynamic relation between affect and exercise. Furthermore, affective states should be taken into account in creating effective interventions to foster exercise behavior and enhance maintenance. PMID:27708602

  5. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries. PMID:17980813

  6. Relationship between Prolactin Plasma Levels and White Matter Volume in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    De Giglio, L.; Marinelli, F.; Prosperini, L.; Contessa, G. M.; Gurreri, F.; Piattella, M. C.; De Angelis, F.; Barletta, V. T.; Tomassini, V.; Pantano, P.; Pozzilli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The role of prolactin (PRL) on tissue injury and repair mechanisms in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between PRL plasma levels and brain damage as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods. We employed a chemiluminescence immunoassay for measuring plasma levels of PRL. We used a 1.5 T scanner to acquire images and Jim 4.0 and SIENAX software to analyse them. Results. We included 106 women with relapsing remitting (RR) MS and stable disease in the last two months. There was no difference in PRL plasma levels between patients with and without gadolinium enhancement on MRI. PRL plasma levels correlated with white matter volume (WMV) (rho = 0.284, p = 0.014) but not with grey matter volume (GMV). Moreover, PRL levels predicted changes in WMV (Beta: 984, p = 0.034). Conclusions. Our data of a positive association between PRL serum levels and WMV support the role of PRL in promoting myelin repair as documented in animal models of demyelination. The lack of an increase of PRL in the presence of gadolinium enhancement, contrasts with the view considering this hormone as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in the inflammatory process associated with MS. PMID:26236110

  7. The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Levine, P H; Weiner, B; Ockene, I S; Johnson, B; Johnson, M H; Natale, A M; Vaudreuil, C H; Hoogasian, J

    1986-06-01

    Vegetarians have an apparent diminished risk for the development of ischemic coronary heart disease. This may be secondary to dietary effects of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, but platelets, which may also play a role, have also been observed to have aberrant functions in vegetarians. We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, platelet function, platelet fatty acid levels, and platelet active prostaglandins in ten strict vegetarians (vegans), 15 lactovegetarians, and 25 age- and sex-matched omnivorous controls. The most striking observations were a highly significant rise in platelet linoleic acid concentration and a decline in platelet arachidonic acid concentration in both vegetarian subgroups as compared with omnivorous controls. Serum thromboxane and prostacyclin levels as well as results of platelet aggregation studies did not differ among the groups tested. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in both vegetarian groups as compared with controls, but plasma high- and low-density lipoprotein levels were lower only in the vegan subgroup as compared with omnivores. If diet produces these changes in platelet fatty acid and plasma lipid levels it may contribute to the decreased risk of coronary heart disease and possibly atherosclerosis in vegetarians.

  8. Elevated hsa-miR-99a levels in maternal plasma may indicate congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    KEHLER, LARS; BIRO, ORSOLYA; LAZAR, LEVENTE; RIGO, JANOS; NAGY, BALINT

    2015-01-01

    The current standard for prenatal screening is mostly based on biochemical marker tests and the use of ultrasonography. There is no secure stand-alone screening marker for congenital heart defects (CHDs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that are associated with cardiogenesis enter the maternal peripheral bloodstream during pregnancy and allow non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). The present study investigated the plasma expression profile of fetal hsa-miR-99a in maternal blood. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 39 pregnant patients, comprising 22 with CHD-positive fetuses and 17 with CHD-free controls. miRNAs were isolated from the maternal serum and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the expression of hsa-miR-99a. While the miRNA concentrations were almost identical among the affected and control groups (5.54 vs. 6.40 ng/µl), significantly upregulated hsa-miR-99a levels were identified in the affected group (1.78×10−2±3.53×10−2 vs. 1.09×10−3±3.55×10−3 ng/µl, P=0.038). In conclusion, according to the present study, hsa-miR-99a is involved in cardiac malformation and may serve as a biomarker during fetal development, and therefore presents as a candidate for monitoring cardiomyogenesis and potential use as a NIPT-biomarker for fetal CHD. PMID:26623032

  9. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  10. Effect of some psychoactive drugs on stress induced alteration in plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S P; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, S I; Najam, R; Khurshid, S J

    1995-06-01

    Psychoactive drugs such as chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, propranolol and diazepam were evaluated for their ability to block stress induced changes in Wistar albino rats. The stress induced changes were monitored as the difference in plasma corticosterone (PCS) levels, before and after the administration of minimum effective doses of psychoactive drugs. Significant results were obtained with diazepam at the dose of 5-10 mg/kg and to a lesser extent with propranolol 20 mg/kg. Other drugs, at their minimum effective doses showed no significant change in plasma corticosterone levels.

  11. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (< 6% dietary energy), either by reducing the total fat content of the diet or by exchanging saturated fat with unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL

  12. Anabolic androgenic steroid affects competitive behaviour, behavioural response to ethanol and brain serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Ann-Sophie; Johansson-Steensland, Pia; Nyberg, Fred; Fahlke, Claudia

    2002-06-15

    The present study investigated whether anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment (daily subcutaneous injections during 2 weeks with nandrolone decanoate; 15 mg/kg) affects competitive behaviour, and locomotor activity response to a sedative dose of ethanol (0.5 g ethanol/kg). In addition, levels of brain monoamines were assessed. The results showed that AAS treated animals exhibited enhanced dominant behaviour in the competition test compared to controls. The AAS groups' locomotor activity was not affected by ethanol in contrast to the controls who showed a sedative locomotor activity. AAS animals had significant lower levels of serotonin in basal forebrain and dorsal striatum compared to controls. These findings further strengthen the fact that AAS affects behaviour, as well as biochemical parameters. Based on previous studies and results from the present study, we hypothesize that AAS abuse may constitute a risk factor for disinhibitory behaviour, partly by affecting the serotonergic system.

  13. Rare variants analysis of neurexin-1β in autism reveals a novel start codon mutation affecting protein levels at synapses.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Garcia, Rafael J; Hervás, Amaia; Toma, Claudio; Balmaña, Noemí; Cormand, Bru; Martinez-Mir, Amalia; Scholl, Francisco G

    2013-12-01

    Neurexins are synaptic plasma membrane proteins encoded by three genes (NRXN1, -2, -3) with alternative promoters. Mutations in neurexin genes have been identified in different neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Recently, two point mutations altering the translation initiation site of NRXN1β (c.-3G>T and c.3G>T) have been described in patients with autism and mental retardation. In this study, we analyzed the NRXN1β gene in a sample of 153 patients with autism. We report the identification of a novel mutation, c.3G>A (p.Met1), affecting the translation initiation site. Expression analysis showed that the c.3G>A mutation switches the translation start site of NRXN1β to an in-frame downstream methionine and decreases synaptic levels of the mutant protein in cultured neurons. These data reinforce a role for synaptic defects of NRXN1β in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  15. Epipolymorphisms within lipoprotein genes contribute independently to plasma lipid levels in familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Simon-Pierre; Brisson, Diane; Lamarche, Benoit; Gaudet, Daniel; Bouchard, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with plasma lipid concentrations explain only a fraction of their heritability, which can reach up to 60%. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation) could contribute to explain part of this missing heritability. We therefore assessed whether the DNA methylation of key lipoprotein metabolism genes is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Untreated FH patients (61 men and 37 women) were recruited for the measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the ABCG1, LIPC, PLTP and SCARB1 gene loci using bisulfite pyrosequencing. ABCG1, LIPC and PLTP DNA methylation was significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride levels in a sex-specific manner (all P < 0.05). FH subjects with previous history of coronary artery disease (CAD) had higher LIPC DNA methylation levels compared with FH subjects without CAD (P = 0.02). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models showed that new and previously reported epipolymorphisms (ABCG1-CpGC3, LIPC-CpGA2, mean PLTP-CpGC, LPL-CpGA3, CETP-CpGA2, and CETP-CpGB2) significantly contribute to variations in plasma lipid levels (all P < 0.001 in men and P < 0.02 in women), independently of traditional predictors such as age, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma lipids and glucose levels. These results suggest that epigenetic perturbations of key lipoprotein metabolism genes are associated with plasma lipid levels, contribute to the interindividual variability and might partially explain the missing heritability of plasma lipid levels, at least in FH. PMID:24504152

  16. Association between plasma selenium level and NRF2 target genes expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Reszka, Edyta; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Janasik, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    Animal studies in rodent and in vitro studies indicate compensatory role of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (Nrf2) and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and phase II biotransformation enzymes for the dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or for the loss of selenoproteins. To explore associations between plasma Se level and NRF2-regulated cytoprotective genes expression, an observational study was conducted in a population of 96 healthy non-smoking men living in Central Poland aged 18-83 years with relatively low plasma Se level. NRF2, KEAP2, CAT, EPHX1, GCLC, GCLM, GPX2, GSR, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, HMOX1, NQO1, PRDX1, SOD1, SOD2, TXNRD1 transcript levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and polymorphism of NRF2-617C/A (rs6721961) in blood genomic DNA were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Mean plasma Se level was found to be 51.10±15.25μg/L (range 23.86-96.18μg/L). NRF2 mRNA level was positively correlated with expression of investigated NRF2-target genes. The multivariate linear regression adjusting for selenium status showed that plasma Se level was significantly inversely associated only with expression of GSTP1 (β-coef.=-0.270, p=0.009), PRDXR1 (β-coef.=-0.245, p=0.017) and SOD2 with an inverse trend toward significance (β-coef.=-0.186, p=0.074), but without an effect of NRF2 gene variants. NRF2 expression was inversely associated with age (r=-0.23, p=0.03) and body mass index (r=-0.29, p<0.001). The findings may suggest a possible link between plasma Se level and cytoprotective response at gene level in humans. PMID:25524402

  17. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity are not affected by an acute increase of metabolic rate in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Beamonte-Barrientos, Rene; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the sources of variation in oxidative stress level is a challenging issue due to the implications of oxidative stress for late age diseases, longevity and life-history trade-offs. Reactive oxygen species that cause oxidative stress are mostly a by-product of energy metabolism and it is therefore often assumed that oxidative stress is proportional to energy consumption. In mammals, an increased metabolic rate induced by cold exposure generally increases oxidative stress. However, compared to mammals, birds generate fewer free radicals per ATP produced and hence it is not obvious that, in birds, a cold-induced increase of metabolic rate increase oxidative stress. We tested whether cold-induced increase in metabolic rate increased oxidative stress in zebra finches by exposing individuals to cold and warm overnight temperatures. We registered metabolic rate and plasma levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), a measure of oxidative damage. Metabolic rate was on average 88 % higher in cold compared to warm temperature, with females being stronger affected than males. However, temperature had no effect on plasma antioxidants or our measure of oxidative damage. Middle-age birds had higher levels of plasma antioxidants than younger and older birds, but age was unrelated to ROMs. Birds showed repeatability of plasma ROMs across temperatures but not of non-enzymatic antioxidants. In contrast to similar studies in mammals, our results do not show evidence of increased oxidative stress in plasma after an acute cold-induced increase of metabolic rate but research in more bird species is needed to assess the generality of this pattern.

  18. Gastric emptying and plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones in patients with peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Jun-Man; Li, Xue-Hui; Hao, Hong-Sheng; Fu, Shu-Hua

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the plasma level of gastrointestinal hormones and the time of gastric emptying in patients with peptic ulcer. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric ulcer (GU), 29 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU), and 12 healthy controls were studied. Plasma levels of somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying half-time (GET1/2) was measured by the TC-99m resin/solid meal method. RESULTS: GET1/2 was significantly longer in the GU patients than that in the healthy controls (65.9 ± 14.8 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma VIP levels were significantly higher (37.5 ± 10.7 ng/L vs 18.4 ± 5.9 ng/L, P < 0.05).There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and plasma VIP levels (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in SS and SP levels when GU patients were compared with healthy controls (P > 0.05). GET1/2 was markedly shorter in the DU patients than in the healthy controls (41.7 ± 10.2 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma SS levels were significantly lower (6.4 ± 2.5 ng/L vs 11.9 ± 3.4 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and SS levels (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Plasma SP levels in the DU patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (54.4 ± 12.7 ng/L vs 41.6 ± 5.8 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between GET1/2 and SP levels (r = -0.68, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in the plasma VIP levels when DU patient were compared to healthy controls (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Elevation in VIP may contribute to occurrence of GU and its associated delay in GET1/2. Increased SP and reduced SS may play important roles in GET1/2 acceleration and in the pathogensis of DU. PMID:27053894

  19. Environmental-like exposure to low levels of estrogen affects sexual behavior and physiology of female rats.

    PubMed

    Della Seta, Daniele; Farabollini, Francesca; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Fusani, Leonida

    2008-11-01

    Xenoestrogens are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that mimic the action of endogenous estrogen hormones. Effects of xenoestrogen on aquatic wildlife are well documented, whereas the experimental evidence for impairment of reproductive behavior and physiology in mammals after exposure to xenoestrogens has been debated. The strongest arguments against such studies have been that the route, time course, and intensity of exposure did not simulate environmental exposure and that the chemicals tested have additional nonestrogenic toxic effects, hindering generalization of actual xenoestrogenic effects. Here we show that environmental-like exposure to the pure estrogen 17alpha-ethinylestradiol during development alters reproductive behavior and physiology in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. We simulated environmental exposure by giving low doses (0.4 and 0.004 microg/kg.d) of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol orally to pregnant females from conception to weaning of the pups, which continued to receive the treatment until puberty. We studied the sexual behavior, estrous cycle, and estradiol plasma levels of intact female rats when they reached 3 months of age. Exposure to the higher dose strongly affected female sexual behavior and physiology, with suppression of lordosis and the estrous cycle and enhanced aggression toward males. The lower dose disrupted appetitive components of sexual behavior that influence the rate of copulation. Estradiol plasma levels were not affected by the treatment. Our study revealed that exposure to low oral doses of a pure estrogen during development alters female sexual behavior and physiology. These results suggest potential risks of reproductive failure from xenoestrogen exposure in realistic ecological conditions.

  20. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. Coenzyme Q10, carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol levels in cord plasma from multiethnic subjects in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Franke, AA; Lai, J.F.; Morrison, C.M.; Pagano, I.; Li, X; Halm, B.M.; Soon, R.; Custer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10), carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol are the major circulating lipid-phase micronutrients (LPM) known to help mitigate oxidative damage and prevent chronic diseases. However, the functions of these compounds in newborns are little understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of studies reporting their concentrations in this population. We measured Q10, carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in cord plasma from 100 multiethnic subjects living in Hawaii using HPLC with diode array and electrochemical detection. Appropriate internal standards were used including, for the first time, custom designed oxidized (UN10) and reduced (UL10) Q10 analogues. These compounds reflected the oxidation of UL10 to UN10 that occurred during sample processing and analysis and thus permitted accurate adjustments of natively circulating Q10 levels. All LPM measured were much lower in cord than in peripheral plasma. Cord plasma levels of total carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol were approximately 10-fold, 3- to 5-fold and 1.5- to 3-fold lower than those in children or women. Cord plasma levels of total Q10 (TQ10; median, 113 ng/mL) were approximately 2-fold or 7- to 9-fold lower than peripheral plasma levels of neonates or children and adults, respectively. In contrast, the UN10/TQ10 ratio was substantially higher in cord (24%) than in peripheral plasma of children (3 – 4%) or adults (9%). Among the 5 ethnic groups in our cohort, no differences were observed in the levels of UN10, UL10, or TQ10. However, significant differences in many of the LPM were observed between ethnicities. More research is needed to explain these phenomena. PMID:23829202

  2. Plasma and CSF herpes simplex virus levels at diagnosis and outcome of neonatal infection

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Ann J.; Mohan, Kathleen M.; Schiffer, Joshua T; Drolette, Linda M; Magaret, Amalia; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of quantitative herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) levels for prognosis and management of neonatal HSV disease. Study design Clinical and virologic data were abstracted by medical record review from neonatal HSV cases treated at Seattle Children’s Hospital between 1993 and 2012. HSV PCR results from plasma (n= 47), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=56) or both (n=40) at the time of diagnosis were available from 63 infants; 26 with skin/eye/mouth (SEM), 18 with central nervous system (CNS) and 19 with disseminated (DIS) disease. Results Plasma HSV PCR was positive in 78% of the infants with SEM, 64% with CNS and 100% with DIS disease. Mean plasma viral level was 2.8 log10 copies/mL in SEM, 2.2 log10 copies/ml in CNS, and 7.2 log10 copies/ml in DIS infants. The HSV levels were higher among infants who died compared with surviving infants, 8.1 log10 copies/mL (range 7.7–8.6) vs 3.8 log10 copies/ml (range 0.0–8.6), p=0.001, however, level of HSV DNA in the CSF or in plasma did not correlate with neurologic outcome. Dynamics of HSV clearance from plasma during high-dose acyclovir treatment showed single-phase exponential decay with a median viral half-life of 1.26 days (range: 0.8 – 1.51). Conclusion Plasma HSV levels correlate with clinical presentation of neonatal HSV disease and mortality, but not neurologic outcome. PMID:25491092

  3. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  4. Relationship between plasma level of vitamin D and post operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing CABG

    PubMed Central

    Shadvar, Kamran; Ramezani, Fariba; Sanaie, Sarvin; Maleki, Taher Entezari; Arbat, Babak Kazemi; Nagipour, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. Several studies have shown the impact of vitamin D on heart disease; however, there have been few studies for the incidence of AF and its relationship with vitamin D levels. According to the different results of these studies, we decided to evaluate the relation of plasma levels of vitamin D and postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 50 patients after CABG surgery. Simple random sampling was done. Twenty five patients who developed AF within 48 hours after CABG with Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in the case group and 25 patients who did not develop AF within 48 hours after CABG with CPB were enrolled in the control group. Plasma levels of vitamin D in both groups of patients were recorded. Collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, lipid profile and kidney function between two groups. The mean plasma level of vitamin D was 27.4 ± 2.22 ng/ml in the case group and was 28.2 ± 1.18 ng/ml in the control group it (p= 0.803). Conclusions: Plasma levels of vitamin D were almost the same in both groups and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without atrial fibrillation following CABG.

  5. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  6. Relationship between plasma level of vitamin D and post operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing CABG

    PubMed Central

    Shadvar, Kamran; Ramezani, Fariba; Sanaie, Sarvin; Maleki, Taher Entezari; Arbat, Babak Kazemi; Nagipour, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. Several studies have shown the impact of vitamin D on heart disease; however, there have been few studies for the incidence of AF and its relationship with vitamin D levels. According to the different results of these studies, we decided to evaluate the relation of plasma levels of vitamin D and postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 50 patients after CABG surgery. Simple random sampling was done. Twenty five patients who developed AF within 48 hours after CABG with Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in the case group and 25 patients who did not develop AF within 48 hours after CABG with CPB were enrolled in the control group. Plasma levels of vitamin D in both groups of patients were recorded. Collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, lipid profile and kidney function between two groups. The mean plasma level of vitamin D was 27.4 ± 2.22 ng/ml in the case group and was 28.2 ± 1.18 ng/ml in the control group it (p= 0.803). Conclusions: Plasma levels of vitamin D were almost the same in both groups and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without atrial fibrillation following CABG. PMID:27648036

  7. Plasma levels of DDT and their association with reproductive hormones in adult men from northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Asawasinsopon, R; Prapamontol, T; Prakobvitayakit, O; Vaneesorn, Y; Mangklabruks, A; Hock, B

    2006-02-15

    Historically, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used in northern Thailand for malaria control and farming purposes. Several studies have investigated its effects on end points of adverse reproductive health outcomes. However, the few previous studies investigated hormonal effects in men and available data are inconclusive. The authors aimed to explore the main hypothesis that plasma DDT levels in adult men were associated with reproductive hormone levels. A cross-sectional study was performed of 97 adult men living in a highland village named Mae Sa Mai, 35 km north of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected for measuring plasma levels of DDT and its metabolites and reproductive hormones, including 17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were detected in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE had the highest level with a median of 4057.7 ng/g lipids and a relatively higher level compared with most other studies. Plasma p,p'-DDT levels were positively associated with years of residence (beta+SE=0.472+0.208, P=0.028) and years of DDT usage for farming (beta+SE=0.177+0.084, P=0.04). The remarkable findings were the negative association of plasma E2 levels with plasma p,p'-DDE levels (beta+SE=-7.093+2.899, P=0.016) and the positive association with plasma 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophynyl)ethylene (o,p'-DDE) levels (beta+SE=16.381+5.596, P=0.008) after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). However, these associations were rather weak. Our results suggest that these associations may reflect their different mechanisms of hormonal activities and they would be warrant further detail investigations.

