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Sample records for affect plasma lipid

  1. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  2. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  3. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:27698956

  4. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  5. Plasma lipid concentrations during episodic occupational stress.

    PubMed

    McCann, B S; Benjamin, G A; Wilkinson, C W; Retzlaff, B M; Russo, J; Knopp, R H

    1999-01-01

    The possibility that stress affects plasma lipid concentrations has been the subject of recent investigation, but the findings are equivocal in nonlaboratory settings. To determine whether psychological stress contributes to variability in plasma lipid concentrations and concomitant changes in health behaviors, the effect of increased work load on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins was examined in 173 lawyers. Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein concentrations were studied during periods of high work load (corresponding to impending tax deadlines) and during periods of usual work load. Self-reports of stress, work load, and time pressure, and cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured to verify that impending deadlines were associated with increased stress levels. Health behaviors which may affect plasma lipoprotein concentrations, including dietary intake and exercise, were also examined. High work load was accompanied by increases in self-reported work load among lawyers most directly affected by the impending deadlines. Plasma apolipoprotein B and triglycerides increased during periods of high work load (M = 1.9 mg/dL, SD = 10.1 and M = 5.3, SD = 34.4, respectively). No changes in dietary intake and exercise were observed. Psychological stress (high work load) is associated with potentially atherogenic changes in plasma lipid concentrations. While the lipoprotein effect of this short-term work stress is small, the effects of longer-term stress on multiple rise factors including triglycerides and apolipoprotein B could have significance for the development of coronary artery disease.

  6. Plasma lipids in beta-thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Maioli, M; Pettinato, S; Cherchi, G M; Giraudi, D; Pacifico, A; Pupita, G; Tidore, M G

    1989-02-01

    Because total cholesterol levels have been found to be lower in patients affected by thalassemia major and intermedia, we examined the plasma lipid pattern of 628 beta-thalassemia trait carriers and 4552 controls in order to evaluate whether the plasma lipid impairment is also present in the heterozygous state. Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in beta-thalassemia trait carriers when compared to controls, whereas plasma triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels did not differ between the two groups. We suggest that accelerated erythropoiesis and increased uptake of LDL by macrophages and histiocytes of the reticuloendothelial system are the main determinants of low plasma cholesterol levels in heterozygous thalassemia.

  7. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  8. High levels of dietary phytosterols affect lipid metabolism and increase liver and plasma TAG in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Liland, Nina S; Espe, Marit; Rosenlund, Grethe; Waagbø, Rune; Hjelle, Jan I; Lie, Øyvind; Fontanillas, Ramon; Torstensen, Bente E

    2013-12-14

    Replacing dietary fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with plant ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) diets decreases dietary cholesterol and introduces phytosterols. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary sterol composition on cholesterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon. For this purpose, two dietary trials were performed, in which Atlantic salmon were fed either 100 % FM and FO (FM-FO) diet or one of the three diets with either high (80 %) or medium (40 %) plant protein (PP) and a high (70 %) or medium (35 %) vegetable oil (VO) blend (trial 1); or 70 % PP with either 100 % FO or 80 % of the FO replaced with olive, rapeseed or soyabean oil (trial 2). Replacing ≥ 70 % of FM with PP and ≥ 70 % of FO with either a VO blend or rapeseed oil increased plasma and liver TAG concentrations. These diets contained high levels of phytosterols and low levels of cholesterol. Fish fed low-cholesterol diets, but with less phytosterols, exhibited an increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol uptake and synthesis. The expression of these genes was, however, partially inhibited in rapeseed oil-fed fish possibly due to the high dietary and tissue phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Atlantic salmon tissue and plasma cholesterol concentrations were maintained stable independent of the dietary sterol content.

  9. L-carnitine administration and withdrawal affect plasma and hepatic carnitine concentrations, plasma lipid and lipoprotein composition, and in vitro hepatic lipogenesis from labeled mevalonate and oleate in normal rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bell, F P; Vidmar, T J; Raymond, T L

    1992-04-01

    Carnitine was administered to normal rabbits to investigate the possible effects of pharmacologic doses on various aspects of normal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Carnitine concentrations were measured in the plasma and liver of normal rabbits that received L-carnitine orally [40 mg/(kg.d)] for 21 d and after withdrawal from the carnitine supplement for 21 d. Plasma lipids, plasma lipoprotein composition and in vitro hepatic lipid biosynthesis from [2-14C]mevalonate and [1-14C]oleate were also measured. Threefold elevations in plasma carnitine with carnitine treatment were essentially reversed after 48 h of carnitine withdrawal, but elevated hepatic carnitine accumulation (twofold) persisted for 21 d, suggesting that the accumulated carnitine constituted a pool that is only slowly miscible with plasma. The rabbits withdrawn from L-carnitine for 21 d experienced a 35% decrease in plasma cholesterol, a 50% decrease in VLDL cholesterol, and an increase in the protein content of HDL and of intermediate density lipoprotein + LDL. Additionally, the proportion of [14C]oleate incorporated into hepatic phospholipids increased 35% at the expense of triglyceride and the ratio of hepatic [14C]cholesterol to [14C]squalene derived from [14C]mevalonate increased over twofold following carnitine withdrawal. These studies provide evidence that normal lipid homeostasis can be altered by supplemental carnitine and that the perturbations are reflected by changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins and in the proportions of the hepatic lipids synthesized.

  10. Plasma Membrane Lipids and Their Role in Fungal Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable evidence in recent years suggesting that plasma membrane lipids are important regulators of fungal pathogenicity. Various glycolipids have been shown to impart virulent properties in several fungal species, while others have been shown to play a role in host defense. In addition to their role as virulence factors, lipids also contribute to other virulence mechanisms such as drug resistance, biofilm formation, and release of extracellular vesicles. In addition, lipids also affect the mechanical properties of the plasma membrane through the formation of packed microdomains composed mainly of sphingolipids and sterols. Changes in the composition of lipid microdomains has been shown to disrupt the localization of virulence factors and affect fungal pathogenicity. This review gathers evidence on the various roles of plasma membrane lipids in fungal virulence and how lipids might contribute to the different processes that occur during infection and treatment. Insight into the role of lipids in fungal virulence can lead to an improved understanding of the process of fungal pathogenesis and the development of new lipid-mediated therapeutic strategies. PMID:26703191

  11. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O'Connell, Jeff; Peng, Ze; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rainwater, David L.; VandeBerg, John L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-15

    Genetic studies in non-human primates serve as a potential strategy for identifying genomic intervals where polymorphisms impact upon human disease-related phenotypes. It remains unclear, however, whether independently arising polymorphisms in orthologous regions of non-human primates leads to similar variation in a quantitative trait found in both species. To explore this paradigm, we studied a baboon apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) for which the human gene orthologs have well established roles in influencing plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Our extensive polymorphism analysis of this 68 kb gene cluster in 96 pedigreed baboons identified several haplotype blocks each with limited diversity, consistent with haplotype findings in humans. To determine whether baboons, like humans, also have particular haplotypes associated with lipid phenotypes, we genotyped 634 well characterized baboons using 16 haplotype tagging SNPs. Genetic analysis of single SNPs, as well as haplotypes, revealed an association of APOA5 and APOC3 variants with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively. Thus, independent variation in orthologous genomic intervals does associate with similar quantitative lipid traits in both species, supporting the possibility of uncovering human QTL genes in a highly controlled non-human primate model.

  12. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    PubMed

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  13. Daily consumption of apple, pear and orange juice differently affects plasma lipids and antioxidant capacity of smoking and non-smoking adults.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; De La Rosa, Laura A; Legarreta, Patricia; Saenz, Laura; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2010-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between a fruit and vegetable-rich diet and cardiovascular diseases; this beneficial effect of fruits and vegetables is probably due to the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals. In contrast, cigarette smoking is a high risk factor for lung and heart diseases, associated with chronic oxidative stress. In the present study, the effect of the consumption of a pear, an apple and 200 ml orange juice, during 26 days, on total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile of chronic smokers and non-smoking healthy adults was analyzed. Fruit consumption increased TAC in non-smokers, but not in smokers. In non-smokers, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased significantly; while in smokers, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased. We may conclude fruit/juice supplementation showed different effects, depending on the smoking habit: in non-smokers it increased TAC and cholesterol; in smokers it reduced cholesterol, without inducing a TAC increase.

  14. Plasma flux-dependent lipid A deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Ahmed, Musahid; Liu, Suet Yi; Fang, Yigang; Seog, Joonil; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Graves, David B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of gas plasma flux on endotoxin lipid A film deactivation. To study the effect of the flux magnitude of reactive species, a modified low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with O radical flux ˜1016 cm-2 s-1 was used. After ICP exposures, it was observed that while the Fourier transform infrared absorbance of fatty chains responsible for the toxicity drops by 80% through the film, no obvious film endotoxin deactivation is seen. This is in contrast to that previously observed under low flux exposure conducted in a vacuum beam system: near-surface only loss of fatty chains led to significant film deactivation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of changes at the film surface did not appear to correlate with the degree of deactivation. Lipid A films need to be nearly completely removed in order to detect significant deactivation under high flux conditions. Additional high reactive species flux experiments were conducted using an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet and a UV/ozone device. Exposure of lipid A films to reactive species with these devices showed similar deactivation behaviour. The causes for the difference between low and high flux exposures may be due to the nature of near-surface structural modifications as a function of the rate of film removal.

  15. How Lipid Membranes Affect Pore Forming Toxin Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojko, Nejc; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-12-15

    Pore forming toxins (PFTs) evolved to permeate the plasma membrane of target cells. This is achieved in a multistep mechanism that usually involves binding of soluble protein monomer to the lipid membrane, oligomerization at the plane of the membrane, and insertion of part of the polypeptide chain across the lipid membrane to form a conductive channel. Introduced pores allow uncontrolled transport of solutes across the membrane, inflicting damage to the target cell. PFTs are usually studied from the perspective of structure-function relationships, often neglecting the important role of the bulk membrane properties on the PFT mechanism of action. In this Account, we discuss how membrane lateral heterogeneity, thickness, and fluidity influence the pore forming process of PFTs. In general, lipid molecules are more accessible for binding in fluid membranes due to steric reasons. When PFT specifically binds ordered domains, it usually recognizes a specific lipid distribution pattern, like sphingomyelin (SM) clusters or SM/cholesterol complexes, and not individual lipid species. Lipid domains were also suggested to act as an additional concentration platform facilitating PFT oligomerization, but this is yet to be shown. The last stage in PFT action is the insertion of the transmembrane segment across the membranes to build the transmembrane pore walls. Conformational changes are a spontaneous process, and sufficient free energy has to be available for efficient membrane penetration. Therefore, fluid bilayers are permeabilized more readily in comparison to highly ordered and thicker liquid ordered lipid phase (Lo). Energetically more costly insertion into the Lo phase can be driven by the hydrophobic mismatch between the thinner liquid disordered phase (Ld) and large protein complexes, which are unable to tilt like single transmembrane segments. In the case of proteolipid pores, membrane properties can directly modulate pore size, stability, and even selectivity. Finally

  16. Lipoprotein lipase gene sequencing and plasma lipid profile[S

    PubMed Central

    Pirim, Dilek; Wang, Xingbin; Radwan, Zaheda H.; Niemsiri, Vipavee; Hokanson, John E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Barmada, M. Michael; Demirci, F. Yesim; Kamboh, M. Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism by hydrolyzing triglyceride (TG)-rich particles and affecting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In this study, the entire LPL gene plus flanking regions were resequenced in individuals with extreme HDL-C/TG levels (n = 95), selected from a population-based sample of 623 US non-Hispanic White (NHW) individuals. A total of 176 sequencing variants were identified, including 28 novel variants. A subset of 64 variants [common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNP) and selected rare variants] were genotyped in the total sample, followed by association analyses with major lipid traits. A gene-based association test including all genotyped variants revealed significant association with HDL-C (P = 0.024) and TG (P = 0.006). Our single-site analysis revealed seven independent signals (P < 0.05; r2 < 0.40) with either HDL-C or TG. The most significant association was for the SNP rs295 exerting opposite effects on TG and HDL-C levels with P values of 7.5.10−4 and 0.002, respectively. Our work highlights some common variants and haplotypes in LPL with significant associations with lipid traits; however, the analysis of rare variants using burden tests and SKAT-O method revealed negligible effects on lipid traits. Comprehensive resequencing of LPL in larger samples is warranted to further test the role of rare variants in affecting plasma lipid levels. PMID:24212298

  17. Postprandial lipids accelerate and redirect nitric oxide consumption in plasma.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Kurt; Schroeder, Hobe J; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and O2 are both three-to four-fold more soluble in biological lipids than in aqueous solutions. Their higher concentration within plasma lipids accelerates NO autoxidation to an extent that may be of importance to overall NO bioactivity. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that increased plasma lipids after a high-fat meal appreciably accelerate NO metabolism and alter the byproducts formed. We found that plasma collected from subjects after consumption of a single high-fat meal had a higher capacity for NO consumption and consumed NO more rapidly compared to fasting plasma. This increased NO consumption showed a direct correlation with plasma triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.006). The accelerated NO consumption in postprandial plasma was reversed by removal of the lipids from the plasma, was mimicked by the addition of hydrophobic micelles to aqueous buffer, and could not be explained by the presence of either free hemoglobin or ceruloplasmin. The products of NO consumption were shifted in postprandial plasma, with 55% more nitrite (n = 12, p = 0.002) but 50% less SNO (n = 12, p = 0.03) production compared to matched fasted plasma. Modeling calculations indicated that NO autoxidation was accelerated by about 48-fold in the presence of plasma lipids. We conclude that postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exert a significant influence on NO metabolism in plasma.

  18. Plasma lipid levels in preterm neonates receiving parenteral fat emulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, J L; Shannon, D L; Hunter, M A; Brans, Y W

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of various plasma lipid fractions were determined during 96 hours of continuous parenteral infusions of lipid emulsions in 10 normally-grown neonates whose birth-weights ranged from 960 to 1760 g and whose gestational ages ranged from 26 to 32 weeks. Total lipid, triglyceride, free glycerol, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured. During lipid infusions, mean plasma concentrations of all lipid fractions increased above the mean preinfusion values if 2 g/kg a day or more of lipid emulsion was used. There were no further significant increases in mean plasma lipid levels if the infused dosage was increased to 3 or 4 g/kg a day. At these higher infusion rates however, there were considerable individual variations. The only neonate less than 27 weeks of gestation had plasma lipid levels severalfold higher than any of his peers, his plasma was frankly creamy on visual inspection, and the study had to be stopped. Further investigations are needed to determine the optimal modalities of parenteral nutrition with fat emulsions. PMID:6402989

  19. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed.

  20. Lipid-Protein Interactions in Plasma Membranes of Fiber Cells Isolated from the Human Eye Lens

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2014-01-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali,L., Raguz, M., O’Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed. PMID:24486794

  1. Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. )

    1991-03-15

    An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

  2. Changes in Plasma Lipids during Exposure to Total Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R.; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effects of sleep loss on plasma lipids, which play an important role in energy homeostasis and signaling, have not been systematically examined. Our aim was to identify lipid species in plasma that increase or decrease reliably during exposure to total sleep deprivation. Design: Twenty individuals underwent sleep deprivation in a laboratory setting. Blood was drawn every 4 h and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze concentrations of 263 lipid species in plasma, including glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. Setting: Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Participants: Healthy ethnic-Chinese males aged 21–28 y (n = 20). Interventions: Subjects were kept awake for 40 consecutive hours. Measurements and Results: Each metabolite time series was modeled as a sum of sinusoidal (circadian) and linear components, and we assessed whether the slope of the linear component differed from zero. More than a third of all individually analyzed lipid profiles exhibited a circadian rhythm and/or a linear change in concentration during sleep deprivation. Twenty-five lipid species showed a linear and predominantly unidirectional trend in concentration levels that was consistent across participants. Choline plasmalogen levels decreased, whereas several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and triacylglycerides (TAG) carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Conclusions: The decrease in choline plasmalogen levels during sleep deprivation is consistent with prior work demonstrating that these lipids are susceptible to degradation by oxidative stress. The increase in phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerides suggests that sleep loss might modulate lipid metabolism, which has potential implications for metabolic health in individuals who do not achieve adequate sleep. Citation: Chua EC, Shui G, Cazenave-Gassiot A, Wenk MR, Gooley JJ. Changes in plasma lipids during exposure to total sleep

  3. Intravenous lipid emulsion given to volunteers does not affect symptoms of lidocaine brain toxicity.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine.

  4. A novel biotinylated lipid raft reporter for electron microscopic imaging of plasma membrane microdomains[S

    PubMed Central

    Krager, Kimberly J.; Sarkar, Mitul; Twait, Erik C.; Lill, Nancy L.; Koland, John G.

    2012-01-01

    The submicroscopic spatial organization of cell surface receptors and plasma membrane signaling molecules is readily characterized by electron microscopy (EM) via immunogold labeling of plasma membrane sheets. Although various signaling molecules have been seen to segregate within plasma membrane microdomains, the biochemical identity of these microdomains and the factors affecting their formation are largely unknown. Lipid rafts are envisioned as submicron membrane subdomains of liquid ordered structure with differing lipid and protein constituents that define their specific varieties. To facilitate EM investigation of inner leaflet lipid rafts and the localization of membrane proteins therein, a unique genetically encoded reporter with the dually acylated raft-targeting motif of the Lck kinase was developed. This reporter, designated Lck-BAP-GFP, incorporates green fluorescent protein (GFP) and biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) modules, with the latter allowing its single-step labeling with streptavidin-gold. Lck-BAP-GFP was metabolically biotinylated in mammalian cells, distributed into low-density detergent-resistant membrane fractions, and was readily detected with avidin-based reagents. In EM images of plasma membrane sheets, the streptavidin-gold-labeled reporter was clustered in 20–50 nm microdomains, presumably representative of inner leaflet lipid rafts. The utility of the reporter was demonstrated in an investigation of the potential lipid raft localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor. PMID:22822037

  5. A novel biotinylated lipid raft reporter for electron microscopic imaging of plasma membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Sarkar, Mitul; Twait, Erik C; Lill, Nancy L; Koland, John G

    2012-10-01

    The submicroscopic spatial organization of cell surface receptors and plasma membrane signaling molecules is readily characterized by electron microscopy (EM) via immunogold labeling of plasma membrane sheets. Although various signaling molecules have been seen to segregate within plasma membrane microdomains, the biochemical identity of these microdomains and the factors affecting their formation are largely unknown. Lipid rafts are envisioned as submicron membrane subdomains of liquid ordered structure with differing lipid and protein constituents that define their specific varieties. To facilitate EM investigation of inner leaflet lipid rafts and the localization of membrane proteins therein, a unique genetically encoded reporter with the dually acylated raft-targeting motif of the Lck kinase was developed. This reporter, designated Lck-BAP-GFP, incorporates green fluorescent protein (GFP) and biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) modules, with the latter allowing its single-step labeling with streptavidin-gold. Lck-BAP-GFP was metabolically biotinylated in mammalian cells, distributed into low-density detergent-resistant membrane fractions, and was readily detected with avidin-based reagents. In EM images of plasma membrane sheets, the streptavidin-gold-labeled reporter was clustered in 20-50 nm microdomains, presumably representative of inner leaflet lipid rafts. The utility of the reporter was demonstrated in an investigation of the potential lipid raft localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

  6. Effects of rice bran oil on plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics in mares.

    PubMed

    Frank, N; Andrews, F M; Elliott, S B; Lew, J; Boston, R C

    2005-11-01

    Plasma lipid concentrations, lipoprotein composition, and glucose dynamics were measured and compared between mares fed diets containing added water, corn oil (CO), refined rice bran oil (RR), or crude rice bran oil (CR) to test the hypothesis that rice bran oil lowers plasma lipid concentrations, alters lipoprotein composition, and improves insulin sensitivity in mares. Eight healthy adult mares received a basal diet fed at 1.5 times the DE requirement for maintenance and each of the four treatments according to a repeated 4 x 4 Latin square design consisting of four 5-wk feeding periods. Blood samples were collected for lipid analysis after mares were deprived of feed overnight at 0 and 5 wk. Glucose dynamics were assessed at 0 and 4 wk in fed mares by combined intravenous glucose-insulin tolerance tests. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, and estimated values of insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness, and net insulin response were obtained using the minimal model. Mean BW increased (P = 0.014) by 29 kg (range = 10 to 50 kg) over 5 wk. Mean plasma concentrations of NEFA, triglyceride (TG), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P < 0.001) by 55, 30, and 39%, respectively, and plasma high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations increased (P < 0.001) by 15 and 12%, respectively, over 5 wk. Changes in plasma NEFA (r = 0.58; P < 0.001) and TC (r = 0.44; P = 0.013) concentrations were positively correlated with weight gain over 5 wk. Lipid components of VLDL decreased (P < 0.001) in abundance over 5 wk, whereas the relative protein content of VLDL increased by 39% (P < 0.001). Addition of oil to the basal diet instead of water lowered plasma NEFA and TG concentrations further (P = 0.002 and 0.020, respectively) and increased plasma TC concentrations by a greater magnitude (P = 0.072). However, only plasma TG concentrations and VLDL free cholesterol content were affected (P = 0.024 and 0.009, respectively

  7. Buffers affect the bending rigidity of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bouvrais, Hélène; Duelund, Lars; Ipsen, John H

    2014-01-14

    In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules.

  8. Long-term melatonin administration increases polyunsaturated fatty acid percentage in plasma lipids of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Pita, Maria L; Hoyos, Marta; Martin-Lacave, Inés; Osuna, Carmen; Fernández-Santos, Jose M; Guerrero, Juan M

    2002-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the fatty acid composition of plasma and tissue lipids. Melatonin administration to rats fed with a standard diet only increased long-chain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total plasma lipids and liver phospholipids but induced significant changes in hypercholesterolemic rats. In plasma, palmitoleic and oleic acids increased and n-6 and n-3 PUFA decreased in hypercholesterolemic rats; theses changes were reversed by melatonin administration. The analysis of lipid fractions revealed that only the cholesteryl ester fraction was affected by melatonin. Histological studies of the carotid artery intima revealed the appearance, in hypercholesterolemic rats, of fatty streaks produced by a mass of foam cells covered by the endothelium and by a thin layer of mononucleated cells. These changes were prevented by melatonin. We conclude that long-term melatonin administration modifies the fatty acid composition of rat plasma and liver lipids and ameliorates the arterial fatty infiltration induced by cholesterol.

  9. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  10. Super-resolution optical microscopy of lipid plasma membrane dynamics.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane dynamics are an important ruler of cellular activity, particularly through the interaction and diffusion dynamics of membrane-embedded proteins and lipids. FCS (fluorescence correlation spectroscopy) on an optical (confocal) microscope is a popular tool for investigating such dynamics. Unfortunately, its full applicability is constrained by the limited spatial resolution of a conventional optical microscope. The present chapter depicts the combination of optical super-resolution STED (stimulated emission depletion) microscopy with FCS, and why it is an important tool for investigating molecular membrane dynamics in living cells. Compared with conventional FCS, the STED-FCS approach demonstrates an improved possibility to distinguish free from anomalous molecular diffusion, and thus to give new insights into lipid-protein interactions and the traditional lipid 'raft' theory.

  11. Effect of plasma lipids and APOE genotype on cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Fumihiko; Asada, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    A central tenet of brain aging is that "what is good for the heart is good for the brain." We examined the combined effect of plasma lipids and APOE genotype on cognitive function in elderly individuals. Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein E (apoE) were evaluated in 622 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older. We investigated the associations between plasma lipids and cognitive function in APOE4 carrier (E4+) and APOE4 noncarrier (E4-) groups using 3-year longitudinal data. At baseline and 3 years later, cognitive scores were correlated with plasma apoE levels in both E4- and E4+, and HDL level in E4-. Our findings suggest that an interaction between apoE and HDL is facilitated by APOE4, and is possibly linked with an enhancement of neuroplasticity and with resultant protective effects on cognitive function in later life. Preservation of higher plasma apoE and HDL from early life is proposed as a possible strategy for maintaining cognitive function in later life, especially for APOE4-positive individuals.

  12. Effects of dietary fats on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: an hypothesis for the lipid-lowering effect of unsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spritz, Norton; Mishkel, Maurice A.

    1969-01-01

    Several aspects of the effects of dietary fat on plasma lipids and lipoproteins were investigated in 12 subjects during the long-term feeding of formulas containing 40% of their calories as either saturated or unsaturated fats. The changes in fatty acid composition of plasma lipids, shown previously to occur after prolonged feedings of a dietary fat, required 10-14 days to be complete and were synchronous with the effect of the fat on plasma lipid concentrations. The change in lipid concentration occurred in low but not in high density lipoproteins. The effects on lipid levels of the low density lipoproteins were found to occur with little or no effect on the concentration of the protein moiety of these lipoproteins; as a result, cholesterol- and phospholipid to protein ratios in low density lipoproteins fell during unsaturated fat feeding. The effects of dietary fat on plasma phospholipids were studied in detail: the relative amounts of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, and lysophosphatidylcholine were unaffected by the type of dietary fat. However, the molecular species of phosphatidylcholine were markedly affected. More than 90% of the fatty acids at the α-position were saturated during both saturated and unsaturated feedings. In contrast, during unsaturated feedings, linoleate at the β-position outnumbered oleate by approximately 4:1, whereas during saturated feedings these two types of fatty acids were present in nearly equal amounts. This paper also presents the following hypothesis for the lipid-lowering effect of unsaturated dietary fat: since unsaturated fatty acids occupy a greater area than saturated acids, they alter the spatial configuration of the lipids into which they are incorporated; as a result, fewer lipid molecules can be accommodated by the apoprotein of the low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and thus the lipid content of the lipoprotein is lowered. The experimental findings of this study, while not proving this

  13. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  14. Gut microbiota affects lens and retinal lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Oresic, Matej; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yetukuri, Laxman; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Hänninen, Virve

    2009-11-01

    The gut microbiota affects host lipid metabolism and is considered an environmental factor that contributes to development of obesity. To investigate whether the gut microbiota affects the eye lipidome, we performed comprehensive lipidomic profiling of lens and retina from conventionally raised and germ-free mice. Conventionally raised mice had diminished phosphatidylcholines in the lens and elevated ethanolamine plasmalogens in the retina. Diminishment of lens phosphatidylcholines in the presence of gut microbiota suggests that the conventionally raised mice are exposed over time to more oxidative stress than germ-free mice. Consistent with this, their lifespan is also shorter. Our findings may open a new area of investigation how modulation of gut microbiota affects the eye health.

  15. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid alterations in neoplastic diseases.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, C; Dixit, M; Hardy, R E

    1990-01-15

    Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) was assayed in normal volunteers, patients with non-malignant diseases, and a variety of cancer patients. Mean plasma LSA in 50 normal volunteers, 16 patients with non-malignant diseases, 54 breast cancer, 17 lung cancer, 15 colon cancer, 7 ovarian cancer, 5 prostate cancer, 4 leukemia, 4 gastrointestinal, 3 thyroid cancer, 3 pancreas cancer and 2 adrenal cancer patients were 17.7, 23.2, 58, 85, 56.7, 46.2, 56.7, 53.3, 31.1, 33.2 and 119.5 mg/dl, respectively. None of the normal volunteers had elevated plasma LSA values. Plasma LSA level was not significantly different in male and female volunteers. Two out of 114 different cancer patients had plasma LSA levels within normal range exhibiting 98.2% sensitivity of the assay. Plasma LSA, which is relatively simple to assay, may be used as a tumor marker in wide variety of neoplastic diseases.

  16. Effects of cholesterol on plasma membrane lipid order in MCF-7 cells by two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yixiu; Chen, Jianling; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipids- enriched microdomains on plasma membrane surface of mammal cells, involved in a variety of cellular processes. Depleting cholesterol from the plasma membrane by drugs influences the trafficking of lipid raft markers. Optical imaging techniques are powerful tools to study lipid rafts in live cells due to its noninvasive feature. In this study, breast cancer cells MCF-7 were treated with different concentrations of MβCD to deplete cholesterol and an environmentally sensitive fluorescence probe, Laurdan was loaded to image lipid order by two-photon microscopy. The generalized polarization (GP) values were calculated to distinguish the lipid order and disorder phase. GP images and GP distributions of native and cholesterol-depleted MCF-7 cells were obtained. Our results suggest that even at low concentration (0.5 mM) of MβCD, the morphology of the MCF-7 cells changes. Small high GP areas (lipid order phase) decrease more rapidly than low GP areas (lipid disorder phase), indicating that lipid raft structure was altered more severely than nonraft domains. The data demonstrates that cholesterol dramatically affect raft coverage and plasma membrane fluidity in living cells.