  8. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  9. [Evaluation of miR-122 level in the plasma of chronically HCV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Gholami, M; Ravanshad, M; Alavian, S-M; Baesi, K; Moallemi, S

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which have an important function in regulating RNA stability and gene expression. They also can circulate in a cell-free form in the blood thatmakes them potential disease markers. The liver contains various classes of miRNAs in which miR-122 accounts for about 70% of all miRNAs and it has been proved that its level increases in case of liver damage. Here, we investigated plasma levels of miR-122 as a useful disease parameter in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Thirty five hemophilia and thalassemia patients with CHC were studied. The total RNA was extracted from plasma samples, and miR-122 levels were measured by qPCR and then compared with the specific liver markers. The plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase(AST) were correlated with plasma miR-122 level in CHC patients, and the level of circulating miR-122 in healthy individual groups were rarely lower than those of patients with CHC. In our study, miR-122 levels correlated well with markers of liver inflammatory activity. Plasma miR-122 can be assumed to be another marker in liver similar to the currently used specific markers such as ALT and AST for evaluation of liver damage in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. Moreover, the correlation between miR-122 and ALT was shown to be higher than between miR-122 and AST. PMID:27239848

  10. Analytical method for the determination of acrylonitrile in rat plasma at the nanograms per milliliter level.

    PubMed

    Freshour, N L; Melcher, R G

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of acrylonitrile (propenenitrile, vinyl cyanide, AN) in rat plasma at the ng/mL level by gas chromatography (GC) utilizing a modified delayed injection technique (DIT) and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The method was developed to determine the acrylonitrile plasma profile following administration of various dose levels of AN via different routes. A remote injection apparatus was placed in-line with the purge gas to the precolumn of the DIT. Using this arrangement, matrix interferences in rat plasma samples normally incurred during GC analysis were overcome, while a high sensitivity for acrylonitrile was maintained. The ability to analyze 20-microL samples made serial kills unnecessary and duplicate injections possible with an analysis time of approximately 10 min/sample. The average detection limit for the entire study (3 x background) was 2.0 ng/mL.

  11. C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and plasma homocysteine levels among Thai vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Kajanachumpol, Saowanee; Atamasirikul, Kalayanee; Tantibhedhyangkul, Phieuvit

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia among vegetarians and vegans is caused mostly by vitamin B12 deficiency. A C-to-T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene results in a thermolabile MTHFR, which may affect homocysteine (Hcy) levels. The importance of this gene mutation among populations depends on the T allele frequency. Blood Hcy, vitamin B12, folate, vitamin B6, and MTHFR C677T mutation status were determined in 109 vegans and 86 omnivores aged 30 - 50 years. The vegans had significantly higher Hcy levels than the omnivores, geometric means (95 % CI) 19.2 (17.0 - 21.7) µmol/L vs. 8.53 (8.12 - 8.95) µmol/L, p < 0.001. A C-to-T mutation in the vegans increased plasma Hcy, albeit insignificantly; geometric means 18.2 µmol/L, 20.4 µmol/L, and 30.0 µmol/L respectively in CC, CT, and TT MTHFR genotypes. There was also a significant decrease in serum folate; geometric means 12.1 ng/mL, 9.33 ng/mL, and 7.20 ng/mL respectively, in the CC, CT, and TT mutants, p = 0.006, and particularly, in the TT mutant compared with the CC wild type, 7.20 ng/mL vs. 12.1 ng/mL, p = 0.023. These findings were not seen in the omnivores. It was concluded that hyperhomocysteinemia is prevalent among Thai vegans due to vitamin B12 deficiency. C-to-T MTHFR mutation contributes only modestly to the hyperhomocysteinemia.

  12. Dexamethasone decreases plasma levels of the prochiral fenbendazole and its chiral and achiral metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, S; Small, J; Jones, D G; McKellar, Q A

    2003-07-01

    1. The effect of co-administration of either short- or long-acting formulations of DXM on hepatic function and the plasma pharmacokinetic behaviour of prochiral fenbendazole (FBZ) and its metabolites was evaluated in sheep. 2. Neither DXM treatment markedly affected any of the biochemical markers of hepatic function tested. In contrast, both formulations significantly modified the plasma pharmacokinetic behaviour of FBZ and its metabolites. 3. Plasma FBZ concentrations and the associated area under the time-concentration curves were significantly lower, although the plasma detection period was longer (72 versus 48 h) in the DXM pretreated animals compared with those given FBZ alone. 4. DXM also appeared to alter the pattern of FBZ absorption, possibly through effects on abomasal pH. The shape of the plasma concentration-time curves for oxfendazole (OFZ) and fenbendazole sulphone (FBZSO(2)) were similar to FBZ, raising the possibility that DXM treatment may have altered the liver biotransformation of the parent drug. 5. The concentrations of the (+) chiral metabolite of OFZ were significantly lower in DXM pretreated animals compared with those given FBZ alone. The trend was similar for the (-) antipode, although the differences between DXM pretreated and non-pretreated animals were not statistically significant.

  13. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal.

  14. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    PubMed

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. PMID:27208490

  15. In vivo evaluation of the effects of hydraulic calcium silicate dental cements on plasma and liver aluminium levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Kadriye; Can Demirdöğen, Birsen; Öncel Torun, Zeynep; Erdem, Onur; Çetinkaya, Serdar; Akay, Cemal

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to test whether the presence of three hydraulic calcium silicate dental cements--MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex, and Theracal LC--in the dental extraction socket of an in vivo model, would affect the levels of aluminium (Al) in the plasma and liver. Following anesthesia, the right upper incisor of each male Wistar albino rat was extracted and polyethylene tubes filled with MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex, or Theracal LC were inserted into the depth of the extraction socket and gingival tissue was sutured. The rats were killed 7, 30, or 60 d after the operation. Blood and liver samples were obtained from the rats before they were killed, and the levels of Al were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma Al levels were higher in the rats in which the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements were implanted, especially MTA Angelus and MTA Fillapex, compared with control rats. In liver samples, however, the differences in Al level were not statistically significant. Our results show that Al might have been released into the circulation from the three dental cements tested, especially MTA Angelus and MTA Fillapex. Further research should be carried out on the possible biological effects of Al liberated from dental cements.

  16. Positive affect and markers of inflammation: discrete positive emotions predict lower levels of inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Stellar, Jennifer E; John-Henderson, Neha; Anderson, Craig L; Gordon, Amie M; McNeil, Galen D; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Negative emotions are reliably associated with poorer health (e.g., Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002), but only recently has research begun to acknowledge the important role of positive emotions for our physical health (Fredrickson, 2003). We examine the link between dispositional positive affect and one potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health-proinflammatory cytokines, specifically levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We hypothesized that greater trait positive affect would be associated with lower levels of IL-6 in a healthy sample. We found support for this hypothesis across two studies. We also explored the relationship between discrete positive emotions and IL-6 levels, finding that awe, measured in two different ways, was the strongest predictor of lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines. These effects held when controlling for relevant personality and health variables. This work suggests a potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health through proinflammatory cytokines.

  17. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Decreases Levels of Routinely Used Cardiac and Inflammatory Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Beutel, Gernot; Bauersachs, Johann; David, Sascha; Schmidt, Bernhard M. W.; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kielstein, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) plays a key role in the management of various diseases, from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and Goodpasture's syndrome to cardiac allograft rejection. In many of these disease states cardiac and inflammatory involvement is common and biomarkers are routinely used for diagnosis or assessment of therapeutic success. The effect of TPE on biomarkers used in the clinical routine has not been investigated. Methods TPE was initiated for established clinical conditions in 21 patients. Troponin T, NT-proBNP, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and routine chemistry were drawn before and after TPE, as well as before and after the 2nd TPE. The total amount of these markers in the waste bag was also analyzed. Results In 21 patients 42 TPEs were performed. The procedure reduced plasma levels of the examined biomarkers: 23% for NT-proBNP (pre vs. post: 4637±10234 ng/l to 3565±8295 ng/l, p<0.001), 64% for CRP (21.9±47.0 mg/l vs. 7.8±15.8 mg/l, p<0.001) and 31% for procalcitonin (0.39±1.1 µg/l vs. 0.27±0.72 µg/l, p=0.004). TPE also tended to reduce plasma levels of troponin T by about 14% (60.7±175.5 ng/l vs. 52.2±141.3 ng/l), however this difference was not statistical significant (p=0.95). There was a significant correlation between the difference of pre TPE levels to post TPE levels of all examined biomarkers and the total amount of the removed biomarker in the collected removed plasma. Conclusions TPE significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Therefore, post TPE levels of cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers should be viewed with caution. PMID:22685586

  18. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  19. Association Between Plasma Beta-2 Microglobulin Level and Cardiac Performance in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid; Omranifar, Batoul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is considered as a surrogate marker for middle molecule uremic toxins and a key component in dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, few studies have evaluated role of B2M in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma B2M level with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors in patients with CKD. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma B2M level in 86 patients with different stages of CKD and 78 age- and sex-matched individuals, as healthy control group. Then we investigated the association between plasma B2M level and left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) in echocardiography and some inflammatory and metabolic factors in patients with CKD. Results: Mean plasma B2M level was significantly higher in patients with CKD than in control group (P < 0.001). It was directly correlated with serum C-reactive protein (r = 0.167, P < 0.001), phosphate (r = 0.112, P < 0.001) levels, and left ventricular mass index (r = 0.438, P < 0.001) and LVEDD (r = 0.275, P < 0.001) in echocardiography. It was also inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.033, P < 0.001), albumin (r = -0.521, P < 0.001), hemoglobin (r = -0.748, P < 0.001), and EF (r = -0.625, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that plasma B2M level is inversely associated with GFR and EF and directly correlated with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors. PMID:25738124

  20. Increased plasma homocysteine levels in patients with multiple sclerosis and depression

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kararizou, Evangelia; Boufidou, Fotini; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Nikolaou, Chrysoula; Sfagos, Constantinos; Vlaikidis, Nikolaos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the plasma levels of homocysteine in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to investigate whether an association with depression exists. Methods Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B12 and plasma folate were measured in 65 moderately disabled patients with relapsing/remitting MS (RR-MS) and 60 healthy controls. All subjects were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Hcy levels were significantly increased in MS patients compared to controls (13.5 ± 4.7 μmol/l vs 8.5 ± 3.1, p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between Hcy levels and BDI scores (Pearson r = 0.3025, p < 0.05). Plasma Hcy was not related to Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, age, disease duration or vitamin B12 and folate. Conclusion Moderately disabled MS patients with elevated Hcy levels are particularly prone to develop depressive symptomatology. Further study is warranted in order to elucidate the prognostic and therapeutic implications of this novel finding. PMID:18782433

  1. Plasma levels on thyroid hormones in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) decrease before spawning.

    PubMed

    Biddiscombe, S; Idler, D R

    1983-12-01

    Blood samples were taken from mature sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at various stages in their upstream migration to spawn at Adam's River in British Columbia, Canada. Plasma T3 and T4 levels decreased significantly in both males and females between time of entry into fresh water and postspawning.

  2. Effect of frequency of dosing of plant sterols on plasma cholesterol levels and synthesis rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the effects of plant sterols (PS) consumed as a single dose (single) at breakfast or as three doses consumed with breakfast, lunch and dinner (divided) on plasma lipoprotien levels and cholesterol endogenous fractional synthesis rate (FSR). A randomized, placebo-controll...

  3. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Orhan; Bilen, Habip; Keles, Sadullah; Alp, H. Hakan; Keleş, Mevlüt Sait; Yıldırım, Kenan; Öndaş, Osman; Pınar, L. Can; Civelekler, Mustafa; Baykal, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP) and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) concentration. METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50). The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50). Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in both groups. RESULTS Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10) levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively. CONCLUSION The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24195048

  4. Increased levels of hyper-stable protein aggregates in plasma of older adults.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Trasatti, Hannah; Wymer, James P; Colón, Wilfredo

    2016-06-01

    Proteins that misfold into hyper-stable/degradation-resistant species during aging may accumulate and disrupt protein homeostasis (i.e., proteostasis), thereby posing a survival risk to any organism. Using the method diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-PAGE, which separates hyper-stable SDS-resistant proteins at a proteomics level, we analyzed the plasma of healthy young (<30 years) and older (60-80 years) adults. We discovered the presence of soluble SDS-resistant protein aggregates in the plasma of older adults, but found significantly lower levels in the plasma of young adults. We identified the inflammation-related chaperone protein haptoglobin as the main component of the hyper-stable aggregates. This observation is consistent with the growing link between accumulations of protein aggregates and aging across many organisms. It is plausible higher amounts of SDS-resistant protein aggregates in the plasma of older adults may reflect a compromise in proteostasis that may potentially indicate cellular aging and/or disease risk. The results of this study have implications for further understanding the link between aging and the accumulation of protein aggregates, as well as potential for the development of aging-related biomarkers. More broadly, this novel application of D2D SDS-PAGE may be used to identify, quantify, and characterize the degradation-resistant protein aggregates in human plasma or any biological system. PMID:27179971

  5. Affinity proteomics discovers decreased levels of AMFR in plasma from Osteoporosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Qundos, Ulrika; Drobin, Kimi; Mattsson, Cecilia; Hong, Mun‐Gwan; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Solomon, David; Uhlén, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Affinity proteomic approaches by antibody bead arrays enable multiplexed analysis of proteins in body fluids. In the presented study, we investigated blood plasma within osteoporosis to discovery differential protein profiles and to propose novel biomarkers candidates for subsequent studies. Experimental design Starting with 4608 antibodies and plasma samples from 22 women for an untargeted screening, a set of 72 proteins were suggested for further analysis. Complementing these with targets from literature and other studies, a targeted bead array of 180 antibodies was built to profile for 92 proteins in plasma samples of 180 women from two independent population‐based studies. Results Differential profiles between osteoporosis patients and matched controls were discovered for 12 proteins in at least one of the two study sets. Among these targets, the levels of autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) were concordantly lower in plasma of female osteoporosis patients. Subsequently, verification of anti‐AMFR antibody selectivity was conducted using high‐density peptide and protein arrays, and Western blotting. Conclusions and clinical relevance Further validation in additional study sets will be needed to determine the clinical value of the observed decrease in AMFR plasma levels in osteoporosis patients, but AMFR may aid our understanding of disease mechanisms and could support existing tools for diagnosis and monitoring of patient mobility within osteoporosis. PMID:25689831

  6. Chewing nicotine gum for 3 months: what happens to plasma nicotine levels?

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, M E

    1984-01-01

    Techniques that help patients stop smoking should also reduce their exposure to agents such as nicotine. The mean plasma nicotine levels in 50 subjects while they were still smoking and then while they were chewing pieces of gum containing either 2 or 4 mg of nicotine over a 12-week period of abstinence were 35, 9 and 23 ng/mL (217, 56 and 143 nmol/L) respectively. A small number of subjects given an unlimited supply of gum used 14 to 24 pieces of 4-mg gum daily and had plasma nicotine levels exceeding the levels achieved while smoking. There were no acute symptoms necessitating medical intervention associated with these excessive levels. Side effects were uncommon and usually controllable. When simple dosage rules are followed people who chew nicotine gum for a few months to stop smoking lower their exposure to nicotine. PMID:6478344

  7. Relationship of seminal plasma level and extender type to sperm motility and DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Brinsko, S P; Rigby, S L; Thompson, J A; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D

    2005-04-01

    The relationship between seminal plasma level (0, 10, or 20%) and extender type [Kenney type (EZ-Mixin-CST) or Kenney-modified Tyrodes-KMT] to the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and sperm motility measures were investigated in cooled (5 degrees C) stallion sperm. Three ejaculates from each of three fertile stallions were collected in an artificial vagina and processed as follows: diluted one part uncentrifuged semen with four parts of extender to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma in either CST or KMT (20% CST; 20% KMT); diluted to a final concentration of 25 million sperm/mL in either CST or KMT (10% CST; 10% KMT); centrifuged to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended in either CST or KMT (0% CST-Cent; 0% KMT-Cent); centrifuged semen to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended with previously filtered seminal plasma from the same stallion in either CST or KMT to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma (20% CST-Cent; 20% KMT-Cent). Sperm motion characteristics were determined by CASA and DNA integrity (%COMP, percent of cells outside the main population) evaluated by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay prior to cooling, and after 24 and 48 h cooled-storage at 5 degrees C. After 48 h of storage at 5 degrees C, extenders with 0% seminal plasma (0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent) maintained highest quality DNA (P < 0.05), but 0% KMT-Cent maintained higher velocity measures (P < 0.05) than 0% CST-Cent. Total sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent, 10% CST, 20% CST-Cent, and 20% CST compared to the other treatment groups. Progressive sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) after 48 h of storage in the treatment with 10% seminal plasma in Kenney extender (10% CST), despite a reduction in DNA integrity. Regardless of extender type, addition of 20% seminal plasma following centrifugation resulted in almost a two-fold increase in %COMP(alpha t), even though one of the treatments (20% CST-Cent) maintained

  8. Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment Levels across Cultures: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Jackson, Timothy A.; McInnis, Kate J.; Maltin, Elyse R.; Sheppard, Leah

    2012-01-01

    With increasing globalization of business and diversity within the workplace, there has been growing interest in cultural differences in employee commitment. We used meta-analysis to compute mean levels of affective (AC; K=966, N=433,129), continuance (CC; K=428, N=199,831), and normative (NC; K=336, N=133,277) organizational commitment for as…

  9. Neutral models as a way to evaluate the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commonly used landscape model to simulate wetland change – the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model(SLAMM) – has rarely been explicitly assessed for its prediction accuracy. Here, we evaluated this model using recently proposed neutral models – including the random constraint matc...

  10. Basic Factors that Affect General Academic Motivation Levels of Candidate Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikoz, Nadir

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate some personal and familial factors that affect overall academic motivation levels of candidate preschool teachers. The study group of this research consists of 285 students attending the child development and preschool education department at Selcuk University Faculty of Vocational Education in the…

  11. Changes in Affective Profiles of Postsecondary Students in Lower-Level Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2013-01-01

    Recent surveys and research on second language (L2)/foreign language acquisition help explain the challenges that postsecondary students in lower-level foreign language (FL) courses may experience. The present study extends this line of research by examining changes in students' affective profiles in a two-year Japanese program (n = 382) at an…

  12. Plasma of Argon Affects the Earliest Biological Response of Different Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Canullo, L; Genova, T; Tallarico, M; Gautier, G; Mussano, F; Botticelli, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the early cell response and protein adsorption elicited by the argon plasma treatment of different commercially available titanium surfaces via a chair-side device. Sterile disks made of grade 4 titanium (n= 450, 4-mm diameter) with 3 surface topographies (machined, plasma sprayed, and zirconia blasted and acid etched) were allocated to receive 4 testing treatments (2% and 10% protein adsorption and cell adhesion with MC3T3-E1 and MG-63). Furthermore, the specimens were divided to undergo 1) argon plasma treatment (10 W, 1 bar for 12 min) in a plasma reactor, 2) ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for 2 h (positive control group), or 3) no treatment (control group). Pretreatment surface analyses based on a scanning electron microscope and profilometer images were also performed. Profilometric analysis demonstrated that the evaluated specimens perfectly suit the standard parameters. The use of argon plasma was capable of affecting the quantity of proteins adsorbed on the different surfaces, notwithstanding their roughness or topographic features at a low fetal bovine serum concentration (2%). UV light treatment for 2 h attained similar results. Moreover, both the plasma of argon and the UV light demonstrated a significant increase in the number of osteoblasts adherent at 10 min in all tested surfaces. Within its limitations, this in vitro study highlights the potential biological benefits of treating implant surfaces with plasma of argon or UV, irrespective of the roughness of the titanium surface. However, in vivo experiments are needed to confirm these preliminary data and settle the rationale of a treatment that might be clinically relevant in case of bone-reparative deficiencies.

  13. Plasma of Argon Affects the Earliest Biological Response of Different Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Canullo, L; Genova, T; Tallarico, M; Gautier, G; Mussano, F; Botticelli, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the early cell response and protein adsorption elicited by the argon plasma treatment of different commercially available titanium surfaces via a chair-side device. Sterile disks made of grade 4 titanium (n= 450, 4-mm diameter) with 3 surface topographies (machined, plasma sprayed, and zirconia blasted and acid etched) were allocated to receive 4 testing treatments (2% and 10% protein adsorption and cell adhesion with MC3T3-E1 and MG-63). Furthermore, the specimens were divided to undergo 1) argon plasma treatment (10 W, 1 bar for 12 min) in a plasma reactor, 2) ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for 2 h (positive control group), or 3) no treatment (control group). Pretreatment surface analyses based on a scanning electron microscope and profilometer images were also performed. Profilometric analysis demonstrated that the evaluated specimens perfectly suit the standard parameters. The use of argon plasma was capable of affecting the quantity of proteins adsorbed on the different surfaces, notwithstanding their roughness or topographic features at a low fetal bovine serum concentration (2%). UV light treatment for 2 h attained similar results. Moreover, both the plasma of argon and the UV light demonstrated a significant increase in the number of osteoblasts adherent at 10 min in all tested surfaces. Within its limitations, this in vitro study highlights the potential biological benefits of treating implant surfaces with plasma of argon or UV, irrespective of the roughness of the titanium surface. However, in vivo experiments are needed to confirm these preliminary data and settle the rationale of a treatment that might be clinically relevant in case of bone-reparative deficiencies. PMID:26848069

  14. Factors Affecting Outcome in Acute Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis Treated with Plasma Exchange: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Romozi, Karmen; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The optimal therapy for hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis, especially the role of plasma exchange (PE), is not entirely clear. The aim of our large, single-center, observational, cohort study was to analyze the factors affecting outcome in hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE. Methods We included 111 episodes of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE, which occurred in 103 different patients. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, triglycerides, delay to first PE, and PE treatment details were retrospectively obtained from the patients’ records. The main outcome measures were length of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Results The patients were 47±9 years old and the median APACHE II score at first PE was 4 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 2–7). There was a seasonal variation in the incidence of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis, and the recurrence rate was 1.6% per year. Triglycerides at presentation did not correlate with APACHE II or influence the outcome. The mean reduction in triglycerides during PE was 59% (from 44±31 to 18±15 mmol/l), which was twice the reduction observed during conservative treatment (27% daily). The median hospital stay was 16 days (IQR 10–24) and in-hospital mortality was 5%. The median delay to first PE was 35 hours (IQR 24–52), and there was no difference in mortality in the early and late PE groups (7% vs. 6%, p = 0.79). The group with citrate anticoagulation during PE had a significantly lower mortality than the group with heparin anticoagulation (1% vs. 11%, p = 0.04), and citrate was an independent predictor also in the multivariate model (p = 0.049). Conclusions PE effectively reduced serum triglycerides faster than could be expected with conservative treatment. The delay in PE therapy did not influence survival. We found that citrate anticoagulation during PE was associated with reduced mortality, which should be confirmed in a

  15. Plasma levels of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic proteins-1 and -2 are elevated in human sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bossink, A W; Paemen, L; Jansen, P M; Hack, C E; Thijs, L G; Van Damme, J

    1995-11-15

    Because of their effects on monocytes, monocyte chemotactic proteins-1 and -2 (MCP-1 and MCP-2) may participate in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We measured circulating MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels in 42 septic patients having positive local or blood cultures. MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels were elevated in 24 (57%) and 25 (59%) of 42 septic patients, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. Both patients with gram-positive and gram-negative infections had elevated MCP-1 plasma levels (P = .0001) and P < .0001), respectively; Mann-Whitney-U test), whereas patients with gram-positive infection, but not those with gram-negative infection, had increased MCP-2 plasma levels (P= .0182). No relative differences in MCP-1 and MCP-2 plasma levels were observed between several subgroups of patients (sepsis v septic shock; survivors v nonsurvivors), although levels of MCP-1 were the highest in patients with the more severe forms of sepsis, ie, those with shock or a lethal outcome. Serial observations showed that MCP-1 and MCP-2 plasma levels remained elevated for at least 48 hours. MCP-1 correlated weakly with interleukin-8 and MCP-2, the correlations for which were most pronounced in patients with septic shock. MCP-2 correlated with interleukin-8, and surprisingly, with the complement activation product C3a; these correlations further improved when analyzing patients with septic shock or when applying gram-positive infections. Thus, our results not only show increased MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels in patients with sepsis, but also suggest that the synthesis and release of MCP-1 and MCP-2 in sepsis are differently regulated in part.

  16. Changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels induced by bradykinin in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Damas, Jacques; Hallet, Claude; Lefebvre, Pierre J

    2001-01-01

    The influence of bradykinin (BK) on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels was investigated in anaesthetized rats. Blood glucose level was dose-dependently increased by intravenous infusion of BK. This effect of BK was enhanced by captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), a kinin B1 receptor agonist, did not modify blood glucose levels while the effect of BK was inhibited by Hoe-140, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist. The effect of BK was reduced by the NO-synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. The effect of BK was suppressed by the association of propranolol with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine. It was also reduced by hexamethonium, a ganglion-blocking drug. In adrenalectomized rats, the infusion of BK slightly decreased blood glucose levels. The hyperglycaemic effect of adrenaline was suppressed by propranolol associated with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine, but it was not modified by L-NAME. Infusion of BK did not modify plasma insulin levels. However, after phentolamine and propranolol, BK induced a transient 2 fold rise in plasma insulin levels. The release of insulin was dose-dependent and inhibited by Hoe-140. We conclude that infusion of BK induces, via a stimulation of B2 receptors, the release of NO and of prostanoids. The latter agents activate through a reflex pathway the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. This release increases blood glucose levels and reduces plasma insulin levels. After adrenoceptor inhibition, BK induces a secretion of insulin, via the stimulation of B2 receptors. PMID:11704652

  17. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Makoto; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Moriya, Junko; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Akabayashi, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in restricting-type AN (AN-R) patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP) patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p < 0.017 was considered statistically significant. Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH)2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001), and the 1,25-(OH)2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml) than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015). No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D levels. PMID:18412981

  18. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are reduced in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Del Ry, S; Cabiati, M; Bianchi, V; Storti, S; Caselli, C; Prescimone, T; Clerico, A; Saggese, G; Giannessi, D; Federico, G

    2013-12-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in children may increase the magnitude of lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CD). At present, explicit data for recommending biomarkers as routine pre-clinical markers of CD in children are lacking. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is assuming increasing importance in CD; in adults with heart failure, its plasma levels are related to clinical and functional disease severity. We have previously reported five different reference intervals for blood CNP as a function of age in healthy children; however, data on plasma CNP levels in obese children are still lacking. Aim of this study was to assess CNP levels in obese adolescents and verify whether they differ from healthy subjects. Plasma CNP was measured in 29 obese adolescents (age: 11.8 ± 0.4 years; BMI: 29.8 ± 0.82) by radioimmunoassay and compared with the reference values of healthy subjects. BNP was also measured. Both plasma CNP and BNP levels were significantly lower in the obese adolescents compared to the appropriate reference values (CNP: 3.4 ± 0.2 vs 13.6 ± 2.3 pg/ml, p<0.0001; BNP: 18.8 ± 2.6 vs 36.9 ± 5.5 pg/ml, p=0.003). There was no significant difference between CNP values in males and females. As reported in adults, we observed lower plasma CNP and BNP levels in obese children, suggesting a defective natriuretic peptide system in these patients. An altered regulation of production, clearance and function of natriuretic peptides, already operating in obese adolescents, may possibly contribute to the future development of CD. Thus, the availability of drugs promoting the action of natriuretic peptides may represent an attractive therapeutic option to prevent CD.

  19. Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression Associates with Adult Cytokine Levels in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Vitaro, Frank; Szyf, Moshe; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of animal and human studies are indicating that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. This study investigates the association between chronic physical aggression during childhood and plasma cytokine levels in early adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two longitudinal studies were used to select males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence (n = 7) and a control group from the same background (n = 25). Physical aggression was assessed yearly by teachers from childhood to adolescence and plasma levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines were assessed at age 26 and 28 years. Compared to the control group, males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence had consistently lower plasma levels of five cytokines: lower pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1α (T(28.7) = 3.48, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (T(26.9) = 3.76, P = 0.001), lower anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-4 (T(27.1) = 4.91, P = 0.00004) and IL-10 (T(29.8) = 2.84, P = 0.008) and lower chemokine IL-8 (T(26) = 3.69, P = 0.001). The plasma levels of four cytokines accurately predicted aggressive and control group membership for all subjects. Conclusions/Significance Physical aggression of boys during childhood is a strong predictor of reduced plasma levels of cytokines in early adulthood. The causal and physiological relations underlying this association should be further investigated since animal data suggest that some cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β play a causal role in aggression. PMID:23922720

  20. Plasma TGF-β1 Levels Are Elevated in Down Syndrome Infants with Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Go, Hayato; Imamura, Takashi; Sato, Maki; Momoi, Nobuo; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient myeloproliferative disorder during the neonatal period, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). It is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and is typically self-limiting. However, TAM can be a life-threatening disorder, when complicated by liver fibrosis. Here, we evaluated cytokine profiles in two male DS infants having TAM with or without liver dysfunction. The first patient, Patient 1, had hyperleukocytosis with cholestatic liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and increased counts of blasts and was treated with exchange transfusion (ExT) due to the serious general condition. In Patient 1, serum interleukin (IL)-8 and plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels were markedly elevated before ExT (1,518.2 pg/mL and 17,635 pg/mL, respectively). After ExT, serum IL-8 and plasma TGF-β1 levels decreased to 40.7 pg/mL and 6,847 pg/mL, respectively. However, Patient 1 died on day 56 due to cholestatic liver dysfunction; namely, this patient represents fatal TAM. The second patient, Patient 2, had hyperleukocytosis with increased counts of blasts without liver dysfunction and was treated with cytarabine. In Patient 2, plasma TGF-β1 levels, but not plasma IL-8, were elevated (9,068 pg/mL and 28 pg/mL, respectively). Patient 2 was discharged on day 47. In summary, plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated in the two DS infants with TAM, regardless of the presence or absence of hepatic fibrosis. Importantly, fatal TAM is assoicated with the elevated serum level of IL-8. We thus propose that IL-8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27546516

  1. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  2. Total serum immunoglobulin M levels are affected by immunomodulators in seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Cuesta, A; Meseguer, J; Esteban, M A

    2004-10-01

    Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a major component of the teleost humoral immune system. Despite the significance of IgM levels as an immune parameter, there are relatively few studies on changes induced in its total levels in serum. This study examines the effects of several immunomodulators (vitamin A, chitin, yeast cells or levamisole, which act as immunostimulants, and crowding, hypoxia or anaesthetics, which act as stressors) upon the total serum IgM levels of non-immunized gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Total serum IgM levels of fish fed with the assayed immunostimulant-supplemented diets were statistically higher than those in fish fed a non-supplemented diet, especially in the case of levamisole. On the other hand, serum IgM levels of fish subjected to different stressors were not affected by crowding, hypoxia or certain anaesthetics. However, benzocaine and a narcotic dose of 2-phenoxyethanol provoked a great reduction, while quinaldine sulphate increased IgM levels to a significant degree. These results show how the seric IgM levels can be differently affected by some immunomodulators and the important role they may play in the regulation of total circulating IgM levels in seabream. The possibility of using total serum IgM for assessing immunostimulation, disease diagnosis and stress symptoms during fish farming is discussed.

  3. Elevation of plasma glucose, alanine, and urea levels by mammalian ACTH in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E J; deRoos, R

    1985-08-01

    The effects of a single infusion of mammalian ACTH on plasma glucose, alanine, urea, and lactate were determined in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The ACTH (10 U/250 g body wt) was administered, and serial blood samples were collected via a nonocclusive cannula chronically placed in the right truncus arteriosus. Plasma metabolite levels were estimated by standard enzymatic techniques. The plasma metabolites declined following the surgery to levels that were relatively stable by postoperative Day 2. The levels did not vary significantly for the remainder of the 3- or 4-day pretreatment period and in the control bullfrogs during the 48-hr experiments. Plasma glucose levels were essentially unchanged from the time-zero levels at 6 hr following ACTH infusion. Plasma glucose levels subsequently increased to levels that were approximately 24% greater than the control levels by 24 hr and then declined to near control levels by 48 hr. Plasma alanine increased to levels that were approximately 60% greater than the control levels by 12 hr after ACTH treatment and returned to essentially the time-zero levels by 24 hr. Plasma urea rose to levels that were approximately 110% greater than the control levels by 45 min after ACTH infusion, but urea returned to essentially the time-zero levels by 1.5 through 3 hr. Plasma urea increased again to levels that were approximately 90% greater than the control levels by 6 hr and returned to essentially the initial levels by 24 hr. Plasma lactate levels were not significantly influenced by ACTH treatment. The results suggest that a function of the bullfrog hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is to regulate gluconeogenesis from alanine, and probably other glucogenic amino acids.

  4. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies.

  5. The unstimulated pancreatic secretion obtained by endoscopic cannulation, and the plasma secretin levels in man.

    PubMed

    Osnes, M; Hanssen, L E; Larsen, S

    1979-01-01

    The technique of collecting juice from the main pancreatic duct by siphonage is described. The juice was collected in 5-min fractions under basal conditions for 20 min (32 subjects) and extended to 60 min (6 subjects). Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were significantly higher during the first collected samples, whereas concentrations of amylase and protein rose during the first 20 min of the study. All variables remained nearly constant after this period. Immunoreactive secretin (IRS) in peripheral plasma was significantly higher immediately after cannulation of the main pancreatic duct, as compared to the pre-endoscopic level. When the catheter was left in the duct and pancreatic juice drained, the IRS stabilized at a level not significantly different from the pre-endoscopic level. Positive correlations were found between flow rate and plasma level of IRS and between flow rate and bicarbonate concentrations. A negative correlation was found between the flow rate and concentrations of amylase and protein. The higher flow rate, plasma level of IRS, and bicarbonate concentration at the beginning of the examination may be due to the presence of acid and/or bile in the duodenal contents shortly after the endoscope enters the duodenum. Later in the procedure the levels have stabilized, which indicates that little or no acid or bile is passing into the duodenum. It is also concluded that secretin may be one factor responsible for the basal pancreatic secretion in man.

  6. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  7. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. PMID:27647996

  8. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. PMID:27647996

  9. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Micke, P; Beeh, K M; Schlaak, J F; Buhl, R

    2001-02-01

    HIV infection is characterized by an enhanced oxidant burden and a systemic deficiency of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant. The semi-essential amino acid cysteine is the main source of the free sulfhydryl group of GSH and limits its synthesis. Therefore, different strategies to supplement cysteine supply have been suggested to increase glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with two different cysteine-rich whey protein formulas on plasma GSH levels and parameters of oxidative stress and immune status in HIV-infected patients. In a prospective double blind clinical trial, 30 patients (25 male, 5 female; mean age (+/- SD) 42 +/- 9.8 years) with stable HIV infection (221 +/- 102 CD4 + lymphocytes L-1) were randomized to a supplemental diet with a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins of either Protectamin (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) or Immunocal (Immunotec, Vandreuil, Canada) for two weeks. Plasma concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized GSH, superoxide anion (O2-) release by blood mononuclear cells, plasma levels of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and 12 were quantified with standard methods at baseline and after therapy. Pre-therapy, plasma GSH levels (Protectamin: 1.92 +/- 0.6 microM; Immunocal: 1.98 +/- 0.9 microM) were less than normal (2.64 +/- 0.7 microM, P = 0.03). Following two weeks of oral supplementation with whey proteins, plasma GSH levels increased in the Protectamin group by 44 +/- 56% (2.79 +/- 1.2 microM, P = 0.004) while the difference in the Immunocal group did not reach significance (+ 24.5 +/- 59%, 2.51 +/- 1.48 microM, P = 0.43). Spontaneous O2- release by blood mononuclear cells was stable (20.1 +/- 14.2 vs. 22.6 +/- 16.1 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.52) whereas PMA-induced O2- release decreased in the Protectamin group (53.7 +/- 19 vs. 39.8 +/- 18 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and

  10. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the determination of fibronectin levels in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, E.; Baez, L.

    1981-09-15

    Fibronectin, iodinated in the absence of urea using lactoperoxidase coupled to Sepharose 4B, retained antigenic and biological activity. Utilizing the labeled protein, a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the determination of the fibronectin concentraction in plasma was developed. The radioimmunoassay is rapid, uses small amounts of antibody, and obviates the need for a second antibody. It also facilitates the handling of large sample numbers.The mean plasma fibronectin level in normal individuals was 557 +/- 102 ..mu..g/ml, approximately 70% higher than values obtained by other procedures.

  11. Clinical relevance of β₂-glycoprotein-I plasma levels in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    PubMed

    Banzato, Alessandra; Pengo, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies associated with thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. The antibodies mainly involved in this disorder are directed against β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI). β2-GPI plasma level is usually not reported in studies on APS, because it is not regarded as relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of APS. Nevertheless its measurement may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. This review summarizes available data from the literature on plasma concentrations of β2-GPI in patients with different antibody profiles.

  12. A Modest Protective Effect of Thyrotropin against Bone Loss Is Associated with Plasma Triiodothyronine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mira; Choi, Sun Kyu; Kim, Kyunga; Jang, Ju Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Min, Yong-Ki; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent skeletal effect of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) has been suggested in animal studies. However, clinical data on the association between bone loss and variations in TSH levels is inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between TSH levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 37,431 subjects (33,052 cases with euthyroidism and 4,379 cases with subclinical thyroid dysfunction) aged over 35 years. We performed thyroid function tests and measured BMD at the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. Results Levels of TSH and T3 were positively correlated in women (r = 0.076, P = 0.001) and uncorrelated in men. In both men and women, TSH levels correlated positively and T3 levels correlated negatively with BMD at all skeletal sites in age and body mass index adjusted analyses. BMD increased steadily with TSH levels from the subclinical hyperthyroid to subclinical hypothyroid range in subjects with T3 levels in the highest tertile (119.5–200.0 ng/dL), but was no longer significant in subjects with lower plasma T3 levels. Conclusions The variations in TSH levels within the euthyroid and subclinical range were positively correlated with BMD in healthy men and women. The negative effect of T3 on BMD appears to be compensated for by increased TSH in subjects with plasma T3 levels in the upper normal range. PMID:26679692

  13. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Mazza, Fabio; Steiner, Michael; Watts, Gerald F.; De Nève, Joel; Pasqualetti, Daniela; Paal, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI) (LA) on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55 ± 9.3 years (mean ± SD), were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p < 0.001). The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2 = 0.99; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins. PMID:26903710

  14. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  15. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  16. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increase in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. The authors suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Clinical Significance of Plasma Osteopontin Level as a Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mona; Atti, Sahar Abdel; Raziky, Maisa El; Darweesh, Samar Kamal; Sharkawy, Marwa El

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are helpful in screening, diagnosis and follow up of cases. Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycoprotein secreted by osteoblasts, osteoclasts, macrophages and T cells, and is over-expressed in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas of liver, stomach, breast, lung, colon, and prostate. So, the aim of this study was to verify the possibility of using the plasma Osteopontin level as a biomarker for diagnosis of HCC. Methods The study included 70 subjects divided into three groups: group I had 30 patients with HCC (proved by histopathology or combined spiral CT and elevated alpha-fetoprotein) on top of HCV, group II had 30 patients with HCV infection and group III had 10 healthy subjects serving as control. Osteopontin level was measured in plasma of the studied subjects by ELISA, serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level was also measured by EIA. Results Osteopontin levels were significantly elevated in patients with HCC and in HCV patients in comparison to control group (P: 0.005). There was significant correlation between OPN and AFP levels (P: 0.00). The sensitivity and specificity of OPN for selective detection of HCC group over the non-HCC group (HCV group and healthy control group) were73% and 54%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 128.5 ng/mL. Plasma OPN levels directly correlated with the tumor number but not with the size of the tumor (P: 0.00). Conclusion Plasma OPN level appears to be an additional biomarker for HCC detection.