  17. Effects of microwave resonance therapy on erythrocyte and plasma proteins and lipids in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Patisheva, E V; Prokopyeva, V D; Bokhan, N A

    2009-07-01

    The content of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls in erythrocytes and plasma were elevated in patients with alcoholism during abstinence. A course of microwave resonance therapy reduced the level of lipid peroxide in erythrocytes, but not in the plasma, and significantly decreased the content of protein carbonyls in the plasma and erythrocytes.

  18. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  19. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans. Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations. Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  20. Variations in plasma and urinary lipids in response to enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease patients by nanoflow UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jin-Sung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-03-01

    A deficiency of α-galactosidase A causes Fabry disease (FD) by disrupting lipid metabolism, especially trihexosylceramide (THC). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is clinically offered to FD patients in an attempt to lower the accumulated lipids. Studies on specific types of lipids that are directly or indirectly altered by FD are very scarce, even though they are crucial in understanding the biological process linked to the pathogenesis of FD. We performed a comprehensive lipid profiling of plasma and urinary lipids from FD patients with nanoflow liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) and identified 129 plasma and 111 urinary lipids. Among these, lipids that exhibited alternations (>twofold) in patients were selected as targets for selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based high-speed quantitation using nanoflow ultra-performance LC-ESI-MS/MS (nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and 31 plasma and 26 urinary lipids showed significant elevation among FD patients. Higher percentages of sphingolipids (SLs; 48% for plasma and 42% for urine) were highly elevated in patients; whereas, a smaller percentage of phospholipids (PLs; 15% for plasma and 13% for urine) were significantly affected. Even though α-galactosidase A is reported to affect THC only, the results show that other classes of lipids (especially SLs) are changed as well, indicating that FD not only alters metabolism of THC but various classes of lipids too. Most lipids showing significant increases in relative amounts before ERT decreased after ERT, but overall, ERT influenced plasma lipids more than urinary lipids.

  1. Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Barnard, Neal D

    2009-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality. The investigators therefore reviewed the published scientific research to determine the effectiveness of plant-based diets in modifying plasma lipid concentrations. Twenty-seven randomized controlled and observational trials were included. Of the 4 types of plant-based diets considered, interventions testing a combination diet (a vegetarian or vegan diet combined with nuts, soy, and/or fiber) demonstrated the greatest effects (up to 35% plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction), followed by vegan and ovolactovegetarian diets. Interventions allowing small amounts of lean meat demonstrated less dramatic reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, plant-based dietary interventions are effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations.

  2. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sunil A.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Liebeskind, David S.; Won, Seok Joon; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior efforts to identify a blood biomarker of brain injury have relied almost exclusively on proteins; however their low levels at early time points and poor correlation with injury severity have been limiting. Lipids, on the other hand, are the most abundant molecules in the brain and readily cross the blood-brain barrier. We previously showed that certain sphingolipid (SL) species are highly specific to the brain. Here we examined the feasibility of using SLs as biomarkers for acute brain injury. A rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a mouse model of stroke were used to identify candidate SL species though our mass-spectrometry based lipid profiling approach. Plasma samples collected after TBI in the rat showed large increases in many circulating SLs following injury, and larger lesions produced proportionately larger increases. Plasma samples collected 24 hours after stroke in mice similarly revealed a large increase in many SLs. We constructed an SL score (sum of the two SL species showing the largest relative increases in the mouse stroke model) and then evaluated the diagnostic value of this score on a small sample of patients (n = 14) who presented with acute stroke symptoms. Patients with true stroke had significantly higher SL scores than patients found to have non-stroke causes of their symptoms. The SL score correlated with the volume of ischemic brain tissue. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using lipid biomarkers to diagnose brain injury. Future studies will be needed to further characterize the diagnostic utility of this approach and to transition to an assay method applicable to clinical settings. PMID:26076478

  3. Pulmonary lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase in plasma membrane signalling platforms.

    PubMed Central

    Nanjundan, M; Possmayer, F

    2001-01-01

    Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (LPP) has recently been proposed to have roles in signal transduction, acting sequentially to phospholipase D (PLD) and in attenuating the effects of phospholipid growth factors on cellular proliferation. In this study, LPP activity is reported to be enriched in lipid-rich signalling platforms isolated from rat lung tissue, isolated rat type II cells and type II cell-mouse lung epithelial cell lines (MLE12 and MLE15). Lung and cell line caveolin-enriched domains (CEDs), prepared on the basis of their detergent-insolubility in Triton X-100, contain caveolin-1 and protein kinase C isoforms. The LPP3 isoform was predominantly localized to rat lung CEDs. These lipid-rich domains, including those from isolated rat type II cells, were enriched both in phosphatidylcholine plus sphingomyelin (PC+SM) and cholesterol. Saponin treatment of MLE15 cells shifted the LPP activity, cholesterol, PC+SM and caveolin-1 from lipid microdomains to detergent-soluble fractions. Elevated LPP activity and LPP1/1a protein are present in caveolae from MLE15 cells prepared using the cationic-colloidal-silica method. In contrast, total plasma membranes had a higher abundance of LPP1/1a protein with low LPP activity. Phorbol ester treatment caused a 3.8-fold increase in LPP specific activity in MLE12 CEDs. Thus the activated form of LPP1/1a may be recruited into caveolae/rafts. Transdifferentiation of type II cells into a type I-like cell demonstrated enrichment in caveolin-1 levels and LPP activity. These results indicate that LPP is localized in caveolae and/or rafts in lung tissue, isolated type II cells and type II cell lines and is consistent with a role for LPP in both caveolae/raft signalling and caveolar dynamics. PMID:11535125

  4. Oleaster oil positively modulates plasma lipids in humans.

    PubMed

    Belarbi, Meriem; Bendimerad, Soraya; Sour, Souad; Soualem, Zoubida; Baghdad, Choukri; Hmimed, Sara; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco

    2011-08-24

    The olive tree had been domesticated during the early Neolithic in the Near East, and more than 1000 different cultivars have been identified to date. However, examples of wild olive trees (Olea europaea oleaster) can still be found in the Mediterranean basin. Evidence of oleaster use for oil production can be found in historical and sacred texts, such as the Odyssey, the Holey Koran, and the Holey Bible. While the nutritional and healthful properties of olive oil are actively being explored, there are no data on the human actions of oleaster oil. Therefore, we investigated the effect of prolonged, i.e., 1 month, consumption of oleaster oil on the lipid profile of a 40 healthy Algerian subjects (aged 27.9 ± 3.85 years), as compared to nonconsumers from the same area. Plasma urea, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations and glycemia did not significantly differ, at the end of the study, between controls and oleaster-oil-supplemented subjects. Conversely, we recorded significant decreases of plasma triglyceride concentration (-24.8%; p < 0.05), total cholesterol (-12.13%; p < 0.05), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (-24.39%; p < 0.05) in oleaster-oil-treated subjects. Concomitantly, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were significantly increased (17.94%; p < 0.05) by oleaster oil administration. In conclusion, we show that oil obtained from feral olive trees, i.e., oleasters, improves the plasma lipid profile of healthy volunteers.

  5. The influence of membrane lipid structure on plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Daxin; Dean, William L; Borchman, Douglas; Paterson, Christopher A

    2006-03-01

    Lipid composition and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity both change with age and disease in many tissues. We explored relationships between lipid composition/structure and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity. PMCA was purified from human erythrocytes and was reconstituted into liposomes prepared from human ocular lens membrane lipids and synthetic lipids. Lens lipids were used in this study as a model for naturally ordered lipids, but the influence of lens lipids on PMCA function is especially relevant to the lens since calcium homeostasis is vital to lens clarity. Compared to fiber cell lipids, epithelial lipids exhibited an ordered to disordered phase transition temperature that was 12 degrees C lower. Reconstitution of PMCA into lipids was essential for maximal activity. PMCA activity was two to three times higher when the surrounding phosphatidylcholine molecules contained acyl chains that were ordered (stiff) compared to disordered (fluid) acyl chains. In a completely ordered lipid hydrocarbon chain environment, PMCA associates more strongly with the acidic lipid phosphatidylserine in comparison to phosphatidylcholine. PMCA associates much more strongly with phosphatidylcholine containing disordered hydrocarbon chains than ordered hydrocarbon chains. PMCA activity is influenced by membrane lipid composition and structure. The naturally high degree of lipid order in plasma membranes such as those found in the human lens may serve to support PMCA activity. The absence of PMCA activity in the cortical region of human lenses is apparently not due to a different lipid environment. Changes in lipid composition such as those observed with age or disease could potentially influence PMCA function.

  6. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  7. Effect of dietary fat source on lipoprotein composition and plasma lipid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Faidley, T D; Luhman, C M; Galloway, S T; Foley, M K; Beitz, D C

    1990-10-01

    Most studies of the effects of dietary fat sources on plasma lipid components have used diets with extreme fat compositions; the current study was designed to more nearly mimic human dietary fat intake. Young growing pigs were fed diets containing either 20 or 40% of energy as soy oil, beef tallow or a 50/50 blend of soy oil and tallow. Different dietary fats did not affect concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol or protein in plasma or major lipoprotein fractions. The concentration of phospholipid was less in plasma and in very low density lipoproteins with soy oil feeding than with tallow feeding. The weight percentage of cholesteryl ester in the low density lipoprotein fraction tended to be greater with 40% than with 20% tallow and tended to be less with 40% than with 20% soy oil. Phospholipid as a weight percentage of low density lipoprotein was least in pigs fed soy oil. Tallow feeding increased the percentage of myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids in plasma, relative to both other groups. Soy oil feeding increased the percentage of linoleic and linolenic acids. These moderate diets were not hypercholesterolemic, but they did alter plasma fatty acid composition and phospholipid concentrations in plasma and very low density lipoprotein.

  8. Control of plasma membrane lipid homeostasis by the extended synaptotagmins

    PubMed Central

    Saheki, Yasunori; Bian, Xin; Schauder, Curtis M.; Sawaki, Yujin; Surma, Michal A.; Klose, Christian; Pincet, Frederic; Reinisch, Karin M.; De Camilli, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Acute metabolic changes of plasma membrane (PM) lipids, such as those mediating signaling reactions, are rapidly compensated by homeostatic responses whose molecular basis is poorly understood. Here we show that the Extended-Synaptotagmins (E-Syts), ER proteins which function as PI(4,5)P2 and Ca2+-regulated tethers to the PM, participate in these responses. E-Syts transfer glycerolipids between bilayers in vitro and such transfer requires Ca2+ and their SMP domain, a lipid-harboring module. Genome edited cells lacking E-Syts do not exhibit abnormalities in the major glycerolipids at rest, but display enhanced and sustained accumulation of PM diacylglycerol (DAG) upon PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis by PLC activation, which can be rescued by expression of E-Syt1, but not by mutant E-Syt1 lacking the SMP domain. The formation of E-Syts-dependent ER-PM tethers in response to stimuli that cleave PI(4,5)P2 and elevate Ca2+ may help reverse accumulation of DAG in the PM by transferring it to the ER for metabolic recycling. PMID:27065097

  9. Heterogeneity between populations for multifactorial inheritance of plasma lipids.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, D C; Morton, N E; Glueck, C J; Laskarzewski, P M; Russell, J M

    1983-01-01

    A general linear model was described for multifactorial inheritance of the two plasma lipids, total cholesterol (CH), and triglyceride (TG). Analyses of two separate studies, the Honolulu Heart Study (HHS) and the Cincinnati Lipid Research Clinic (LRC), indicated some heterogeneity. Whereas the sibling environmental effect (b) was the only source of heterogeneity between the two studies for TG, the correlation between marital environments (u) may also be considered as a source of heterogeneity for CH. Under parsimonious hypothesis, intergenerational differences in heritabilities were not found to be significant for either trait (y1 = y2 = z1 = z2 = 1). Maternal effects were significant for CH but not for TG. Correlations between marital environments (u1 and u2) were not significant for TG, and may be considered nonsignificant for CH also under parsimonious hypotheses. In any case, the genetic (h2) and cultural (c2) heritabilities cannot be considered to be heterogeneous between the two studies. Based on pooled data, parsimonious hypothesis yields: h2 = .594 +/- .041 and c2 = .035 +/- .008 for CH, and h2 = .259 +/- .034 and c2 = .108 +/- .014 for TG. PMID:6859042

  10. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; D'jatelinka, J; Smajda, B; Toropila, M

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid phosphorus and nonesterified fatty acids were measured in blood plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow and adipose tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129. This exposure was accompanied by increases in lipomobilization, content of total cholesterol and lipid phosphorus in plasma, and triglycerides in the thymus and bone marrow. The postflight exposure to repeated stresses demonstrated changes in the lipid content in all animal groups, especially in flight rats.

  11. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L; Black, Katherine; Jones, Lynnette M; McCormick, Sally P A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5'-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors.

  12. Metabolic changes in lipids of rat plasma and hepatocytes induced by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treatment.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Koide, K; Hirata, Y; Ohtani, H; Yamada, K; Kajiyama, G

    1986-11-14

    Cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats were used to investigate the change of lipid metabolism induced by administration of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol. Treatment with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol caused a decrease of rat plasma lipids (free cholesterol, cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine). No difference in the ability of urea nitrogen synthesis could be demonstrated between cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats and propylene glycol-treated rats (control). Total cholesterol and cholesterol ester contents of cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats were increased in comparison with those of the control. Triacylglycerol content of cultured hepatocytes was not affected by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treatment. There was no difference in the composition of lipid content between liver tissues and cultured hepatocytes. These results suggest that hepatocytes isolated from livers maintain the character of livers treated with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol or livers treated with propylene glycol. Free cholesterol and cholesterol ester synthesis from [14C]acetic acid by cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-treated rats were decreased to about 30% of the control. Triacylglycerol and polar lipid (phospholipid) synthesis from [14C]acetic acid were not affected by 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treatment. Microsomal hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity of rat liver treated with 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol was decreased to about 50% of control. The secretions of free cholesterol, cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, apolipoprotein BL and BS by cultured hepatocytes isolated from livers of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol treated rats were not decreased when compared with the control. Because lipid and apolipoprotein secretions from cultured hepatocytes treated with 17 alpha

  13. Plasma phospholipid mass transfer rate: relationship to plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester transfer activities and lipid parameters.

    PubMed

    Cheung, M C; Wolfbauer, G; Albers, J J

    1996-09-27

    Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) has been shown to facilitate the transfer of phospholipid from liposomes or isolated very low and low density lipoproteins to high density lipoproteins. Its activity in plasma and its physiological function are presently unknown. To elucidate the role of PLTP in lipoprotein metabolism and to delineate factors that may affect the rate of phospholipid transfer between lipoproteins, we determined the plasma phospholipid mass transfer rate (PLTR) in 16 healthy adult volunteers and assessed its relationship to plasma lipid levels, and to phospholipid transfer activity (PLTA) and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) measured by radioassays. The plasma PLTR in these subjects was 27.2 +/- 11.8 nmol/ml per h at 37 degrees C (mean +/- S.D.), and their PLTA and CETA were 13.0 +/- 1.7 mumol/ml per h and 72.8 +/- 15.7 nmol/ml per h, respectively. Plasma PLTR was correlated directly with total, non-HDL, and HDL triglyceride (rs = 0.76, P < 0.001), total and non-HDL phospholipid (rs > 0.53, P < 0.05), and inversely with HDL free cholesterol (rs = -0.54, P < 0.05), but not with plasma PLTA and CETA. When 85% to 96% of the PLTA in plasma was removed by polyclonal antibodies against recombinant human PLTP, phospholipid mass transfer from VLDL and LDL to HDL was reduced by 50% to 72%, but 80% to 100% of CETA could still be detected. These studies demonstrate that PLTP plays a major role in facilitating the transfer of phospholipid between lipoproteins, and suggest that triglyceride is a significant modulator of intravascular phospholipid transport. Furthermore, most of the PLTP and CETP in human plasma is associated with different particles. Plasma PLTA and CETA were also measured in mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, pig, and monkey. Compared to human, PLTA in rat and mouse was significantly higher and in rabbit and guinea pig was significantly lower while the remaining animal species had PLTA similar to humans. No

  14. Accumulation of raft lipids in T-cell plasma membrane domains engaged in TCR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Tobias; Ejsing, Christer S; Gaus, Katharina; de Wet, Ben; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simons, Kai; Harder, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Activating stimuli for T lymphocytes are transmitted through plasma membrane domains that form at T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling foci. Here, we determined the molecular lipid composition of immunoisolated TCR activation domains. We observed that they accumulate cholesterol, sphingomyelin and saturated phosphatidylcholine species as compared with control plasma membrane fragments. This provides, for the first time, direct evidence that TCR activation domains comprise a distinct molecular lipid composition reminiscent of liquid-ordered raft phases in model membranes. Interestingly, TCR activation domains were also enriched in plasmenyl phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. Modulating the T-cell lipidome with polyunsaturated fatty acids impaired the plasma membrane condensation at TCR signalling foci and resulted in a perturbed molecular lipid composition. These results correlate the accumulation of specific molecular lipid species with the specific plasma membrane condensation at sites of TCR activation and with early TCR activation responses. PMID:19177148

  15. Plasma triglycerides are not related to tissue lipids and insulin sensitivity in elderly following PPARα agonist treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Melanie G.; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Read, Laura K.; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Chinkes, David; Aarsland, Asle; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in plasma lipids, tissue triglycerides and decreases in mitochondrial function have been linked to insulin resistance and aging. In animals, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists decrease plasma lipids, intramyocellular fat (IMCL) and liver fat (LFAT) and improve mitochondrial β- oxidative function and insulin sensitivity, but the effects in elderly were not known. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to asses IMCL, LFAT and plasma lipids were measured before and after 6, 11 and 61 days of PPAR-α agonist (fenofibrate) administration in 19 elderly (age 70±1 years) volunteers. Volunteers were stratified into healthy (N=7) and insulin resistant (N=12) groups. The baseline insulin sensitivity index (8.1±1.2 vs. 3.8±0.5, healthy vs. insulin resistant; P<0.001) was significantly higher in the healthy group. Fenofibrate treatment induced significant reductions in plasma triglycerides (P<0.001) and total cholesterol (P<0.001) in both groups. Nonetheless, neither fasted free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, nor insulin sensitivity improved in either group (Day 1 vs. day 61, 8.1±1.2 vs. 8.1±0.9, healthy; and 3.8±0.5 vs. 4.2±0.05, insulin resistant). Furthermore, there was no change in IMCL or LFAT. These results indicate that whereas fenofibrate significantly lowers plasma lipids it does not affect insulin sensitivity nor intracellular lipids in elderly. PMID:17904198

  16. Changes in plasma membrane lipids, aquaporins and proton pump of broccoli roots, as an adaptation mechanism to salinity.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Luis; Martínez-Ballesta, María Del Carmen; Maurel, Christophe; Carvajal, Micaela

    2009-03-01

    Salinity stress is known to modify the plasma membrane lipid and protein composition of plant cells. In this work, we determined the effects of salt stress on the lipid composition of broccoli root plasma membrane vesicles and investigated how these changes could affect water transport via aquaporins. Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica plants treated with different levels of NaCl (0, 40 or 80mM) showed significant differences in sterol and fatty acid levels. Salinity increased linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids and stigmasterol, but decreased palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and sitosterol. Also, the unsaturation index increased with salinity. Salinity increased the expression of aquaporins of the PIP1 and PIP2 subfamilies and the activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. However, there was no effect of NaCl on water permeability (P(f)) values of root plasma membrane vesicles, as determined by stopped-flow light scattering. The counteracting changes in lipid composition and aquaporin expression observed in NaCl-treated plants could allow to maintain the membrane permeability to water and a higher H(+)-ATPase activity, thereby helping to reduce partially the Na(+) concentration in the cytoplasm of the cell while maintaining water uptake via cell-to-cell pathways. We propose that the modification of lipid composition could affect membrane stability and the abundance or activity of plasma membrane proteins such as aquaporins or H(+)-ATPase. This would provide a mechanism for controlling water permeability and for acclimation to salinity stress.

  17. Multiscale structures of lipids in foods as parameters affecting fatty acid bioavailability and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michalski, M C; Genot, C; Gayet, C; Lopez, C; Fine, F; Joffre, F; Vendeuvre, J L; Bouvier, J; Chardigny, J M; Raynal-Ljutovac, K

    2013-10-01

    On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen.

  18. Effects of different copper sources and levels on plasma superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, and copper status of lambs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianbo; Ma, Hui; Fan, Caiyun; Zhang, Zijun; Jia, Zhihai; Zhu, Xiaoping; Wang, Lisheng

    2011-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of different copper (Cu) sources and levels on plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, and Cu status of lambs. Fifty Dorper × Mongolia wether lambs (approximately 3 month of age; average BW = 23.8 ± 0.6 kg) were divided into five equal groups each with ten animals according to their weight. Treatments consisted of (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (3) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from Cu-lysine, (4) 10 mg Cu/kg DM from tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl; TBCC), and (5) 20 mg Cu/kg DM from TBCC. The Cu concentration was 6.74 mg/kg DM in the basal diet. Plasma copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities were not affected on day 30 by Cu supplementation. Copper supplementation increased plasma and liver copper concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities on day 60. Muscle Cu concentrations were not affected by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle Cu concentrations and ceruloplasmin activities between Cu-lysine and TBCC. Liver copper concentrations and plasma ceruloplasmin activities were increased in lambs supplemented with 20 mg Cu/kg DM than in those supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM on day 60. However, copper levels had no effects on Cu concentrations in plasma and muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were decreased in plasma and liver tissues, but not affected in muscle by Cu supplementation. Plasma SOD activities were increased by Cu supplementation. There were no differences in plasma, liver, and muscle MDA concentrations and plasma SOD activities between Cu sources and levels. These results indicated that Cu supplementation increased plasma SOD activity, lipid oxidative stability, and copper status of lambs, but did not influence lipid oxidative stability in sheep muscle. Cu-lysine and TBCC were of similar availability when offered to finishing sheep.

  19. RNA interference silencing of a major lipid droplet protein affects lipid droplet size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Moellering, Eric R; Benning, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells store oils in the chemical form of triacylglycerols in distinct organelles, often called lipid droplets. These dynamic storage compartments have been intensely studied in the context of human health and also in plants as a source of vegetable oils for human consumption and for chemical or biofuel feedstocks. Many microalgae accumulate oils, particularly under conditions limiting to growth, and thus have gained renewed attention as a potentially sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. However, little is currently known at the cellular or molecular levels with regard to oil accumulation in microalgae, and the structural proteins and enzymes involved in the biogenesis, maintenance, and degradation of algal oil storage compartments are not well studied. Focusing on the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the accumulation of triacylglycerols and the formation of lipid droplets during nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Mass spectrometry identified 259 proteins in a lipid droplet-enriched fraction, among them a major protein, tentatively designated major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). This protein is specific to the green algal lineage of photosynthetic organisms. Repression of MLDP gene expression using an RNA interference approach led to increased lipid droplet size, but no change in triacylglycerol content or metabolism was observed.

  20. Ionic protein-lipid interaction at the plasma membrane: what can the charge do?

    PubMed

    Li, Lunyi; Shi, Xiaoshan; Guo, Xingdong; Li, Hua; Xu, Chenqi

    2014-03-01

    Phospholipids are the major components of cell membranes, but they have functional roles beyond forming lipid bilayers. In particular, acidic phospholipids form microdomains in the plasma membrane and can ionically interact with proteins via polybasic sequences, which can have functional consequences for the protein. The list of proteins regulated by ionic protein-lipid interaction has been quickly expanding, and now includes membrane proteins, cytoplasmic soluble proteins, and viral proteins. Here we review how acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane regulate protein structure and function via ionic interactions, and how Ca(2+) regulates ionic protein-lipid interactions via direct and indirect mechanisms.

  1. Beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces plasma lipid peroxidation induced by haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2011-07-01

    Since oxidative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics, the aim of the study was to establish the effects of beta-d-glucan, polysaccharide derived from the yeast cell walls of species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the antipsychotics (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA) - haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA) - amisulpride) action on plasma lipid peroxidation in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The samples of plasma from healthy subjects were incubated with haloperidol or amisulpride in the presence of beta-glucan (4 μg/ml). The action of beta-d-glucan was also compared with the properties of a well characterized commercial monomeric polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, the final concentration - 4 μg/ml). The two-way analysis variance showed that the differences in TBARS levels were depended on the type of tested drugs (p=7.9 × 10(-6)). We observed a statistically increase of the level of biomarker of lipid peroxidation such as TBARS after 1 and 24h incubation of plasma with haloperidol compared to the control samples (p<0.01, p<0.02, respectively). Amisulpride, contrary to haloperidol (after 1 and 24h) did not cause plasma lipid peroxidation (p>0.05). We showed that in the presence of beta-glucan, lipid peroxidation in plasma samples treated with haloperidol was significantly decreased. Moreover, we did not observe the synergistic action of beta-glucan and amisulpride on the inhibition of plasma lipid peroxidation. However, the beta-d-glucan was found to be more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol. The presented results indicate that beta-glucan seems to have distinctly protective effects against the impairment of plasma lipid molecules induced by haloperidol.

  2. An automated shotgun lipidomics platform for high throughput, comprehensive, and quantitative analysis of blood plasma intact lipids

    PubMed Central

    Surma, Michal A; Herzog, Ronny; Vasilj, Andrej; Klose, Christian; Christinat, Nicolas; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Simons, Kai; Masoodi, Mojgan; Sampaio, Julio L

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma has gained protagonism in lipidomics studies due to its availability, uncomplicated collection and preparation, and informative readout of physiological status. At the same time, it is also technically challenging to analyze due to its complex lipid composition affected by many factors, which can hamper the throughput and/or lipidomics coverage. To tackle these issues, we developed a comprehensive, high throughput, and quantitative mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics platform for blood plasma lipid analyses. The main hallmarks of this technology are (i) it is comprehensive, covering 22 quantifiable different lipid classes encompassing more than 200 lipid species; (ii) it is amenable to high-throughput, with less than 5 min acquisition time allowing the complete analysis of 200 plasma samples per day; (iii) it achieves absolute quantification, by inclusion of internal standards for every lipid class measured; (iv) it is highly reproducible, achieving an average coefficient of variation of <10% (intra-day), approx. 10% (inter-day), and approx. 15% (inter-site) for most lipid species; (v) it is easily transferable allowing the direct comparison of data acquired in different sites. Moreover, we thoroughly assessed the influence of blood stabilization with different anticoagulants and freeze-thaw cycles to exclude artifacts generated by sample preparation. Practical applications: This shotgun lipidomics platform can be implemented in different laboratories without compromising reproducibility, allowing multi-site studies and inter-laboratory comparisons. This possibility combined with the high-throughput, broad lipidomic coverage and absolute quantification are important aspects for clinical applications and biomarker research. PMID:26494980

  3. An automated shotgun lipidomics platform for high throughput, comprehensive, and quantitative analysis of blood plasma intact lipids.

    PubMed

    Surma, Michal A; Herzog, Ronny; Vasilj, Andrej; Klose, Christian; Christinat, Nicolas; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Simons, Kai; Masoodi, Mojgan; Sampaio, Julio L

    2015-10-01

    Blood plasma has gained protagonism in lipidomics studies due to its availability, uncomplicated collection and preparation, and informative readout of physiological status. At the same time, it is also technically challenging to analyze due to its complex lipid composition affected by many factors, which can hamper the throughput and/or lipidomics coverage. To tackle these issues, we developed a comprehensive, high throughput, and quantitative mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics platform for blood plasma lipid analyses. The main hallmarks of this technology are (i) it is comprehensive, covering 22 quantifiable different lipid classes encompassing more than 200 lipid species; (ii) it is amenable to high-throughput, with less than 5 min acquisition time allowing the complete analysis of 200 plasma samples per day; (iii) it achieves absolute quantification, by inclusion of internal standards for every lipid class measured; (iv) it is highly reproducible, achieving an average coefficient of variation of <10% (intra-day), approx. 10% (inter-day), and approx. 15% (inter-site) for most lipid species; (v) it is easily transferable allowing the direct comparison of data acquired in different sites. Moreover, we thoroughly assessed the influence of blood stabilization with different anticoagulants and freeze-thaw cycles to exclude artifacts generated by sample preparation. Practical applications: This shotgun lipidomics platform can be implemented in different laboratories without compromising reproducibility, allowing multi-site studies and inter-laboratory comparisons. This possibility combined with the high-throughput, broad lipidomic coverage and absolute quantification are important aspects for clinical applications and biomarker research.

  4. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  5. Alteration in plasma lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Amit; Sankhla, Bharat; Naraniya, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lipids are major cell membrane components essential for various biological functions including cell growth and division of normal and malignant tissue. They are also required for maintenance of structural and functional integrity of all biological membranes. Alteration in the plasma lipid profile has been associated with a variety of cancers and precancerous conditions including those of the head and neck region. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the alteration in plasma lipid profile in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients were included in the study, 20 with oral submucous fibrosis and 10 healthy controls. Fasting plasma lipid profile including Total Cholesterol (TC), Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and Tri-Glycerides (TG) were measured using semiautomatic analyser. The data obtained were analysed using independent sample ‘t’ test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol, LDL and HDL was observed in patients with OSMF as compared to the controls, but it was not statistically significant for VLDL and TG values. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is an inverse relationship between lipid profile and the presence of oral submucous fibrosis. Hence, alteration in plasma lipid profile may have a diagnostic role in the future and can be used as a biochemical indicator to detect the initial changes seen in the neoplastic process. PMID:24455599

  6. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Frei, B. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  7. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dnistrian, A M; Schwartz, M K

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated lipid-bound sialic acid as a "marker" in cancer patients and assessed the individual and combined value of lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen determinations in these patients. Plasma was sampled from 62 normal subjects and 125 cancer patients. Lipid-bound sialic acid was determined by the resorcinol method after total lipid extraction and isolation of the sialolipid fraction from plasma. Neither marker was increased in many breast cancer patients. Carcinoembryonic antigen was increased more commonly and to a greater degree in colon cancer patients and seems to be the preferred marker. Both markers were increased in lung cancer patients and their combined evaluation improved the rate of detection. Lipid-bound sialic acid was increased in more patients with leukemias, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and melanomas, suggesting that it may be a useful biochemical marker in these types of cancer.

  8. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; Praslická, M

    1982-01-01

    The content of triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids and nonesterified fatty acids was measured in plasma and tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-936 in the weightless and centrifuged state. The weightlessness exposure increased lipid fractions in plasma and tissues, and artificial gravity produced a beneficial effect.

  9. Effects of exercise accumulation on plasma lipids and lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Wagganer, Jason D; Robison, Charles E; Ackerman, Terry A; Davis, Paul G

    2015-05-01

    Debate exists as to whether improvements in some cardiometabolic risk factors following exercise training result more from the last session of, or from an accumulation of, exercise sessions. This study was designed to compare the effect of a single exercise session with 3 consecutive days of exercise on triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Twelve young adult (aged 22.5±2.5 years), overweight (body mass index=29.7±4 kg·m(-2)), sedentary, black (n=5) and white (n=7) men (n=6) and women (n=6) completed, in random order, a single treadmill exercise session at 60% maximal oxygen uptake for 90 min (1EX), accumulated exercise sessions (same as for 1EX) for 3 consecutive days (3EX), and a control protocol (no exercise for 6 days). Plasma samples were collected from baseline through 24, 48, and 72 h postexercise. Significant treatment-by-time interactions (p<0.05) existed in HDL-C and LDL-C. Postexercise responses of HDL-C differed at 48 h (1EX: -3.6, 3EX: +3.7 mg·dL(-1)) and 72 h (1EX: -1.7, 3EX: +3.2 mg·dL(-1)). LDL-C responses differed at 48 h (1EX: -16, 3EX: +6 mg·dL(-1)). Although not statistically significant, TG concentrations decreased by 29% at 24 h after 3EX, compared with -7% after 1EX. An inverse relationship between baseline and postexercise reduction in TG was present with 3EX (r=-0.655; p<0.05). In conclusion, 3EX increased HDL-C and decreased TG more than 1EX, while the decrease in LDL-C after 1EX was suppressed. Blood lipid panel changes may be due to more accumulated effects over time rather than just a result of the most recent exercise session.

  10. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes. [Avena sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, R.P. ); Cleland, R.E. )

    1989-07-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole % phospholipid, 25 mole % glycolipid, and 25 mole % free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole %, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  11. [Emoxipin correction of disorders of lipid peroxidation as affected by a slight excess of oxygen pressure].

    PubMed

    Lukash, A I; Vnukov, V V; Prokof'ev, V N; Khodakova, A A; Mogil'nitskaia, L V; Kostenko, E V

    1994-01-01

    The role of the emoxipin (Em.) (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxipyridine) in the correction of the free radical oxidation and allied processes in lung tissues and blood plasma under high-pressure oxygen-prolonged action has been investigated. The studied oxygen exposure (0.3 MPa, 5h) causes the lung stage of oxygen intoxication. It is confirmed by exterior morphological assessment of the lung. The lipid peroxidation increase in lung tissue and blood plasma as well as erythrocyte membranes destabilization result from oxygen exposure. Lipid peroxidation intensity was estimated by determining of content of lipid peroxidation molecular products such as diene conjugates and Shiffs' bases. Erythrocyte membranes stability was evaluated with hemoglobin yield, total iron level and total peroxidase activity in blood plasma. Emoxipin was injected intraperitoneally in a dose 150 mg per 1 kg rats' weight just before the oxygen exposure. Emoxipin is found to improve physiological state of animals and to increase their survival; it normalizes morphology of the lungs and their state; stabilizes erythrocyte membranes injured under oxygen exposure; decreases intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in the lungs and in blood plasma which was previously increased under hyperoxia.

  12. Drosophila Lipophorin Receptors Recruit the Lipoprotein LTP to the Plasma Membrane to Mediate Lipid Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Míriam; Mejía-Morales, John E.; Culi, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Lipophorin, the main Drosophila lipoprotein, circulates in the hemolymph transporting lipids between organs following routes that must adapt to changing physiological requirements. Lipophorin receptors expressed in developmentally dynamic patterns in tissues such as imaginal discs, oenocytes and ovaries control the timing and tissular distribution of lipid uptake. Using an affinity purification strategy, we identified a novel ligand for the lipophorin receptors, the circulating lipoprotein Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP). We show that specific isoforms of the lipophorin receptors mediate the extracellular accumulation of LTP in imaginal discs and ovaries. The interaction requires the LA-1 module in the lipophorin receptors and is strengthened by a contiguous region of 16 conserved amino acids. Lipophorin receptor variants that do not interact with LTP cannot mediate lipid uptake, revealing an essential role of LTP in the process. In addition, we show that lipophorin associates with the lipophorin receptors and with the extracellular matrix through weak interactions. However, during lipophorin receptor-mediated lipid uptake, LTP is required for a transient stabilization of lipophorin in the basolateral plasma membrane of imaginal disc cells. Together, our data suggests a molecular mechanism by which the lipophorin receptors tether LTP to the plasma membrane in lipid acceptor tissues. LTP would interact with lipophorin particles adsorbed to the extracellular matrix and with the plasma membrane, catalyzing the exchange of lipids between them. PMID:26121667

  13. The C-terminal Cytosolic Region of Rim21 Senses Alterations in Plasma Membrane Lipid Composition: INSIGHTS INTO SENSING MECHANISMS FOR PLASMA MEMBRANE LIPID ASYMMETRY.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Kanako; Obara, Keisuke; Kihara, Akio

    2015-12-25

    Yeast responds to alterations in plasma membrane lipid asymmetry and external alkalization via the sensor protein Rim21 in the Rim101 pathway. However, the sensing mechanism used by Rim21 remains unclear. Here, we found that the C-terminal cytosolic domain of Rim21 (Rim21C) fused with GFP was associated with the plasma membrane under normal conditions but dissociated upon alterations in lipid asymmetry or external alkalization. This indicates that Rim21C contains a sensor motif. Rim21C contains multiple clusters of charged residues. Among them, three consecutive Glu residues (EEE motif) were essential for Rim21 function and dissociation of Rim21C from the plasma membrane in response to changes in lipid asymmetry. In contrast, positively charged residues adjacent to the EEE motif were required for Rim21C to associate with the membrane. We therefore propose an "antenna hypothesis," in which Rim21C moves to or from the plasma membrane and functions as the sensing mechanism of Rim21.

  14. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism and HDL lipid transfers are equally altered in metabolic syndrome and in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vanessa M; Vinagre, Carmen G C; Dallan, Luis A O; Chacra, Ana P M; Maranhão, Raul C

    2014-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to states of insulin resistance that predispose to development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim was to investigate whether plasma lipids and lipid metabolism differ in MetS patients compared to those with T2DM with poor glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin > 7.0). Eighteen patients with T2DM, 18 with MetS and 14 controls, paired for age (40-70 years) and body mass index (BMI), were studied. Plasma lipids and the kinetics of a triacylglycerol-rich emulsion labeled with [(3)H]-triolein ([(3)H]-TAG) and [(14)C]-cholesteryl esters ([(14)C]-CE) injected intravenously followed by one-hour blood sampling were determined. Lipid transfers from an artificial nanoemulsion donor to high-density lipoprotien (HDL) were assayed in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) were not different in T2DM (128 ± 7; 42 ± 7) and MetS (142 ± 6; 39 ± 3), but triacylglycerols were even higher in MetS (215 ± 13) than in T2DM (161 ±11, p < 0.05). Fractional clearance rate (FCR, in min(1)) of [(3)H]-TAG and [(14)C]-CE were equal in T2DM (0.008 ± 0.018; 0.005 ± 0.024) and MetS (0.010 ± 0.016; 0.006 ± 0.013), and both were reduced compared to controls. The transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, phospholipids and triacylglycerols to HDL was higher in MetS and T2DM than in controls (p < 0.01). Cholesteryl ester transfer and HDL size were equal in all groups. Results imply that MetS is equal to poorly controlled T2DM concerning the disturbances of plasma lipid metabolism examined here, and suggest that there are different thresholds for the insulin action on glucose and lipids. These findings highlight the magnitude of the lipid disturbances in MetS, and may have implications in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  16. Lipid Domains in Intact Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes Isolated from Cortical and Nuclear Regions of Human Eye Lenses of Donors from Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2015-01-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors’ age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors’ age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  17. Operation Everest II. Plasma Lipid and Hormonal Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Powles Jack Reeves, Rob Roach, Paul Rock, Madeliene Rose, Robert Schoene, Jose Suarez , Brenda Townes, Darlene Tyler, Peter Wagner, and Patricia Young...Ineichen, E. Salazar , A. Zerpa, and C. J. Glueck. Lipids and lipoproteins in subjects at 1000 and 3500 meters altitude. Arch. Environ. Health 34: 308

  18. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  19. Voltage- and Tension-Dependent Lipid Mobility in the Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghalai, John S.; Zhao, Hong-Bo; Kutz, J. Walter; Brownell, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for electromotility of outer hair cells in the ear is unknown but is thought to reside within the plasma membrane. Lipid lateral diffusion in the outer hair cell plasma membrane is a sigmoidal function of transmembrane potential and bathing media osmolality. Cell depolarization or hyposmotic challenge shorten the cell and reduce membrane fluidity by half. Changing the membrane tension with amphipathic drugs results in similar reductions. These dynamic changes in membrane fluidity represent the modulation of membrane tension by lipid-protein interactions. The voltage dependence may be associated with the force-generating motors that contribute to the exquisite sensitivity of mammalian hearing.

  20. Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into plasma and liver lipids of rats: importance of background dietary fat.

    PubMed

    MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2004-06-01

    The health benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3) depend on the extent of incorporation of these FA into plasma and tissue lipids. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the background dietary fat (saturated, monounsaturated, or n-6 polyunsaturated) on the quantitative incorporation of dietary 18:3n-3 and its elongated and desaturated products into the plasma and the liver lipids of rats. Female weanling Wistar rats (n = 54) were randomly assigned to six diet groups (n = 9). The fat added to the semipurified diets was tallow (SFA), tallow plus linseed oil (SFA-LNA), sunola oil (MUFA), sunola oil plus linseed oil (MUFA-LNA), sunflower oil (PUFA), or sunflower oil plus linseed oil (PUFA-LNA). At the completion of the 4-wk feeding period, quantitative FA analysis of the liver and plasma was undertaken by GC. The inclusion of linseed oil in the rat diets increased the level of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and, to a smaller degree, 22:6n-3 in plasma and liver lipids regardless of the background dietary fat. The extent of incorporation of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:5n-3 followed the order SFA-LNA > MUFA-LNA > PUFA-LNA. Levels of 22:6n-3 were increased to a similar extent regardless of the type of major fat in the rat diets. This indicates that the background diet affects the incorporation in liver and plasma FA pools of the n-3 PUFA with the exception of 22:6n-3 and therefore the background diet has the potential to influence the already established health benefits of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  1. Lipid composition affects the rate of photosensitized dissipation of cross-membrane diffusion potential on liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ytzhak, Shany; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic or amphiphilic tetrapyrrole sensitizers are taken up by cells and are usually located in cellular lipid membranes. Singlet oxygen is photogenerated by the sensitizer and it diffuses in the membrane and causes oxidative damage to membrane components. This damage can occur to membrane lipids and to membrane-localized proteins. Depolarization of the Nernst electric potential on cells’ membranes has been observed in cellular photosensitization, but it was not established whether lipid oxidation is a relevant factor leading to abolishing the resting potential of cells’ membranes and to their death. In this work we studied the effect of liposomes’ lipid composition on the kinetics of hematoporphyrin-photosensitized dissipation of K+-diffusion electric potential that was generated across the membranes. We employed an electrochromic voltage-sensitive spectroscopic probe that possesses a high fluorescence signal response to the potential. We found a correlation between the structure and unsaturation of lipids and the leakage of the membrane, following photosensitization. As the extent of non-conjugated unsaturation of the lipids is increased from 1 to 6 double bonds, the kinetics of depolarization become faster. We also found that the kinetics of depolarization is affected by the percentage of the unsaturated lipids in the liposome: as the fraction of the unsaturated lipids increases the leakage trough the membrane is enhanced. When liposomes are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes and photosensitization is being carried out under usual photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions, photodamage to the lipids is not likely to cause enhanced permeability of ions through the membrane, which would have been a mechanism that leads to cell death. PMID:20536150

  2. Gene-diet interactions on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.

    PubMed

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Dewailly, Eric; Hegele, Robert A; Boiteau, Véronique; Dubé-Linteau, Ariane; Abdous, Belkacem; Giguere, Yves; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-03-14

    The Inuit population is often described as being protected against CVD due to their traditional dietary patterns and their unique genetic background. The objective of the present study was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population. Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n 553) were analysed via regression models which included the following: genotypes for thirty-five known polymorphisms (SNP) from twenty genes related to lipid metabolism; dietary fat intake including total fat (TotFat) and saturated fat (SatFat) estimated from a FFQ; plasma lipid levels, namely total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TAG. The results demonstrate that allele frequencies were different in the Inuit population compared with the Caucasian population. Further, seven SNP (APOA1 - 75G/A (rs670), APOB XbAI (rs693), AGT M235T (rs699), LIPC 480C/T (rs1800588), APOA1 84T/C (rs5070), PPARG2 - 618C/G (rs10865710) and APOE 219G/T (rs405509)) in interaction with TotFat and SatFat were significantly associated with one or two plasma lipid parameters. Another four SNP (APOC3 3238C>G (rs5128), CETP I405V (rs5882), CYP1A1 A4889G (rs1048943) and ABCA1 Arg219Lys (rs2230806)) in interaction with either TotFat or SatFat intake were significantly associated with one plasma lipid variable. Further, an additive effect of these SNP in interaction with TotFat or SatFat intake was significantly associated with higher TC, LDL-C or TAG levels, as well as with lower HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the present study supports the notion that gene-diet interactions play an important role in modifying plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.

  3. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment

  4. Epicatechin inhibits human plasma lipid peroxidation caused by haloperidol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta

    2012-03-01

    Epicatechin belongs to flavonoids protecting cells against oxidative/nitrative stress. Oxidative/nitrative stress observed in schizophrenia may be caused partially by the treatment of patients with various antipsychotics. The aim of our study was to establish the effects of epicatechin and antipsychotics action (the first generation antipsychotic (FGA)--haloperidol and the second generation antipsychotic (SGA)--amisulpride) on peroxidation of plasma lipids in vitro. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The properties of epicatechin were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) and quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). Amisulpride, contrary to haloperidol (after 1 and 24 h) does not significantly influence the increase of plasma TBARS level in comparison with control samples (P > 0.05). After incubation (1 and 24 h) of plasma with haloperidol in the presence of epicatechin we observed a significantly decreases the level of TBARS (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). In our other experiments, we found that epicatechin also decreased the amount of TBARS in human plasma treated with amisulpride. In conclusion, the presented results indicate that epicatechin-the major polyphenolic component of green tea reduced significantly human plasma lipid peroxidation caused by haloperidol. Moreover, epicatechin was found to be a more effective antioxidant, than the solution of pure resveratrol or quercetin.

  5. Tocopherol isomers in intravenous lipid emulsions and resultant plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gutcher, G R; Lax, A A; Farrell, P M

    1984-01-01

    Conflicting reports exist regarding the relative tocopherol isomer content of Intralipid ranging from 99% as alpha-tocopherol to as much as 90% as gamma-tocopherol. Our direct assay of Intralipid as well as plasma levels measured in premature infants receiving Intralipid confirm the existence of a low alpha, high gamma-tocopherol content and imply the need for alpha-tocopherol supplementation in patients receiving Intralipid, particularly the relatively tocopherol-deficient premature infant. Furthermore, the observation of abnormal erythrocyte hemolysis test values despite "normal" total tocopherol plasma concentrations may be explained by high plasma levels of non-alpha, biologically less active isomers. The quantitation of tocopherol isomers helps explain this discrepancy and suggests the need for future studies of vitamin E status to employ measurements of tocopherol isomers in reporting results.

  6. Detection of apoptosis through the lipid order of the outer plasma membrane leaflet.

    PubMed

    Darwich, Zeinab; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Kucherak, Oleksandr A; Richert, Ludovic; Mély, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Cell plasma membranes of living cells maintain their asymmetry, so that the outer leaflet presents a large quantity of sphingomyelin, which is critical for formation of ordered lipid domains. Here, a recently developed probe based on Nile Red (NR12S) was applied to monitor changes in the lipid order specifically at the outer leaflet of cell membranes. Important key features of NR12S are its ratiometric response exclusively to lipid order (liquid ordered vs. liquid disordered phase) and not to surface charge, the possibility of using it at very low concentrations (10-20nM) and the very simple staining protocol. Cholesterol extraction, oxidation and sphingomyelin hydrolysis were found to red shift the emission spectrum of NR12S, indicating a decrease in the lipid order at the outer plasma membrane leaflet. Remarkably, apoptosis induced by three different agents (actinomycin D, camptothecin, staurosporine) produced very similar spectroscopic effects, suggesting that apoptosis also significantly decreases the lipid order at this leaflet. The applicability of NR12S to detect apoptosis was further validated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, using the ratio between the blue and red parts of its emission band. Thus, for the first time, an environment-sensitive probe, sensitive to lipid order, is shown to detect apoptosis, suggesting a new concept in apoptosis sensing.

  7. Effect of Antiepileptic drugs on plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aynaci, F M; Orhan, F; Orem, A; Yildirmis, S; Gedik, Y

    2001-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs may alter plasma lipid status in epileptic patients. We conducted a study to assess the effect of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and valproate on plasma levels of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B in 22 epileptic children. The children were separated as group 1, seven children, mean age 1.6+/-0.2 years, treated with phenobarbital, 5 mg/kg/day, twice daily; group 2, seven children, mean age 9.8+/-1.2 years, treated with carbamazepine, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily; and group 3, eight children, mean age 6.8+/-0.6 years, treated with valproate, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily. Plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels were studied before (pretreatment) and at 3 and 6 months of treatment. Friedman two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis, and the results were expressed as the mean and standard error of the mean. The mean age of children in group 1 was significantly low, compared with groups 2 and, 3 (P < .001). The mean pretreatment lipid levels between the groups were not significant. The increase in lipoprotein (a) at 3 and 6 months and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 6 months was statistically significant in group 1 (P < .025). We suggest a careful monitoring of plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) and other lipids in epileptic children treated with antiepileptic drugs.

  8. Plasma lipid analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Kudoh, Shinobu; Sato, Taka-Aki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-06-01

    A novel method for the analysis of endogenous lipids and related compounds was developed employing hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with carbamoyl stationary phase achieved clear separation of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, ceramide, and mono-hexsosyl ceramide groups with good peak area repeatability (RSD% < 10) and linearity (R(2) > 0.99). The established method was applied to human plasma assays and a total of 117 endogenous lipids were successfully detected and reproducibly identified. In addition, we investigated the simultaneous detection of small polar metabolites such as amino and organic acids co-existing in the same biological samples processed in a single analytical run with lipids. Our results show that hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography is a useful tool for human plasma lipidome analysis and offers more comprehensive metabolome coverage.

  9. Autoinhibition mechanism of the plasma membrane calcium pump isoforms 2 and 4 studied through lipid-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Mangialavori, Irene C; Corradi, Gerardo; Rinaldi, Débora E; de la Fuente, María Candelaria; Adamo, Hugo P; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C

    2012-04-01

    The autoinhibition/activation of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase) involves conformational changes in the membrane region of the protein that affect the amount of lipids directly associated with the transmembrane domain. The lipid-protein-dependence of PMCA isoforms 2 and 4 expressed and obtained in purified form from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated using the phosphatidylcholine analogue [125I]TID-PC/16 {l-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[125I]iodo-4-(trifluoromemyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine}, which was incorporated into mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and the non-ionic detergent C12E10 [deca(ethylene glycol) dodecyl ether]. We found no differences between the recombinant PMCA4 and PMCA purified from erythrocytes (ePMCA). However, titration of the half-maximal activation by Ca2+/calmodulin of PMCA2 showed 30-fold higher affinity than PMCA4. PMCA2 exhibited a lower level of labelling in the autoinhibited conformation relative to PMCA4, indicating that the lower autoinhibition was correlated with a lower exposure to lipids in the autoinhibited state. Analysis of the lipid-protein stoichiometry showed that the lipid annulus of PMCA varies: (i) in accordance to the conformational state of the enzyme; and (ii) depending on the different isoforms of PMCA. PMCA2 during Ca2+ transport changes its conformation to a lesser extent than PMCA4, an isoform more sensitive to modulation by calmodulin and acidic phospholipids. This is the first demonstration of a dynamic behaviour of annular lipids and PMCA.

  10. Changes in lipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane induced by overfeeding in duck.

    PubMed

    Molee, W; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Auvergne, A; Babilé, R

    2005-08-01

    This experiment was carried out to examine the influence of overfeeding ducks with corn on the lipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane. Seventy-day-old male Mule ducks (Cairina moschata x Anas platyrhynchos) were overfed with corn for 12.5 days in order to induce fatty livers. The cholesterol and phospholipid contents were approximately 50% higher in hepatocyte plasma membranes from fatty livers compared to those of lean livers obtained from non-overfed ducks. However, the cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratio did not differ between both groups. Overfeeding induced a significant change in phospholipid composition of hepatocyte plasma membrane with a decrease in phosphatidylcholine proportion and conversely an increase in phosphatidylethanolamine. The fatty acid profile of phospholipids was also altered. In fatty hepatocyte plasma membrane, the overall proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was decreased and this was due to the decrease of some of, but not all, the PUFA. In addition, the proportions of oleic acid and n-9 series unsaturated fatty acids were higher in fatty than in lean liver membranes. This study provides evidence that overfeeding with a carbohydrate-rich corn-based diet induces a de novo hepatic lipogenesis in Mule duck which predominates over dietary lipid intake to change the lipid composition of the hepatocyte plasma membrane.

  11. Silencing of lipid metabolism genes through IRE1α-mediated mRNA decay lowers plasma lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    So, Jae-Seon; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Tarrio, Margarite; Ruda, Vera; Frank-Kamenetsky, Maria; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Koteliansky, Victor; Lichtman, Andrew H; Iwawaki, Takao; Glimcher, Laurie H; Lee, Ann-Hwee

    2012-10-03

    XBP1 is a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. XBP1 ablation in liver causes profound hypolipidemia in mice, highlighting its critical role in lipid metabolism. XBP1 deficiency triggers feedback activation of its upstream enzyme IRE1α, instigating regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of cytosolic mRNAs. Here, we identify RIDD as a crucial control mechanism of lipid homeostasis. Suppression of RIDD by RNA interference or genetic ablation of IRE1α reversed hypolipidemia in XBP1-deficient mice. Comprehensive microarray analysis of XBP1 and/or IRE1α-deficient liver identified genes involved in lipogenesis and lipoprotein metabolism as RIDD substrates, which might contribute to the suppression of plasma lipid levels by activated IRE1α. Ablation of XBP1 ameliorated hepatosteatosis, liver damage, and hypercholesterolemia in dyslipidemic animal models, suggesting that direct targeting of either IRE1α or XBP1 might be a feasible strategy to treat dyslipidemias.

  12. Exclusive photorelease of signalling lipids at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, André; Yushchenko, Dmytro A.; Müller, Rainer; Stein, Frank; Feng, Suihan; Mulle, Christophe; Carta, Mario; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Photoactivation of caged biomolecules has become a powerful approach to study cellular signalling events. Here we report a method for anchoring and uncaging biomolecules exclusively at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by employing a photocleavable, sulfonated coumarin derivative. The novel caging group allows quantifying the reaction progress and efficiency of uncaging reactions in a live-cell microscopy setup, thereby greatly improving the control of uncaging experiments. We synthesized arachidonic acid derivatives bearing the new negatively charged or a neutral, membrane-permeant coumarin caging group to locally induce signalling either at the plasma membrane or on internal membranes in β-cells and brain slices derived from C57B1/6 mice. Uncaging at the plasma membrane triggers a strong enhancement of calcium oscillations in β-cells and a pronounced potentiation of synaptic transmission while uncaging inside cells blocks calcium oscillations in β-cells and causes a more transient effect on neuronal transmission, respectively. The precise subcellular site of arachidonic acid release is therefore crucial for signalling outcome in two independent systems. PMID:26686736

  13. Influence of dietary calcium and cholecalciferol on composition of plasma lipids in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Foley, M K; Galloway, S T; Luhman, C M; Faidley, T D; Beitz, D C

    1990-01-01

    Young growing pigs were fed diets containing either 1 or 3 times the daily requirement of calcium and 1, 5 or 25 times the daily requirement of vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) in a completely randomized design with treatments in a 2 X 3 factorial arrangement. Excess dietary calcium increased the phospholipid concentration in the plasma, but not its partitioning among plasma lipoproteins. The level of dietary calcium had no effect on cholesterol, triacylglycerol or protein concentrations in plasma or their partitioning among plasma lipoproteins. Excess dietary calcium decreased body weight gains of pigs. The level of dietary cholecalciferol had no effect on body weight gain or on the concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipid, triacylglycerol or protein in plasma, or on their partitioning among plasma lipoproteins. Increased vitamin D intake resulted in increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, whereas high dietary calcium decreased concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D. Increased dietary calcium also increased plasma calcium concentrations of only plasma phospholipids and decreased growth rate, whereas excess dietary vitamin D had no effect on growth or lipid composition of plasma in growing pigs.

  14. Dietary soy and soy isoflavones have gender-specific effects on plasma lipids and isoflavones in golden Syrian f(1)b hybrid hamsters.