  18. Demographic and clinical variables affecting mid- to late-life trajectories of plasma ceramide and dihydroceramide species.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-12-01

    It has been increasingly recognized at the basic science level that perturbations in ceramide metabolism are associated with the development and progression of many age-related diseases. However, the translation of this work to the clinic has lagged behind. Understanding the factors longitudinally associated with plasma ceramides and dihydroceramides (DHCer) at the population level and how these lipid levels change with age, and by sex, is important for the clinical development of future therapeutics and biomarkers focused on ceramide metabolism. We, therefore, examined factors cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with plasma concentrations of ceramides and DHCer among Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (n = 992; 3960 total samples), aged 55 years and older, with plasma at a mean of 4.1 visits (range 2-6). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess the relationships between plasma ceramide and DHCer species and demographics, diseases, medications, and lifestyle factors. Women had higher plasma concentrations of most ceramide and DHCer species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. Ceramides and DHCer were more associated with waist-hip ratio than body mass index. Plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, prediabetes, and diabetes were associated with ceramides and DHCer, but the relationship showed specificity to the acyl chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate the importance of examining the individual species of ceramides and DHCer, and of establishing whether intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes occur in synchrony to disease onset and progression. PMID:26193443

  19. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  20. Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with ({sup 14}C)sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans.

  1. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance.

  2. In vivo evidence that Agxt2 can regulate plasma levels of dimethylarginines in mice.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Anja; Maas, Renke; König, Jörg; Mieth, Maren; Weiss, Norbert; Jarzebska, Natalia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Rodionov, Roman N

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse cardiovascular clinical outcomes. Both dimethylarginines can be degraded by alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (Agxt2), which is also the key enzyme responsible for the degradation of endogenously formed β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB). In the present study we wanted to investigate the effect of BAIB on Agxt2 expression and Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines. We infused BAIB or saline intraperitoneally for 7days in C57/BL6 mice via minipumps. Expression of Agxt2 was determined in liver and kidney. The concentrations of BAIB, dimethylarginines and the Agxt2-specific ADMA metabolite α-keto-δ-(N(G),N(G)-dimethylguanidino)valeric acid (DMGV) was determined by LC-MS/MS in plasma and urine. As compared to controls systemic administration of BAIB increased plasma and urine BAIB levels by a factor of 26.5 (p<0.001) and 25.8 (p<0.01), respectively. BAIB infusion resulted in an increase of the plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations of 27% and 31%, respectively, (both p<0.05) and a 24% decrease of plasma DMGV levels (p<0.05), while expression of Agxt2 was not different. Our data demonstrate that BAIB can inhibit Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines and show for the first time that endogenous Agxt2 is involved in the regulation of systemic ADMA, SDMA and DMGV levels. The effect of BAIB excess on endogenous dimethylarginine levels may have direct clinical implications for humans with the relatively common genetic trait of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria.

  3. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  4. Plasma levels of alarmin IL-33 are unchanged in autism spectrum disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Sousa, Larissa Fonseca da Cunha; Vieira, Erica Leandro M; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina; Kummer, Arthur; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2015-01-15

    The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown, and the immune system has been appointed to play an important role. The interleukin 33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1, may act as an alarmin. This study aimed to evaluate plasma levels of IL-33, sST2, and IL-1β in 30 patients with ASD in comparison with 18 controls matched by gender, age and maternal age at childbirth. Patients did not differ from controls in IL-33, sST2, and IL-1β plasma levels. Alarmin levels were not correlated with age, and neither was influenced by clinical parameters. Our results undermine the role of IL-33/ST2 in ASD. PMID:25595254

  5. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  6. Genetic Influences on Plasma Homocysteine Levels in African Americans and Yoruba Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Ramanan, Vijay K; Lai, Dongbing; Foroud, Tatiana M; Lane, Katie; Murrell, Jill R; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gureje, Oye; Kling, Mitchel A; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Hendrie, Hugh C; Saykin, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine, a metabolite involved in key cellular methylation processes seems to be implicated in cognitive functions and cardiovascular health with its high levels representing a potential modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. A better understanding of the genetic factors regulating homocysteine levels, particularly in non-white populations, may help in risk stratification analyses of existing clinical trials and may point to novel targets for homocysteine-lowering therapy. To identify genetic influences on plasma homocysteine levels in individuals with African ancestry, we performed a targeted gene and pathway-based analysis using a priori biological information and then to identify new association performed a genome-wide association study. All analyses used combined data from the African American and Yoruba cohorts from the Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project. Targeted analyses demonstrated significant associations of homocysteine and variants within the CBS (Cystathionine beta-Synthase) gene. We identified a novel genome-wide significant association of the AD risk gene CD2AP (CD2-associated protein) with plasma homocysteine levels in both cohorts. Minor allele (T) carriers of identified CD2AP variant (rs6940729) exhibited decreased homocysteine level. Pathway enrichment analysis identified several interesting pathways including the GABA receptor activation pathway. This is noteworthy given the known antagonistic effect of homocysteine on GABA receptors. These findings identify several new targets warranting further investigation in relation to the role of homocysteine in neurodegeneration.

  7. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  8. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Shanshan; Xiao, Zeping; Lin, Zhiguang; Qiu, Yongming; Jin, Yichao; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-30

    A number of studies have been done to investigate the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study we aimed to test the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and PTSD. We solicited 65 subjects having recently experienced road traffic accidents (RTA) conforming to screening criteria. They were given follow-up examinations after one month, three months, and six months. PTSD was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). All participants were divided into two groups: a group with PTSD and a group without PTSD. There were no significant differences in plasma BDNF levels between the two groups at either the 48h or six-month examination. Within the PTSD group, no significant differences were found in plasma BDNF levels between the two examinations. BDNF levels in those without PTSD showed a higher trend over time after trauma. Higher BDNF levels may be an important protective factor for the prevention of traumatized subjects from developing PTSD.

  9. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism -174G/C influences plasma lipid levels in women.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Susanne; Håkansson, Anna; Westberg, Lars; Baghaei, Fariba; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Ekman, Agneta; Nissbrandt, Hans; Eriksson, Elias

    2006-11-01

    Elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations between the promoter polymorphism IL-6 -174G/C and the following indices of metabolism: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and plasma levels of IL-6, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, leptin, and C-reactive protein in 252 42-year-old women and 245 51-year-old men. Subgroups were also studied 5 years later. The CC genotype of the IL-6 polymorphism was associated with lower levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) in women. This finding was replicated in the follow-up, when a significant association between the CC genotype and low triglycerides was also observed. The association between the C allele and lipid pattern found in women was not found in men, where on the contrary, C carriers tended to display elevated triglycerides. IL-6 genotype was not associated with IL-6 plasma levels in either sample. The results suggest different effects of the IL-6 polymorphism on metabolic indices in women and men. None of the associations between IL-6 genotype and lipid pattern seemed to result from an effect of the polymorphism on IL-6 plasma levels.

  10. Correlation between Saliva and Plasma Levels of Endothelin Isoforms ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3.

    PubMed

    Gurusankar, Roma; Kumarathasan, Prem; Saravanamuthu, Anusha; Thomson, Errol M; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Although saliva endothelins are emerging as valuable noninvasive cardiovascular biomarkers, reports on the relationship between isoforms in saliva and plasma remain scarce. We measured endothelins in concurrent saliva and plasma samples (n = 30 males; age 18-63) by HPLC-fluorescence. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations among all isoforms between saliva and plasma: big endothelin-1 (BET-1, 0.55 ± 0.27 versus 3.35 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.38, p = 0.041), endothelin-1 (ET-1, 0.52 ± 0.21 versus 3.45 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.53, p = 0.003), endothelin-2 (ET-2, 0.21 ± 0.07 versus 1.63 ± 0.66 pmol/mL; r = 0.51, p = 0.004), and endothelin-3 (ET-3, 0.39 ± 0.19 versus 2.32 ± 1.44 pmol/mL; r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Correlations of BET-1, ET-1, and ET-3 within each compartment were positive in both plasma (p < 0.05) and saliva (p ≤ 0.1), whereas ET-2 was not significantly correlated with other isoforms in either plasma or saliva. For all isoforms, concentrations varied on average fivefold between individuals (90th/10th percentiles); individuals with high plasma endothelin levels generally had high saliva endothelin levels. Our results reveal that salivary ET isoform profiles portray the plasmatic profiles and support the view of coordinated regulation of ET-1 and ET-3, but distinct regulatory pathways for ET-2.

  11. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Orsó, Evelyn; Wallner, Stefan; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163). Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation. PMID:26466367

  12. Human plasma levels of POPs, and diet among native people from Uelen, Chukotka.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Brustad, Magritt; Odland, Jon Oyvind; Doudarev, Alexey A; Miretsky, Georgy I; Chaschin, Valery; Burkow, Ivan C; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-08-01

    Some of the people living in the Chukotka Peninsula of Russia depend heavily on marine mammals, but little is known of the exact dietary patterns and plasma levels of POPs among these populations. In this study, POPs levels in plasma from 50 participants from the isolated community of Uelen (Bering Strait) were determined and related to dietary information obtained through a food frequency questionnaire. The intake of marine mammals was high and the combined intake of blubber from walrus, seal and whale was a significant predictor (p < 0.01) of plasma concentrations of sum PCBs and borderline for sum CDs (p = 0.02) and sum DDTs (p = 0.04). There was a significant gender difference in the levels of POPs, and among women there was a significant increase with age. Extensive breastfeeding and lower blubber intake among women could be possible explanations for this gender difference. Despite the high intake of blubber the plasma levels of PCBs and DDTs were lower than some of those reported for the East Coast of Greenland. The geometric mean values for sum PCBs (17 congeners) and sum DDTs were 1316 ng g(-1) lipids and 563 ng g(-1) lipids, respectively. PCB 163, which partly co-eluted with PCB 138, was found in high concentrations (40% of PCB 138). This raises questions regarding the validity of using PCB 138 and PCB 153 to calculate the level of Arochlor 1260. The geometric mean of sum CDs was 518 ng g(-1) lipids. Concentrations of beta-HCH (geometric mean; 410 ng g(-1) lipids) were higher than observed for other native populations depending on marine mammals. Transportation of beta-HCH by ocean currents through the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean or regional point sources might explain these elevated levels.

  13. Human plasma levels of POPs, and diet among native people from Uelen, Chukotka.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Brustad, Magritt; Odland, Jon Oyvind; Doudarev, Alexey A; Miretsky, Georgy I; Chaschin, Valery; Burkow, Ivan C; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-08-01

    Some of the people living in the Chukotka Peninsula of Russia depend heavily on marine mammals, but little is known of the exact dietary patterns and plasma levels of POPs among these populations. In this study, POPs levels in plasma from 50 participants from the isolated community of Uelen (Bering Strait) were determined and related to dietary information obtained through a food frequency questionnaire. The intake of marine mammals was high and the combined intake of blubber from walrus, seal and whale was a significant predictor (p < 0.01) of plasma concentrations of sum PCBs and borderline for sum CDs (p = 0.02) and sum DDTs (p = 0.04). There was a significant gender difference in the levels of POPs, and among women there was a significant increase with age. Extensive breastfeeding and lower blubber intake among women could be possible explanations for this gender difference. Despite the high intake of blubber the plasma levels of PCBs and DDTs were lower than some of those reported for the East Coast of Greenland. The geometric mean values for sum PCBs (17 congeners) and sum DDTs were 1316 ng g(-1) lipids and 563 ng g(-1) lipids, respectively. PCB 163, which partly co-eluted with PCB 138, was found in high concentrations (40% of PCB 138). This raises questions regarding the validity of using PCB 138 and PCB 153 to calculate the level of Arochlor 1260. The geometric mean of sum CDs was 518 ng g(-1) lipids. Concentrations of beta-HCH (geometric mean; 410 ng g(-1) lipids) were higher than observed for other native populations depending on marine mammals. Transportation of beta-HCH by ocean currents through the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean or regional point sources might explain these elevated levels. PMID:12948250

  14. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang

    2004-12-01

    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  15. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p < 0.05) with dietary Zn. The length and growth rate of wool were higher (p < 0.05) for the groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with that of 20 mg Zn/kg DM treatment group. Plasma testosterone concentration was increased for Zn supplemented in diets, and the testosterone concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn and supplemented with 40 and 80 mg Zn/kg DM groups improved plasma Zn concentration (p < 0.05) more than 20 mg Zn/kg DM group. Fibre Zn content was higher (p < 0.05) in groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with control group, but no difference between Zn-supplemented groups (p > 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p < 0.05) due to dietary Zn supplementation; however, no difference was found between supplemented treatment groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period.

  16. Plasma Oxytocin and Arginine-Vasopressin Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in China: Associations with Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Dai, Yu-Chuan; Wu, Jing; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Shui; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by impairments of social interaction and the presence of obsessive behaviors. The "twin" nonapeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are known to play regulatory roles in social behaviors. However, the plasma levels and behavioral relevance of OXT and AVP in children with ASD have seldom been investigated. It is also unknown whether their mothers have abnormal plasma peptide levels. Here, using well-established methods of neuropeptide measurement and a relatively large sample size, we determined the plasma levels of the two neuropeptides in 85 normal children, 84 children with ASD, and 31 mothers from each group of children. As expected, children with ASD had lower plasma OXT levels than gender-matched controls (P = 0.028). No such difference was found for plasma AVP concentrations. Correlation analysis showed that ASD children with higher plasma OXT concentrations tended to have less impairment of verbal communication (Rho = -0.22, P = 0.076), while those with higher plasma AVP levels tended to have lower levels of repetitive use of objects (Rho = -0.231, P = 0.079). Unlike the findings in children, maternal plasma OXT levels showed no group difference. However, plasma AVP levels in the mothers of ASD children tended to be lower than in the mothers of normal children (P = 0.072). In conclusion, our results suggest that the OXT system is dysregulated in children with ASD, and that OXT and AVP levels in plasma seem to be associated with specific autistic symptoms. The plasma levels of OXT or AVP in mothers and their ASD children did not seem to change in the same direction. PMID:27342432

  17. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, p<0.0037), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (24.2±5.6, p<0.001), recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa (64.2±16.1, p = 0.01) and healthy obese patients (51±3.2, p<0.001) compared to controls (187.7±28.6). Bulimic patients (197.4±42.7) and constitutional thinness patients (264.3±35.8) were similar to controls. Conclusions Low IL-7 is part of the adaptive profile in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa, confirming its difference with constitutional thinness. Healthy obesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  18. Chronic ethanol feeding inhibits plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sonntag, W.E.; Boyd, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the generalized catabolic effects of chronic ethanol may be associated with a decline in plasma of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol or pair-fed a diet made isocaloric with maltose-dextrin. Animals were maintained on this diet for either 12 days or 4.5 months. Another groups of animals were fed control diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. After 12 days of feeding, plasma concentrations of IGF-1 in ad libitum fed rats were 771 +/- 41 ng/ml which was greater than concentrations in either pair-fed or ethanol-fed rats. After 4.5 months of feeding, plasma levels of IGF-1 in ad libitum and pair-fed rats were similar to the 12 day study. However, a significant decrease in plasma levels of IGF-1 was observed in ethanol-fed animals over the 4.5 month period. Results of a similar study in rats fed a high-fat diet for 4.5 months were similar to those found with the low-fat diet.

  19. Statins and Ezetimibe Modulate Plasma Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin-9 (PCSK9) Levels

    PubMed Central

    Davignon, Jean; Dubuc, Geneviève

    2009-01-01

    PCSK9 is a natural inhibitor of the LDL receptor. Gain-of-function mutations may cause the familial hypercholesterolemia phenotype, whereas loss-of-function variants associate with reduced LDL-C levels and lower coronary risk. Statins up-regulate PCSK9 in hepatocytes. We developed an assay to measure total PCSK9 in human plasma and evaluated the effect of statins and ezetimibe on PCSK9 in vivo and in vitro. In 254 normal subjects, the mean plasma PCSK9 was 89 ± 32 ng/ml. PCSK9 levels correlated with plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, fasting glucose, age and body mass index. Sequencing PCSK9 from subjects at the extremes of plasma distribution revealed new variants. In 200 hypercholesterolemic patients, circulating PCSK9 was higher than in controls, increased with increasing statin dose, and further increased when ezetimibe was added. However, ezetimibe treatment of HepG2 (hepatocytes) and Caco-2 (enterocytes) cells caused a slight increase in PCSK9 and NPC1L1 mRNA, but no significant rise in PCSK9 protein secretion, suggesting that these transformed cells are not ideal model cell lines. PMID:19768174

  20. Increased plasma levels of CK-18 as potential cell death biomarker in patients with HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    John, K; Wielgosz, S; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Bantel, H; Hass, R

    2013-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome represents a life-threatening pregnancy disorder with high fetal and maternal mortality, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Although apoptosis has been implicated in HELLP syndrome, its pathogenic role remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the detection of apoptosis by novel plasma biomarkers is of diagnostic value in HELLP patients. For this purpose, we analyzed two biomarkers that specifically detect apoptosis or overall cell death of epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes or placental trophoblasts, through the release of caspase-cleaved or total (caspase-cleaved and uncleaved) cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) in plasma of HELLP patients compared with pregnant as well as non-pregnant healthy women. In addition, caspase activation and cell death were determined in placental tissues of HELLP patients and individuals with normal pregnancy. In contrast to pregnant or non-pregnant healthy controls, we observed significantly increased levels of both caspase-cleaved and total CK-18 in plasma of HELLP patients. Following delivery, CK-18 levels rapidly decreased in HELLP patients. Caspase activation and cell death were also elevated in placental tissues from HELLP patients compared with healthy pregnant women. These data demonstrate not only that apoptosis is increased in HELLP syndrome, but also that caspase-cleaved or total CK-18 are promising plasma biomarkers to identify patients with HELLP syndrome. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate the utility of these biomarkers for monitoring disease activity in HELLP syndrome. PMID:24157880

  1. [Efavirenz and nevirapine plasma levels in HIV-infected patients with hemophilia].

    PubMed

    Martorell, Marta; López, Rosa M; Ribera, Esteban; Ruiz, Isabel; Tural, Cristina; Puig, Lluís; Monterde, Josep

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efavirenz and nevirapine plasma levels in HIV-infected hemophilic patients seen in two hospitals in Barcelona. Plasma levels of these drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at four-month intervals, together with viral load and CD4 cell count. Nineteen patients treated with efavirenz and 8 with nevirapine were included, and 68 efavirenz and 31 nevirapine determinations were performed. Mean study time was 12 months. Median efavirenz plasma concentration was 2.95 .g/ml (interval: 1.54-5.26 .g/ml) in patients with favorable virological response and 1.86 .g/ml (0.82-4.88 .g/ml) in patients with detectable viral load (p = 0.32). Nevirapine plasma concentrations were 4.41 .g/ml (3.50-6.72 .g/ml) and 3.12 .g/ml (2.44-3.80 .g/ml) respectively (p = 0.18).