    PubMed

    Blair, Robert M; Appt, Susan E; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Clarkson, Thomas B; Anthony, Mary S; Lamothe, Valerie; Potter, Susan M

    2002-12-01

    The specific components of soy responsible for its beneficial effects on plasma lipids are unknown. Golden Syrian F(1)B Hybrid hamsters (75 male, 74 female) were evaluated for the effect of dietary soy and soy isoflavones on plasma lipids. They were fed the following diets for 16 wk: casein/lactalbumin (C/L), soy protein with isoflavones [Soy(+)], soy protein with isoflavones removed [Soy(-)], Soy(-) plus isoflavone extract (IF), and C/L + IF. At necropsy, plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL + VLDL cholesterol (LDL + VLDLC), isoflavones, and uterine and accessory gland weights were measured. Male hamsters fed the three soy-containing diets had lower LDL + VLDLC concentrations than those fed the two C/L diets (P < 0.01), and those fed Soy(-) + IF did not differ from those fed Soy(+). In females, diet did not affect plasma LDL + VLDLC concentration. Females fed Soy(+) or Soy(-) had higher HDLC (P < 0.05) than those fed C/L. HDLC was not affected by diet in males. Due to higher equol production (P < 0.01), males had greater plasma isoflavone concentrations (P < 0.01) than females. There was a positive association between plasma total isoflavones and LDL + VLDLC (r = 0.65, P < 0.05) in females. These data suggest gender differences in plasma lipid and isoflavone responses to soy- based diets in Syrian F(1)B Hybrid hamsters, which offer an opportunity to explore effects of sex hormones on isoflavone metabolism and the effects of isoflavones on lipid metabolism.

  15. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: The Cosmos 936 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, I.; Praslička, M.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed. One group of rats was subjected to artificial gravity by use of a centrifuge during the flight. An experiment simulating known space flight factors other than weightlessness was done on Earth. An increase of total cholesterol in plasma, of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma and brown adipose tissue, of triacylglycerols in plasma, liver, thymus and bone marrow was noted several hours after biosatellite landing. Smaller changes were observed in the terrestrial control experiment. With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing. Exposing the rats aboard the biosatellite to artificial gravity was beneficial in the sense that such exposure inhibited the phospholipid and triacylglycerol increase in plasma and inhibited the increase of triacylglycerol in liver and especially in bone marrow.

  16. Changes in plasma lipid and glucose levels during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chics.

    PubMed

    Evans, A J; Bannister, D W; Whitehead, C C; Siller, W G; Wight, P A

    1977-11-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were measured during the onset of fatty liver and kidney syndrome in chicks. Intial studies indicated that behavioural and clinical changes characteristically associated with the syndrome were observed only during the 24 h preceding death. A more detailed examination of the blood changes was made on fasted birds. Typically, affected birds could be distinguished from healthy fasted birds by a hypoglycaemia which developed within 2.5 h of the removal of food, and a slightly higher and more sustained elevation of free fatty acid levels. Triglyceride values were not generally different from those found in normal birds. Although moderate to large amounts of lipid were occasionally observed in the kidneys of healthy fasted birds, only in affected birds was significant lipid infiltration of the kidneys associated with a similar level of lipid infiltration of the liver. In extreme cases death from fatty liver and kidney syndrome could occur within 4 h of the removal of food.

  17. Hematologic, Plasma Biochemical, and Lipid Panel Reference Intervals in Orange-winged Amazon Parrots ( Amazona amazonica ).

    PubMed

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Polley, Tamsen; Holt, Danielle Carrade; Vernau, William; Paul-Murphy, Joanne

    2016-12-01

    To establish reference intervals in orange-winged Amazon parrots ( Amazona amazonica ) for the complete blood count, plasma biochemical values, and lipid panel and to evaluate age- and sex-related variations, blood samples were obtained from 29 healthy juvenile and adult parrots. Concentrations of total protein, bile acids, phosphorus, total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in adult compared with juvenile birds, while uric acid concentration was significantly higher in juveniles. The white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, and phosphorus and potassium concentrations were significantly higher in females, while chloride concentration was significantly higher in males. In this species, direct measurement of LDL-C resulted in lower concentrations than LDL-C calculated with the Friedewald formula. Assessment of the agreement between the calculated and measured LDL-C concentrations indicated a systematic bias of 19.1 mg/dL and a proportional bias of 1.07. A correction factor of -19 mg/L could be applied to the Friedewald formula, to obtain a result closer to the measured LDL-C, providing clinically acceptable (<20% difference) agreement in 66% of the samples. Triglyceride concentrations within the range measured in healthy birds of the present study did not significantly affect the bias between calculated and directly measured LDL-C. Further studies are needed to investigate the impact of nutritional factors, genetics, and exercise on biochemistry and lipoprotein panel analytes in orange-winged Amazon parrots.

  18. The Lipid Portion of Activated Platelet-Rich Plasma Significantly Contributes to Its Wound Healing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Hoeferlin, Lauren Alexis; Huynh, Quoc K.; Mietla, Jennifer A.; Sell, Scott A.; Tucker, Jason; Chalfant, Charles Edward; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a popular choice for the treatment of chronic wounds. Current dogma attributes these healing properties to the peptide growth factors of PRP. However, PRP is also rich in bioactive lipids whose contribution to healing has not been characterized and warrants investigation due to the protease-rich environment of chronic wounds. Approach: The lipid fraction of PRP was tested with respect to proliferation and migration of primary adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa)±exposure to chronic wound fluid (CWF). This fraction was also characterized via LC-MS/MS for bioactive lipids. A synthetic formulation of the bioactive lipid composition was developed and tested for the ability to overcome proliferative growth arrest induced by CWF. Results: The data demonstrate the ability of the lipid fraction of PRP to significantly enhance the migration and proliferation of HDFa, and to overcome the proliferative growth arrest induced by CWF. Furthermore, the synthetic lipid formulation generated following characterization of the PRP lipidome demonstrated a similar ability to overcome proliferative arrest of HDFa in the presence of CWF. Innovation: For the first time, we demonstrate the relevance of the lipid fraction of PRP toward the biology of wound healing. These studies open the possibility of altering the lipid profile of PRP via diet or exogenous pathway manipulation to obtain a better healing outcome. Conclusion: The lipid fraction of PRP is under investigated and yet relevant component in wound healing. The current study demonstrates the relevance of this fraction in wound healing by PRP. PMID:25713752

  19. The effect of occupational lead exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Słowińska-Łożyńska, Ludmiła; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Birkner, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of occupational lead (Pb) exposure on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and plasma viscosity in workers. The examined group included 283 healthy male employees of manufacturing facilities using zinc and Pb. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and zinc protoporphyrin as well as the mean urine δ-aminolevulinic acid levels were used as markers of exposure for the examined group. Taking into account the obtained mean values of blood lead level, the examined group was divided into three subgroups. When comparing the control group with the subgroups, Pb exposure markers were significantly elevated in all the three subgroups. Concentrations of conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl groups were also significantly increased. Conversely, the levels of total protein and protein sulfhydryls were significantly decreased in the subgroups compared with the controls. The plasma viscosity was significantly elevated in the subgroups. A dose-response between Pb levels and plasma viscosity was not observed. Pb supposedly elevates MDA and CD in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, occupational Pb exposure induces oxidative stress that results in lipid and protein damage. Moreover, Pb-induced oxidative stress is likely the primary factor that elevates plasma viscosity, despite decreased protein levels.

  20. Concurrent profiling of polar metabolites and lipids in human plasma using HILIC-FTMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaoming; Li, Ruibin

    2016-11-01

    Blood plasma is the most popularly used sample matrix for metabolite profiling studies, which aim to achieve global metabolite profiling and biomarker discovery. However, most of the current studies on plasma metabolite profiling focused on either the polar metabolites or lipids. In this study, a comprehensive analysis approach based on HILIC-FTMS was developed to concurrently examine polar metabolites and lipids. The HILIC-FTMS method was developed using mixed standards of polar metabolites and lipids, the separation efficiency of which is better in HILIC mode than in C5 and C18 reversed phase (RP) chromatography. This method exhibits good reproducibility in retention times (CVs < 3.43%) and high mass accuracy (<3.5 ppm). In addition, we found MeOH/ACN/Acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v) as extraction cocktail could achieve desirable gathering of demanded extracts from plasma samples. We further integrated the MeOH/ACN/Acetone extraction with the HILIC-FTMS method for metabolite profiling and smoking-related biomarker discovery in human plasma samples. Heavy smokers could be successfully distinguished from non smokers by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the profiling data, and 62 biomarkers for cigarette smoke were found. These results indicate that our concurrent analysis approach could be potentially used for clinical biomarker discovery, metabolite-based diagnosis, etc.

  1. Concurrent profiling of polar metabolites and lipids in human plasma using HILIC-FTMS

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaoming; Li, Ruibin

    2016-01-01

    Blood plasma is the most popularly used sample matrix for metabolite profiling studies, which aim to achieve global metabolite profiling and biomarker discovery. However, most of the current studies on plasma metabolite profiling focused on either the polar metabolites or lipids. In this study, a comprehensive analysis approach based on HILIC-FTMS was developed to concurrently examine polar metabolites and lipids. The HILIC-FTMS method was developed using mixed standards of polar metabolites and lipids, the separation efficiency of which is better in HILIC mode than in C5 and C18 reversed phase (RP) chromatography. This method exhibits good reproducibility in retention times (CVs < 3.43%) and high mass accuracy (<3.5 ppm). In addition, we found MeOH/ACN/Acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v) as extraction cocktail could achieve desirable gathering of demanded extracts from plasma samples. We further integrated the MeOH/ACN/Acetone extraction with the HILIC-FTMS method for metabolite profiling and smoking-related biomarker discovery in human plasma samples. Heavy smokers could be successfully distinguished from non smokers by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the profiling data, and 62 biomarkers for cigarette smoke were found. These results indicate that our concurrent analysis approach could be potentially used for clinical biomarker discovery, metabolite-based diagnosis, etc. PMID:27819279

  2. Hydrogen sulfide decreases the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by homocysteine and its thiolactone.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been investigated widely in recent years. H2S plays a variety of roles in different biological systems, including cardiovascular system. It is the final product of amino acids metabolism, which contains sulfur-cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy). In human plasma, there are several various forms of homocysteine: free Hcy, protein-bound Hcy (S-linked, and N-linked), and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Our previous works have shown that both Hcy in the reduced form and its thiolactone may modify fibrinolysis, coagulation process, and biological activity of blood platelets. Moreover, we have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 (-•) ) in blood platelets. The aim of our study in vitro was to establish the influence of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, as a fast-releasing H2S donor; at tested concentrations: 10-1000 µM) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by the reduced Hcy (at final concentrations of 0.01-1 mM) and HTL (at final concentrations of 0.1-1 µM). Our results indicate that 10 and 100 µM NaHS decreased the lipid peroxidation in plasma treated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL (when NaHS and Hcy/HTL were added to plasma together). The protective effect of 10 and 100 µM NaHS against the lipid peroxidation in plasma preincubated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL was also observed. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the lipid peroxidation (induced by different forms of homocysteine) may be reduced by hydrogen sulfide.

  3. Maternal selenium (Se) nutrition affects both milk Se and lipid patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, K.D.; Picciano, M.F.; Perrel, J.P.; Perkins, E.G. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana )

    1991-03-15

    In this study relationships between patterns of Se and lipid secretion in milk of women on self-selected diets were assessed. Milk samples were collected from 10 women at 4, 6 and 8 wks postpartum and blood samples at 4 to 8 wks. Milk samples were extracted and analyzed for tiacylglycerols and fatty acids. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and contents of Se in milk, plasma and erythrocytes were also measured. Two groups were found: one displaying an increase in plasma Se and the other, a decrease from 4 to 8 wks. Milk Se significantly decreased only in women whose plasma Se also decreased. Milk Se was negatively correlated with myristic and stearic acids in women whose plasma Se increased and with arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in women whose plasma Se decreased. Results of this study show that maternal Se nutrition relates not only to the quantity of Se secreted in milk but also to the quantities of individual fatty acids.

  4. Plasma and lipids from stored packed red blood cells cause acute lung injury in an animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, C C; Voelkel, N F; Allard, J D; Elzi, D J; Tuder, R M; Johnson, J L; Ambruso, D R

    1998-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication of hemotherapy. During blood storage, lipids are generated and released into the plasma. In this study, the role of these lipids in TRALI was investigated using an isolated, perfused rat lung model. Rats were pretreated with endotoxin (LPS) or saline in vivo and the lungs were isolated, ventilated, and perfused with saline, or (a) 5% (vol/ vol) fresh human plasma, (b) plasma from stored blood from the day of isolation (D.0) or from the day of outdate (D.42), (c) lipid extracts from D.42 plasma, or (d) purified lysophosphatidylcholines. Lungs from saline or LPS-pretreated rats perfused with fresh (D.0) plasma showed no pulmonary damage as compared with saline perfused controls. LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion caused acute lung injury (ALI) manifested by dramatic changes in both pulmonary artery pressure and edema. Incubation of LPS pre-tx rats with mibefradil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, or WEB 2170, a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, inhibited ALI caused by D.42 plasma. Lung histology showed neutrophil sequestration without ALI with LPS pretreatment/saline or D.0 plasma perfusion, but ALI with LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion, and inhibition of D.42 plasma induced ALI with WEB 2170 or mibefradil. A significant increase in leukotriene E4 was present in LPS-pretreated/D.42 plasma-perfused lungs that was inhibited by WEB 2170. Lastly, significant pulmonary edema was produced when lipid extracts of D.42 plasma or lysophosphatidylcholines were perfused into LPS-pretreated lungs. Lipids caused ALI without vasoconstriction, except at the highest dose employed. In conclusion, both plasma and lipids from stored blood produced pulmonary damage in a model of acute lung injury. TRALI, like the adult respiratory distress syndrome, may be the result of two insults: one derived from stored blood and the other from the clinical condition of the patient. PMID:9525989

  5. Insights into the Role of Specific Lipids in the Formation and Delivery of Lipid Microdomains to the Plasma Membrane of Plant Cells1[W

    PubMed Central

    Laloi, Maryse; Perret, Anne-Marie; Chatre, Laurent; Melser, Su; Cantrel, Catherine; Vaultier, Marie-Noëlle; Zachowski, Alain; Bathany, Katell; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Vallet, Myriam; Lessire, René; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Moreau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The existence of sphingolipid- and sterol-enriched microdomains, known as lipid rafts, in the plasma membrane (PM) of eukaryotic cells is well documented. To obtain more insight into the lipid molecular species required for the formation of microdomains in plants, we have isolated detergent (Triton X-100)-resistant membranes (DRMs) from the PM of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and leek (Allium porrum) seedlings as well as from Arabidopsis cell cultures. Here, we show that all DRM preparations are enriched in sterols, sterylglucosides, and glucosylceramides (GluCer) and depleted in glycerophospholipids. The GluCer of DRMs from leek seedlings contain hydroxypalmitic acid. We investigated the role of sterols in DRM formation along the secretory pathway in leek seedlings. We present evidence for the presence of DRMs in both the PM and the Golgi apparatus but not in the endoplasmic reticulum. In leek seedlings treated with fenpropimorph, a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor, the usual Δ5-sterols are replaced by 9β,19-cyclopropylsterols. In these plants, sterols and hydroxypalmitic acid-containing GluCer do not reach the PM, and most DRMs are recovered from the Golgi apparatus, indicating that Δ5-sterols and GluCer play a crucial role in lipid microdomain formation and delivery to the PM. In addition, DRM formation in Arabidopsis cells is shown to depend on the unsaturation degree of fatty acyl chains as evidenced by the dramatic decrease in the amount of DRMs prepared from the Arabidopsis mutants, fad2 and Fad3+, affected in their fatty acid desaturases. PMID:17114270

  6. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    PubMed Central

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; vanDam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal amounts of protein, cholesterol and phospholipid, whereas the classical DRM/lipid raft markers Src, caveolin-1 and flotillin display the same gradient distribution. DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts themselves are severely depleted of sphingolipids. The fatty acid profile of the remaining sphingolipids as well as that of the glycerophospholipids shows several differences compared with control, most prominently an increase in highly saturated C16 species. The glycerophospholipid headgroup composition is unchanged in sphingolipid-depleted cells and cell-derived detergent-free lipid rafts. Sphingolipid depletion does not alter the localization of MRP1 (multidrug-resistance-related protein 1) in DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts or MRP1-mediated efflux of carboxyfluorescein. We conclude that extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity in two cell lines and does not affect the function of the lipid-raft-associated protein MRP1. PMID:20604746

  7. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  8. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  9. Intrinsic stability of Brassicaceae plasma membrane in relation to changes in proteins and lipids as a response to salinity.

    PubMed

    Chalbi, Najla; Martínez-Ballesta, Ma Carmen; Youssef, Nabil Ben; Carvajal, Micaela

    2015-03-01

    Changes in plasma membrane lipids, such as sterols and fatty acids, have been observed as a result of salt stress. These alterations, together with modification of the plasma membrane protein profile, confer changes in the physical properties of the membrane to be taken into account for biotechnological uses. In our experiments, the relationship between lipids and proteins in three different Brassicaceae species differing in salinity tolerance (Brassica oleracea, B. napus and Cakile maritima) and the final plasma membrane stability were studied. The observed changes in the sterol (mainly an increase in sitosterol) and fatty acid composition (increase in RUFA) in each species led to physical adaptation of the plasma membrane to salt stress. The in vitro vesicles stability was higher in the less tolerant (B. oleracea) plants together with low lipoxygenase activity. These results indicate that the proteins/lipids ratio and lipid composition is an important aspect to take into account for the use of natural vesicles in plant biotechnology.

  10. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2009-07-22

    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  11. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions.

  12. Absence of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation affects lipid metabolism in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Sylvain; Uzbekov, Rustem; Elis, Sébastien; Sanchez, Laura; Kireev, Igor; Lardic, Lionel; Dalbies-Tran, Rozenn; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2013-03-15

    Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO. By Nile Red staining, a significant reduction in total lipid level was evidenced in DO. Global transcriptomic analysis revealed differential expression of genes regulating energy metabolism, transcription, and translation between CEO and DO. By Western blot, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive phospholipase (HSL) proteins were detected in oocytes and in CC, indicating a local lipogenesis and lypolysis. FAS protein was significantly less abundant in DO that in CEO and more highly expressed in CC than in the oocytes. On the contrary, HSL protein was more abundant in oocytes than in CC. In addition, active Ser⁵⁶³-phosphorylated HSL was detected in the oocytes only after IVM, and its level was similar in CEO and DO. In conclusion, absence of CC during IVM affected lipid metabolism in the oocyte and led to suboptimal cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, CC may influence the oocyte by orienting the consumption of nutritive storage via regulation of local fatty acid synthesis and lipolysis to provide energy for maturation.

  13. The Lipid Composition and Physical Properties of the Yeast Vacuole Affect the Hemifusion-Fusion Transition

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Surya; Fratti, Rutilio A.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast vacuole fusion requires the formation of SNARE bundles between membranes. Although the function of vacuolar SNAREs is controlled in part by regulatory lipids, the exact role of the membrane in regulating fusion remains unclear. Because SNAREs are membrane-anchored and transmit the force required for fusion to the bilayer, we hypothesized that the lipid composition and curvature of the membrane aid in controlling fusion. Here, we examined the effect of altering membrane fluidity and curvature on the functionality of fusion-incompetent SNARE mutants that are thought to generate insufficient force to trigger the hemifusion-fusion transition. The hemifusion-fusion transition was inhibited by disrupting the 3Q:1R stoichiometry of SNARE bundles with the mutant SNARE Vam7pQ283R. Similarly, replacing the transmembrane domain of the syntaxin homolog Vam3p with a lipid anchor allowed hemifusion, but not content mixing. Hemifusion-stalled reactions containing either of the SNARE mutants were stimulated to fuse with chlorpromazine, an amphipathic molecule that alters membrane fluidity and curvature. The activity of mutant SNAREs was also rescued by the overexpression of SNAREs, thus multiplying the force transferred to the membrane. Thus, we conclude that either increasing membrane fluidity, or multiplying SNARE-generated energy restored the fusogenicity of mutant SNAREs that are stalled at hemifusion. We also found that regulatory lipids differentially modulated the complex formation of wild-type SNAREs. Together, these data indicate that the physical properties and the lipid composition of the membrane affect the function of SNAREs in promoting the hemifusion-fusion transition. PMID:23438067

  14. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Iwai, Akiko; Yano, Toshihiro

    2004-10-01

    Antihyperlipidemia or hypocholesterolaemic and antibacterial activities of red hot pepper and garlic are well known. To determine the effect of the dietary spices ingested to suppress blood lipids on the intestinal condition, we examined plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice that were fed diets containing 19% (w/w) beef tallow and 2% red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides 'Takanotume' (RP) or garlic Allium sativum 'White' (GP) for 4-weeks. Plasma triacylglyceride level was suppressed by the spices. RP lowered cecal bacteroidaceae, a predominant bacterial group (from 9.4 to 9.0 log CFU/g), bifidobacteria (from 8.7 to 7.6 log CFU/g), and staphylococci. Although GP increased the cecal weight including their contents, significant differences were not shown in the cecal microflora. These results suggest that RP can affect the intestinal condition and host health through the disturbance of intestinal microflora.

  15. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Seminal plasma affects sperm sex sorting in boars.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted in boar semen samples to evaluate how both holding time (24h) and the presence of seminal plasma (SP) before sorting affect sperm sortability and the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid storage. Whole ejaculate samples were divided into three aliquots immediately after collection: one was diluted (1:1, v/v) in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS; 50% SP); the SP of the other two aliquots was removed and the sperm pellets were diluted with BTS + 10% of their own SP (10% SP) or BTS alone (0% SP). The three aliquots of each ejaculate were divided into two portions, one that was processed immediately for sorting and a second that was sorted after 24h storage at 15-17°C. In the first experiment, the ability to exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm peaks (split) in the cytometry histogram and the subsequent sorting efficiency were assessed (20 ejaculates). In contrast with holding time, the SP proportion influenced the parameters examined, as evidenced by the higher number of ejaculates exhibiting split and better sorting efficiency (P<0.05) in semen samples with 0-10% SP compared with those with 50% SP. In a second experiment, the quality (viability, total and progressive motility) and functionality (plasma membrane fluidity and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species) of sex-sorted spermatozoa were evaluated after 0, 72 and 120h storage at 15-17°C (10 ejaculates). Holding time and SP proportion did not influence the quality or functionality of stored sex-sorted spermatozoa. In conclusion, a holding time as long as 24h before sorting did not negatively affect sex sorting efficiency or the ability of sorted boar spermatozoa to tolerate long-term liquid storage. A high proportion of SP (50%) in the semen samples before sorting reduced the number of ejaculates to be sorted and negatively influenced the sorting efficiency, but did not affect the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to tolerate liquid

  17. Lipid transport by TMEM24 at ER-plasma membrane contacts regulates pulsatile insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Lees, Joshua A; Messa, Mirko; Sun, Elizabeth Wen; Wheeler, Heather; Torta, Federico; Wenk, Markus R; De Camilli, Pietro; Reinisch, Karin M

    2017-02-17

    Insulin is released by β cells in pulses regulated by calcium and phosphoinositide signaling. Here, we describe how transmembrane protein 24 (TMEM24) helps coordinate these signaling events. We showed that TMEM24 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored membrane protein whose reversible localization to ER-plasma membrane (PM) contacts is governed by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in response to oscillations in cytosolic calcium. A lipid-binding module in TMEM24 transports the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] precursor phosphatidylinositol between bilayers, allowing replenishment of PI(4,5)P2 hydrolyzed during signaling. In the absence of TMEM24, calcium oscillations are abolished, leading to a defect in triggered insulin release. Our findings implicate direct lipid transport between the ER and the PM in the control of insulin secretion, a process impaired in patients with type II diabetes.

  18. Aging of myelinating glial cells predominantly affects lipid metabolism and immune response pathways.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Valérie; Csárdi, Gábor; de Preux-Charles, Anne-Sophie; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G; Bergmann, Sven; Chrast, Roman

    2012-05-01

    Both the central and the peripheral nervous systems are prone to multiple age-dependent neurological deficits, often attributed to still unknown alterations in the function of myelinating glia. To uncover the biological processes affected in glial cells by aging, we analyzed gene expression of the Schwann cell-rich mouse sciatic nerve at 17 time points throughout life, from day of birth until senescence. By combining these data with the gene expression data of myelin mouse mutants carrying deletions of either Pmp22, SCAP, or Lpin1, we found that the majority of age-related transcripts were also affected in myelin mutants (54.4%) and were regulated during PNS development (59.5%), indicating a high level of overlap in implicated molecular pathways. The expression profiles in aging copied the direction of transcriptional changes observed in neuropathy models; however, they had the opposite direction when compared with PNS development. The most significantly altered biological processes in aging involved the inflammatory/immune response and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, both these pathways were comparably changed in the aging optic nerve, suggesting that similar biological processes are affected in aging of glia-rich parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Our comprehensive comparison of gene expression in three distinct biological conditions including development, aging, and myelin disease thus revealed a previously unanticipated relationship among themselves and identified lipid metabolism and inflammatory/immune response pathways as potential therapeutical targets to prevent or delay so far incurable age-related and inherited forms of neuropathies.

  19. Metabolite and Lipid Profiling of Biobank Plasma Samples Collected Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Izabella; Ärlestig, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective The early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is desirable to install treatment to prevent disease progression and joint destruction. Autoantibodies and immunological markers pre-date the onset of symptoms by years albeit not all patients will present these factors, even at disease onset. Additional biomarkers would be of high value to improve early diagnosis and understanding of the process, leading to disease development. Methods Plasma samples donated before the onset of RA were identified in the Biobank of Northern Sweden, a collection within national health survey programs. Thirty samples from pre-symptomatic individuals and nineteen from controls were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) metabolite and lipid profiling. Lipid and metabolite profiles discriminating samples from pre-symptomatic individuals from controls were identified after univariate and multivariate OPLS-DA based analyses. Results The OPLS-DA models including pre-symptomatic individuals and controls identified profiles differentiating between the groups that was characterized by lower levels of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids, with higher levels of lysophospatidylcholines (LPCs) and metabolites from tryptophan metabolism in pre-symptomatic individuals compared with controls. Lipid profiling showed that the majority of phospholipids and sphingomyelins were at higher levels in pre-symptomatic individuals in comparison with controls. Conclusions Our LCMS based approach demonstrated that there are changes in small molecule and lipid profiles detectable in plasma samples collected from the pre-symptomatic individuals who subsequently developed RA, which point to an up-regulation of levels of lysophospatidylcholines, and of tryptophan metabolism, perturbation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and increased oxidative stress in pre-symptomatic individuals’ years before onset of symptoms. PMID:27755546

  20. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2008-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C3F8 microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C3F8-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer.

  1. The effects of exposure to warm environments on bovine plasma lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Noble, R C; Mabon, R M; Jenkinson, D M

    1976-07-01

    The concentrations of total fatty acids and free cholesterol in the plasma of Ayrshire calves decreased following, but not during, short-term exposure to heat. Lower concentrations of total fatty acids and free cholesterol were maintained on prolonged heat exposure. Blood and plasma volumes were little affected by either short-term or prolonged heat exposure. Haematocrit rose during short-term heat stress and on prolonged heat exposure there was a decrease in erythrocyte fragility.

  2. Fatty acid composition of plasma lipids and erythrocyte membranes during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skedina, M. A.; Katuntsev, V. P.; Buravkova, L. B.; Naidina, V. P.

    Ten subjects (from 27 to 41 years) have been participated in 32 experiments. They were decompressed from ground level to 40-35 kPa in altitude chamber when breathed 100% oxygen by mask and performed repeated cycles of exercises (3.0 Kcal/min). The intervals between decompressions were 3-5 days. Plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was evaluated in the fasting venous blood before and immediately after hypobaric exposure. There were 7 cases decompression sickness (DCS). Venous gas bubbles (GB) were detected in 27 cases (84.4%). Any significant changes in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes and plasma didn't practically induce after the first decompression. However, by the beginning of the second decompression the total lipid level in erythrocyte membranes decreased from 54.6 mg% to 40.4 mg% in group with DCS symptoms and from 51.2 mg% to 35.2 mg% (p < 0.05) without DCS symptoms. In group with DCS symptoms a tendency to increased level of saturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes (16:0, 18:0), the level of the polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18:2) and arachidonic acid (20:4) tended to be decreased by the beginning of the second decompression. Insignificant changes in blood plasma fatty acid composition was observed in both groups. The obtained biochemical data that indicated the simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) condition is accompanied by the certain changes in the blood lipid metabolism, structural and functional state of erythrocyte membranes, which are reversible. The most pronounced changes are found in subjects with DCS symptoms.

  3. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  4. Mechanisms of incretin effects on plasma lipids and implications for the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Changting; Dash, Satya; Lewis, Gary F

    2012-12-01

    Dyslipidemia is a prominent feature of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance that contributes to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks under these conditions. Incretin-based therapies (GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) have recently been developed and are approved for clinical use for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides improved glycemic control, other benefits are being increasingly appreciated, one of which is improved plasma lipid profile. This review aims to summarize the evidence and potential mechanism of such agents in humans in modulating fasting and postprandial lipoprotein metabolism.

  5. Small Intestine but Not Liver Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) Deficiency Has a Dominant Effect on Plasma Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Inamul; Li, Zhiqiang; Bui, Hai H; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Gao, Guangping; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (Lpcat3) is involved in phosphatidylcholine remodeling in the small intestine and liver. We investigated lipid metabolism in inducible intestine-specific and liver-specificLpcat3gene knock-out mice. We producedLpcat3-Flox/villin-Cre-ER(T2)mice, which were treated with tamoxifen (at days 1, 3, 5, and 7), to deleteLpcat3specifically in the small intestine. At day 9 after the treatment, we found that Lpcat3 deficiency in enterocytes significantly reduced polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines in the enterocyte plasma membrane and reduced Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), CD36, ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), and ABCG8 levels on the membrane, thus significantly reducing lipid absorption, cholesterol secretion through apoB-dependent and apoB-independent pathways, and plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels, as well as body weight. Moreover, Lpcat3 deficiency does not cause significant lipid accumulation in the small intestine. We also utilized adenovirus-associated virus-Cre to depleteLpcat3in the liver. We found that liver deficiency only reduces plasma triglyceride levels but not other lipid levels. Furthermore, there is no significant lipid accumulation in the liver. Importantly, small intestine Lpcat3 deficiency has a much bigger effect on plasma lipid levels than that of liver deficiency. Thus, inhibition of small intestine Lpcat3 might constitute a novel approach for treating hyperlipidemia.

  6. Num1 anchors mitochondria to the plasma membrane via two domains with different lipid binding specificities.

    PubMed

    Ping, Holly A; Kraft, Lauren M; Chen, WeiTing; Nilles, Amy E; Lackner, Laura L

    2016-06-06

    The mitochondria-ER cortex anchor (MECA) is required for proper mitochondrial distribution and functions by tethering mitochondria to the plasma membrane. The core component of MECA is the multidomain protein Num1, which assembles into clusters at the cell cortex. We show Num1 adopts an extended, polarized conformation. Its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (Num1CC) is proximal to mitochondria, and the C-terminal pleckstrin homology domain is associated with the plasma membrane. We find that Num1CC interacts directly with phospholipid membranes and displays a strong preference for the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin. This direct membrane interaction is critical for MECA function. Thus, mitochondrial anchoring is mediated by a protein that interacts directly with two different membranes through lipid-specific binding domains, suggesting a general mechanism for interorganelle tethering.

  7. Evolution of the protein corona of lipid gene vectors as a function of plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Amenitsch, Heinz; Laganà, Aldo

    2011-12-20

    The concept that the effective unit of interest in the cell-nanomaterial interaction is the particle and its corona of associated proteins is emerging. Here we investigate the compositional evolution of the protein corona of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) cationic liposomes (CLs) and DOTAP/DNA lipoplexes over a wide range of plasma concentrations (2.5-80%). The composition of the hard corona of lipoplexes is quite stable, but that of CLs does evolve considerably. We show that the protein corona of CLs is made of both low-affinity and competitive-binding proteins whose relative abundance changes with the plasma concentration. This result may have deep biological implications for the application of lipid-based gene vectors both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Num1 anchors mitochondria to the plasma membrane via two domains with different lipid binding specificities

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Holly A.; Kraft, Lauren M.; Chen, WeiTing; Nilles, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondria–ER cortex anchor (MECA) is required for proper mitochondrial distribution and functions by tethering mitochondria to the plasma membrane. The core component of MECA is the multidomain protein Num1, which assembles into clusters at the cell cortex. We show Num1 adopts an extended, polarized conformation. Its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (Num1CC) is proximal to mitochondria, and the C-terminal pleckstrin homology domain is associated with the plasma membrane. We find that Num1CC interacts directly with phospholipid membranes and displays a strong preference for the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin. This direct membrane interaction is critical for MECA function. Thus, mitochondrial anchoring is mediated by a protein that interacts directly with two different membranes through lipid-specific binding domains, suggesting a general mechanism for interorganelle tethering. PMID:27241910

  9. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bertato, Marina P; Oliveira, Carolina P; Wajchenberg, Bernardo L; Lerario, Antonio C; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE) labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and 3H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the 3H-free- cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in atherogenic

  10. Fasting and diet content affect stress-induced changes in plasma glucose and cortisol in Juvenile chinook salmon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, B.A.; Schreck, C.B. ); Fowler, L.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared on low-, medium-, or high-lipid diets for 18 weeks were either kept on their respective diets or fasted for 20 d; then they were subjected to a 30-s handling stress or to handling plus continuous confinement. In fish that were handled but not confined, poststress hyperglycemia was greatest in fed fish that received the high-lipid diet and was generally lower in fasted than in fed fish. Plasma cortisol elevations in response to handling or handling plus confinement stress were not appreciably affected by diet type or fasting. The result indicated that prior feeding regimes and the types of diet fed should be considered when one is interpreting the magnitude of hyperglycemic stress responses in juvenile chinook salmon.

  11. Nonthermal dielectric-barrier discharge plasma-induced inactivation involves oxidative DNA damage and membrane lipid peroxidation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Suresh G; Cooper, Moogega; Yost, Adam; Paff, Michelle; Ercan, Utku K; Fridman, Gregory; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Brooks, Ari D

    2011-03-01

    Oxidative stress leads to membrane lipid peroxidation, which yields products causing variable degrees of detrimental oxidative modifications in cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the key regulators in this process and induce lipid peroxidation in Escherichia coli. Application of nonthermal (cold) plasma is increasingly used for inactivation of surface contaminants. Recently, we reported a successful application of nonthermal plasma, using a floating-electrode dielectric-barrier discharge (FE-DBD) technique for rapid inactivation of bacterial contaminants in normal atmospheric air (S. G. Joshi et al., Am. J. Infect. Control 38:293-301, 2010). In the present report, we demonstrate that FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation involves membrane lipid peroxidation in E. coli. Dose-dependent ROS, such as singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide-like species generated during plasma-induced oxidative stress, were responsible for membrane lipid peroxidation, and ROS scavengers, such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), were able to significantly inhibit the extent of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. These findings indicate that this is a major mechanism involved in FE-DBD plasma-mediated inactivation of bacteria.

  12. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    PubMed

    Maradonna, F; Nozzi, V; Santangeli, S; Traversi, I; Gallo, P; Fattore, E; Mita, D G; Mandich, A; Carnevali, O

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes encoding cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5 lox), the products of which are involved in the inflammatory response, transcriptions were significantly upregulated in NP and BPA fish, whereas they were unchanged in t

  13. Rapid assessment of singlet oxygen-induced plasma lipid oxidation and its inhibition by antioxidants with diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP).

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases have attracted renewed attention to lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen. Although the rate constants for singlet oxygen quenching by antioxidants have been measured extensively, the inhibition of lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen has received relatively less attention, partly because a convenient method for measuring the rate of lipid oxidation is not available. The objective of this study was to develop a convenient method to measure plasma lipid oxidation mediated by singlet oxygen which may be applied to a rapid assessment of the antioxidant capacity to inhibit this oxidation using a conventional microplate reader. Singlet oxygen was produced from naphthalene endoperoxide, and lipid hydroperoxide production was followed by using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). Non-fluorescent DPPP reacts stoichiometrically with lipid hydroperoxides to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide. It was found that plasma oxidation by singlet oxygen increased the fluorescence intensity of DPPP oxide, which was suppressed by antioxidants. Fucoxanthin suppressed the oxidation more efficiently than β-carotene and α-tocopherol, while ascorbic acid and Trolox were not effective. The present method may be useful for monitoring lipid oxidation and also for rapid screening of the capacity of dietary antioxidants and natural products to inhibit lipid oxidation in a biologically relevant system.

  14. Therapeutic effect of probiotic dahi on plasma, aortic, and hepatic lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod Kumar; Shah, Dilip; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Manoj; Gautam, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Birbal; Behare, Pradip Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effects of probiotic dahi prepared by Lactobacillus plantarum Lp9 and dahi culture in buffalo milk on lowering cholesterol in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic basal diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and fed with probiotic dahi, dahi, or buffalo milk for 120 days. Following the consumption of supplements (probiotic dahi, dahi or buffalo milk), the animals were fed a basal hypercholesterolemic diet. Plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides (TAGs) were decreased by 35% and 72% in rats fed with probiotic dahi group, while cholesterol levels increased by 70% and TAGs increased by 97% in buffalo milk and 59% in dahi fed groups. Supplementation of probiotic dahi further lowered plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) + very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)- cholesterol by 59%, while it elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 116%. As a result, atherogenic index, the ratio of HDL to LDL + VLDL was markedly improved. Deposition of cholesterol and TAGs in liver and aorta were significantly reduced in rats fed with probiotic dahi. These observations suggest that probiotic dahi may have therapeutic potential to decrease plasma, hepatic and aortic lipid profile, and attenuate diet-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Genetic Variations at ABCG5/G8 Genes Modulate Plasma Lipids Concentrations in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rios, A; Perez-Martinez, P; Fuentes, F; Mata, P; Lopez-Miranda, J; Alonso, R; Rodriguez, F; Garcia-Olid, A; Ruano, J; Ordovas, JM; Perez-Jimenez, F

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at ABCG5 (i7892A>G, i18429C>T, Gln604GluC>G, i11836G>A) and five at ABCG8 (5U145T>G, Tyr54CysA>G, Asp19HisG>C, i14222T>C, and Thr400LysG>T) with plasma lipids concentrations and to explore the interaction between those SNPs and smoking in patients with FH. Methods and Results ABCG5/G8 SNPs were genotyped in 500 subjects with genetic diagnosis of FH. Carriers of the minor A allele at the ABCG5_i11836G>A SNP displayed significantly higher HDL-C concentrations (P=0.023) than G/G subjects. In addition, carriers of the minor G allele at the ABCG5_Gln604GluC>G SNP had significantly lower VLDL-C (P=0.011) and lower TG (P=0.017) concentrations than homozygous C/C. Interestingly, a significant gene-smoking interaction was found, in which carriers of the minor alleles at ABCG5 (i7892A>G, i18429C>T, i11836G>A) SNPs displayed significantly lower HDL-C, higher TC and higher TG respectively, only in smokers. On the other hand, non-smokers carriers of the minor alleles at ABCG5 (i18429C>T and Gln604GluC>G) SNPs had significantly lower TG concentrations (P=0.012 and P=0.035) compared with homozygous for the major allele. Conclusions Our data support the notion that ABCG5/G8 genetic variants modulate plasma lipids concentrations in patients with FH and confirm that this effect could be influenced by smoking. Therefore, these results suggest that gene-environmental interactions can affect the clinical phenotype of FH. PMID:20172523

  16. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-12-21

    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  17. Revisiting Plant Plasma Membrane Lipids in Tobacco: A Focus on Sphingolipids1

    PubMed Central

    Cacas, Jean-Luc; Grosjean, Kevin; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Lherminier, Jeannine; Rombouts, Yoann; Maes, Emmanuel; Gronnier, Julien; Furt, Fabienne; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bayer, Emmanuelle; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Deleu, Magali; Lins, Laurence; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The lipid composition of plasma membrane (PM) and the corresponding detergent-insoluble membrane (DIM) fraction were analyzed with a specific focus on highly polar sphingolipids, so-called glycosyl inositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs). Using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) ‘Bright Yellow 2’ cell suspension and leaves, evidence is provided that GIPCs represent up to 40 mol % of the PM lipids. Comparative analysis of DIMs with the PM showed an enrichment of 2-hydroxylated very-long-chain fatty acid-containing GIPCs and polyglycosylated GIPCs in the DIMs. Purified antibodies raised against these GIPCs were further used for immunogold-electron microscopy strategy, revealing the distribution of polyglycosylated GIPCs in domains of 35 ± 7 nm in the plane of the PM. Biophysical studies also showed strong interactions between GIPCs and sterols and suggested a role for very-long-chain fatty acids in the interdigitation between the two PM-composing monolayers. The ins and outs of lipid asymmetry, raft formation, and interdigitation in plant membrane biology are finally discussed. PMID:26518342

  18. Effect of some medicinal plants on plasma antioxidant system and lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2005-05-01

    Several inflammatory diseases are thought to be related to oxidative injury and free oxygen radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of heart disease and aging. To investigate the effects of daily intake of medicinal plants on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and lipid profiles in rat, 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups and administered with three plant extracts (0.2 g/kg body weight): Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower), Rosa hybrida (flower) and with saline as a control. After 3 weeks, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in plasma were measured. The SOD activity of the Piper cubeba group and the catalase activity of the Piper cubeba and Rosa hybrida groups were significantly increased compared with the control group, while the SOD and catalase activities of the Physalis angulata group were not significantly changed (p<0.05). TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly lower in all experimental groups compeered with the control group. No significant changes occurred in the TG, total- and LDL-cholesterol of all groups, but the HDL-cholesterol of the Physalis angulata group was significantly increased. This study showed that the intake of medicinal plants in rats results in an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in malondialdehyde, which may reduce the risk of inflammatory and heart disease.

  19. The effect of adlay oil on plasma lipids, insulin and leptin in rat.

    PubMed

    Huang, B W; Chiang, M T; Yao, H T; Chiang, W

    2005-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary adlay oil on plasma lipids, insulin and lipid peroxidation levels in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats fed diet containing adlay oil and cholesterol were studied for 4 weeks. The animals were divided into three groups: (1) 10% lard (control) group; (2) 5% lard + 5% adlay oil (5% adlay oil) group; and (3) 10% adlay oil group. Although there was no significant difference in body weight at the end of the feeding study, rats fed a diet containing adlay oil showed a significant decrease in adipose tissue weight and relative adipose weight. In addition, the rats fed the adlay oil showed significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin, leptin and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentrations after 4 weeks of the feeding study. Although a significant decrease in total plasma cholesterol was observed in rats fed the 5% adlay oil diet, no significant difference was observed between the 10% adlay oil and control groups, and neither was a significant difference in liver TBARS concentration found between the dietary groups. Results from this study suggest that dietary adlay oil can reduce leptin, adipose tissue and LDL-C levels in rats.

  20. A theoretical formalism for aggregation of peroxidized lipids and plasma membrane stability during photolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Busch, N A; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine, from a theoretical perspective, the mechanism underlying the lysis of plasma membranes by photoinduced, chemically mediated damage such as is found in photolysis. Toward this end, a model is presented which relates the membrane lifetime to the thermodynamic parameters of the membrane components based upon the kinetic theory of aggregate formation. The formalism includes a standard birth/death process for the formation of damaged membrane components (i.e., peroxidized lipids) as well as a terminating condensation process for the formation of aggregates of peroxidized plasma membrane lipids. Our theory predicts that 1) the membrane lifetime is inversely correlated with predicted rate of membrane damage; 2) an upper limit on the duration of membrane damage exists, above which the mean and variance of the membrane lifetime is independent of further membrane damage; and 3) both the mean and variance of the time of membrane lifetime distribution are correlated with the number of sites that may be damaged to form a single membrane defect. The model provides a framework to optimize the lysis of cell membranes by photodynamic therapy. PMID:9826616

  1. Plasma lipid metabolites and refueling performance of Semi palmated Sandpipers at migratory stopovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, J.E.; Collazo, J.A.; Guglielmo, C.

    2005-01-01

    Assessing stopover habitat quality and refueling performance of individual birds is crucial to the conservation and management of migratory shorebirds. Plasma lipid metabolites indicate the trajectory of mass change in individuals and may be a more accurate measure of refueling performance at a particular site than static measures such as nutrient reserves. We measured lipid metabolites of Semipalmated Sandpipers at 4 coastal stopover sites during northward migration: Merritt Island, FL; Georgetown, SC; Pea Island, NC; and Delaware Bay, NJ. We described spatial and temporal variation in metabolic profiles among the 4 stopovers and evaluated the effects of body mass, age, and date on metabolite concentrations. Triglyceride concentration, an indicator of fat deposition, declined during the migration, whereas B-OH-Butyrate, a measure of fasting, increased. Triglyceride concentration correlated with phospholipids and inversely related to B-OH-butyrate, but was not related to body mass or age. Triglyceride levels and estimated percent fat were greater at Delaware Bay than at any stopovers to the south. Plasma metabolite profiles accurately reflected stopover refueling performance and provide an important new technique for assessing stopover habitat quality for migratory shorebirds.

  2. Plasma zinc status and membrane lipid composition in genetically diabetic mice (db/db)

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R.

    1986-03-05

    Sex and age matched diabetic C57BL/Ks-db+/db+ mice (db/db) were sacrificed at eight weeks of age. Plasma samples were collected and zinc levels determined. Livers were excised and mitochondrial and microsomal membranes prepared. Aliquots of membrane fractions were subjected to lipid extraction and cholesterol (Cl), phospholipid (PL) and fatty acid analysis (FA) performed. Plasma zinc levels in db/db mice were elevated 25% compared to m/m controls (148.8+/-8.1 ..mu..g/dl vs. 118.9+/-14.9 ..mu..g/dl). Cholesterol and PL levels remained unchanged in both mitochondrial and microsomal membranes. Analysis of PL composition from db/db mitochondria by two dimensional thin layer chromatography revealed no change in the percentage of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) but a 40% decrease in cardiolipin. Slight increases were observed in the percentage of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol (PS+PI) in microsomes isolated from db/db mice. Fatty acid analysis of microsomal PC and PE showed a decrease of 28% in the 18:1/18:0 ratio as well as a 21% decrease in the ratio of 20:4/18:2 in db/db animals. Analysis of succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial) and glucose-6-phosphatase (microsomal) revealed significant decreases in activity in livers of db/db mice. The altered zinc metabolism as well as the changes in membrane lipid composition suggest that this may be a model to study the role of zinc in membrane structure.

  3. Low temperature alters plasma membrane lipid composition and ATPase activity of pineapple fruit during blackheart development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-02-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) plays central role in triggering primary responses to chilling injury and sustaining cellular homeostasis. Characterising response of membrane lipids to low temperature can provide important information for identifying early causal factors contributing to chilling injury. To this end, PM lipid composition and ATPase activity were assessed in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) in relation to the effect of low temperature on the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury. Chilling temperature at 10 °C induced blackheart development in concurrence with increase in electrolyte leakage. PM ATPase activity was decreased after 1 week at low temperature, followed by a further decrease after 2 weeks. The enzyme activity was not changed during 25 °C storage. Loss of total PM phospholipids was found during postharvest senescence, but more reduction was shown from storage at 10 °C. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant PM phospholipid species. Low temperature increased the level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the level of phosphatidylinositol. Both phospholipid species were not changed during storage at 25 °C. Postharvest storage at both temperatures decreased the levels of C18:3 and C16:1, and increased level of C18:1. Low temperature decreased the level of C18:2 and increased the level of C14:0. Exogenous application of phosphatidic acid was found to inhibit the PM ATPase activity of pineapple fruit in vitro. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of plasma membrane at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in blackheart development of pineapple fruit.

  4. Effects of variable dietary sitostanol concentrations on plasma lipid profile and phytosterol metabolism in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ntanios, F Y; Jones, P J

    1998-02-23

    To examine how variable sitostanol (SI) levels in phytosterol-supplemented diets influence plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, fifty hamsters were divided into five groups and fed semipurified diets containing 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol for 45 days ad libitum. Four groups were fed this diet with 1% (w/w) phytosterol mixtures which contained 0.01% (w/w) SI derived from soybean, 0.2% (w/w) SI derived from tall oil, 0.2% (w/w) synthetic SI mixture (SIM) and 1% (w/w) pure SI, respectively. A control group did not receive phytosterols. Dietary SI supplementation at 1% (w/w) decreased total and non-apolipoprotein-A cholesterol levels in plasma by 34% (P=0.001) and 55% (P=0.04), respectively, whereas mean plasma total cholesterol level in the 0.2% (w/w) SI group was 23% (P=0.001) lower than that of the control group. Conversely, plasma lipid profile in hamsters fed 1 or 0.2% (w/w) SI did not differ from the 0.01% (w/w) SI group. Liver weights were 15 and 20% (P=0.012) higher in the control group compared with those fed 0.01% and 1% (w/w) SI, respectively, while the hepatic cholesterol content in the control group was greater (P<0.0001) than that of all other groups. Plasma campesterol levels were higher (P=0.04) in the 0.01% and 0.2% (w/w) SI fed groups than in the control, 0.2% (w/w) SIM and 1% (w/w) SI groups. Hepatic sitosterol content was elevated (P=0.002) in the SIM fed group compared to other groups. We conclude that dietary SI effect is proportional to its concentration in phytosterol mixtures and in the diet. Dietary SI lowered plasma cholesterol levels at concentrations higher than 0.2% (w/w) in hamsters. (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced.

  6. Plasma membrane lipid alterations associated with cold acclimation of winter rye seedlings (Secale cereale L. cv Puma)

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.V.; Steponkus, P.L. )

    1987-01-01

    Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted > 50 mole % of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole % of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole %, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole % and 4 to 1 mole %, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free {beta}-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole % (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing {beta}-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h) were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane.

  7. Fish oil supplementation attenuates changes in plasma lipids caused by dexamethasone treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Amanda Marreiro; Francisco, Priscila de Cássia; Motta, Katia; Chagas, Thayz Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Cristiane; Rafacho, Alex; Nunes, Everson Araújo

    2016-04-01

    Dexamethasone is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that may alter glucose and lipid homeostasis when administered in high doses or for long periods of time. Omega-3 fatty acids, present in fish oil (FO), can be used as potential modulators of intermediary glucose and lipid metabolism. Herein, we evaluate the effects of FO supplementation (1 g·kg(-1) body weight (BW)) on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg·kg(-1) BW) for 15 days. Adult male Wistar rats were distributed among 4 groups: control (saline, 1 mL·kg(-1) BW and mineral oil, 1 g·kg(-1) BW), DEX (dexamethasone and mineral oil), FO (fish oil and saline), and DFO (fish oil and dexamethasone). Dexamethasone and saline were administered intraperitoneally, and fish oil and mineral oil were administered by gavage. We evaluated functional and molecular parameters of lipid and glycemic profiles at 8 days and at the end of treatment. FO supplementation increased hepatic docosahexaenoic acid (DEX: 5.6% ± 0.7%; DFO: 10.5% ± 0.8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (DEX: 0.3% ± 0.0%; DFO: 1.3% ± 0.1%) contents and attenuated the increase of plasma triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in DFO rats compared with DEX rats. These effects seem not to depend on hepatic expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. There was no effect of supplementation on body weight loss, fasting glycemia, and glucose tolerance in rats treated with dexamethasone. In conclusion, we show that FO supplementation for 15 days attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by dexamethasone treatment.

  8. Plasma lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, lipoxygenase and peroxyl radicals and its inhibition by antioxidants as assessed by diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Lipids are oxidized in vivo by several different oxidants to give diverse products, in general lipid hydroperoxides as the major primary product. In the present study, the production of lipid hydroperoxides in the oxidation of mouse plasma induced by multiple oxidants was measured using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) as a probe. DPPP itself is not fluorescent, but it reacts with lipid hydroperoxides stochiometrically to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide and lipid hydroxides. The production of lipid hydroperoxides could be followed continuously in the oxidation of plasma induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, 15-lipoxygenase, and peroxyl radicals with a microplate reader. A clear lag phase was observed in the plasma oxidation mediated by aqueous peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, but not in the oxidation induced by hypochlorite and lipoxygenase. The effects of several antioxidants against lipid oxidation induced by the above oxidants were assessed. The efficacy of antioxidants was dependent markedly on the type of oxidants. α-Tocopherol exerted potent antioxidant effects against peroxyl radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, but it did not inhibit lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, and 15-lipoxygenase efficiently, suggesting that multiple antioxidants with different selectivities are required for the inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation in vivo. This is a novel, simple and most high throughput method to follow plasma lipid oxidation induced by different oxidants and also to assess the antioxidant effects in biologically relevant settings. PMID:26774081

  9. Plasma lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, lipoxygenase and peroxyl radicals and its inhibition by antioxidants as assessed by diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine.

    PubMed

    Morita, Mayuko; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Niki, Etsuo

    2016-08-01

    Lipid oxidation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Lipids are oxidized in vivo by several different oxidants to give diverse products, in general lipid hydroperoxides as the major primary product. In the present study, the production of lipid hydroperoxides in the oxidation of mouse plasma induced by multiple oxidants was measured using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) as a probe. DPPP itself is not fluorescent, but it reacts with lipid hydroperoxides stochiometrically to give highly fluorescent DPPP oxide and lipid hydroxides. The production of lipid hydroperoxides could be followed continuously in the oxidation of plasma induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, 15-lipoxygenase, and peroxyl radicals with a microplate reader. A clear lag phase was observed in the plasma oxidation mediated by aqueous peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, but not in the oxidation induced by hypochlorite and lipoxygenase. The effects of several antioxidants against lipid oxidation induced by the above oxidants were assessed. The efficacy of antioxidants was dependent markedly on the type of oxidants. α-Tocopherol exerted potent antioxidant effects against peroxyl radical-mediated lipid peroxidation, but it did not inhibit lipid oxidation induced by peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, and 15-lipoxygenase efficiently, suggesting that multiple antioxidants with different selectivities are required for the inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation in vivo. This is a novel, simple and most high throughput method to follow plasma lipid oxidation induced by different oxidants and also to assess the antioxidant effects in biologically relevant settings.

  10. Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Bautista, Claudia J; Tovar, Armando R; Ordáz, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Ortiz, Victor; Granados, Omar; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

    2010-02-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of protein restriction in pregnancy on maternal liver lipid metabolism at 19 days of gestation (dG) and its effect on fetal brain development. Control (C) and restricted (R) mothers were fed with isocaloric diets containing 20 and 10% of casein. At 19 dG, maternal blood and livers and fetal livers and brains were collected. Serum insulin and leptin levels were determinate in mothers. Maternal and fetal liver lipid and fetal brain lipid quantification were performed. Maternal liver and fetal brain fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography. In mothers, liver desaturase and elongase mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Maternal body and liver weights were similar in both groups. However, fat body composition, including liver lipids, was lower in R mothers. A higher fasting insulin at 19 dG in the R group was observed (C = 0.2 +/- 0.04 vs. R = 0.9 +/- 0.16 ng/ml, P < 0.01) and was inversely related to early growth retardation. Serum leptin in R mothers was significantly higher than that observed in C rats (C = 5 +/- 0.1 vs. R = 7 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In addition, protein restriction significantly reduced gene expression in maternal liver of desaturases and elongases and the concentration of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids. In fetus from R mothers, a low body weight (C = 3 +/- 0.3 vs. R = 2 +/- 0.1 g, P < 0.05), as well as liver and brain lipids, including the content of DHA in the brain, was reduced. This study showed that protein restriction during pregnancy may negatively impact normal fetal brain development by changes in maternal lipid metabolism.

  11. Protective effects of resveratrol against oxidative/nitrative modifications of plasma proteins and lipids exposed to peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Nowak, Pawel; Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    The protective effects of resveratrol (3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene; present naturally in different plants) against the oxidative/nitrative damage of human plasma proteins induced by peroxynitrite (ONOO-) were studied and compared with those of deferoxamine (DFO; a natural siderophore isolated from Streptomyces pilosus), which is a typical and well-known antioxidant. We also studied the effect of ONOO- on plasma lipid peroxidation and the role of tested antioxidants in this process. ONOO- at the used concentrations (0.01-1 mM) showed toxicity to human plasma components. Exposure of plasma to ONOO- (0.1 mM) resulted in an increase of the level of carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues in plasma proteins (approximately 4-fold and 76-fold, respectively) and in a distinct augmentation of lipid peroxidation (approximately 2-fold). In the presence of 0.1-mM resveratrol, a distinct decrease of carbonyl group formation and tyrosine nitration in plasma proteins caused by 0.1-mM ONOO- was observed (by approximately 70% and 65%, respectively). Addition of 0.1-mM DFO to plasma also distinctly reduced the level of carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosines caused by 0.1-mM ONOO- (by approximately 50% and 60%, respectively). Moreover, these antioxidants also inhibited plasma lipid peroxidation induced by ONOO- (0.1 mM). The obtained results indicate that in vitro resveratrol, like well-known antioxidant DFO, has inhibitory effects on ONOO- -mediated oxidation of proteins and lipids in human plasma.