  2. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  3. The T1405N Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase Polymorphism Does Not Affect Plasma Arginine Concentrations in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moonen, Rob M. J.; Reyes, Iballa; Cavallaro, Giacomo; González-Luis, Gema; Bakker, Jaap A.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Background A C-to-A nucleotide transversion (T1405N) in the gene that encodes carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) has been associated with changes in plasma concentrations of L-arginine in term and near term infants but not in adults. In preterm infants homozygosity for the CPS1 Thr1405 variant (CC genotype) was associated with an increased risk of having necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with NEC. Aim To examine the putative association between the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism and plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants. Methods Prospective multicenter cohort study. Plasma and DNA samples were collected from 128 preterm infants (<30 weeks) between 6 and 12 hours after birth. Plasma amino acid and CPS1 T1405N polymorphism analysis were performed. Results Distribution of genotypes did not differ between the preterm (CC∶CA∶AA = 55.5%∶33.6%∶10.9%, n = 128) and term infants (CC∶CA∶AA = 54.2%∶35.4%∶10.4%, n = 96). There was no association between the CPS1 genotype and plasma L-arginine or L-citrulline concentration, or the ornithine to citrulline ratio, which varies inversely with CPS1 activity. Also the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine were not significantly different among the three genotypes. Conclusions The present study in preterm infants did not confirm the earlier reported association between CPS1 genotype and L-arginine levels in term infants. PMID:20520828

  4. Increased Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels Contribute to Intracerebral Hemorrhage during Thrombolysis after Concomitant Stroke and Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sajjad; Planz, Oliver; Schwaninger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombolysis is the only approved therapy for acute stroke. However, life-threatening complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can develop after intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Both infection and thrombolysis during cerebral ischemia disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB). tPA can induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which is known to be involved in BBB disruption. However, it has still not been investigated whether preexisting influenza virus infection during thrombolysis after acute stroke affects systemic levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor TIMP-1 and whether increased systemic MMP-9 levels affect ICH. This study aimed to investigate the influence of influenza virus infection on plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 after thrombolysis in acute stroke, and to determine whether the infection correlates with intracerebral bleeding. Methods C57BL/6 mice were infected by administering 1 × 105 plaque-forming units of human influenza (H1N1) virus intranasally. After 3 days of infection the middle cerebral artery was occluded for 45 min and then reperfused. Intravenous tPA (10 mg/kg) treatment was started 10 min after stroke onset. Twenty-four hours after stroke onset, mice were deeply anesthetized with ketamine, venous blood was drawn from the caval vein and centrifuged at 2,000 rpm, and the supernatant was collected and frozen at −80°C. Plasma levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were quantified by using ELISA. Results After stroke, plasma MMP-9 was significantly increased in mice with a concomitant influenza infection that were treated with tPA (9.99 ± 0.62 ng/ml, n = 7) as compared to noninfected control mice that were treated with tPA (4.74 ± 0.48 ng/ml, n = 8). Moreover, plasma levels of TIMP-1, an inhibitor of MMP-9, were also significantly increased in mice treated with tPA after concomitant infection and stroke (42.17 ± 7.02 ng/ml, n = 7) as compared to noninfected control mice that were treated with t

  5. Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level Following Seizure and Syncope: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To explore the clinical feasibility of plasma brain-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) level to differentiate the two major causes of transient unconsciousness, seizure and vasovagal syncope (VVS) in adult patients. Methods: ProBNP levels were evaluated within 24 hours following attack in patients who had experienced a transient episode of unconsciousness. For confirmatory diagnosis, clinical history was reviewed thoroughly and several work-ups including electroencephalography and cerebral imaging and tilt-table test, were performed in cases of putative VVS, as a part of routine clinical approaches. Results: According to various relevant evaluations, 15 patients were diagnosed as seizure (age, 40.3±13.8 years) and 12 patients were VVS (age, 38.1±17.1 years). Plasma concentrations of pro-BNP were not different between two groups (p=0.714). Median level was 34.3 pg/mL (interquartile range: 12.9–91.1) in post-seizure group and 32.3 pg/mL (interquartile range 8.9–77.4) in post-VVS group. Additionally, it was not correlated with the sampling times within 24 hours after the episodes. Conclusions: The plasma level of pro-BNP has a limited clinical value in differentiating seizure and vasovagal syncope in adults. However, the more validated results with a large population should be sought in the future studies to confirm its value. PMID:24977125

  6. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity.

  7. Energy levels and multipole transition properties of C4+ ion in Debye plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Y. Z.; Dong, C. Z.

    2012-05-01

    Plasma screening effects on the energy structure and radiative transition properties of helium-like C4+ ions embedded in Debye plasmas are investigated by using the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method incorporating the Debye-Hückel potential for both the electron-nucleus and electron-electron interactions. Seventeen fine-structure energy levels of the low-lying 1 s 2, 1 s2 l( l = s,p) and 1 s3 l'( l' = s,p,d) configurations, as well as the electric-dipole ( E1), magnetic-dipole ( M1) and magnetic-quadrupole ( M2) transition probabilities and oscillator strengths between these levels have been calculated over a wide range of screening parameters. It is found that the plasma screening leads to a decrease of excitation energies and alters the energy levels remarkably. For Δn ≠ 0 transitions, the spontaneous decay spectra are red-shifted and their oscillator strengths and transition probabilities decrease with increasing the interaction screening, while those for the Δn = 0 transitions exhibit opposite patterns. The influence of electron-nucleus and electron-electron screened interactions on the changes of energy levels and transition properties are analyzed. Comparison is made of present results with other data available in the literature for this ion.

  8. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity. PMID:26991849

  9. Inverse Correlation Between Plasma Adropin and ET-1 Levels in Essential Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xinyi; Gu, Haibo; Chen, Jianchang; Wang, Luchen; Harding, Pamela; Xu, Weiting

    2015-10-01

    Adropin is a recently identified bioactive protein that promotes energy homeostasis by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, adropin has also been reported to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Also, ET-1, as a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction, is a key regulator in hypertension. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to detect the relationship between plasma adropin and ET-1 levels in hypertension. A total of 123 participants, diagnosed with primary hypertension on the basis of World Health Organization criteria (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg), and 58 normotensive subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study from October 2011 to December 2013. All study participants were older than 18 years of age. Adropin and ET-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that plasma adropin levels were significantly lower in hypertensives compared with controls (3.18 ± 1.00 vs 4.21 ± 1.14 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Plasma ET-1 levels were higher in hypertensives than controls (2.60 ± 1.14 vs 1.54 ± 0.66 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Adropin had a negative correlation with DBP (r = -0.40, P < 0.001), SBP (r = -0.49, P < 0.001), and adjusted for age, body mass index, SBP, DBP, glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and Cr, there was a negative correlation between ET-1 and adropin (r = -0.20, P = 0.04). In multivariate logistic regression analysis of the variables, ET-1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.84; 95% CI, 2.16-6.81; P < 0.001) and adropin (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99 -1.0; P <  .001) were found to be independent predictors for hypertension.In conclusion, decreased plasma adropin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in hypertension. Adropin is an independent predictor for hypertension, and may influence blood pressure by protecting endothelial function.

  10. Alterations in plasma sodium and potassium levels following chronic oral ingestion of lead, mercury and cadmium in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Chansouria, J P

    1991-08-01

    Adult male albino rats were orally administered 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm of lead nitrate, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride for 60, 120 and 180 days. The plasma sodium levels were decreased in rats exposed to varying doses of lead and mercury up to 180 days, while animals which consumed cadmium chloride showed an increase in sodium levels. In lead and mercury treated animals, plasma potassium levels were increased up to 180 days. The levels were decreased in cadmium exposed rats. These observations suggest that chronic exposure to these heavy metals considerably influences plasma sodium and potassium levels depending on the dose and duration of exposure.

  11. Elevated plasma tissue factor levels in neonates with umbilical arterial catheter-associated thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tay, S P; Cheong, S K; Boo, N Y

    2006-06-01

    Catheterization of the umbilical artery has been a useful aid in the management of sick neonates for the past few decades. However, it is associated with various complications. Reported studies strongly suggest a significant role of intravascular catheterization in the development of aortic thrombi. Increase in thrombosis of large vessels is believed to be related to mechanical injury in the catheterized vessels, which provide direct exposure of blood to tissue factor (TF), the primary cellular initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. This study was conducted to determine the levels of plasma TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and D-dimer (DD) in infants with umbilical arterial catheter (UAC)-associated thrombosis. Quantification of TF was carried out using an in-house sandwich ELISA, whereas TFPI and DD levels were measured with commercial immunoassay kits. Infants with UAC inserted were found to have significantly higher levels of plasma TF (p < 0.001) than baseline levels. However, there were no significantly elevated levels of TFPI or DD. Infants with UAC-associated thrombosis demonstrated a greater increase of TF level (median: 414.5 pg/mL; range: -76.0, 6667.0) than infants without UAC-associated thrombosis (105.0 pg/mL; -976.0, 9480.0; p = 0.009) following UAC insertion. Our findings indicate that quantification and monitoring of TF levels could predict thrombus formation in infants with indwelling UAC. Following umbilical arterial catheterisation, infants with an approximately 3-fold rise in plasma TF levels were most at risk of developing abdominal aorta thrombosis as confirmed by real-time abdominal ultrasonography.

  12. Comparison of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuroactive steroids with their brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve levels in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Pesaresi, Marzia; Abbiati, Federico; Calabrese, Donato; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2013-10-01

    Physiological changes and pathological alterations in the nervous system of rodents are associated with modifications in the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain, spinal cord and/or peripheral nerves. Measures of tissue levels of steroids in the nervous system present serious limitations for human studies and for longitudinal studies in animals. In this study we have explored whether levels of neuroactive steroids in plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid reflect their levels in neural tissues. To this aim, we have evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry the levels of several neuroactive steroids in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of male and female rats. Data indicate that plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of steroids do not fully reflect their tissue levels. However, the interindividual variations in the levels of all the steroids assessed, with the exception of dehydroepiandrosterone, showed a positive correlation in plasma and cerebral cortex. Most steroids also showed a positive correlation in plasma and the cerebellum, the spinal cord and the sciatic nerve. In the hippocampus, the levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, testosterone and testosterone metabolites showed a significant positive correlation with their respective levels in plasma. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of some steroids, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, showed a full correlation with tissue levels. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, and 17β-estradiol showed a positive correlation with their corresponding levels in the majority of the neural structures analyzed. These findings suggest that the levels of some neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid as well as in plasma may be valuable to predict their levels in the nervous system. PMID:23706961

  13. Effect of hypertonic saline infusion on the level of immunoreactive dynorphin in extracted human plasma.

    PubMed

    Margioris, A N; Brockmann, G; Kalogeras, K T; Fjellestad-Paulsen, A; Stratakis, C A; Vamvakopoulos, N; Chrousos, G P

    1990-08-01

    Dynorphin-A and its related peptides are derived from prodynorphin, one of the three known endogenous opioid precursors. The prodynorphin gene is expressed in the vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus, while its peptide products are present in the vasopressin (AVP) neurosecretory vesicles of the neurohypophysis. The concentration of immunoreactive (IR) dynorphin is orders of magnitude higher in the neurohypophysis than in any other tissue, suggesting that perhaps the prodynorphin-derived peptides are secreted from the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal unit into the general circulation. Experiments in rats have shown that osmotic stimuli increase both AVP and prodynorphin in the hypothalamus. To determine whether human hypothalamic prodynorphin is also under osmotic regulation, we measured plasma IR-dynorphin, plasma IR-AVP, and serum sodium immediately before and during the infusion of normal or hypertonic saline in normal human volunteers. Because of the unusual susceptibility of the prodynorphin-derived peptides to cleavage by endopeptidases, we also developed an appropriate plasma dynorphin extraction technique. We found that the IR-dynorphin present in human plasma was composed of 6K- and 4K-sized peptides and that no larger than 6K or smaller than 4K dynorphins were present. The infusion of normal saline did not have any significant effect on plasma IR-dynorphin, while 3% hypertonic saline increased its plasma levels. Thus, the mean IR-dynorphin level in the plasma of the volunteers infused with normal saline was 40.3 +/- 6.4 fmol/mL (mean +/- SE; n = 6) at zero time; after 30 min of infusion, plasma IR-dynorphin was 36.0 +/- 6.3, after 60 min it was 29.9 +/- 5, after 90 min it was 36.0 +/- 4.7, after 120 min it was 36.8 +/- 3.2, and after 150 min it was 36.0 +/- 6.1. The plasma IR-dynorphin level in the volunteers infused with hypertonic saline was 31.7 +/- 3.5 fmol/mL (mean +/- SE; n = 10) at zero time. After 30 min of infusion it increased

  14. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  15. Environmental noise levels affect the activity budget of the Florida manatee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Donaghay, Percy L.; Miller, James H.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-09-01

    Manatees inhabit coastal bays, lagoons, and estuaries because they are dependent on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters. Food requirements force manatees to occupy the same areas in which human activities are the greatest. Noise produced from human activities has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. This study quantifies the behavioral responses of manatees to both changing levels of ambient noise and transient noise sources. Results indicate that elevated environmental noise levels do affect the overall activity budget of this species. The proportion of time manatees spend feeding, milling, and traveling in critical habitats changed as a function of noise level. More time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behaviors of feeding and traveling, while less time was spent milling when noise levels were highest. The animals also responded to the transient noise of approaching vessels with changes in behavioral state and movements out of the geographical area. This suggests that manatees detect and respond to changes in environmental noise levels. Whether these changes legally constitute harassment and produce biologically significant effects need to be addressed with hypothesis-driven experiments and long-term monitoring. [For Animal Bioacoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  16. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura.

    PubMed

    Köseoglu, E; Akboyraz, A; Soyuer, A; Ersoy, A O

    2003-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of plasma beta endorphin level and exercise on migrainous headache. Forty patients with migrainous headache without aura (MWOA), firstly exercised on a treadmill and afterwards were asked to continue an aerobic home exercise program for six weeks. On evaluation, basal plasma beta endorphin level was negatively correlated with total duration of attacks in the last month period (P = 0.01). Exercise was found to have beneficial effects on all migraine parameters (P < 0.0001) and to increase beta endorphin levels after the treadmill practice (P < 0.0001) and after the home exercise program except four patients not regularly attended to the program (P < 0.0001). Any of the changes in headache parameters was not correlated with the change in beta endorphin level. However, pre-exercise beta endorphin level was found to be negatively correlated with the changes in the number of attacks (P < 0.05) and total duration of attacks (P = 0.01) and also with the change in beta endorphin level due to exercise (P < 0.0001). As a result, this study emphasizes the beneficial effect of exercise on migrainous headache, especially in patients with lower basal beta endorphin level. PMID:14984230

  17. Association between Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Neuronal Injury in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, Erika; Hagberg, Lars; Fuchs, Dietmar; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Nilsson, Staffan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of homocysteine in neuronal injury in HIV infection. Methods Using a cross-sectional design and archived samples, we compared concentrations of plasma homocysteine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light protein (NFL), a sensitive marker of neuronal injury, in 83 HIV-1-infected subjects without antiretroviral treatment. We also analyzed plasma vitamin B12, serum folate, CSF, and plasma HIV RNA, the immune activation marker neopterin in CSF and serum, and albumin ratio as a marker of blood-brain barrier integrity. Twenty-two subjects provided a second sample median of 12.5 months after antiretroviral treatment initiation. Results A significant correlation was found between plasma homocysteine and CSF NFL concentrations in untreated individuals (r = 0.52, p < 0.0001). As expected, there was a significant inverse correlation between homocysteine and B12 (r = –0.41, p < 0.001) and folate (r = –0.40, p = < 0.001) levels. In a multiple linear regression analysis homocysteine stood out as an independent predictor of CSF NFL in HIV-1-infected individuals. The correlation of plasma homocysteine and CSF NFL was also present in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy (r = 0.51, p = 0.016). Conclusion A correlation between plasma homocysteine and axonal injury, as measured by CSF NFL, was found in both untreated and treated HIV. While this study is not able to prove a causal link, homocysteine and functional B12/folate deficiency appear to play a role in neural injury in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27441551

  18. Plasma Levels of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Reflect Left Ventricular Remodeling in Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Ana V.; Cobo, Manuel; Llano, Miguel; Montalvo, Cecilia; González-Vílchez, Francisco; Martín-Durán, Rafael; Hurlé, María A.; Nistal, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background TGF-β1 is involved in cardiac remodeling through an auto/paracrine mechanism. The contribution of TGF-β1 from plasmatic source to pressure overload myocardial remodeling has not been analyzed. We investigated, in patients with valvular aortic stenosis (AS), and in mice subjected to transverse aortic arch constriction (TAC), whether plasma TGF-β1 relates with myocardial remodeling, reflected by LV transcriptional adaptations of genes linked to myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, and by heart morphology and function. Methodology/Principal Findings The subjects of the study were: 39 patients operated of AS; 27 healthy volunteers; 12 mice subjected to TAC; and 6 mice sham-operated. Myocardial samples were subjected to quantitative PCR. Plasma TGF-β1 was determined by ELISA. Under pressure overload, TGF-β1 plasma levels were significantly increased both in AS patients and TAC mice. In AS patients, plasma TGF-β1 correlated directly with aortic transvalvular gradients and LV mass surrogate variables, both preoperatively and 1 year after surgery. Plasma TGF-β1 correlated positively with the myocardial expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix (collagens I and III, fibronectin) and sarcomeric (myosin light chain-2, β-myosin heavy chain) remodelling targets of TGF-β1, in TAC mice and in AS patients. Conclusions/Significance A circulating TGF-β1-mediated mechanism is involved, in both mice and humans, in the excessive deposition of ECM elements and hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes under pressure overload. The possible value of plasma TGF-β1 as a marker reflecting preoperative myocardial remodeling status in AS patients deserves further analysis in larger patient cohorts. PMID:20041033

  19. Plasma corticosteroid levels in rats maintained on a long-acting naltrexone delivery system.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L

    1978-04-01

    A long-acting delivery system for naltrexone has been described, which blocked the antinociceptive action of 10 mg kg-1 s.c. dose of morphine in rats for a period of 2 to 3 months. Male Wistar rats implanted s.c. with such a delivery system showed highly significant depression of plasma corticosteroid levels (40.2% in one week and 22.4 to 27.2% in 3 months) as compared to placebo pellet-implanted animals. Morphine-dependent male rats implanted with 75 mg morphine pellets showed a small (17.5%) but significant increase in plasma corticosteroid levels as compared to the placebo controls 72 hr. after pellet implantation. PMID:663407

  20. Bothrops jararaca Venom Metalloproteinases Are Essential for Coagulopathy and Increase Plasma Tissue Factor Levels during Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Karine M.; Alves, André F.; Barbaro, Katia C.; Santoro, Marcelo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Methods/Principal Findings Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. Conclusions SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering

  1. The Apo(a) gene is the major determinant of variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Mooser, V; Scheer, D; Marcovina, S M; Wang, J; Guerra, R; Cohen, J; Hobbs, H H

    1997-01-01

    The distributions of plasma lipoprotein(a), or Lp(a), levels differ significantly among ethnic groups. Individuals of African descent have a two- to threefold higher mean plasma level of Lp(a) than either Caucasians or Orientals. In Caucasians, variation in the plasma Lp(a) levels has been shown to be largely determined by sequence differences at the apo(a) locus, but little is known about either the genetic architecture of plasma Lp(a) levels in Africans or why they have higher levels of plasma Lp(a). In this paper we analyze the plasma Lp(a) levels of 257 sibling pairs from 49 independent African American families. The plasma Lp(a) levels were much more similar in the sibling pairs who inherited both apo(a) alleles identical by descent (IBD) (r = .85) than in those that shared one (r = .48) or no (r = .22) parental apo(a) alleles in common. On the basis of these findings, it was estimated that 78% of the variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans is attributable to polymorphism at either the apo(a) locus or sequences closely linked to it. Thus, the apo(a) locus is the major determinant of variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans, as well as in Caucasians. No molecular evidence was found for a common "high-expressing" apo(a) allele in the African Americans. We propose that the higher plasma levels of Lp(a) in Africans are likely due to a yet-to-be-identified trans-acting factor(s) that causes an increase in the rate of secretion of apo(a) or a decrease in its catabolism. PMID:9311746

  2. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and to the CSA fraction formed by type 1 and 2a fibers (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). However, when adjusted for body height and age by multiple regression, MG yielded a largely improved prediction of total CSA (multiple r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and of fiber type 1 and 2a CSA (multiple r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The correlations between CK and these muscle parameters were weaker, and elevated CK values were observed in 20% of control subjects despite a prior abstinence from exercise for 5 days. In conclusion, plasma MG, when adjusted for anthropometric parameters unaffected by weight, may be considered as a novel marker of muscle mass (CSA) indicating best the mass of MG-rich type 1 and 2a fibers as well as VO(2)max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer

  3. Effects of feeding two levels of propionibacteria to dairy cows on plasma hormones and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Mayte M; Stein, Dan R; Allen, Dustin T; Perry, Emily; Lehloenya, Keneuoe V; Rehberger, Thomas G; Mertz, Keith J; Jones, David A; Spicer, Leon J

    2007-05-01

    To determine the effect of feeding propionibacteria on metabolic indicators during lactation, multiparous and primiparous Holstein cows were fed one of three dietary treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial design from 2 weeks prepartum to 30 weeks post partum: (1) Control (primiparous n=5, multiparous n=8) fed a total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose group (primiparous n=6, multiparous n=5) fed TMR plus 6 x 10 (11) cfu/head daily (high-dose P169) of propionibacterium strain P169; or (3) low-dose group (primiparous n=8, multiparous n=6) fed TMR plus 6 x 10(10) cfu/head daily (low-dose P169) of P169. Blood samples were collected weekly and analysed for plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), leptin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and cholesterol. Between weeks 25 and 30, all groups received bovine somatotropin (bST) every 2 weeks. Low-dose P169 multiparous cows had lower (P<0.05) plasma insulin and glucose concentrations than high-dose P169 multiparous cows, whereas high-dose P169 primiparous cows had lower glucose but greater insulin concentartions than low-dose P169 primiparous cows (P<0.05). Plasma insulinratioglucose molar ratios were 13-18% lower (P<0.05) in low-dose P169 cows than in control or high-dose P169 cows. Plasma IGF-I, NEFA and leptin levels did not differ among diet groups between weeks 1 and 25. Low-dose P169 multiparous cows had 25% greater plasma cholesterol levels than high-dose P169 and control multiparous cows, but cholesterol levels in primiparous cows did not differ. During bST treatment, high-dose P169 multiparous cows and low-dose P169 primiparous cows had lower IGF-I levels than their respective controls and, regardless of parity, high-dose P169 cows had greater NEFA than control cows. Although supplemental feeding of P169 altered plasma hormones and metabolites, the particular effects were dependent on dose of P169 and parity of cows.