  12. Are lipid-dependent indicators of cardiovascular risk affected by renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Schena, A; Di Paolo, S; Morrone, L F; Resta, F; Stallone, G; Schena, F P

    2000-04-01

    Hyperlipoproteinemia has been reported to frequently occur in kidney transplanted patients, thus possibly explaining, at least in part, the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in this population. To evaluate the impact of renal transplantation (Tx), and related immunosuppressive therapy, on plasma lipoprotein and Lp(a) profile, we selected a cohort of kidney transplanted patients (36 M/14 F; age 33.8 + 12.0 yr, range 13-62) lacking significant causes of hyperlipidemia. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen and showed a stable renal function after Tx (plasma creatinine: 1.36 +/- 0.35 mg/dL). One year after Tx, we found a significant increase of total cholesterol (TC), LDL, HDL, ApoB and ApoA-I (p < 0.005), while plasma triglyceride levels remained unmodified. Lp(a) plasma levels after Tx were within the normal range and displayed a significant inverse relationship with apo(a) size. Noteworthy, LDL/HDL ratio and ApoB/ ApoA-I ratio in kidney transplanted patients were almost superimposable with those of normal controls. Specifically, LDL/HDL ratio significantly decreased in 64% of patients after Tx, due to a prevalent increase of HDL, and was associated with a moderate amelioration of plasma TG. In a multiple linear regression model, post-Tx HDL level was significantly related to recipient's age, gender, BMI and cyclosporine (CyA) trough levels (Adj-R2 = 0.35, p = 0.0002), with gender and CyA trough levels being the better predictors of HDL. In conclusion, immunosuppressive regimens, in themselves, do not appear to significantly increase the atherogenic risk related to lipoproteins. Rather, other factors can affect the lipoprotein profile and its vascular effects in renal transplant recipients.

  13. Ascorbate does not act as a pro-oxidant towards lipids and proteins in human plasma exposed to redox-active transition metal ions and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jung; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Frei, Balz

    2003-05-15

    The combination of ascorbate, transition metal ions, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an efficient hydroxyl radical generating system called "the Udenfriend system." Although the pro-oxidant role of ascorbate in this system has been well characterized in vitro, it is uncertain whether ascorbate also acts as a pro-oxidant under physiological conditions. To address this question, human plasma, used as a representative biological fluid, was either depleted of endogenous ascorbate with ascorbate oxidase, left untreated, or supplemented with 25 microM-1 mM ascorbate. Subsequently, the plasma samples were incubated at 37 degrees C with 50 microM-1 mM iron (from ferrous ammonium sulfate), 60 or 100 microM copper (from cupric sulfate), and/or 200 microM or 1 mM H(2)O(2). Although endogenous and added ascorbate was depleted rapidly in the presence of transition metal ions and H(2)O(2), no cholesterol ester hydroperoxides or malondialdehyde were formed, i.e., ascorbate protected against, rather than promoted, lipid peroxidation. Conversely, depletion of endogenous ascorbate was sufficient to cause lipid peroxidation, the rate and extent of which were enhanced by the addition of metal ions but not H(2)O(2). Ascorbate also did not enhance protein oxidation in plasma exposed to metal ions and H(2)O(2), as assessed by protein carbonyl formation and depletion of reduced thiols. Interestingly, neither the rate nor the extent of endogenous alpha-tocopherol oxidation in plasma was affected by any of the treatments. Our data show that even in the presence of redox-active iron or copper and H(2)O(2), ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in human plasma in vitro.

  14. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting lipid affects on the crystallization and structure of a transmembrane peptide.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Lyons, Joseph A; Caffrey, Martin

    2011-04-06

    Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating D-and L-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesised lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation.

  15. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting lipid affects on the crystallization and structure of a transmembrane peptide

    PubMed Central

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Lyons, Joseph A.; Caffrey, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating D-and L-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesised lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation. PMID:22933857

  16. Seasonal variation in plasma lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoprotein A-I and vitellogenin in the freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta.

    PubMed

    Duggan, A; Paolucci, M; Tercyak, A; Gigliotti, M; Small, D; Callard, I

    2001-09-01

    An analysis of plasma lipids and lipoprotein fractions was performed over the course of the annual ovarian cycle of the female turtle, Chrysemys picta. Determinations of total plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, vitellogenin and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) were made. The lipid and protein composition of the lipoprotein fractions [very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and very high density lipoprotein (VHDL)] were also observed over the same period. Plasma triglyceride and vitellogenin levels were significantly increased in the spring preovulatory period and fall recrudescent phase. Total plasma cholesterol levels were significantly elevated only at the onset of the fall recrudescent phase and apoA-I levels were highest during the postoviposition/ovarian arrest phase. The triglyceride content of VLDL was highest in preovulatory animals and there were apparent seasonal changes in the expression of apoA-I and apoE of HDL/VHDL. We conclude that the coordinate regulation of lipids and protein contributes to seasonal ovarian growth and clearance of lipids from plasma, both of which are most likely under hormonal control.

  17. Kinetics of lipids, apolipoproteins, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma after a bicycle marathon.

    PubMed

    Föger, B; Wohlfarter, T; Ritsch, A; Lechleitner, M; Miller, C H; Dienstl, A; Patsch, J R

    1994-05-01

    The short-term effects of prolonged intense exercise on plasma lipid transport parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its subfractions HDL2 cholesterol and HDL3 cholesterol, on apolipoproteins (apos) A-I, A-II, and B, and on mass and activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) were studied in eight male endurance-trained athletes over the first week after a bicycle marathon. CETP mass concentration in plasma was quantified by a newly developed immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, TGs, LDL cholesterol, apo B, CETP, and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) were significantly reduced in the recovery period compared with pre-exercise values (cholesterol by 20%, P < .05; TGs by 63%, P < .05; LDL cholesterol by 32%, P < .05; apo B by 18%, P < .05; CETP mass by 29%, P < .05; and CETA by 14%, P < .05). HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol, in contrast, were significantly increased in the post-exercise period (HDL cholesterol by 12%, P < .05, and HDL2 cholesterol by 96%, P < .05), whereas HDL3 cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease in the late recovery period (by 8%, NS). Although changes in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and CETP mass and activity were already evident in the early recovery period, HDL2 cholesterol showed a delayed response, reaching its maximum 72 hours after initiation of exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, W G; Middleton, J R; Spain, J N; Johnson, G C; Ellersieck, M R; Pithua, P

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential association between Ca status at calving and postpartum energy balance, liver lipid infiltration, disease occurrence, milk yield and quality parameters, and fertility in Holstein cows. One hundred cows were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on whole-blood ionized Ca concentration ([iCa]) on the day of calving [d 0; hypocalcemic [iCa] <1.0 mmol/L (n=51); normocalcemic [iCa] ≥ 1.0 mmol/L (n=49)]. Cows were blocked based on calving date and parity. Blood samples were collected approximately 14 d from expected calving date (d -14), the day of calving (d 0), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of plasma nonesterified fatty acid, iCa, total Ca, glucose, and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities. Liver biopsies were obtained from a subset of cows on d 0, 7, and 35 for quantification of lipid content. Milk samples were collected on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of somatic cell count and percentages of protein, fat, and solids-not-fat. Data for peak test-day milk yield, services per conception, and days open were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement Association herd records. Disease occurrence was determined based on herd treatment records. Hypocalcemic cows had significantly higher nonesterified fatty acids on d 0. Hypocalcemic cows also had significantly more lipid in hepatocytes on d 7 and 35 postpartum. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities or total and direct bilirubin concentrations. Milk protein percentage was lower in hypocalcemic cows on d 21 and 35. However other milk quality variables (somatic cell count, milk fat percentage, and solids-not-fat) and milk yield variables (peak test-day milk yield and 305-d mature-equivalent 4% fat-corrected milk yield) did not differ between

  19. Effect of acipimox on plasma lipids and glucose/insulin in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vera, I; Bonet, B; Viana, M; Herrera, E; Indart, A

    2002-01-01

    To determine how a reduction in maternal hypertriglyceridemia during late pregnancy may affect glucose/insulin relationships, pregnant and virgin rats were orally treated with acipimox, a potent antilipolytic agent. In 20-day pregnant rats receiving 80 mg of acipimox, plasma triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and glycerol decreased more than in virgin rats shortly after the drug (up to 7 hours), when compared with animals treated with distilled water, whereas plasma glucose level was unaffected by the treatment in either group of rats. When acipimox was given every 12 hours from day 17 to day 20 of pregnancy, plasma TG, FFA, and glycerol levels progressively increased, whereas they either decreased or did not change in virgin rats receiving the same treatment, with no effect in plasma glucose levels in either group. Fetal body weight was lower than in controls in 20-day pregnant rats that received acipimox for 3 days. On day 20 of pregnancy, 3 hours after receiving acipimox or distilled water, rats received a 2 g glucose/kg oral load and it was found that the change in plasma glucose was similar in both groups, whereas the increase in plasma insulin was greater in pregnant rats treated with acipimox. However, no difference was found in either variable after the oral glucose load in virgin rats receiving acipimox or distilled water. No differences in plasma glucose levels were found after intravenous (i.v.) administration of insulin in pregnant rats treated or not treated with acipimox. In conclusion, present results show that administration of acipimox during the last days of gestation inhibited lipolysis and decreased fetal weight. Over a short period of time, in pregnant rats, reductions of plasma FFA and TG after acipimox treatment improved the glucose-induced insulin release, but did not seem to have any effect in peripheral insulin resistance.

  20. Effects of saturated, monounsaturated, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins in humans.

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Illingworth, D R; Alaupovic, P; Connor, W E; Sundberg, E E

    1983-03-01

    The effects of dietary fats on plasma cholesterol, serum lipoproteins, and apoproteins (Apo), A-1, B, and CIII were studied. Twelve men consumed three different cholesterol-free formula diets in which polyunsaturated and saturated fats were partially substituted (20% of calories) for monoenoic fats with a constant of 40% of calories from fat. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol dropped from base-line values of 166 and 103 to 133 and 81 mg/dl (sat), 127 and 71 mg/dl (mono), and 123 and 65 mg/dl (poly), respectively. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol changed very little from base-line values of 46 to 40 mg/dl (sat), 45 mg/dl (poly), and 43 mg/dl (mono). The plasma concentrations of ApoB declined from base-line values of 80.3 mg/dl to 54.6 mg (mono), 51.8 mg (poly), and 59.6 mg (sat) while Apo CIII and Apo AI did not show any changes. This study demonstrates that: 1) changes in dietary fat affect serum lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins even when consumed on a cholesterol-free diet, and 2) omega-6 polyunsaturated fat lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and ApoB to a greater extent than monounsaturated or saturated fat, 3) consumption of a cholesterol-free formula diet results in significant decreases in the concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma when compared to values obtained on a mixed food home diet containing approximately 300 mg cholesterol/day.

  1. Evidence for annexin A6-dependent plasma membrane remodelling of lipid domains

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Vilà de Muga, Sandra; Owen, Dylan M; Williamson, David; Magenau, Astrid; García-Melero, Ana; Reverter, Meritxell; Hoque, Monira; Cairns, Rose; Cornely, Rhea; Tebar, Francesc; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina; Ayala-Sanmartín, Jesús; Enrich, Carlos; Rentero, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Annexin A6 (AnxA6) is a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein that can be recruited to the plasma membrane to function as a scaffolding protein to regulate signal complex formation, endo- and exocytic pathways as well as distribution of cellular cholesterol. Here, we have investigated how AnxA6 influences the membrane order. Experimental Approach We used Laurdan and di-4-ANEPPDHQ staining in (i) artificial membranes; (ii) live cells to investigate membrane packing and ordered lipid phases; and (iii) a super-resolution imaging (photoactivated localization microscopy, PALM) and Ripley's K second-order point pattern analysis approach to assess how AnxA6 regulates plasma membrane order domains and protein clustering. Key Results In artificial membranes, purified AnxA6 induced a global increase in membrane order. However, confocal microscopy using di-4-ANEPPDHQ in live cells showed that cells expressing AnxA6, which reduces plasma membrane cholesterol levels and modifies the actin cytoskeleton meshwork, displayed a decrease in membrane order (∼15 and 30% in A431 and MEF cells respectively). PALM data from Lck10 and Src15 membrane raft/non-raft markers revealed that AnxA6 expression induced clustering of both raft and non-raft markers. Altered clustering of Lck10 and Src15 in cells expressing AnxA6 was also observed after cholesterol extraction with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or actin cytoskeleton disruption with latrunculin B. Conclusions and Implications AnxA6-induced plasma membrane remodelling indicated that elevated AnxA6 expression decreased membrane order through the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis and the actin cytoskeleton. This study provides the first evidence from live cells that support current models of annexins as membrane organizers. PMID:25409976

  2. Thermotropic lipid phase separations in human erythrocyte ghosts and cholesterol-enriched rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L M; Mobley, P W

    1984-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of human erythrocyte ghosts labeled with 5-nitroxide stearate, I(12,3), indicate that a temperature-dependent lipid phase separation occurs with a high onset at 38 degrees C. Cooling below 38 degrees C induces I(12,3) clustering. Similar phase separations were previously identified in human platelet and cholesterol-loaded [cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio (C/P) = 0.85] rat liver plasma membranes [L.M. Gordon et al., 1983; J. Membrane Biol. 76; 139-149]; these were attributed to redistribution of endogenous lipid components such that I(12,3) is excluded from cholesterol-rich domains and tends to reside in cholesterol-poor domains. Further enrichment of rat liver plasma membranes to C/P ratios of 0.94-0.98 creates an "artificial" system equivalent to human erythrocyte ghosts (C/P = 0.90), using such criteria as probe flexibility, temperature dependent I(12,3) clustering; and polarity of the probe environment. Consequently, cholesterol-rich and -poor domains probably exist in both erythrocyte ghosts and high cholesterol liver membranes at physiologic temperatures. The temperature dependence of cold-induced hypertonic lysis of intact human erythrocytes was examined by incubating cells in 0.9 M sucrose for 10 min at 1 degree C intervals between 9 and 46 degrees C (Stage 1), and then subjecting them to 0 degrees C for 10 min (Stage 2). Plots of released hemoglobin are approx. sigmoidal, with no lysis below 18 degrees C and maximal lysis above 40 degrees C. The protective effect of low temperatures during Stage 1 may be due to the formation of cholesterol-rich domains that alter the bilayer distribution and/or conformation of critical membrane-associated proteins.

  3. Chemical properties of lipids strongly affect the kinetics of the membrane-induced aggregation of α-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James W. P.; Ouberai, Myriam M.; Flagmeier, Patrick; Vendruscolo, Michele; Buell, Alexander K.; Sparr, Emma; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular α-synuclein deposits, known as Lewy bodies, have been linked to a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease. α-Synuclein binds to synthetic and biological lipids, and this interaction has been shown to play a crucial role for both α-synuclein’s native function, including synaptic plasticity, and the initiation of its aggregation. Here, we describe the interplay between the lipid properties and the lipid binding and aggregation propensity of α-synuclein. In particular, we have observed that the binding of α-synuclein to model membranes is much stronger when the latter is in the fluid rather than the gel phase, and that this binding induces a segregation of the lipids into protein-poor and protein-rich populations. In addition, α-synuclein was found to aggregate at detectable rates only when interacting with membranes composed of the most soluble lipids investigated here. Overall, our results show that the chemical properties of lipids determine whether or not the lipids can trigger the aggregation of α-synuclein, thus affecting the balance between functional and aberrant behavior of the protein. PMID:27298346

  4. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα) values showed overexpression (198%). Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism. PMID:17725831

  5. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

  6. Regular Exercise and Plasma Lipid Levels Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…

  7. [Lack of association between the S447X variant of the lipoprotein lipase gene and plasma lipids. A preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Zambrano Morales, Mariana; Fernández Salgado, Erika; Balzán Urdaneta, Ligia; Labastidas, Neila; Aranguren-Méndez, José; Connell, Lissette; Molero Paredes, Tania; Rojas, Alicia; Panunzio, Amelia

    2014-06-01

    The increase in lipid plasma values is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays an important role in the lipoprotein metabolism and metabolic and genetic factors may influence its levels and functions. The S447X variant of the lipoprotein lipase gene is associated with changes in plasma lipids in different populations. The objective of this research was to analyze the S447X variant of the LPL gene and its relation with plasma lipids of individuals in Zulia state, Venezuela. With this purpose, we studied 75 individuals (34 men and 41 women) between 20 and 60 years of age. Each subject had a medical history which included family history, anthropometric characteristics, nutritional status evaluation and biochemical tests. Genomic DNA was extracted for the molecular study and the polymerase chain reaction was used, followed by enzyme digestion, for restriction fragments length polymorphisms using the Hinf I enzyme. The individuals studied had normal levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoproteins (LDL-C) and slightly decreased levels of high density lipoproteins (HDL-C). The genotypic distribution of the LPL gene S447X variant in the studied population was 90.6% for the homozygous genotype SS447 and 9.4% for the heterozygote SX447. The genotype 447XX was not identified. The population was found in Hardy Weinberg genetic equilibrium. No association between the S447X polymorphism of lipoprotein lipase gene and plasma lipids was observed.

  8. Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Suh, Jung Yul; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was 2.2±0.6 years. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonoscopy increased linearly with the increasing quartiles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides measured at the initial colonoscopy. These associations persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted hazard ratios for adenoma occurrence comparing the fourth with the first quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26–1.77; ptrend<0.001], 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04–1.43; ptrend=0.024), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02–1.46; ptrend=0.046), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14–1.63; ptrend=0.004), and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99–1.42; ptrend=0.041), respectively. In addition, increasing quartiles of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were associated with an increasing occurrence of adenomas. Conclusion The levels of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly associated with the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Improving the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism through lifestyle changes or medications may be helpful in preventing metachronous adenomas. PMID:28120565

  9. Effects of acute exposure to the radiofrequency fields of cellular phones on plasma lipid peroxide and antioxidase activities in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Y M; Moustafa, R M; Belacy, A; Abou-El-Ela, S H; Ali, F M

    2001-11-01

    Radiofrequency fields of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, which appear mainly to enhance lipid peroxidation, and by changing the antioxidase activities of human blood thus leading to oxidative stress. To test this, we have investigated the effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones on some parameters indicative of oxidative stress in 12 healthy adult male volunteers. Each volunteer put the phone in his pocket in standby position with the keypad facing the body. The parameters measured were lipid peroxide and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase. The results obtained showed that the plasma level of lipid peroxide was significantly increased after 1, 2 and 4 h of exposure to radiofrequency fields of the cellular phone in standby position. Moreover, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in human erythrocytes showed significant reduction while the activity of catalase in human erythrocytes did not decrease significantly. These results indicate that acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones may modulate the oxidative stress of free radicals by enhancing lipid peroxidation and reducing the activation of SOD and GSH-Px, which are free radical scavengers. Therefore, these results support the interaction of radiofrequency fields of cellular phones with biological systems.

  10. Structures and dynamics of glycosphingolipid-containing lipid mixtures as raft models of plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, M.; Koizumi, M.; Hirai, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Yuyama, K.; Suzuki, N.; Kasahara, K.

    2005-08-01

    The structure and function of mammalian plasma membrane microdomains, so-called rafts, are among the hot topics in cell biology, since it is suggested that these domains are involved in important membrane-associated events, especially ones such as signal transduction, which were frequently seen in physiological and immunological studies. In spite of the accumulation of large amounts of evidence, results on physical properties of the structure and dynamics of membranes such as those in intact cells are less abundant. In this report we treat the structure and dynamics of glycosphingolipid (ganglioside)-cholesterol and glycosphingolipid (ganglioside)-cholesterol-phospholipid mixtures used as models of rafts and plasma membranes. The present results clearly show that the incorporation of cholesterol with ganglioside aggregates is limited to a maximum miscibility of the molar ratio between the ganglioside and cholesterol ranging from ~1/1 to 1/3 and that small vesicles with diameters of about 250-300 Å form. These molar ratios and sizes agree well with the reported constituent ratio and minimum size for the rafts. In the vesicle systems containing ganglioside, cholesterol, and phospholipid (PC, DSPC, DOPC, POPC), the bending modulus tends to take the smallest value at the molar ratio of [gang]/[chol]/[phospholipid] = 0.1/0.1/1. The present results would strongly support a functional physical property of the raft model: sphingolipids and cholesterol clustering to form rafts that move within the fluid lipid bilayer.

  11. Studies on plasma lipids in industrial workers in central Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed Central

    Ezenwaka, C. E.; Premanand, N.; Orrett, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    We assessed the plasma lipid profiles and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 187 (147 men, 47 women) apparently healthy employees of the Caribbean ISPAT industry in Trinidad and Tobago. Anthropometric indices and fasting plasma levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. The results indicate that: there was increased body mass and relative hyperlipidemia in the population studied, these CVD risk factors (increased body mass, increased blood T-chol, TG, and LDL) were more prevalent in men than women (p < 0.05), and these parameters did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) when compared among the three ethnic groups (African and Indian descendants and mixed descents). These features suggest a greater risk of CVD in men than in women. It is likely that this observation in the industrial workers might reflect the situation in the general population especially in men. Although further confirmatory studies are necessary across societal socioeconomic strata within Trinidad, we suggest that efforts should be directed at reducing excess body weight among the workers, and providing advice on increased complex carbohydrate diet in place of saturated fat. PMID:10992682

  12. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  13. Plasma Lipid Profiling of Patients with Chronic Ocular Complications Caused by Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Keiko; Sotozono, Chie; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are drug-induced acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface. Even after recovery from skin symptoms, some SJS/TEN patients continue to suffer with severe ocular complications (SOCs). Therefore, this study aims to understand the pathophysiology of chronic SOCs. Because plasma lipid profiling has emerged as a useful tool to understand pathophysiological alterations in the body, we performed plasma lipid profiling of 17 patients who suffered from SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. A lipidomics approach yielded 386 lipid molecules and demonstrated that plasma levels of inflammatory oxylipins increased in patients with SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. In addition, oxidized phosphatidylcholines and ether-type diacylglycerols increased in the patients with chronic SOCs, while phosphoglycerolipids decreased. When we compared these lipidomic profiles with those of patients with atopic dermatitis, we found that patients with chronic SOCs, specifically, had decreased levels of ether-type phosphatidylcholines (ePCs) containing arachidonic acid (AA), such as PC(18:0e/20:4) and PC(20:0e/20:4). To confirm our finding, we recruited additional patients, who suffered from SOC associated with SJS/TEN (up to 51 patients), and validated the decreased plasma levels of AA-containing ePCs. Our study provides insight into the alterations of plasma lipidomic profiles in chronic SOCs and into the pathophysiology of SJS/TEN-associated chronic SOCs. PMID:27898730

  14. Effect of sterol carrier protein-2 expression on sphingolipid distribution in plasma membrane lipid rafts/caveolae.

    PubMed

    Atshaves, Barbara P; Jefferson, John R; McIntosh, Avery L; Gallegos, Adalberto; McCann, Bonnie M; Landrock, Kerstin K; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2007-10-01

    Although sphingolipids are highly important signaling molecules enriched in lipid rafts/caveolae, relatively little is known regarding factors such as sphingolipid binding proteins that may regulate the distribution of sphingolipids to lipid rafts/caveolae of living cells. Since early work demonstrated that sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) enhanced glycosphingolipid transfer from membranes in vitro, the effect of SCP-2 expression on sphingolipid distribution to lipid rafts/caveolae in living cells was examined. Using a non-detergent affinity chromatography method to isolate lipid rafts/caveolae and non-rafts from purified L-cell plasma membranes, it was shown that lipid rafts/caveolae were highly enriched in multiple sphingolipid species including ceramides, acidic glycosphingolipids (ganglioside GM1); neutral glycosphingolipids (monohexosides, dihexosides, globosides), and sphingomyelin as compared to non-raft domains. SCP-2 overexpression further enriched the content of total sphingolipids and select sphingolipid species in the lipid rafts/caveolae domains. Analysis of fluorescence binding and displacement data revealed that purified human recombinant SCP-2 exhibited high binding affinity (nanomolar range) for all sphingolipid classes tested. The binding affinity decreased in the following order: ceramides > acidic glycosphingolipid (ganglioside GM1) > neutral glycosphingolipid (monohexosides, hexosides, globosides) > sphingomyelin. Enrichment of individual sphingolipid classes to lipid rafts/caveolae versus non-rafts in SCP-2 expressing plasma membranes followed closely with those classes most strongly bound to SCP-2 (ceramides, GM1 > the neutral glycosphingolipids (monohexosides, dihexosides, and globosides) > sphingomyelin). Taken together these data suggested that SCP-2 acts to selectively regulate sphingolipid distribution to lipid rafts/caveolae in living cells.

  15. Effect of young barley leaf extract and adlay on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Liu, Chu-Sun; Tsai, Ching-Min

    2004-06-01

    Forty hyperlipidemic patients, smokers and non-smokers, were studied. Subjects received 15 g young barley leaf extract (BL) or 60 g adlay daily for four weeks. Overnight fasting blood samples were drawn immediately prior to and after four weeks of supplementation. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipid profiles and their susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were reduced following treatment with either BL or adlay; furthermore, the lag phase of LDL oxidation increased after either supplementation. However, it seemed that BL had stronger antioxidative effect on the prevention of LDL oxidation than adlay. Our results also indicated that the antioxidative effect was less pronounced in smokers than in non-smokers. Therefore, supplementation with BL or adlay can decrease plasma lipids and inhibit LDL oxidation in hyperlipidemic smokers and/or non-smokers.

  16. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and plasma concentrations of lipid peroxidation in premenopausal women123

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Rovner, Alisha J; Mumford, Sunni L; Yeung, Edwina; Browne, Richard W; Trevisan, Maurizio; Perkins, Neil J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2010-01-01

    Background: A Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. A possible mechanism is through a decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO); however, evidence linking the Mediterranean diet with lower LPO in premenopausal women is sparse. Objective: We investigated whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with lower LPO concentrations in premenopausal women. Design: Two hundred fifty-nine healthy women aged 18–44 y were followed for ≤2 menstrual cycles. Plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), 9-hydroxyoctadecadieneoic acid (9-HODE), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured ≤8 times per cycle at visits scheduled by using fertility monitors. Diet was assessed ≤4 times per cycle by using 24-h dietary recalls. The alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) (range: 0–9) was calculated on the basis of intake of vegetables, legumes, fruit, nuts, whole grains, red and processed meat, fish, and alcohol and the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat. Results: A 1-unit increase in aMED was associated with a 4.50% decrease in 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations (95% CI: −6.32%, −2.65%) and a 14.01% decrease in 9-HODE concentrations (95% CI: −17.88%, −9.96%) after adjustment for energy intake, age, race, body mass index, plasma ascorbic acid, and serum cholesterol. No significant association was observed between aMED and TBARS. A 1-unit increase in aMED was associated with a 1.39% increase (95% CI: 0.07%, 2.72%) in plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. Conclusions: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower LPO and higher ascorbic acid concentrations. These results confirm that decreased LPO is a plausible mechanism linking a Mediterranean diet to reduced cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:20943796

  17. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers.

    PubMed

    House, R A

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.

  19. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  20. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  1. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  2. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2007-01-19

    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  3. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  4. Impact of apolipoprotein E genotype variation on means, variances, and correlations of plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein traits in octogenarians

    SciTech Connect

    Haviland, M.B.; Sing, C.F.; Lussier-Cacan, S.; Davignon, J.

    1995-09-25

    The impact of apolipoprotein (apo) E genotype variation on means, variances and correlations between plasma lipid traits was studied in male and female octogenarians. Females had significantly higher mean levels of all 10 of the measured plasma lipid traits than males. The subset of concomitants (i.e., age, height, weight, body mass index, glucose and uric acid) that made a statistically significant contribution to interindividual variability was different in males and females for every trait considered. Gender-specific associations between variation in apo E genotype and variation in particular measures of lipid metabolism, adjusted for concomitant variation, were observed: in females there were no statistically significant associations while in males the means of the three common apo E genotypes were significantly different for adjusted measures of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-apo B. The common apo E genotypes were heterogeneous with respect to intragenotypic variance for adjusted log-transformed triglyceride levels in females only. Finally, the three common apo E genotypes were heterogeneous with respect to the correlation between traits, adjusted for concomitant variation, and gender influenced the manner in which the genotypes differed for specific correlations. This study documents that variation in the apo E gene has a significant impact on means, variances and correlations of plasma lipid traits in octogenarians, but the effects are context-, that is, gender- and age-, dependent. 65 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. How lipid hydration and temperature affect the structure of DC-Chol DOPE/DNA lipoplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Amenitsch, Heinz; Caminiti, Ruggero; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2006-05-01

    Effect of lipid hydration on the structure of lamellar lipoplexes made of the cationic lipid 3-[ N-( N, N-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]cholesterol (DC-Chol), the neutral 'helper' lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and calf-thymus DNA was investigated by synchrotron small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD). Here, we show that lipid hydration is the key factor regulating the equilibrium structure of lipoplexes. Thermotropic behavior was also investigated between 5 and 65 °C. Both the membrane thickness and the water layer thickness were found to decrease linearly as a function of temperature while the one dimensional DNA rod lattice between lipid bilayers was found to enlarge. Structural results were interpreted in terms of recently proposed theoretical models.

  6. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma concentrations of lipids and antioxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Zino, S.; Skeaff, M.; Williams, S.; Mann, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which plasma antioxidant concentrations in people with habitual low intake of fruit and vegetables respond to increased intakes of these foods. To examine whether advice to increase fruit and vegetables will result in reduction of concentrations of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial in which intervention and control groups were followed up for eight weeks. The intervention group was asked to consume eight servings of fruit and vegetables a day. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Eighty seven subjects with normal lipid concentrations who ate three or fewer servings of fruit and vegetables daily. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma concentrations of vitamin C, retinol, alpha and beta carotene, alpha tocopherol, lipids, and lipoproteins. Dietary intake assessed with diet records over four days. RESULTS: The mean plasma vitamin C, alpha carotene, and beta carotene concentrations increased in parallel with increased dietary intake of fruit and vegetables in the intervention group. Concentrations of retinol, alpha tocopherol, lipids, and lipoproteins remained unchanged despite some increase in dietary vitamin E and a small reduction in saturated fat intake. CONCLUSIONS: Following a recommendation to increase fruit and vegetable consumption produces change in plasma concentrations of vitamin C, alpha carotene, and beta carotene likely to reduce incidence of cancer. More specific dietary advice to modify fat intake may be necessary to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease mediated by lipoprotein and vitamin E. PMID:9224079

  7. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on plasma lipids, lipoprotein (a), and liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Fatma Mujgan; Demir, Ercan; Orem, Asim; Yildirmis, Sermet; Orhan, Fazil; Aslan, Adnan; Topbas, Murat

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the effect of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and valproate on serum lipid profiles and lipoprotein (a) in 64 children with epilepsy (aged between 1 and 15 years) admitted to the child neurology outpatient clinic between July 2000 and July 2002. The children were separated as group 1 (18 children), treated with phenobarbital, 5 mg/kg/day; group 2 (22 children), treated with carbamazepine, 10 to 15 mg/kg/day; and group 3 (24 children), treated with sodium valproate, 20 mg/kg/day. Plasma lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A and apolipoprotein B levels, and liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase were determined before the initiation of the treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months of the treatment period. The mean age of children in group 1 was significantly low compared with those in groups 2 and 3 (P <.05). The mean pretreatment lipid levels among the groups were not significantly increased. The mean lipoprotein (a) levels were significantly increased in all groups at 3, 6, and 12 months of the treatment period (P <.05). The increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 3, 6, and 12 months was statistically significant in group 1 (P <.05). The higher levels in lipoprotein (a) (mean > 30 mg/dL) were observed only in carbamazepine-treated patients at 6 and 12 months. The percentage of children with lipoprotein (a) levels over 30 mg/dL was 44%, 63%, and 33% in the phenobarbital-, carbamazepine-, and valproate-treated children, respectively. Antiepileptic drugs significantly increase the level of lipoprotein (a), which is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, and also have variable effects on other lipid parameters

  8. Lipid utilization in radish seedlings as affected by weak horizontal extremely low frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A

    2014-02-01

    Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50 Hz frequency and ∼500 µT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22 °C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16 °C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22 °C and 13-16 °C.

  9. Plasma Coenzyme Q10 Predicts Lipid-lowering Response to High-Dose Atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Pacanowski, Michael A.; Frye, Reginald F.; Enogieru, Osatohanmen; Schofield, Richard S.; Zineh, Issam

    2008-01-01

    Background Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a provitamin synthesized via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, and thus may serve as a potential marker of intrinsic HMG-CoA reductase activity. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) decrease CoQ10, although it is unclear whether this is due to reductions in lipoproteins, which transport CoQ10. Objectives We evaluated whether baseline plasma CoQ10 concentrations predict the lipid-lowering response to high-dose atorvastatin, and to what extent CoQ10 changes following atorvastatin therapy depend on lipoprotein changes. Methods Individuals without dyslipidemia or known cardiovascular disease (n=84) received atorvastatin 80 mg daily for 16 weeks. Blood samples collected at baseline and after 4, 8, and 16 weeks of treatment were assayed for CoQ10. Results Individuals with higher baseline CoQ10:LDL-C ratios displayed diminished absolute and percent LDL-C reductions at 8 and 16 weeks of atorvastatin treatment (P<0.001 to 0.01). After 16 weeks of atorvastatin, plasma CoQ10 decreased 45% from 762±301 ng/ml to 374±150 ng/ml (P<0.001). CoQ10 changes were correlated with LDL-C and apolipoprotein B changes (r=0.27-0.38, P=0.001-0.02), but remained significant when normalized to all lipoproteins. CoQ10 changes were not associated with adverse drug reactions. Conclusion Baseline CoQ10:LDL-C ratio was associated with the degree of LDL-C response to atorvastatin. Atorvastatin decreased CoQ10 concentrations in a manner that was not completely dependent on lipoprotein changes. The utility of CoQ10 as a predictor of atorvastatin response should be further explored in patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:19649137

  10. Influence of dietary lipids on hepatic mRNA levels of proteins regulating plasma lipoproteins in baboons with high and low levels of large high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R S; McMahan, C A; Mott, G E; Carey, K D; Reardon, C A; Getz, G S; McGill, H C

    1991-12-01

    Selective breeding of baboons has produced families with increased plasma levels of large high density lipoproteins (HDL1) and very low (VLDL) and low (LDL) density lipoproteins when the animals consume a diet enriched in cholesterol and saturated fat. High HDL1 baboons have a slower cholesteryl ester transfer, which may account for the accumulation of HDL1, but not of VLDL and LDL. To investigate the mechanism of accumulation of VLDL + LDL in plasma of the high HDL1 phenotype, we selected eight half-sib pairs of baboons, one member of each pair with high HDL1, the other member with little or no HDL1 on the same high cholesterol, saturated fat diet. Baboons were fed a chow diet and four experimental diets consisting of high and low cholesterol with corn oil, and high and low cholesterol with lard, each for 6 weeks, in a crossover design. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and hepatic mRNA levels were measured on each diet. HDL1 phenotype, type of dietary fat, and dietary cholesterol affected plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, whereas dietary fat alone affected plasma triglyceride and apoA-I concentrations. HDL1 phenotype and dietary cholesterol alone did not influence hepatic mRNA levels, whereas dietary lard, compared to corn oil, significantly increased hepatic apoE mRNA levels and decreased hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. Hepatic apoA-I message was associated with cholesterol concentration in HDL fractions as well as with apoA-I concentrations in the plasma or HDL. However, hepatic apoB message level was not associated with plasma or LDL apoB levels. Total plasma cholesterol, including HDL, was negatively associated with hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. However, compared with low HDL1 baboons, high HDL1 baboons had higher concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol at the same hepatic mRNA levels. These studies suggest that neither overproduction of apoB from the liver nor decreased hepatic LDL

  11. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  12. A diet rich in conjugated linoleic acid and butter increases lipid peroxidation but does not affect atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or diabetic risk markers in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Raff, Marianne; Tholstrup, Tine; Basu, Samar; Nonboe, Pernille; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2008-03-01

    Intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been demonstrated to beneficially affect risk markers of atherosclerosis and diabetes in rats. CLA is naturally found in milk fat, especially from cows fed a diet high in oleic acid, and increased CLA intake can occur concomitantly with increased milk fat intake. Our objective was to investigate the effect of CLA as part of a diet rich in butter as a source of milk fat on risk markers of atherosclerosis, inflammation, diabetes type II, and lipid peroxidation. A total of 38 healthy young men were given a diet with 115 g/d of CLA-rich fat (5.5 g/d CLA oil, a mixture of 39.4% cis9, trans11 and 38.5% trans10, cis12) or of control fat with a low content of CLA in a 5-wk double-blind, randomized, parallel intervention study. We collected blood and urine before and after the intervention. The fatty acid composition of plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids reflected that of the intervention diets. The CLA diet resulted in increased lipid peroxidation measured as an 83% higher 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha concentration compared with the control, P < 0.0001. We observed no other significant differences in the effect of the interventions diets. In conclusion, when given as part of a diet rich in butter, a mixture of CLA isomers increased lipid peroxidation but did not affect risk markers of cardiovascular disease, inflammation, or fasting insulin and glucose concentrations.

  13. Echium oil reduces plasma lipids and hepatic lipogenic gene expression in apoB100-only LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Boudyguina, Elena; Wilson, Martha D; Gebre, Abraham K; Parks, John S

    2008-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO), which is enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 n-3), the product of Delta-6 desaturation of 18:3 n-3, will decrease plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations and result in conversion of SDA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the liver. Mildly hypertriglyceridemic mice (apoB100-only LDLrKO) were fed a basal diet containing 10% calories as palm oil (PO) and 0.2% cholesterol for 4 weeks, after which they were randomly assigned to experimental diets consisting of the basal diet plus supplementation of 10% of calories as PO, EO or fish oil (FO) for 8 weeks. The EO and FO experimental diets decreased plasma TG and VLDL lipid concentration, and hepatic TG content compared to PO, and there was a significant correlation between hepatic TG content and plasma TG concentration among diet groups. EO fed mice had plasma and liver lipid EPA enrichment that was greater than PO-fed mice but less than FO-fed mice. Down-regulation of several genes involved in hepatic TG biosynthesis was similar for mice fed EO and FO and significantly lower compared to those fed PO. In conclusion, EO may provide a botanical alternative to FO for reduction of plasma TG concentrations.

  14. NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Seth; Agrawal, Prashansa; Jain, Nitin U.

    2009-01-23

    Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a serum glycoprotein that binds to the Lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity as part of the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxins. In order to investigate structural interactions of Lipid A with sCD14, we have prepared an isotopically labeled form of a fully active and chemically defined endotoxin, Kdo{sub 2}-Lipid A, which allowed us to carry out detailed NMR spectral mapping of this agonist ligand bound to sCD14 and identify for the first time structural regions that are strongly affected during complex formation with sCD14. These map to two adjacent areas comprising the lower portions of the sugar headgroup and upper half of the acyl chains I, III, and V, which are spatially proximal to the 1- and 4'-phosphate ends. Additionally, we have detected for the first time, presence of differential dynamic behavior for the affected resonances, suggesting a likely role for dynamics in the mechanism of Lipid A pattern recognition by sCD14.

  15. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE PLASMA LIPID PROFILE IN HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA VENTRALIS) WITH NATURALLY OCCURRING HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Stanhope, Kimber L; Lin, Amy S; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2016-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups. An exercised group (n = 8) was housed as a flock and exercised daily with 30 min of aviary flight and 30 min walking on a rotating perch. A sedentary control group (n = 4) was housed in individual cages with no exercise regime. A plasma lipid panel, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, was validated for this species. Body weight, chest girth, and the lipid panel were measured at 0, 61, and 105 days. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were measured at 0 and 105 days. Weight and girth were significantly lower in exercised than sedentary parrots at 61 and 105 days. HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in exercised parrots at 61 days but returned to near baseline by 105 days. There were no significant changes in hematology, biochemistry, or other lipid panel parameters. Results were similar to studies in humans and animal models, in which increased HDL-C was the most consistent effect of exercise on circulating lipid and lipoprotein parameters. The return toward baseline HDL-C may have resulted from decreased participation in aviary flight. Additional investigation will be required to determine the amount of exercise and change in circulating lipid-related parameters necessary to improve long-term wellness in psittacine species predisposed to hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Yeast mutants affecting possible quality control of plasma membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kane, T; Tipper, C; Spatrick, P; Jenness, D D

    1999-05-01

    Mutations gef1, stp22, STP26, and STP27 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified as suppressors of the temperature-sensitive alpha-factor receptor (mutation ste2-3) and arginine permease (mutation can1(ts)). These suppressors inhibited the elimination of misfolded receptors (synthesized at 34 degrees C) as well as damaged surface receptors (shifted from 22 to 34 degrees C). The stp22 mutation (allelic to vps23 [M. Babst and S. Emr, personal communication] and the STP26 mutation also caused missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, and ste2-3 was suppressed by mutations vps1, vps8, vps10, and vps28 but not by mutation vps3. In the stp22 mutant, both the mutant and the wild-type receptors (tagged with green fluorescent protein [GFP]) accumulated within an endosome-like compartment and were excluded from the vacuole. GFP-tagged Stp22p also accumulated in this compartment. Upon reaching the vacuole, cytoplasmic domains of both mutant and wild-type receptors appeared within the vacuolar lumen. Stp22p and Gef1p are similar to tumor susceptibility protein TSG101 and voltage-gated chloride channel, respectively. These results identify potential elements of plasma membrane quality control and indicate that cytoplasmic domains of membrane proteins are translocated into the vacuolar lumen.

  17. Bright and photostable push-pull pyrene dye visualizes lipid order variation between plasma and intracellular membranes

    PubMed Central

    Niko, Yosuke; Didier, Pascal; Mely, Yves; Konishi, Gen-ichi; Klymchenko, Andrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging lipid organization in cell membranes requires advanced fluorescent probes. Here, we show that a recently synthesized push-pull pyrene (PA), similarly to popular probe Laurdan, changes the emission maximum as a function of lipid order, but outperforms it by spectroscopic properties. In addition to red-shifted absorption compatible with common 405 nm diode laser, PA shows higher brightness and much higher photostability than Laurdan in apolar membrane environments. Moreover, PA is compatible with two-photon excitation at wavelengths >800 nm, which was successfully used for ratiometric imaging of coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases in giant unilamellar vesicles. Fluorescence confocal microscopy in Hela cells revealed that PA efficiently stains the plasma membrane and the intracellular membranes at >20-fold lower concentrations, as compared to Laurdan. Finally, ratiometric imaging using PA reveals variation of lipid order within different cellular compartments: plasma membranes are close to liquid ordered phase of model membranes composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, while intracellular membranes are much less ordered, matching well membranes composed of unsaturated phospholipids without cholesterol. These differences in the lipid order were confirmed by fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) at the blue edge of PA emission band. PA probe constitutes thus a new powerful tool for biomembrane research. PMID:26750324

  18. Bright and photostable push-pull pyrene dye visualizes lipid order variation between plasma and intracellular membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niko, Yosuke; Didier, Pascal; Mely, Yves; Konishi, Gen-Ichi; Klymchenko, Andrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging lipid organization in cell membranes requires advanced fluorescent probes. Here, we show that a recently synthesized push-pull pyrene (PA), similarly to popular probe Laurdan, changes the emission maximum as a function of lipid order, but outperforms it by spectroscopic properties. In addition to red-shifted absorption compatible with common 405 nm diode laser, PA shows higher brightness and much higher photostability than Laurdan in apolar membrane environments. Moreover, PA is compatible with two-photon excitation at wavelengths >800 nm, which was successfully used for ratiometric imaging of coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases in giant unilamellar vesicles. Fluorescence confocal microscopy in Hela cells revealed that PA efficiently stains the plasma membrane and the intracellular membranes at >20-fold lower concentrations, as compared to Laurdan. Finally, ratiometric imaging using PA reveals variation of lipid order within different cellular compartments: plasma membranes are close to liquid ordered phase of model membranes composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, while intracellular membranes are much less ordered, matching well membranes composed of unsaturated phospholipids without cholesterol. These differences in the lipid order were confirmed by fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) at the blue edge of PA emission band. PA probe constitutes thus a new powerful tool for biomembrane research.

  19. Primary hyperlipidemias in children: effect of plant sterol supplementation on plasma lipids and markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption.

    PubMed

    Guardamagna, O; Abello, F; Baracco, V; Federici, G; Bertucci, P; Mozzi, A; Mannucci, L; Gnasso, A; Cortese, C

    2011-06-01

    Plant sterols lower serum cholesterol concentration. Available data have confirmed the lipid-lowering efficacy in adults, while there is a relative dearth of data in children and almost exclusively restricted to subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of plant sterol supplementation in children with different forms of primary hyperlipidemias. The effect of plant sterol consumption on plasma lipids was evaluated in 32 children with heterozygous FH, 13 children with Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia (FCH) and 13 children with Undefined Hypercholesterolemia (UH) in a 12-week open-label intervention study using plant sterol-enriched yoghurt. Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins were measured by routine methods. Markers of cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) and absorption (campesterol and sitosterol) were measured by GC-MS. Tolerability and adherence to recommended regimen was very high. A significant reduction was observed in LDL-cholesterol in the three groups (10.7, 14.2 and 16.0% in FH, FCH and UH, respectively). Lathosterol concentrations were unchanged, reflecting a lack of increased synthesis of cholesterol. Of the two absorption markers, only sitosterol showed a slight but significant increase. Daily consumption of plant sterol dairy products favorably changes lipid profile by reducing LDL-cholesterol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of plant sterols-enriched foods in treating children with primary hyperlipidemia such as FCH and UH, likely to be the most frequent form also in the young age in the western populations.

  20. Bright and photostable push-pull pyrene dye visualizes lipid order variation between plasma and intracellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Niko, Yosuke; Didier, Pascal; Mely, Yves; Konishi, Gen-ichi; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2016-01-11

    Imaging lipid organization in cell membranes requires advanced fluorescent probes. Here, we show that a recently synthesized push-pull pyrene (PA), similarly to popular probe Laurdan, changes the emission maximum as a function of lipid order, but outperforms it by spectroscopic properties. In addition to red-shifted absorption compatible with common 405 nm diode laser, PA shows higher brightness and much higher photostability than Laurdan in apolar membrane environments. Moreover, PA is compatible with two-photon excitation at wavelengths >800 nm, which was successfully used for ratiometric imaging of coexisting liquid ordered and disordered phases in giant unilamellar vesicles. Fluorescence confocal microscopy in Hela cells revealed that PA efficiently stains the plasma membrane and the intracellular membranes at >20-fold lower concentrations, as compared to Laurdan. Finally, ratiometric imaging using PA reveals variation of lipid order within different cellular compartments: plasma membranes are close to liquid ordered phase of model membranes composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, while intracellular membranes are much less ordered, matching well membranes composed of unsaturated phospholipids without cholesterol. These differences in the lipid order were confirmed by fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) at the blue edge of PA emission band. PA probe constitutes thus a new powerful tool for biomembrane research.

  1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measured by confocal microscopy as a tool for the analysis of vesicular lipid transport and plasma membrane mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Gerd; Goetz, Alexandra; Orso, Evelyn; Rothe, Gregor

    1998-04-01

    The vesicular transport of lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum via the Golgi apparatus affects the composition of the plasma membrane. The purpose of our study was to develop an in vitro test system for characterization of vesicular lipid transport kinetics by using confocal microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Fibroblasts from two patients homozygous for the hypercatabolic HDL deficiency syndrome Tangier disease and 4 control subjects were pulsed with the C6-NBD-ceramide for 30 minutes. Chase incubation at room temperature resulted in the metabolic accumulation of fluorescent C6-NBD-sphingolyelin and C6-NBD-glycosylceramides in the medial- and trans-Golgi region. Cells were analyzed with an inverted Leica TCS microscope. Calibration was performed through the analysis of diffusion of 50 nm microparticles embedded in media of different viscosity. An acousto optical tunable filter (AOTF) was used for the selective bleaching of the medial- and trans- Golgi region followed by analysis of the fluorescence recovery for 4 minutes. Post-bleach fluorescence recovery through the trans-Golgi-oriented transport of NBD-sphingomyelin was calculated from 2-dimensional scans. Tangier fibroblasts displayed a retarded recovery of fluorescence in the trans- Golgi region. This suggests that the vesicular transport of sphingomyelin and cholesterol is disturbed in Tangier disease confirming data from our laboratory generated with radiometabolites on whole cells. Our data suggest that FRAP analysis allows a sensitive kinetic and spatially resolved analysis of disturbances of vesicular lipid transport.

  2. The amelioration of plasma lipids by Korean traditional confectionery in middle-aged women: A cross-over study with western cookie

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Noh, Jeong Sook; Lee, JaeHwan; Chung, Lana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma lipid profiles are affected differently by snack kinds with equal calorific values. SUBJECTS/METHODS We compared a Korean traditional confectionery (dasik) with Western confectionery (cookie) in this regard. Controlled cross-over study consisted of two 3-week snack intake phases and for separating, a 2-week washout period (3–2–3) was carried out with 30 healthy women aged between 40-59 years old. Brown rice based Korean traditional confectionery and wheat flour based Western confectionery were used. The participants consumed either dasik or cookie every day for 3 weeks, providing 93 kcal a day. RESULTS The total cholesterol (TC) in the dasik group had decreased significantly after 3 weeks (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the dasik group, reduction in TC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were greater than those in the cookie group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Prioritizing functional snacks like dasik improves plasma lipid profiles; this may be useful information for individuals who cannot refrain from snacking. PMID:27909556

  3. Defects in leukocyte-mediated initiation of lipid peroxidation in plasma as studied in myeloperoxidase-deficient subjects: systematic identification of multiple endogenous diffusible substrates for myeloperoxidase in plasma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renliang; Shen, Zhongzhou; Nauseef, William M; Hazen, Stanley L

    2002-03-01

    More than a decade ago it was demonstrated that neutrophil activation in plasma results in the time-dependent formation of lipid hydroperoxides through an unknown, ascorbate-sensitive pathway. It is now shown that the mechanism involves myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent use of multiple low-molecular-weight substrates in plasma, generating diffusible oxidant species. Addition of activated human neutrophils (from healthy subjects) to plasma (50%, vol/vol) resulted in the peroxidation of endogenous plasma lipids by catalase-, heme poison-, and ascorbate-sensitive pathways, as assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with on-line electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of free and lipid-bound 9-HETE and 9-HODE. In marked contrast, neutrophils isolated from multiple subjects with MPO deficiency failed to initiate peroxidation of plasma lipids, but they did so after supplementation with isolated human MPO. MPO-dependent use of a low-molecular-weight substrate(s) in plasma for initiating lipid peroxidation was illustrated by demonstrating that the filtrate of plasma (10-kd MWt cutoff) could supply components required for low-density lipoprotein lipid peroxidation in the presence of MPO and H(2)O(2). Subsequent HPLC fractionation of plasma filtrate (10-kd MWt cutoff) by sequential column chromatography identified nitrite, tyrosine, and thiocyanate as major endogenous substrates and 17 beta-estradiol as a novel minor endogenous substrate in plasma for MPO in promoting peroxidation of plasma lipids. These results strongly suggest that the MPO-H(2)O(2) system of human leukocytes serves as a physiological mechanism for initiating lipid peroxidation in vivo.

  4. Suppression of lysophosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine formation in the plasma in vitro: proposal of a plasma sample preparation method for laboratory testing of these lipids.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kishimoto, Tatsuya; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Okubo, Shigeo; Tozuka, Minoru; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Noriko; Mizuno, Koji; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2007-08-01

    It is now established that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) play important roles in a variety of biological responses, especially in the area of vascular biology, and determination of their concentrations in the plasma is believed to be clinically relevant. Preparation of the measurement samples is a difficult task, however, because the blood levels of these lipids can be easily increased by in vitro manipulation after venepuncture. In this study, we examined the optimal conditions for the preparation of plasma samples for the measurement of LPA and LPC. It appears that regulation of platelet activation and the enzymatic activity of lysophospholipase D/autotaxin and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase is important to suppress the undesirable formation of LPA and LPC after venepuncture. We found that in vitro formation of LPA and LPC was negligible when whole blood samples were mixed with 7.5 mM EDTA plus 10% (v/v) citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole (CTAD) and when all of the procedures, including the plasma preparation and preservation until measurement, were performed at 4 degrees C. Thus, although the plasma levels of LPA and LPC can be easily altered, laboratory testing of these important bioactive lipids for clinical purposes may be conducted reliably if the samples are prepared under stringent conditions.

  5. ANGPTL3 blockade with a human monoclonal antibody reduces plasma lipids in dyslipidemic mice and monkeys1[S

    PubMed Central

    Gusarova, Viktoria; Alexa, Corey A.; Wang, Yan; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Buckler, David; Mintah, Ivory J.; Shihanian, Lisa M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.; Xin, Yurong; Valenzuela, David M.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is a circulating protein synthesized exclusively in the liver that inhibits LPL and endothelial lipase (EL), enzymes that hydrolyze TGs and phospholipids in plasma lipoproteins. Here we describe the development and testing of a fully human monoclonal antibody (REGN1500) that binds ANGPTL3 with high affinity. REGN1500 reversed ANGPTL3-induced inhibition of LPL activity in vitro. Intravenous administration of REGN1500 to normolipidemic C57Bl/6 mice increased LPL activity and decreased plasma TG levels by ≥50%. Chronic administration of REGN1500 to dyslipidemic C57Bl/6 mice for 8 weeks reduced circulating plasma levels of TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) without any changes in liver, adipose, or heart TG contents. Studies in EL knockout mice revealed that REGN1500 reduced serum HDL-C through an EL-dependent mechanism. Finally, administration of a single dose of REGN1500 to dyslipidemic cynomolgus monkeys caused a rapid and pronounced decrease in plasma TG, nonHDL-C, and HDL-C. REGN1500 normalized plasma TG levels even in monkeys with a baseline plasma TG greater than 400 mg/dl. Collectively, these data demonstrate that neutralization of ANGPTL3 using REGN1500 reduces plasma lipids in dyslipidemic mice and monkeys, and thus provides a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of patients with hyperlipidemia. PMID:25964512

  6. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  7. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best.

  8. Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (⅓× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components.

  9. Cigarette-smoke-induced atherogenic lipid profiles in plasma and vascular tissue of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice are attenuated by smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Lietz, Michael; Berges, An; Lebrun, Stefan; Meurrens, Kris; Steffen, Yvonne; Stolle, Katrin; Schueller, Jutta; Boue, Stephanie; Vuillaume, Grégory; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Moehring, Michaela; Schlage, Walter; De Leon, Hector; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco smoke exerts perturbations on lipid metabolism and arterial cell function that accelerate atherosclerosis. Lipidomics has emerged as a key technology in helping to elucidate the lipid-related mechanisms of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of smoking cessation on plaque development and aortic arch content of various lipid molecular classes and species. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were exposed to fresh air (sham) or to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 months, or to CS for 3 months followed by sham for 3 months (cessation group). Lipids from plasma and aortic arches, plasma lipoprotein profiles and plaque morphometry measurements were analyzed. We already showed that CS exposure accelerated plaque size and total cholesterol content of the aortic arch at 3 and 6 months. Marked increases were seen in the relative enrichment of cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, sphingomyelins, and glycosphingolipids. Smoking cessation slowed plaque progression and resulted in lower levels of many lipid species in plasma and aortic arch. While CS exposure promoted rapid lipid accumulation in mouse aorta, smoking cessation translated into a slow removal of lipids from the vessel wall. Despite the smoking cessation-dependent metabolic changes leading to increased animal body weight, accumulation of proatherogenic lipids in the vessel was halted after exposure cessation, indicating that the clinical benefits of smoking cessation translate directly to the vessel wall and its lipid makeup.