  4. Association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with sepsis in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Chi, Y F; Chai, J K; Yu, Y M; Luo, H M; Zhang, Q X; Feng, R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with sepsis in severely burned patients. A total of 182 patients with burn areas lager than 30% of the body surface area were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 103 patients with sepsis (sepsis group) and 79 patients without sepsis (control group). An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine PAI-1 polymorphism 4G/5G distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of the 4G/4G genotype and the 4G allele frequency in the sepsis group were 42.7 and 62.1% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Sepsis patients had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the 5G/5G genotype, PAI-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the 4G/4G genotype (P < 0.05). The study indicates that the 4G/5G promoter polymorphism of PAI-1 gene may be related to the susceptibility to burn sepsis and that the 4G/4G genotype may be an important genetic risk factor of burn sepsis. Additionally, PAI-1 concentrations in the serum are increased in patients with burn sepsis.

  5. Peripheral plasma prolactin and progesterone levels in pseudopregnant goats during bromocryptine treatment.

    PubMed

    Taverne, M A; Lavoir, M C; Bevers, M M; Pieterse, M C; Dieleman, S J

    1988-10-01

    Persistence of luteal function and accumulation of fluid within the uterus (hydrometra) are characteristics of pseudopregnancy in goats. To study the luteotrophic role of prolactin in this condition, seven seudopregnant goats were treated with bromocryptine (1 mg subcutaneously, twice daily) for 6 to 10 d. Plasma progesterone (P4) and prolactin (PRL) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in samples taken twice daily by venipuncture. Ultrasound scanning took place at regular intervals to visualize the presence of fluid within the uterus. Bromocryptine treatment effectively reduced the plasma PRL concentration in six goats. In all seven goats, a gradual decrease of the plasma P4 concentration to levels < 1.8 ng/ml occured during treatment. After bromocryptine treatment, P4 concentrations reached basal levels (<0.1 ng/ml) in two animals. In four goats, P4 concentrations remained close to 1.0 ng/ml, or even temporarily rose above the 2.0 ng/ml level. Spontaneous discharge of uterine fluid took place during (two goats) or within 4 d after bromocryptine treatment (three goats). These results indicate that prolactin plays an important luteotrophic role during pseudopregnancy in goats. PMID:16726519

  6. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  7. Association Between Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Plasma Levels of Cardiovascular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Wójcik, Oktawia; Parvez, Faruque; Rahaman, Ronald; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relation between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, soluble E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) using baseline data from 668 participants (age, >30 years) in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2007–2008). Both well water arsenic and urinary arsenic were positively associated with plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1. For every 1-unit increase in log-transformed well water arsenic (ln μg/L) and urinary arsenic (ln μg/g creatinine), plasma soluble VCAM-1 was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.03) and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07) times greater, respectively. There was a significant interaction between arsenic exposure and higher body mass index, such that the increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble VCAM-1 associated with arsenic exposure were stronger among people with higher body mass index. The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that could be modified by body mass index and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22534204

  8. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses. PMID:24261657

  9. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Helminiak, M A; Yanar, N M; Pettit, F S; Taylor, T A; Meier, G H

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  10. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with lamotrigine.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Gorska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Dyr, Wanda; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2015-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that lamotrigine, similarly to other antiepileptic drugs, may be useful in the therapy of alcohol dependence. The rationale for using lamotrigine in the treatment of alcohol addiction is based on its multiple mechanisms of action which include inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, modulation voltage-gated calcium currents and transient potassium outward current. However, the known mechanism of lamotrigine does not fully explain its efficacy in alcohol addiction therapy. For this reason we have decided to examine the effect of lamotrigine on the opioid system. Our previous studies showed that topiramate and levetiracetam (antiepileptic drugs) as well as the most effective drugs in alcohol addiction therapy i.e. naltrexone and acamprosate, when given repeatedly, all increased plasma beta endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) level, despite operating through different pharmacological mechanisms. It is known that low beta-endorphin level is often associated with alcohol addiction and also that alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. This study aims to assess the effect of repeated treatment with lamotrigine on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma level in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats). We observed a decrease in alcohol consumption in rats treated with lamotrigine. However we didn't observe significant changes in beta-endorphin level during withdrawal of alcohol, which may indicate that the drug does not affect the opioid system. We suppose that lamotrigine may be useful in alcohol dependence therapy and presents a potential area for further study. PMID:25449391

  11. Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects tissue vitamin e and malondialdehyde levels but does not change antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Menoyo, David; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wagner, Anika E; Struksnæs, Gunvor; Koppe, Wolfgang; Rimbach, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Dietary vitamin E did not affect feed conversion efficiency ratio but significantly (p < 0.05) increased alpha-tocopherol concentrations in salmon plasma, liver, and fillet (n = 8 per group each). The increase in fillet alpha-tocopherol was accompanied by a considerable decrease (p < 0.01) in malondialdehyde concentrations at the higher supplementation level. Furthermore, we observed an antagonistic interaction between alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma at the highest supplementation level, since high dietary alpha-tocopherol reduced plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Liver antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, remained largely unchanged in response to dietary alpha-tocopherol. Dietary alpha-tocopherol did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in salmon fillet. Present data suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplementations beyond dietary recommendations may further improve flesh quality and nutritional value of Atlantic salmon fillet as far as malondialdehyde and vitamin E concentrations are concerned. PMID:25008014

  12. Treated municipal sewage discharge affects multiple levels of biological organization in fish.

    PubMed

    Porter, Clint M; Janz, David M

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine cellular-, organ-, and organism-level responses in longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and fish community structure in a stream in which treated municipal sewage effluent is discharged and in a nearby reference stream with little surrounding land use. A modified version of the U.S.E.P.A. Rapid Bioassessment Protocol V, which combines a habitat assessment with Karr's index of biotic integrity, was used on 400-m reaches of each stream. The study site had a higher proportion of tolerant species and omnivores and a lower proportion of top predators, suggesting alterations in the fish community and a slight level of water quality impairment. Significant increases in condition factor, hepatosomatic index, serum testosterone, and plasma vitellogenin concentrations were observed in male sunfish collected from the study stream in comparison to fish collected from the reference stream. There were no differences between sites in hepatic expression of the 70-kDa stress protein (HSP70). In conclusion, effects were observed at cellular, organ, organism, and community levels of biological organization in fishes exposed to treated municipal sewage effluent.

  13. Mechanisms of Streamer Propagation Affected by Driven Voltage Polarity in a Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model is used to investigate the effects of DC-voltage polarity in plasma initiation and propagation of helium plasma jet. The simulation results indicate that the difference in initial breakdown for the positive jet and negative jet leads to a difference in the electron density of about 4 orders of magnitude, even with the same initial electric field, which also influences the subsequent propagation. In the propagation process of negative jets, the ionization process exists in a longer gas channel behind the streamer head. In addition, the drift process to the infinite grounded electrode driven by the electric field results in higher energy consumption in the ionization process. However, in the positive jet, the ionization process mainly exists in the streamer head. Therefore, the differences in the initial breakdown and propagation process make the electric field intensity and the ionization weaker in the streamer head of the negative jet, which explains the weaker and shorter appearance of the negative jet compared to the positive jet. Our model can adequately reproduce the experimental results, viz. a bullet-like propagation in the positive jet and a continuous plasma plume in the negative jet. Furthermore, it also indicates that the streamer velocity shows the same variations as the electron drift velocity for both positive and negative jets.

  14. Strain Observation Affected by Groundwater-Level Change in Seismic Precursor Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Cao, Daiyong; Zhang, Jingfa

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater extraction is one of the most typical disturbance factors for strain observation in seismic precursor monitoring. The statistic regression method is used to study based on the relation between the variation of strain and the groundwater level. The least square regression linear model is built between the annual variation of Sangzi groundwater level and the Xiaoxinzhuang strain data. Such model meets t test with significance level α = 0. 0 5 , which confirms that groundwater-level change in each year affects strain measurement significantly and strain's trend variation is related to groundwater-level change. Consequently, a new correction method about strain data is put forward based on the groundwater-level annual variation to eliminate the trend change. Results indicate that the accumulated residual deformation causes the horizontal displacement and strain change, which is on account of that the amount of groundwater recharge is less than that of extraction around Xiaoxinzhuang cave, the phreatic surface continues to descend, and residual deformation accumulates and leads to local subsidence area. Therefore, the decline trend change of strain is related to groundwater-level change and is not seismic precursor.

  15. High Plasma Pentraxin 3 Levels in Diabetic Polyneuropathy Patients with Nociceptive Pain.

    PubMed

    Salcini, Celal; Atasever-Arslan, Belkis; Sunter, Gulin; Gur, Hazal; Isik, Fatma Busra; Saylan, Cemil Can; Yalcin, Ayse Destina

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy is the most common neurologic complication of diabetes mellitus. Underlying mechanisms of diabetic polyneuropathy are related to various metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein that is produced locally at the inflammatory sites by several cell types. Thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP2) is a thioredoxin regulator involved in intracellular energy pathways and cell growth. We measured the plasma levels of PTX3 and TBP2 in type 2 diabetic patients (n = 27) with pain complaints and compared their levels with those of healthy age- and sex-matched subjects (n = 24). Moreover, the diabetic patients were divided into two groups using the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale: patients with nociceptive pain that is caused by tissue damage and patients with neuropathic pain that is caused by nerve damage. Patients with LANSS scores of < 12 were considered to have nocicceptive pain (n = 15), while patients with LANSS scores of ≥ 12 were considered to have neuropathic pain (n = 12). We found that PTX3 levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to controls (p = 0.03), but there was no significant difference in the TBP2 levels. Importantly, patients with nociceptive pain had significantly higher PTX3 levels compared to patients with neuropathic pain (p < 0.05). Thus, plasma PTX3 levels can be helpful for discrimination of nociceptive pain from neuropathic pain in diabetic patients. We propose that PTX3 may contribute to the onset of nociceptive pain.

  16. Plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuefeng; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Qun; Fan, Yongqian; Lin, Weilong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), bone turnover biomarkers (BTB), and bone mineral density (BMD) with osteoporotic fracture (OPF) in elderly people. Methods Eighty-two patients (aged 65 years or older) admitted to our orthopedics department between October 2014 and May 2015 were randomly divided into three groups: 1) OPF group: 39 cases with the mean age 81.82±5.49 years, which included 24 females and 15 males; 2) high-energy fracture (HEF) group: 22 cases with the mean age 78.88±5.75 years, which included 16 females and six males; 3) non-bone-fracture group: 21 cases with mean age 79.75±5.47 years without bone fracture, which included 14 females and seven males. Plasma Hcy, BTB, and BMD were measured. Analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in either age or sex among the three groups. There were significant differences in plasma Hcy and hip BMD between the OPF and HEF groups; there was also significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, and hip BMD between the OPF and non-fracture groups. There was no difference in lumbar spine BMD between the OPF group and the other two groups. There was no significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, hip or lumbar spine BMD between the HEF and non-fracture group. There was no significant difference in procollagen type I N-propeptide of type I collagen, serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, and parathyroid hormone among the three groups. Plasma Hcy was linearly correlated with age and serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, but not correlated with either hip or lumbar spine BMD or any other BTBs. Conclusion In this study, we found that the plasma Hcy level in elderly patients with OPF is higher than that of nonosteoporotic patients. It is not correlated with BMD, but positively correlated with bone resorption markers. An increased Hcy

  17. Protein and energy intakes affected amino acid concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver, and cell signaling in the liver of growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Rius, A G; Weeks, H A; Cyriac, J; Akers, R M; Bequette, B J; Hanigan, M D

    2012-04-01

    The nutrient content of and feeding recommendations for milk replacers (MR) vary widely in North America, and acceleration of growth through manipulation of protein and energy intakes can reduce rearing costs of dairy operations. The effects of varying the protein and energy intake of MR on metabolite concentrations in plasma, liver, and muscle and the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase B (AKT) and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) cell signals in liver and muscle were assessed. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were fed 1 of 4 MR for 9 wk (n=6/treatment): (1) a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat MR fed at 441 g of dry matter (DM)/d (CON); (2) a high-protein, medium-fat MR (HPMF; 28% CP, 20% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; (3) a high-protein, high-fat MR (HPHF; 27% CP, 28% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; and (4) HPHF fed at 1,431 g of DM/d (HPHF+). Water and starter (20% CP, 1.43% fat) were offered ad libitum and calves were fed MR twice daily. Plasma samples were obtained at 1, 5, and 9 wk of age. Calves were not weaned and were slaughtered after the last blood sampling. Liver and muscle tissues were collected and analyzed for metabolite concentrations and cell signaling activity. Calves fed all treatments had lower plasma concentrations of Phe and Tyr, and a trend for lower Leu, but greater concentrations of Thr relative to calves fed CON. Calves fed all treatments had increased muscle concentrations of Met and muscle to plasma ratios of Phe, Tyr, and branched-chain amino acids compared with CON. All treatments increased liver to plasma ratios of Phe and Tyr but diminished the ratios of Met compared with CON. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B was not affected by treatment; however, relative to calves fed HPHF, HPMF and HPHF+ diets increased phosphorylation ratios of ribosomal protein S6 in the liver. Therefore, the changes in plasma and tissue concentrations and plasma to tissue ratios of amino acids were associated with enhanced growth rates. However, cell signaling

  18. Identity-level representations affect unfamiliar face matching performance in sequential but not simultaneous tasks.

    PubMed

    Menon, Nadia; White, David; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    According to cognitive and neurological models of the face-processing system, faces are represented at two levels of abstraction. First, image-based pictorial representations code a particular instance of a face and include information that is unrelated to identity-such as lighting, pose, and expression. Second, at a more abstract level, identity-specific representations combine information from various encounters with a single face. Here we tested whether identity-level representations mediate unfamiliar face matching performance. Across three experiments we manipulated identity attributions to pairs of target images and measured the effect on subsequent identification decisions. Participants were instructed that target images were either two photos of the same person (1ID condition) or photos of two different people (2ID condition). This manipulation consistently affected performance in sequential matching: 1ID instructions improved accuracy on "match" trials and caused participants to adopt a more liberal response bias than the 2ID condition. However, this manipulation did not affect performance in simultaneous matching. We conclude that identity-level representations, generated in working memory, influence the amount of variation tolerated between images, when making identity judgements in sequential face matching. PMID:25686094

  19. Apolipoprotein A-V: a potential modulator of plasma triglyceride levels in Turks.

    PubMed

    Hodoglugil, Ugur; Tanyolaç, Sinan; Williamson, David W; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A-V gene (APOA5) plays an important role in determining plasma triglyceride levels. We studied the effects of APOA5 polymorphisms on plasma triglyceride levels in Turks, a population with low levels of HDL cholesterol and a high prevalence of coronary artery disease. We found 15 polymorphisms, three of which were novel. Seven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen and genotyped in approximately 3,000 subjects. The rare alleles of the -1464T>C, -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C SNPs were significantly associated with increased triglyceride levels (19-86 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and had clear gene-dose effects. Haplotype analysis of the nine common APOA5 haplotypes revealed significant effects on triglyceride levels (P < 0.001). Detailed analysis of haplotypes clearly showed that the -1464T>C polymorphism had no effect by itself but was a marker for the -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C polymorphisms. The -1131T>C and 1259T>C polymorphisms were in a strong but incomplete linkage disequilibrium and appeared to have independent effects. Thus, the APOA5 -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C rare alleles were associated with significant increases in plasma triglyceride levels. At least one of these alleles was present in approximately 40% of the Turks. Similar associations were observed for -1131T>C and S19W in white Americans living in San Francisco, California.

  20. Evaluation of D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase plasma levels in patients with relapsed acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    HU, WANGQIANG; WANG, XIAOXIA; YANG, RONGRONG

    2016-01-01

    Despite the outstanding advances made over the past decade regarding our knowledge of acute leukemia (AL), relapsed AL remains to be associated with a dismal prognosis. A better understanding of AL relapse and monitoring of the D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma levels following chemotherapy may aid clinicians in determining whether relapse may occur in the subsequent phases of the disease. The present study evaluated D-dimer and LDH levels in 204 patients with relapsed AL. Data were collected at the initial onset of AL, at complete remission (CR) and in patients with relapsed AL. D-dimer plasma levels were significantly increased in patients with initial AL and in patients with relapsed AL (P=0.005 and P=0.007, respectively) but not in those with CR. LDH levels were significantly increased in AL patients at the initial onset of disease and at relapse compared with patients achieving CR, irrespective of cell type. Plasma prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen levels were not significantly different across patients (with the exception of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients) at the initial onset, relapsed AL or CR. Routine hematological parameters (white blood cell count, hemoglobin, platelet count) were significantly different at the initial onset of AL (P=0.002, P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively) and during relapsed AL (P=0.009, P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively) compared with patients achieving CR, suggesting an association between D-dimer, LDH and relapsed AL. These results also indicate that determination of D-dimer and LDH levels may be useful for predicting the probability of relapse during chemotherapy, but should also be combined with routine hematological parameters. PMID:27347185

  1. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  2. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  3. Correlation between changes in plasma HIV RNA levels and in plasma infectivity in response to antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, M; Sarmati, L; Ercoli, L; Nicastri, E; Giannini, G; Galluzzo, C; Pirillo, M F; Vella, S

    1997-05-01

    We evaluated the degree of correlation between the variation of different HIV-1 viral load measures in response to antiretroviral therapy. A quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for plasma HIV-RNA, and HIV plasma infectivity titration, were performed on prospective samples obtained from 86 antiretroviral-naive patients with symptomatic infection and CD4+ < 300/mm3, enrolled in a randomized double-blind trial of the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir (SQV) in combination with zidovudine (ZDV). Subjects were stratified according to plasma virus infectivity and examined for correlations between distinct response categories with respect to CD4 count and HIV RNA copy number changes. Infectious virus could be titrated in 72% of patients at baseline. A significant reduction (< 1 log10) in HIV plasma infectivity titer was observed during the study in 69% of these patients. The reduction in plasma infectivity was a good predictor of sustained CD4+ cell increases and of sustained decrease in HIV RNA plasma copies. A decrease of at least 0.5 log10 in HIV RNA copy number was observed in 82% of the treated patients. A good correlation was found between HIV plasma infectivity titer and plasma HIV RNA copy number variations (p < 0.001). However, 10 of 17 patients with unchanged plasma infectivity titer showed a significant reduction in HIV RNA copies. While a good correlation was found between plasma infectivity and RNA plasma copies variations, only a minor correlation was found between CD4+ cell count variation and plasma infectivity titer variation. However, reduction in plasma infectivity was a very good predictor of high CD4 changes.

  4. Connexin-deficiency affects expression levels of glial glutamate transporters within the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate transport in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate transporter expression is also affected by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate transporters, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially affect the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate transporter expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate transport. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is affected in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex.

  5. Effect of Khat (Catha edulis) Use on the Bioavailability, Plasma Levels and Antimalarial Activity of Chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Faiza H.; Al-Habori, Molhem; Chance, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of khat (Catha edulis) on chloroquine (CQ) bioavailability in healthy Yemeni adults and its effect on CQ plasma levels and parasite clearance among malaria patients. Methods: This study took place between January and April 2007 in Bajil and Sana’a, Yemen. Two CQ doses (600 mg each) were given to 15 healthy males on separate occasions; the first dose was followed by a khat-chewing session (phase one) while controls abstained from khat-chewing for the second (phase two). Additionally, 103 patients with Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, including both regular khat chewers (n = 57) and non-khat chewers (n = 46), were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg) over three days. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed among both controls and malaria patients. Parasite clearance was also investigated for the latter group. Results: The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 2,108.9 versus 2,797.4 ng/hour/mL, mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 415.6 versus 508.7 ng/mL and mean time to reach Cmax was 3.8 versus 3.6 hours for controls in phase one versus phase two, respectively; both AUC and Cmax levels were significantly reduced by khat-chewing (P <0.050). For khat- versus non-khat-chewing malaria patients, mean plasma CQ concentrations were 266.4 ng/mL versus 427.5 ng/mL (P <0.001). Furthermore, CQ was effective in 71.7% and 75.4% of non-khat and khat-chewing malaria patients, respectively (P = 0.823). Conclusion: Khat-chewing was found to significantly reduce plasma CQ levels among healthy volunteers and malaria patients. While receiving CQ treatment, patients should be advised not to chew khat. PMID:27226909

  6. Catecholamine plasma levels following immune stimulation with rabies vaccine in dogs selected for their paw preferences.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Sasso, Raffaella; Pepe, Anna M; Dimatteo, Salvatore; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Quaranta, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    Epinephrine and norepinephrine plasma levels were assessed in dogs in relation to paw preference following an immune challenge with rabies vaccine. The results showed that both catecholamines increased after the vaccine administration, confirming the main role of the sympathetic nervous system in the modulation activity between the brain and the immune system. Moreover, ambidextrous dogs showed a significantly higher increase of epinephrine levels 8 days after immunization with respect to right- and left-pawed dogs, suggesting that the biological activity of this molecule could be key for a different immune response with regard to laterality.

  7. Elevated atmospheric CO2 levels affect community structure of rice root-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Takashi; Liu, Dongyan; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Ikeda, Seishi; Asakawa, Susumu; Tokida, Takeshi; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Aoki, Naohiro; Ishimaru, Ken; Ujiie, Kazuhiro; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hayashi, Kentaro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) affects rice yields and grain quality. However, the responses of root-associated bacteria to [CO2] elevation have not been characterized in a large-scale field study. We conducted a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (ambient + 200 μmol.mol−1) using three rice cultivars (Akita 63, Takanari, and Koshihikari) and two experimental lines of Koshihikari [chromosome segment substitution and near-isogenic lines (NILs)] to determine the effects of [CO2] elevation on the community structure of rice root-associated bacteria. Microbial DNA was extracted from rice roots at the panicle formation stage and analyzed by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize the members of the bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis of a weighted UniFrac distance matrix revealed that the community structure was clearly affected by elevated [CO2]. The predominant community members at class level were Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria in the control (ambient) and FACE plots. The relative abundance of Methylocystaceae, the major methane-oxidizing bacteria in rice roots, tended to decrease with increasing [CO2] levels. Quantitative PCR revealed a decreased copy number of the methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene and increased methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) in elevated [CO2]. These results suggest elevated [CO2] suppresses methane oxidation and promotes methanogenesis in rice roots; this process affects the carbon cycle in rice paddy fields. PMID:25750640

  8. Homocysteine levels in schizophrenia and affective disorders—focus on cognition

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Hewedi, Doaa H.; Eissa, Abeer M.; Frydecka, Dorota; Misiak, Błażej

    2014-01-01

    Although homocysteine (Hcy) has been widely implicated in the etiology of various physical health impairments, especially cardiovascular diseases, overwhelming evidence indicates that Hcy is also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. There are several mechanisms linking Hcy to biological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders. It has been found that Hcy interacts with NMDA receptors, initiates oxidative stress, induces apoptosis, triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and leads to vascular damage. Elevated Hcy levels might also contribute to cognitive impairment that is widely observed among patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia. Supplementation of vitamins B and folic acid has been proved to be effective in lowering Hcy levels. There are also studies showing that this supplementation strategy might be beneficial for schizophrenia patients with respect to alleviating negative symptoms. However, there are no studies addressing the influence of add-on therapies with folate and vitamins B on cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders. In this article, we provide an overview of Hcy metabolism in psychiatric disorders focusing on cognitive correlates and indicating future directions and perspectives. PMID:25339876

  9. Increased IL6 plasma levels in indolent systemic mastocytosis patients are associated with high risk of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Mayado, A; Teodosio, C; Garcia-Montero, A C; Matito, A; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Morgado, J M; Muñiz, C; Jara-Acevedo, M; Álvarez-Twose, I; Sanchez-Muñoz, L; Matarraz, S; Caldas, C; Muñoz-González, J I; Escribano, L; Orfao, A

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a heterogeneous disease with altered interleukin (IL)-6 and IL13 plasma levels. However, no study has simultaneously investigated the plasma levels of IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin in SM at diagnosis and correlated them with disease outcome. Here we investigated IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin plasma levels in 75 SM patients--66 indolent SM (ISM) and 9 aggressive SM--and analyzed their prognostic impact among ISM cases grouped according to the extent of hematopoietic involvement of the bone marrow cells by the KIT D816V mutation. Although increased IL1β, IL6 and CCL23 levels were detected in SM patients versus healthy controls, only IL6 and CCL23 levels gradually increased with disease severity. Moreover, increased IL6 plasma levels were associated with ISM progression to more aggressive disease, in particular among ISM patients with multilineal KIT mutation (ISM-ML), these patients also showing a higher frequency of organomegalies, versus other ISM-ML patients. Of note, all ISM patients who progressed had increased IL6 plasma levels already at diagnosis. Our results indicate that SM patients display an altered plasma cytokine profile already at diagnosis, increased IL6 plasma levels emerging as an early marker for disease progression among ISM cases, in particular among high-risk ISM patients who carry multilineage KIT mutation. PMID:26153655

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Risk Factors via a Decline in Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Plasma Levels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Pu, Shuaihua; Sabra, Ali; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a circulating protein that regulates cholesterol metabolism by promoting LDL receptor degradation in the liver and has recently been proposed as a therapeutic target in the management of hyperlipidaemia. We investigated the impact of dietary fat on the metabolism of sterols and on plasma PCSK9 concentrations to explore likely clinical usefulness. In a post hoc analysis of a double-blind randomised crossover controlled feeding trial, the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT), volunteers (n = 54) with at least one condition related to metabolic syndrome consumed diets with one of the following treatment oils in beverages: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) canola oil rich in docosahexanoic acid (DHA) (CanolaDHA); and (3) high-oleic acid canola oil (CanolaOleic). The enrichment in oleic acid resulted in lower plasma cholesterol concentration compared with diets enriched in DHA. Contrarily, DHA-enriched oil significantly decreased plasma PCSK9 and triacylglycerols levels, but increased circulating levels of sterols. The variations in lathosterol, sitosterol, and campesterol indicate that plasma PCSK9 levels are sensitive to changes in cholesterol synthesis and/or absorption. There was a significant correlation between plasma PCSK9 levels and plasma triacylglicerol and apolipoprotein B levels, which was not affected by dietary fat. Therefore, our results suggest that the impact of dietary fats should not be discarded as complementary treatment in the management of patients with hyperlipidaemia. These findings should be considered in the analysis of ongoing studies and may represent a cautionary note in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular risk. PMID:26620373

  11. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  12. Factors affecting circulating levels of peptide YY in humans: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-06-01

    As obesity continues to be a global epidemic, research into the mechanisms of hunger and satiety and how those signals act to regulate energy homeostasis persists. Peptide YY (PYY) is an acute satiety signal released upon nutrient ingestion and has been shown to decrease food intake when administered exogenously. More recently, investigators have studied how different factors influence PYY release and circulating levels in humans. Some of these factors include exercise, macronutrient composition of the diet, body-weight status, adiposity levels, sex, race and ageing. The present article provides a succinct and comprehensive review of the recent literature published on the different factors that influence PYY release and circulating levels in humans. Where human data are insufficient, evidence in animal or cell models is summarised. Additionally, the present review explores the recent findings on PYY responses to different dietary fatty acids and how this new line of research will make an impact on future studies on PYY. Human demographics, such as sex and age, do not appear to influence PYY levels. Conversely, adiposity or BMI, race and acute exercise all influence circulating PYY levels. Both dietary fat and protein strongly stimulate PYY release. Furthermore, MUFA appear to result in a smaller PYY response compared with SFA and PUFA. PYY levels appear to be affected by acute exercise, macronutrient composition, adiposity, race and the composition of fatty acids from dietary fat.

  13. Elevated Progesterone Levels on the Day of Oocyte Maturation May Affect Top Quality Embryo IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Ren, Xinling; Wu, Li; Zhu, Lixia; Xu, Bei; Li, Yufeng; Ai, Jihui; Jin, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the impact of elevated progesterone on endometrial receptivity, the data on whether increased progesterone levels affects the quality of embryos is still limited. This study retrospectively enrolled 4,236 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and sought to determine whether increased progesterone is associated with adverse outcomes with regard to top quality embryos (TQE). The results showed that the TQE rate significantly correlated with progesterone levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger (P = 0.009). Multivariate linear regression analysis of factors related to the TQE rate, in conventional IVF cycles, showed that the TQE rate was negatively associated with progesterone concentration on the day of hCG (OR was -1.658, 95% CI: -2.806 to -0.510, P = 0.005). When the serum progesterone level was within the interval 2.0–2.5 ng/ml, the TQE rate was significantly lower (P <0.05) than when the progesterone level was < 1.0 ng/ml; similar results were obtained for serum progesterone levels >2.5 ng/ml. Then, we choose a progesterone level at 1.5ng/ml, 2.0 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml as cut-off points to verify this result. We found that the TQE rate was significantly different (P <0.05) between serum progesterone levels < 2.0 ng/ml and >2.0 ng/ml. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly demonstrated a negative effect of elevated progesterone levels on the day of hCG trigger, on TQE rate, regardless of the basal FSH, the total gonadotropin, the age of the woman, or the time of ovarian stimulation. These data demonstrate that elevated progesterone levels (>2.0 ng/ml) before oocyte maturation were consistently detrimental to the oocyte. PMID:26745711

  14. Altered plasma levels of chemokines in autism and their association with social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yidong; Ou, JInajun; Liu, Mengmeng; Shi, Lijuan; Li, Yamin; Xiao, Lu; Dong, Huixi; Zhang, Fengyu; Xia, Kun; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-10-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopment disorders with an unclear etiology. Chemokines have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD. The current study investigated the plasma levels of seven chemokines (RANTES, Eotaxin, MIP-1 α, MIP-1 β, MCP-1, IP-10, and MIG) in 42 young autistic patients and 35 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. The study also tested the association between these chemokine levels and social behaviors, as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Compared to the TD children, RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β were higher, while IP-10 and MIG were lower in the autistic patients, after correcting for multiple comparisons. Among these seven chemokines, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and IP-10 levels were found to be associated with social behaviors in all the participants. Moreover, MIP-1α and IP-10 were found to be independent predictors of social behaviors. The results of our study support the hypothesis that altered chemokine levels are involved in the pathophysiology of ASD and they indicate that chemokines plasma levels could be potential biomarkers for ASD.

  15. Plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant female rat-kangaroo (Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Rose, R W

    1992-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels were measured in female bettongs (small macropodid marsupials) under two natural regimes: (1) during "delayed" gestation (initiated by removal of pouch young, RPY) and (2) during the pregnancy prior to pouch vacation when a young still occupies the pouch (i.e., during lactation). Basal levels of progesterone were 0.15-0.5 ng/ml. There was a transient peak of progesterone (0.7 ng/ml) early in gestation at Day 4 RPY. After Day 6 RPY, progesterone levels remained elevated (1.2-1.5 ng/ml) until they dropped sharply to basal levels on the day of birth. This pattern of progesterone secretion during delayed gestation is similar to that seen in other marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby. There was no significant difference between the progesterone profiles of the two experimental groups. We deduce, then, that lactation had no effect on corpus luteum function (as assessed by plasma progesterone levels) in the pregnant bettong.

  16. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  17. Plasma Osteopontin Levels and Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in the PEACE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Erin E.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Solak, Nusret; Rizvi, Syed A.; Bailey, Kent R.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that has a role in inflammation, immune response and calcification. We hypothesized that plasma OPN levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved ejection fraction (EF) enrolled in the PEACE trial. We measured plasma OPN levels at baseline in 3567 CAD patients (mean age 64.5 ± 8.1 years, 81% men) by a sandwich chemiluminescent assay (coefficient of variation = 4.1%). OPN levels were natural log (Ln) transformed prior to analyses. We assessed whether Ln OPN levels were associated with the composite primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and hospitalization for heart failure using multiple event multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Adjustment was performed for: (a) age and sex; (b) additional potential confounders; and (c) a parsimonious set of statistically significant 10 variates. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 416 adverse cardiovascular outcomes occurred in 366 patients. Ln OPN was significantly associated with the primary endpoint; HR (95% CI) = 1.56 (1.27, 1.92); P <0.001, and remained significant after adjustment for age and sex [1.31 (1.06, 1.61); P = 0.01] and after adjustment for relevant covariates [1.24 (1.01, 1.52); P = 0.04]. In a secondary analysis of the individual event types, Ln OPN was significantly associated with incident hospitalization for heart failure: HR (95% CI) = 2.04 (1.44, 2.89); P <0.001, even after adjustment for age, sex and additional relevant covariates. In conclusion, in patients with stable CAD and preserved EF on optimal medical therapy, plasma OPN levels were independently associated with the composite incident endpoint of adverse cardiovascular outcomes as well as incident hospitalization for heart failure. PMID:27284698

  18. Plasma Soluble Urokinase Receptor Level Is Correlated with Podocytes Damage in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanfeng; Liu, Lijun; Huang, Jing; Shi, Sufang; Lv, Jicheng; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Minghui; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions are similar in characteristics to S lesions of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and may predict poor prognosis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the association between plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) levels and S lesions and podocytes damage in IgAN patients. Methods We enrolled 569 IgAN patients with follow-up data and detected plasma suPAR levels at renal biopsy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Plasma suPAR levels in IgAN patients with or without S lesions did not differ significantly (P = 0.411). However, suPAR levels were positively correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.202, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, r = –0.236, P < 0.001). In the partial correlation to adjust for eGFR, plasma suPAR levels remained positively correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.112, P = 0.023). In a Cox proportional hazards model, higher levels of plasma suPAR were not associated with poor renal outcome. Plasma suPAR levels of IgAN and primary FSGS patients with nephrotic syndrome were not significantly different (P = 0.306). Plasma suPAR levels in patients with extensive effacement of the epithelial cell foot processes of glomerular podocytes were significantly higher than those with segmental effacement on the basis of comparable eGFR (P = 0.036). Conclusions In IgAN patients, plasma suPAR levels were not associated with S lesions. However, they were positively associated with proteinuria and negatively associated with eGFR. In addition, plasma suPAR levels were positively associated with the effacement degree of the foot processes, which might partially contribute to the development of proteinuria in patients with IgAN. PMID:26167688

  19. Plasma arginine levels and the response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates.

    PubMed

    Kavvadia, V; Greenough, A; Lilley, J; Laubscher, B; Dimitriou, G; Boa, F; Poyser, K

    1999-12-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can be an effective vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN). The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in arginine levels, from which endogenous NO is produced, explain the variability in response to NO and whether the arginine levels were lower in term and preterm infants with PHN than in infants without PHN (controls). We prospectively studied 30 infants (17 born preterm) with clinically diagnosed PHN and treated with iNO and 22 controls (14 born preterm). Three NO levels (10, 20, 40 ppm) were administered to the PHN infants to identify that associated with maximum oxygenation. Twenty-seven infants with PHN improved following iNO and had lower arginine levels than those infants who did not respond to iNO (p < 0. 05). No significant relationship, however, was noted between the arginine levels and either the magnitude of change in the oxygenation index in response to iNO or the NO level associated with maximum oxygenation. The median plasma arginine level prior to iNO of the PHN infants was 12.5 (range 2-53) mu mol/l, but not significantly lower than that of the controls (median 24, range 3-82 mu mol/l). We conclude that differences in plasma arginine levels are unlikely to explain the variation in response to iNO and that, although arginine levels tended to be lower in infants with PHN, this is not a consistent finding in either the term or preterm infants.

  20. Relationship between plasma IGF-I levels, in vitro correlates of immunity, and human senescence.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R; Zaks, A; Unterman, T

    1998-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide mitogen which is regulated by growth hormone (GH). IGF-I mediates many of the biological functions of GH, including the maintenance of lymphoid mass and functions. Since GH secretion declines with age, we asked whether changes in the availability of IGF-I might contribute to age-associated alterations in immune functions. As a first step, we examined relationships between plasma levels of IGF-I and in vitro correlates of immunity in young and elderly subjects. Heparinized plasma and lymphocytes were collected from the peripheral blood of 34 healthy young (aged 27 +/- 0.9 years, mean +/- SEM) and 41 elderly (79 +/- 1.3 years) volunteers (31 males and 44 females in total). Plasma levels of IGF-I, measured by radioimmunoassay after the removal of IGF-I-binding proteins, were reduced among elders compared to young controls (138 +/- 8.7 ng/mL vs 80.2 +/- 4.7 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The number of circulating lymphocytes did not change with age. The proliferative response ([3H]thymidine uptake into DNA) of T-cells to concanavalin A and B-cells to pokeweed mitogen were reduced among elders (P < 0.05). An increased spontaneous antitumor natural killer (NK) activity (P < 0.001) was accompanied by a higher percentage of CD16(+) NK cells among lymphocytes in older subjects (P < 0.001). The NK cell number was positively related to IGF-I levels in young volunteers but not among elders. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant relationship between plasma IGF-I levels and T-cell (but not B-cell) proliferative response during aging (r = 0.492, P < 0.001). Our results imply that reduced immunocompetence may be one of the consequences of reduced IGF-I levels in human aging. Among the three types of immune cells tested, the T-cells were most sensitive to fluctuations in IGF-I levels. Reduced IGF-I availability may be one of the determinants of the decline in T-cell-mediated immune function in the elderly. To our knowledge

  1. NT Pro BNP Plasma Level and Atrial Volume Are Linked to the Severity of Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Anna; Corrao, Salvatore; Petta, Salvatore; Genco, Chiara; Cardillo, Mauro; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Massenti, Fatima; Cammà, Calogero; Licata, Giuseppe; Craxì, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP, a natriuretic peptide precursor, are raised in the presence of fluid retention of cardiac origin and can be used as markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies showed high levels of NT pro BNP in patients with cirrhosis. We assessed NT pro-BNP and other parameters of cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis, with or without ascites, in order to determine whether the behaviour of NT pro BNP is linked to the stage of liver disease or to secondary cardiac dysfunction. Methods Fifty eight consecutive hospitalized patients mostly with viral or NAFLD-related cirrhosis were studied. All underwent abdominal ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy. Cardiac morpho-functional changes were evaluated by echocardiography and NT-pro-BNP plasma levels determined upon admission. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients, without evidence of liver disease served as controls. Results Fifty eight cirrhotic patients (72% men) with a median age of 62 years (11% with mild arterial hypertension and 31% with type 2 diabetes) had a normal renal function (mean creatinine 0.9 mg/dl, range 0.7–1.06). As compared to controls, cirrhotic patients had higher NT pro-BNP plasma levels (365.2±365.2 vs 70.8±70.6 pg/ml; p<0.001). Left atrial volume (LAV) (61.8±26.3 vs 43.5±14.1 ml; p = 0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7±6.9 vs. 65.5±4%,; p = 0.05) were also altered in cirrhotic patients that in controls. Patients with F2-F3 oesophageal varices as compared to F0/F1, showed higher e' velocity (0.91±0.23 vs 0.66±0.19 m/s, p<0.001), and accordingly a higher E/A ratio (1.21±0.46 vs 0.89±0.33 m/s., p = 0.006). Conclusion NT-pro-BNP plasma levels are increased proportionally to the stage of chronic liver disease. Advanced cirrhosis and high NT-pro-BNP levels are significantly associated to increased LAV and to signs of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. NT pro-BNP levels could hence be an useful prognostic indicators of early

  2. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  3. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:25678749

  4. Niacin reduces plasma CETP levels by diminishing liver macrophage content in CETP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaosha; Wang, Yanan; van der Sluis, Ronald J; van der Hoorn, José W A; Princen, Hans M G; Van Eck, Miranda; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Rensen, Patrick C N; Hoekstra, Menno

    2012-09-15

    The anti-dyslipidemic drug niacin has recently been shown to reduce the hepatic expression and plasma levels of CETP. Since liver macrophages contribute to hepatic CETP expression, we investigated the role of macrophages in the CETP-lowering effect of niacin in mice. In vitro studies showed that niacin does not directly attenuate CETP expression in macrophages. Treatment of normolipidemic human CETP transgenic mice, fed a Western-type diet with niacin for 4 weeks, significantly reduced the hepatic cholesterol concentration (-20%), hepatic CETP gene expression (-20%), and plasma CETP mass (-30%). Concomitantly, niacin decreased the hepatic expression of CD68 (-44%) and ABCG1 (-32%), both of which are specific markers for the hepatic macrophage content. The decrease in hepatic CETP expression was significantly correlated with the reduction of hepatic macrophage markers. Furthermore, niacin attenuated atherogenic diet-induced inflammation in liver, as evident from decreased expression of TNF-alpha (-43%). Niacin similarly decreased the macrophage markers and absolute macrophage content in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP transgenic mice on a Western-type diet. In conclusion, niacin decreases hepatic CETP expression and plasma CETP mass by attenuating liver inflammation and macrophage content in response to its primary lipid-lowering effect, rather than by attenuating the macrophage CETP expression level.

  5. Circulating IGF-axis Protein Levels and Their Relation with Levels of Plasma Adipocytokines and Macronutrient Consumption in Women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Wedick, Nicole M.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Xue, Xiaonan; Holmes, Michelle D.; Gunter, Marc J.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Rohan, Thomas E.; Pollak, Michael; Kaplan, Robert C.; Hu, Frank B.; Sun, Qi; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Circulating free insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its binding proteins, most notably, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, have been prospectively associated with incident type 2 diabetes in women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may influence these IGF-axis protein levels. To study the relation of IGF-axis protein levels with adipocytokines, macronutrient consumption, and other factors related to diabetes. Design Fasting plasma from 558 controls enrolled in a nested case-control study within the Nurses’ Health Study of incident type 2 diabetes in women were tested for: IGF-axis proteins (free and total IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3), adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin), soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), inflammatory factors (IL-18 and C-reactive protein (CRP)), insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Results In multivariate models, each 1% increase in sOB-R (mean 34.9 ng/mL, standard deviation (SD) ±11.3) was associated with −0.20% total IGF-I (P=0.0003) and −0.42% free IGF-I (P=0.002), as well as 0.73% higher IGFBP-1 (P<0.0001) and 0.27% IGFBP-2 (P=0.003). For example, a one SD change from the mean sOB-R level was associated with 11% lower free IGF-I. Insulin levels (mean 6.8 μU/mL ±5.3) were inversely and adiponectin (mean 18.3 μg/mL ±7.4) positively associated with IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 (all P<0.01). Consumption of dairy protein, monounsaturated fats, and saturated fats, was also correlated with IGF-axis protein levels (all P<0.05). Conclusions Several molecular factors and macronutrients were independently associated with plasma IGF-axis protein levels. Which of these, if any, reflect biologic relationships that can be intervened upon to influence IGF-axis protein concentrations warrants further investigation. PMID:24888819

  6. Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. Results A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver–operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, α-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and α-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences

  7. Plasma cinnarizine levels resulting from oral administration as capsule or tablet formulation investigated by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, P J; Bradbrook, I D; Rogers, H J

    1979-01-01

    1 A gas chromatographic assay for the estimation of therapeutic concentrations of cinnarizine in plasma is described. 2 Cinnarizine (75 mg) was administered orally to twelve healthy subjects in the form of capsules and tablets on two separate occasions. No difference was found in the plasma levels or absorption of cinnarizine from these formulations. 3 The mean plasma elimination half-life of cinnarizine was 3.24 h. PMID:444354

  8. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  9. Evidences of Hfq associates with tryptophanase and affects extracellular indole levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinghua; Hong, Guofan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we observed a novel property of Escherichia coli Hfq protein: it possibly influenced extracellular indole levels. The extracellular indole concentrations were increased in Hfq mutant cells and decreased in Hfq overexpression cells in a cell density-dependent manner. The decreased extracellular indole levels in Hfq overexpression cells caused the postponement of entering into stationary phase. Indole was produced by tryptophanase, the gene product of tnaA, which catalyzed tryptophan into indole, ammonia and pyruvate. Further studies showed that at cell density of 0.8 but not at 0.4, tryptophanase activities of total cell extracts were affected by Hfq mutation or overexpression. Protein pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Hfq associated with tryptophanase under relatively higher extracellular indole levels, suggesting this was a feedback control of indole production. The association of Hfq and tryptophanase might be indirect because purified Hfq could not affect the values of Km and Vmax of purified tryptophanase.

  10. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  11. Prereproductive stress in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticosterone levels in second-generation offspring.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Hiba; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2015-08-01

    Human and animal studies indicate that vulnerability to stress may be heritable. We have previously shown that chronic, mild prereproductive stress (PRS) in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) expression in the brain of first-generation (F1) offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of PRS on anxiogenic behavior and CRF1 expression in male and female second-generation (F2) offspring. Furthermore, we assessed levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), a direct marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in PRS females and their F1 and F2 progeny. F2 offspring demonstrated decreased CRF1 mRNA expression at birth, and alterations in anxiogenic behavior in adulthood. CORT levels were elevated in PRS females and in their F1 female, but not male, offspring. In F2, CORT levels in PRS offspring also varied in a sex-dependent manner. These findings indicate that PRS in adolescent females leads to behavioral alterations that extend to second-generation offspring, and has transgenerational effects on endocrine function. Together with our previous findings, these data indicate that PRS to adolescent females affects behavior and HPA axis function across three generations, and highlight the importance of examining the transgenerational effects of stress in both male and female offspring.

  12. Plasma levels of nitrate and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tianying; Wang, Yushan; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Giovannucci, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitrate and nitrite supplements have recently been shown to improve cardiovascular health, but there is concern that these supplements could contribute to the development of cancer.Previous small, cross-sectional studies reported positive associations between circulating nitrate/nitrite levels and cancer. Prospective studies examining the association between plasma nitrate and cancer, especially prostate cancer (PCa), are lacking. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Baseline blood samples were collected in 1994, and incident cases of PCa were identified from 1997–2005. Baseline plasma levels of nitrate were measured in the 630 cases and 630 matched controls. Results We have found that baseline levels of plasma nitrate were not associated with risk of PCa. Compared to quintile 1, the relative risk from quintiles 2–5 were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.78–1.63), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.63–1.38), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.65–1.39), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.68–1.48); p for trend was 0.9 after adjustment of multivariate risk factors. When analyses were restricted to men fasting more than 6 hrs, the trend was similar. Further, plasma nitrate appeared to be inversely associated with advanced-stage PCa. The relative risk across extreme quartiles was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17–1.12; p for trend = 0.07) for the whole data set and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.09–0.99; p for trend = 0.05) for the fasting data set. Conclusions In summary, we did not find an increased risk of PCa associated with higher plasma nitrate levels. A potential protective association between nitrate and aggressive forms of PCa requires confirmation. Impact Nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic pathway for chronic diseases. The results of this study certainly merit replications in other prospective studies. PMID:23677578

  13. Plasma levels and clinical response with imipramine in a study comparing efficacy with mianserin and nomifensine

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, S. A.; Roy, D.; Wynne-Willson, S.; Robinson, C.; Montgomery, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    1 The comparative antidepressant efficacy of 150 mg imipramine, 60 mg mianserin and 150 mg nomifensine was studied in 45 depressed patients in a six week double-blind investigation. 2 In the efficacy analysis of 41 patients completing the study there was no overall significant difference in efficacy between the groups. Individual group comparisons showed no significant difference in response between mianserin and nomifensine, and mianserin and imipramine. There was a significant (z=1.99, P<0.05) improved response in the imipramine compared with the nomifensine treated group. The imipramine treated group were significantly older. 3 No significant plasma concentration/clinical response relationships were demonstrated with nomifensine, mianserin, imipramine or desipramine. 4 Plasma level monitoring of imipramine recommended by some investigators does not seem to be appropriate. PMID:6337608

  14. Plasma hearth process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gillins, R.L.; Geimer, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE`s mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added.

  15. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  16. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Bonheure, Georges; Johnston, Peter N

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the confinement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma. In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti, MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7Be, 54Mn, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co and 46Sc) were measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision thresholds for some activation products were determined in order to aid in giving upper bounds for the flux of charged particles.

  17. Soft mean spherical approximation for dusty plasma liquids: Level of accuracy and analytic expressions

    SciTech Connect

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; Angelis, U. de

    2015-08-15

    The soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the study of the thermodynamics of dusty plasma liquids, the latter treated as Yukawa one-component plasmas. Within this integral theory method, the only input necessary for the calculation of the reduced excess energy stems from the solution of a single non-linear algebraic equation. Consequently, thermodynamic quantities can be routinely computed without the need to determine the pair correlation function or the structure factor. The level of accuracy of the approach is quantified after an extensive comparison with numerical simulation results. The approach is solved over a million times with input spanning the whole parameter space and reliable analytic expressions are obtained for the basic thermodynamic quantities.

  18. Effect of clozapine and molindone on plasma and brain levels of mescaline in mice.

    PubMed

    Shah, N S; Gulati, O D

    1984-01-01

    Levels of unchanged mescaline were examined in the plasma and brain of albino Swiss-Webster mice pretreated with various doses of either clozapine or molindone. In clozapine treated mice, the mescaline levels were statistically significantly higher at 2 and 3 h with 7.5 and 15.0 mg/kg and at 1, 2 and 3 h with 30 mg/kg. Molindone at 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg produced no significant effect; at 16.0 and 48.0 mg/kg, the levels were significantly higher at 1 and 2 h. Elevated brain levels of mescaline by clozapine and molindone indicate an adverse metabolic interaction between a hallucinogen and drugs that are commonly used to treat mescaline-induced psychosis.

  19. A supersulfated low-molecular-weight heparin (IK-SSH) increases plasma levels of free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, B; Glusa, E; Hoppensteadt, D A; Breddin, H K; Amiral, J; Fareed, J

    1998-09-01

    Unfractionated as well as low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are known to cause an increase in blood levels of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To study the effect of a newly developed supersulfated LMWH (IK-SSH, Iketon Farmaceutici) on TFPI concentrations in human plasma, the compound was injected into volunteers at doses of 0.14, 0.33 and 0.66 mg/kg intravenously or 0.33, 0.66 and 1.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. At certain known times blood was drawn and plasma levels of both total and free TFPI were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. Baseline plasma concentrations of TFPI were 72.2+/-3.1 ng/ml for total and 10.8+/-0.8 ng/ml for free TFPI. Intravenous or subcutaneous injection of IK-SSH led to a strong and long-lasting rise in TFPI levels which were increased more than 5-fold for total TFPI and more than 30-fold for free TFPI. Maximum TFPI levels were reached 5-10 min after intravenous and 60 min after subcutaneous administration. IK-SSH caused prolongation of ex-vivo clotting times in the APTT and Heptest assay, whereas thrombin time was not affected. Anticoagulant actions of IK-SSH showed a significant correlation to plasma concentrations of TFPI and they are thought to be based at least partially on the release of TFPI from vascular sites.

  20. Measuring Adherence to Medication in Schizophrenia: The Relationship between Attitudes toward Drug Therapy and Plasma Levels of New-Generation Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Kaufmann, Alexandra; Biedermann, Falko; Edlinger, Monika; Kemmler, Georg; Rettenbacher, Maria A.; Widschwendter, Christian G.; Zernig, Gerald; Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonadherence to medication is still a major problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. The current longitudinal study investigated whether the patients’ attitudes toward treatment correlated with the ratio of observed vs expected plasma levels of antipsychotic drugs as an objective measurement of adherence. Methods: Data of patients starting monotherapy with a new-generation antipsychotic were collected 2, 4, and 12 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Next to the assessment of patients’ attitudes toward medication by means of the Drug Attitude Inventory, the ratio of the observed vs expected plasma level was calculated. Antipsychotic-induced side effects were evaluated by means of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Results: A total of 93 patients were eligible for statistical analysis. About one-half of the ratios of observed vs expected plasma levels ranged from 0.5 to 2 and were considered normal, whereas the other ratios were considered either too low (<0.5) or too high (>2). No consistent correlation between patients’ attitude toward drug therapy and the individual ratios of observed vs expected plasma levels of medication was detected. This finding was not affected by side effects. Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of recognizing the complex nature of adherence to medication in schizophrenia patients. Importantly, we found no consistent correlation between subjective and objective measures of medication adherence. Therefore, monitoring adherence to medication remains a challenge in clinical practice. PMID:25522423

  1. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. II. Rare-gas plasmas and Ar-molecular gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Culver, Cody; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2015-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emissions from excited plasma species can play a variety of roles in processing plasmas, including damaging the surface properties of materials used in semiconductor processing. Depending on their wavelength, VUV photons can easily transmit thin upper dielectric layers and affect the electrical characteristics of the devices. Despite their importance, measuring VUV fluxes is complicated by the fact that few materials transmit at VUV wavelengths, and both detectors and windows are easily damaged by plasma exposure. The authors have previously reported on measuring VUV fluxes in pure argon plasmas by monitoring the concentrations of Ar(3p{sup 5}4s) resonance atoms that produce the VUV emissions using noninvasive optical emission spectroscopy in the visible/near-infrared wavelength range [Boffard et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32, 021304 (2014)]. Here, the authors extend this technique to other rare-gases (Ne, Kr, and Xe) and argon-molecular gas plasmas (Ar/H{sub 2}, Ar/O{sub 2}, and Ar/N{sub 2}). Results of a model for VUV emissions that couples radiation trapping and the measured rare-gas resonance level densities are compared to measurements made with both a calibrated VUV photodiode and a sodium salicylate fluorescence detection scheme. In these more complicated gas mixtures, VUV emissions from a variety of sources beyond the principal resonance levels of the rare gases are found to contribute to the total VUV flux.

  2. Factors affecting the plasma insulin concentration shortly after accidental injury in man.

    PubMed Central

    Frayn, K N; Maycock, P F; Little, R A; Yates, D W; Stoner, H B

    1987-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on plasma insulin concentrations in the acutely injured. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations have been measured in 504 patients within 8 h of injury, and related to the severity of injury as assessed by the injury severity score (ISS). As in previous surveys of injured patients, an extremely wide range of insulin concentrations was found (2-141 mU/l). Most of the variability occurred at lower severities of injury. In very severely injured patients (ISS greater than or equal to 30), insulin concentrations were uniformly suppressed (less than 20 mU/l), especially in relation to the hyperglycaemia in these patients. Two small subgroups, patients dying within 3 h of injury and known psychiatric patients on psycho-active drugs, differed from the general pattern in displaying elevated insulin concentrations despite very severe injuries. The results bear out the idea that insulin secretion is usually acutely suppressed by adrenaline after severe injury; after less severe injuries, however, the response is much less uniform. PMID:3304325

  3. Trend analysis of plasma insulin level around parturition in relation to parity in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Rosi, F

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of parity on plasma insulin level around parturition in Saanen goats. On d -14, -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 from parturition, plasma glucose, NEFA, free AA, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were analyzed in 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous goats. At parturition, BW of primiparous goats was about 75% of that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001) and then their milk production was lower than that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001). At parturition, glucose increased (P < 0.01) in both primiparous and multiparous goats and then decreased (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation, remaining higher (P < 0.01) in primiparous than multiparous goats until the end of the study period. In both groups, free AA decreased (P < 0.01) at parturition, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation without difference between groups. Only in multiparous goats, plasma NEFA increased at parturition (P < 0.01), returning to prepartum levels on d 14 (P < 0.01). Changes in glucose and AA could have been caused by cortisol, which increased (P < 0.01) at parturition in both primiparous and multiparous goats, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 7 of lactation, without difference between the parity groups. In multiparous goats, insulin decreased soon after parturition (P < 0.05), remaining at low levels until the end of the study period, whereas in primiparous goats, insulin did not vary until d 14 of lactation, when it decreased (P < 0.05) also in this group. Therefore, between d 3 and 14 of lactation, insulin was higher in primiparous than multiparous goats (P < 0.05). Only in primiparous goats, at kidding, insulin was negatively correlated to BW (P < 0.01), and after parturition it was negatively correlated with milk yield (P < 0.05) and plasma NEFA (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that higher insulin levels in primiparous Saanen goats, which are still immature at their first breeding season, acted to limit both the mobilization of bodily reserves

  4. Factors affecting exhaled carbon monoxide levels in coffeehouses in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bahcebasi, Talat; Kandis, Hayati; Baltaci, Davut; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate indoor air quality and factors affecting expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a coffeehouse environment. This cross-sectional study was conducted at 16 randomly selected coffeehouses in Duzce, Turkey, during November 2007 to March 2008. A total of 547 people, average age 46.72 ± 17.03 (19-82) years, participated. The selected coffeehouses were divided into four groups: (1) smoking, (2) nonsmoking, (3) old-style and (iv) new-style coffeehouses. Prior to entering the coffeehouse, exhaled CO levels in smokers (mean 21.17 ± 6.73 parts per million [ppm]) were significantly higher than those for nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). Measurements taken after 2 hours in the coffeehouse also showed significantly higher CO concentrations for smokers (22.72 ± 5.31 ppm), compared to nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). It was determined that CO levels inside coffee shops were above the WHO guidelines. Exhaled CO levels in nonsmokers are influenced by the ambient CO levels as a result of the use of cigarettes in coffeehouses in addition to the structure of coffeehouses. PMID:20858650

  5. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  6. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  7. Association of plasma adiponectin and leptin levels with the development and progression of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing Hui; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Chan Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Ju, Woong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Decreased adiponectin and increased leptin plasma concentrations are believed to be associated with the occurrence and progression of cancers such as endometrial cancer and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the association of plasma adiponectin and leptin levels with the development and progression of ovarian cancer. Methods For patients with ovarian cancer and the control group, adiponectin and leptin levels were measured; anthropometric data were obtained during a chart review. Statistical comparisons between groups were analyzed using the Student's t-test; correlations were confirmed using the Pearson correlation. Results The