  10. Melatonin affects the order, dynamics and hydration of brain membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkas, Sara B.; Inci, Servet; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2007-05-01

    The brain is especially susceptible to free radical attack since it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and consumes very high amounts of oxygen. Melatonin is a non-enzymatic amphiphilic antioxidant hormone that is widely used in medicine for protective and treatment purposes in cases of oxidative stress. In the present work, the effects of the clinically used dose of melatonin (a single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg) on rat brain homogenate were investigated as a function of temperature using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the lipid to protein ratio decreases in the melatonin treated brain samples. Moreover, it is revealed that melatonin disorders and decreases the dynamics of lipids and induces a strengthening in the hydrogen bonding between the functional groups of both melatonin and the polar parts of lipids and/or water at physiological temperatures.

  11. Modifications in high-density lipoprotein lipid composition and structure alter the plasma distribution of free and liposomal annamycin.

    PubMed

    Wasan, K M; Ng, S; Cassidy, S M

    1997-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that changes in lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentration alters the plasma distribution of free (Ann.) and liposomal annamycin (LAnn) and that the majority of Ann. is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDL) following the incubation in plasma of LAnn. To demonstrate that alterations in HDL lipid composition and HDL structure may influence the plasma distribution of Ann. and LAnn, Ann. and LAnn (20 micrograms/mL) were incubated in plasma pretreated with dithionitrobenzoate (DTNB, a compound which inhibits the conversion of free cholesterol to esterified cholesterol) 18 h prior to the experiment or in untreated plasma for 60 min at 37 degrees C. In addition, Ann. and LAnn were co-incubated with DTNB in plasma for 60 min at 37 degrees C. Following incubation the plasma was separated into its HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and lipoprotein-deficient plasma (LPDP) fractions by ultracentrifugation and assayed for Ann. by fluorimetry. The HDL plasma cholesterol:triglyceride concentration ratio was significantly decreased following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment compared to untreated plasma controls. No significant differences in LDL/VLDL plasma cholesterol:triglyceride concentration ratio following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment was observed. An increased number of discoidal HDL particles were observed following 18 h of DTNB pretreatment. When Ann. was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h the percentage of Ann. recovered in the HDL, LDL, and VLDL fractions significantly increased. However, the percentage of Ann. recovered within the LPDP fraction was significantly decreased. When LAnn was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h the percentage of Ann. recovered in the HDL fraction significantly decreased. The percentage of Ann. recovered in the LPDP fraction significantly increased when LAnn was incubated in plasma pretreated with DTNB for 18 h. No significant differences

  12. Lipid and protein oxidation of chicken breast rolls as affected by dietary oxidation levels and packaging.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shan; Zhang, Wan Gang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ma, Chang Wei; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary treatment and packaging on the oxidative stability of breast rolls. A total of 120 4-wk-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to control, oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil, PV = 100), or antioxidants-added diet (500 IU vitamin E + 200 ppm BHA) and fed for 2 wk. Breast muscles were separated from the carcasses and breast rolls were prepared. The rolls were cooked in a smoke house (85 °C) to an internal temperature of 74 °C, cooled, sliced to 2-cm thick pieces, individually packaged in oxygen permeable bags or vacuum-packaged in oxygen impermeable bags, and stored in a 4 °C cold room for 7 d. Lipid, protein oxidation and volatiles were determined at 1, 4, and 7 d of storage. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants significantly reduced lipid oxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation (carbonyls) in breast rolls, and the effect of dietary antioxidants on lipid oxidation was more pronounced than protein oxidation. Chicken breast rolls from antioxidants treatment group produced significantly lower amounts of hexanal and pentanal than those from control and oxidized oil treatments (P < 0.05). However, dietary oxidized oil did not increase lipid and protein oxidation in breast rolls. Vacuum-packaging significantly delayed the onset of lipid oxidation and protein oxidation in chicken rolls during 7-day refrigerated storage (P < 0.05). Therefore, it is suggested that appropriate use of dietary supplementation of antioxidants in combination with packaging could minimize lipid oxidation in chicken breast rolls.

  13. Effect of long term-administration with Gymnema sylvestre R. BR on plasma and liver lipid in rats.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, N; Asano, R; Shimosaka, M; Okazaki, M

    2001-06-01

    Extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves was administered to rats receiving either a high fat diet or normal fat diet for 10 weeks to investigate its influence on plasma and liver lipids and on visceral fat accumulation. In addition, its effect was compared with those of chitosan and the influence of combined use of these two substances was also evaluated. Within the high fat diet groups, the extract suppressed body weight gain and accumulation of liver lipids to the same extent as chitosan and the combined use. In addition, intraperitoneal fat and fat drop vacuoles on the epithelium of renal tubules, noted in the high fat diet group, were scattered by administration of the extract with the same results as for chitosan and combined use. Within the normal fat diet groups, plasma triglyceride levels decreased by administration of the extract, with similar results as chitosan and combined use. Concerning plasma total cholesterol, there was no decreasing effects with the extract, as found with chitosan and combined use. However, the effect of chitosan on plasma total cholesterol tended to be enhanced when used in combination with the extract. In addition, long-term administration of the extract did not show any influence on hematological and blood chemical parameters.

  14. Sugar does not affect the bending and tilt moduli of simple lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Nagle, John F; Jablin, Michael S; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The diffuse X-ray scattering method has been applied to samples composed of SOPC, DOPC, DMPC, and POPC with added sugar, either sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, or trehalose. Several sugar concentrations in the range 200-500 mM were investigated for each of the lipid/sugar samples. We observed no systematic change in the bending modulus KC or in the tilt modulus Kθ with increasing sugar concentration. The average values of both these moduli were the same as those of the respective pure lipid controls within statistical uncertainty of 2%. These results are inconsistent with previous reports of sugar concentration dependent values of KC.

  15. Dietary protein source affects lipid metabolism in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Dias, J; Alvarez, M J; Arzel, J; Corraze, G; Diez, A; Bautista, J M; Kaushik, S J

    2005-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources on lipogenesis and fat deposition in a marine teleost, the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Four isonitrogenous (crude protein (CP, Nx6.25), 44% DM) and isoenergetic (22-23 kJ/g DM) diets were formulated to contain one of the following as the major protein source: fish meal (FM), one of two soy protein concentrates (SPC) and corn gluten meal (CGM). Apparent digestibility coefficients of the diets and raw ingredients, as well as soluble nitrogen (ammonia and urea) and phosphorus excretion were measured. Growth rates of seabass fed plant protein-based diets were significantly lower than those fed fish meal based diet. The protein utilisation was strongly correlated to the dietary essential amino acids index. Measurements of N excretion (ammonia and urea nitrogen) confirmed these data. Daily fat gain at the whole body level ranged between 1.1 to 1.7 g/kg BW, with the highest values being recorded in fish fed the fish meal based diet. Levels of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol were lower in fish fed soy protein diets than in those fed the diet solely based on fish meal. Soy protein rich diets decreased the activities of selected hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, ATP-citrate lysase, acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase). Highest lipogenic enzyme activities where found in fish fed the fish meal diet, except for fatty acid synthetase which was increased in seabass fed the corn-gluten meal based diets. Overall data suggest that dietary protein sources affects fat deposition and the lipogenic potential in European seabass.

  16. Brazil nut ingestion increased plasma selenium but had minimal effects on lipids, apolipoproteins, and high-density lipoprotein function in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Strunz, Célia C; Oliveira, Tatiane V; Vinagre, Juliana C M; Lima, Adriana; Cozzolino, Silvia; Maranhão, Raul C

    2008-03-01

    The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) of the Amazon region is consumed worldwide. It is rich in both monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids and is known for its high selenium content. This study tested the hypothesis whether the consumption of this nut could affect the plasma lipids and apolipoproteins and some functional properties of the antiatherogenic high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Fifteen normolipidemic subjects aged 27.3 +/- 3.9 years and with body mass index of 23.8 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2) consumed 45 g of Brazil nuts per day during a 15-day period. On days 0 and 15, blood was collected for biochemical analysis, determination of HDL particle size, paraoxonase 1 activity, and lipid transfer from a lipoprotein-like nanoparticle to the HDL fraction. Brazil nut ingestion did not alter HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apolipoprotein A-I, or apolipoprotein B concentrations. HDL particle diameter and the activity of antioxidative paraoxonase 1, mostly found in the HDL fraction, were also unaffected. Supplementation increased the reception of cholesteryl esters (P < .05) by the HDL yet did not alter the reception of phospholipids, free cholesterol, or triacylglycerols. As expected, plasma selenium was significantly increased. However, the consumption of Brazil nuts for short duration by normolipidemic subjects in comparable amounts to those tested for other nuts did not alter serum lipid profile. The only alteration in HDL function was the increase in cholesteryl ester transfer. This latter finding may be beneficial because it would improve the nonatherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  17. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal murine thymocytes and leukemic GRSL cells.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Okazaki, Susumu; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2013-04-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations for the plasma membranes of normal murine thymocytes and thymus-derived leukemic GRSL cells in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15K and 1 atm) to investigate changes in membrane properties induced by canceration. The model membranes used in our calculations for normal and leukemic thymocytes comprised 23 and 25 kinds of lipids, respectively, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. The mole fractions of the lipids adopted here were based on previously published experimental values. Our calculations clearly showed that the membrane area was increased in leukemic cells, and that the isothermal area compressibility of the leukemic plasma membranes was double that of normal cells. The calculated membranes of leukemic cells were thus considerably bulkier and softer in the lateral direction compared with those of normal cells. The tilt angle of the cholesterol and the conformation of the phospholipid fatty acid tails both showed a lower level of order in leukemic cell membranes compared with normal cell membranes. The lateral radial distribution function of the lipids also showed a more disordered structure in leukemic cell membranes than in normal cell membranes. These observations all show that, for the present thymocytes, the lateral structure of the membrane is considerably disordered by canceration. Furthermore, the calculated lateral self-diffusion coefficient of the lipid molecules in leukemic cell membranes was almost double that in normal cell membranes. The calculated rotational and wobbling autocorrelation functions also indicated that the molecular motion of the lipids was enhanced in leukemic cell membranes. Thus, here we have demonstrated that the membranes of thymocyte leukemic cells are more disordered and more fluid than normal cell membranes.

  18. DHEA-induced modulation of renal gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexamethasone-treated rabbits. Metabolic studies.

    PubMed

    Kiersztan, Anna; Nagalski, Andrzej; Nalepa, Paweł; Tempes, Aleksandra; Trojan, Nina; Usarek, Michał; Jagielski, Adam K

    2016-02-01

    In view of antidiabetic and antiglucocorticoid effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) both in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken: (i) to elucidate the mechanism of action of both dexamethasone phosphate (dexP) and DHEA on glucose synthesis in primary cultured rabbit kidney-cortex tubules and (ii) to investigate the influence of DHEA on glucose synthesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexP-treated rabbits. Data show, that in cultured kidney-cortex tubules dexP significantly stimulated gluconeogenesis by increasing flux through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). DexP-induced effects were dependent only upon glucocorticoid receptor. DHEA decreased glucose synthesis via inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and suppressed the dexP-induced stimulation of renal gluconeogenesis. Studies with the use of inhibitors of DHEA metabolism in cultured renal tubules showed for the first time that DHEA directly affects renal gluconeogenesis. However, in view of analysis of glucocorticoids and DHEA metabolites levels in urine, it seems likely, that testosterone may also contribute to DHEA-evoked effects. In dexP-treated rabbits, plasma glucose level was not altered despite increased renal and hepatic FBPase and G6Pase activities, while a significant elevation of both plasma insulin and HOMA-IR was accompanied by a decline of ISI index. It thus appears that increased insulin levels were required to maintain normoglycaemia and to compensate the insulin resistance. DHEA alone affected neither plasma glucose nor lipid levels, while it increased insulin sensitivity and diminished both renal and hepatic G6Pase activities. Surprisingly, DHEA co-administrated with dexP did not alter insulin sensitivity, while it partially suppressed the dexP-induced elevation of renal G6Pase activity and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents. As (i) gluconeogenic pathway in rabbit is similar to that in human, and (ii) DHEA counteracts several

  19. Protein catabolism and high lipid metabolism associated with long-distance exercise are revealed by plasma NMR metabolomics in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Le Moyec, Laurence; Robert, Céline; Triba, Mohamed N; Billat, Véronique L; Mata, Xavier; Schibler, Laurent; Barrey, Eric

    2014-01-01

    During long distance endurance races, horses undergo high physiological and metabolic stresses. The adaptation processes involve the modulation of the energetic pathways in order to meet the energy demand. The aims were to evaluate the effects of long endurance exercise on the plasma metabolomic profiles and to investigate the relationships with the individual horse performances. The metabolomic profiles of the horses were analyzed using the non-dedicated methodology, NMR spectroscopy and statistical multivariate analysis. The advantage of this method is to investigate several metabolomic pathways at the same time in a single sample. The plasmas were obtained before exercise (BE) and post exercise (PE) from 69 horses competing in three endurance races at national level (130-160 km). Biochemical assays were also performed on the samples taken at PE. The proton NMR spectra were compared using the supervised orthogonal projection on latent structure method according to several factors. Among these factors, the race location was not significant whereas the effect of the race exercise (sample BE vs PE of same horse) was highly discriminating. This result was confirmed by the projection of unpaired samples (only BE or PE sample of different horses). The metabolomic profiles proved that protein, energetic and lipid metabolisms as well as glycoproteins content are highly affected by the long endurance exercise. The BE samples from finisher horses could be discriminated according to the racing speed based on their metabolomic lipid content. The PE samples could be discriminated according to the horse ranking position at the end of the race with lactate as unique correlated metabolite. As a conclusion, the metabolomic profiles of plasmas taken before and after the race provided a better understanding of the high energy demand and protein catabolism pathway that could expose the horses to metabolic disorders.

  20. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  2. Dietary linseed oil in the maternal diet affects immunoglobulins, tissue fatty acid composition and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, X L; Wang, N; Tian, M L; Wang, L; Liu, T; Zhang, X W; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2016-11-21

    This experiment investigated the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with linseed oil (LSO) and soya bean oil (SBO) on immunoglobulins, the fatty acid composition and hepatic expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in piglets. Multiparous sows (twenty-four per diet) were fed on diets containing a supplement of either SBO or LSO during last week of gestation and lactation. The results indicated that supplementation of maternal diet with LSO could improve the weaning weight of piglets and average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.05). The concentration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) was enhanced in sow plasma, colostrum and milk by the addition of LSO (p < 0.05). In addition, the concentration of 18: 3n-3 fatty acids was higher in the milk of LSO sows. Meanwhile, maternal supplementation with LSO increased the levels of plasma IgG, IgA and the tissues n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in piglets (p < 0.05). Correspondingly, the mRNA expression levels of hepatic ∆5-desaturase (D5D) and ∆6-desaturase (D6D) were higher, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) was lower in piglets from LSO-fed sows when compared with that in the SBO group. In conclusion, LSO supplementation of the maternal diet increases immunoglobulins, modifies the fatty acid composition and affects the gene of D5D and D6D expression of piglets.

  3. Apolipoprotein E4 allele is associated with substantial changes in the plasma lipids and hyaluronic acid content in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Stachowska, E; Maciejewska, D; Ossowski, P; Drozd, A; Ryterska, K; Banaszczak, M; Milkiewicz, M; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, J; Slebioda, M; Milkiewicz, P; Jelen, H

    2013-12-01

    Fat may affect progression of liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study we characterize the state of lipid metabolism in 22 patients with NAFLD and different Apo-E variants. Total concentration of plasma total fatty acids was quantified by gas chromatography, while their derivatives by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS). The ratio of plasma saturated fatty acid to monounsaturated fatty acid increased, whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was reduced in Apo-E4 carriers. Simultaneously, the levels of individual plasma linoleic, arachidonic, and alpha linolenic acids significantly increased in subjects with the Apo-E4 allele. The 15-lipoxygenase metabolite, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, was significantly higher in Apo-E3 carriers (p<0.006). 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid was significantly elevated in Apo-E4 carriers (p<0.009). A significant difference in hyaluronic acid concentration (p<0.0016) as well as predicted advanced fibrosis (using the BARD scoring system) was found in Apo-E4 carriers (p<0.01). We suggest that a distinct mechanism of fibrosis between Apo E alleles. In Apo-E4 carriers, an elevation in 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid synthesis and fatty acid dysfunction may induce fibrosis, while an inflammatory process may be the main cause of fibrosis in Apo-E3 carriers.

  4. Assessment of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel on haematology, plasma biochemistry, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iji, O T; Oyagbemi, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-11-28

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract on markers of hepatic damage, lipid profiles and erythrocyte osmotic fragility using the Wistar rats. Forty male Wistar rats divided into four groups of ten rats per group were used in the study. Group I which served as the control received 0.9% physiological saline while those in groups II, III and IV received Aloe vera gel (100, 250 and 500mg/kg), respectively, for four weeks. There was significant increase in the haemoglobin concentration while the PCV, RBC count, MCH and MCHC though showed some marginal increases but the increases were not significant in all the treated rats. No significant change was also observed in the erythrocyte osmotic fragility. However, there were significant reductions in plasma ALT, AST and ALP levels in animals that received the gel compared with the control while the plasma albumin and total protein values were higher than those of the control. All the animals that received the gel also showed significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol ratio compared with the control. In a similar manner, those animals that were administered with 500mg/kg gel had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol ratio than those of the control. This study showed that, chronic administration of Aloe vera gel extract had no significant effects on the haematological parameters of the rats and did not affect erythrocyte osmotic resistance. It however showed some cholesterol lowering action.

  5. Associations between dietary macronutrient intake and plasma lipids demonstrate criterion performance of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) food-frequency questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Rock, Cheryl L; Wang, Youfa; Jenny, Nancy S; Jacobs, David R

    2009-10-01

    The validity of self-reported dietary intake is critical to the design and interpretation of diet-disease investigations. For many nutrients, there are no ideal methods to establish validity, given correlated error between reference and assessment tools, and constraints on time and resources available to perform such studies. Therefore, we quantified associations between macronutrient intakes and plasma HDL-cholesterol and TAG, relying on known associations between these factors to test the criterion validity of the FFQ used in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Baseline dietary macronutrient intakes (derived from 120-item FFQ), and fasting plasma HDL and TAG were measured in 4510 MESA participants, aged 45-84 years. After adjusting for non-dietary factors known to affect plasma lipid concentrations, greater carbohydrate intake was associated with lower HDL and higher TAG (beta per 5-unit change in percentage energy intake from carbohydrate = - 5 (se 1) mg/l (P < 0.001) for HDL and 15 (se 6) mg/l (P = 0.008) for TAG), whereas higher energy intake from fat was associated with higher HDL and lower TAG (beta per 5-unit change in percentage energy from fat = 3.7 (se 2) mg/l (P = 0.01) for HDL and beta = 19 (se 7) mg/l (P = 0.004) for TAG). Associations of dietary carbohydrate and fat intakes with HDL and TAG concentrations were consistent with previous studies, demonstrating criterion validity of these dietary measures in the MESA.

  6. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  7. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (p<.001) compared with the control group. Plasma DA levels were also higher in the meditation (p=.031) than in the control group. The control group demonstrated a negative correlation between stress and positive affects (r=-.408, p=.002), whereas this correlation was not observed in the meditation group. The control group showed positive correlations between somatization and NE/E (r=.267, p=.045) and DA/E (r=.271, p=.042) ratios, whereas these correlations did not emerge in the meditation group. In conclusion, these results suggest that meditation as mind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity.

  8. miR-27b inhibits LDLR and ABCA1 expression but does not influence plasma and hepatic lipid levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Goedeke, Leigh; Rotllan, Noemi; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Aranda, Juan F.; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Araldi, Elisa; Fernández-Hernando, Ana; Langhi, Cedric; de Cabo, Rafael; Baldán, Ángel; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Recently, there has been significant interest in the therapeutic administration of miRNA mimics and inhibitors to treat cardiovascular disease. In particular, miR-27b has emerged as a regulatory hub in cholesterol and lipid metabolism and potential therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis. Despite this, the impact of miR-27b on lipid levels in vivo remains to be determined. As such, here we set out to further characterize the role of miR-27b in regulating cholesterol metabolism in vitro and to determine the effect of miR-27b overexpression and inhibition on circulating and hepatic lipids in mice. Methods and Results Our results identify miR-27b as an important regulator of LDLR activity in human and mouse hepatic cells through direct targeting of LDLR and LDLRAP1. In addition, we report that modulation of miR-27b expression affects ABCA1 protein levels and cellular cholesterol efflux to ApoA1 in human hepatic Huh7 cells. Overexpression of pre-miR-27b in the livers of wild-type mice using AAV8 vectors increased pre-miR-27b levels 50–fold and reduced hepatic ABCA1 and LDLR expression by 50% and 20%, respectively, without changing circulating and hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides. To determine the effect of endogenous miR-27b on circulating lipids, wild-type mice were fed a Western diet for one month and injected with 5 mg/kg of LNA control or LNA anti-miR-27b oligonucleotides. Following two weeks of treatment, the expression of ABCA1 and LDLR were increased by 10–20% in the liver, demonstrating effective inhibition of miR-27b function. Intriguingly, no differences in circulating and hepatic lipids were observed between treatment groups. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence that short-term modulation of miR-27b expression in wild-type mice regulates hepatic LDLR and ABCA1 expression but does not influence plasma and hepatic lipid levels. PMID:26520906

  9. Effects of the insoluble fiber derived from Passiflora edulis seed on plasma and hepatic lipids and fecal output.

    PubMed

    Chau, Chi-Fai; Huang, Ya-Ling

    2005-08-01

    The influence of the insoluble fiber-rich fraction (FRF) prepared from defatted Passiflora edulis seed, a potential fiber source, on plasma and hepatic lipids and fecal output were investigated in hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 5% insoluble FRF. The results showed that the consumption of insoluble FRF diet relative to cellulose diet could effectively (P < 0.05) decrease the levels of serum triglyceride, serum total cholesterol, and liver cholesterol, and increase (P < 0.05) the levels of total lipids, cholesterol, and bile acids in feces. The consumption of insoluble FRF also increased (P < 0.05) the fecal bulk and moisture. The marked cholesterol- and lipid-lowering effects of insoluble FRF might be partly attributed to its ability to enhance the excretion of lipids and bile acids via feces. Our results suggested that insoluble FRF could be a potential hypocholesterolemic ingredient for fiber-rich functional foods, but some further researches in humans may be needed to confirm its benefits.

  10. SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer and affects genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; True, Kirsten; Hamilton, Mark P; Nielsen, Morten M; Damas, Nkerorema D; Damgaard, Christian K; Ongen, Halit; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bramsen, Jesper B; Pedersen, Jakob S; Lund, Anders H; Vang, Søren; Stribolt, Katrine; Madsen, Mogens R; Laurberg, Søren; McGuire, Sean E; Ørntoft, Torben F; Andersen, Claus L

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer where they have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. RNA profiling of 314 colorectal adenomas/adenocarcinomas and 292 adjacent normal colon mucosa samples using RNA-sequencing demonstrated that the snoRNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) is significantly up-regulated in adenomas and all stages of CRC. SNHG16 expression was positively correlated to the expression of Wnt-regulated transcription factors, including ASCL2, ETS2, and c-Myc. In vitro abrogation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells reduced the expression of SNHG16 indicating that SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway. Silencing of SNHG16 resulted in reduced viability, increased apoptotic cell death and impaired cell migration. The SNHG16 silencing particularly affected expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. A connection between SNHG16 and genes involved in lipid metabolism was also observed in clinical tumors. Argonaute CrossLinking and ImmunoPrecipitation (AGO-CLIP) demonstrated that SNHG16 heavily binds AGO and has 27 AGO/miRNA target sites along its length, indicating that SNHG16 may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) "sponging" miRNAs off their cognate targets. Most interestingly, half of the miRNA families with high confidence targets on SNHG16 also target the 3'UTR of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD). SCD is involved in lipid metabolism and is down-regulated upon SNHG16 silencing. In conclusion, up-regulation of SNHG16 is a frequent event in CRC, likely caused by deregulated Wnt signaling. In vitro analyses demonstrate that SNHG16 may play an oncogenic role in CRC and that it affects genes involved in lipid metabolism, possible through ceRNA related mechanisms.

  11. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    PubMed Central

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring. PMID:27731423

  12. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-10-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring.

  13. Evolutionary clade affects resistance of Clostridium difficile spores to Cold Atmospheric Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Mairéad; Flynn, Padrig B.; Fairley, Derek J.; Marks, Nikki; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.; McGrath, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Spores produced by C. difficile are robust and can remain viable for months, leading to prolonged healthcare-associated outbreaks with high mortality. Exposure of C. difficile spores to a novel, non-thermal atmospheric pressure gas plasma was assessed. Factors affecting sporicidal efficacy, including percentage of oxygen in the helium carrier gas admixture, and the effect on spores from different strains representing the five evolutionary C. difficile clades was investigated. Strains from different clades displayed varying resistance to cold plasma. Strain R20291, representing the globally epidemic ribotype 027 type, was the most resistant. However all tested strains displayed a ~3 log reduction in viable spore counts after plasma treatment for 5 minutes. Inactivation of a ribotype 078 strain, the most prevalent clinical type seen in Northern Ireland, was further assessed with respect to surface decontamination, pH, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Environmental factors affected plasma activity, with dry spores without the presence of organic matter being most susceptible. This study demonstrates that cold atmospheric plasma can effectively inactivate C. difficile spores, and highlights factors that can affect sporicidal activity. PMID:28155914

  14. Evolutionary clade affects resistance of Clostridium difficile spores to Cold Atmospheric Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Mairéad; Flynn, Padrig B.; Fairley, Derek J.; Marks, Nikki; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.; McGrath, John W.

    2017-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Spores produced by C. difficile are robust and can remain viable for months, leading to prolonged healthcare-associated outbreaks with high mortality. Exposure of C. difficile spores to a novel, non-thermal atmospheric pressure gas plasma was assessed. Factors affecting sporicidal efficacy, including percentage of oxygen in the helium carrier gas admixture, and the effect on spores from different strains representing the five evolutionary C. difficile clades was investigated. Strains from different clades displayed varying resistance to cold plasma. Strain R20291, representing the globally epidemic ribotype 027 type, was the most resistant. However all tested strains displayed a ~3 log reduction in viable spore counts after plasma treatment for 5 minutes. Inactivation of a ribotype 078 strain, the most prevalent clinical type seen in Northern Ireland, was further assessed with respect to surface decontamination, pH, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Environmental factors affected plasma activity, with dry spores without the presence of organic matter being most susceptible. This study demonstrates that cold atmospheric plasma can effectively inactivate C. difficile spores, and highlights factors that can affect sporicidal activity.

  15. Bilirubin as an antioxidant in micelles and lipid bilayers: its contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Patricia D; Drake, Emily C; Ross, L; Barclay, C

    2007-08-15

    The antioxidant capacities, antioxidant activities, k(inh), and stoichiometric factors, n, of water-soluble derivatives of bilirubin (BR), BR-human serum albumin (BR-HSA), and BR-ditaurate disodium conjugate (BRC) were determined in aqueous/lipid dispersions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles/methyl linoleate and in bilayers of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) during initiation by water-soluble azo-bis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (ABAP). The inhibition rate constants for BRC and BR-HSA were similar in micelles (k(inh) approximately 1.3 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)), where n approximately 2, whereas the k(inh) for BR-HSA dropped by (1/2) in bilayers. The dimethyl ester of bilirubin (BRDE) gave a k(inh) only one-tenth that of the vitamin E analog, pentamethylhydroxychroman (PMHC) in SDS micelles/methyl linoleate when initiated by lipid-soluble azo-bis-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile (DMVN). Biliverdin hydrochloride (BVHCl) was NOT an effective peroxyl radical-trapping agent in the micellar phase during initiation by ABAP or DMVN containing methyl linoleate but it inhibited oxygen uptake in the aqueous phase. Both BRC and BR-HSA extended the total radical antioxidant parameter (TRAP) of human blood plasma and their contribution to TRAP was in the range of 5-10% of the natural TRAP of blood plasma, depending on the BR content determined in the blood plasma.

  16. Effects of Lipid-Based Oral Formulations on Plasma and Tissue Amphotericin B Concentrations and Renal Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Risovic, Verica; Boyd, Michael; Choo, Eugene; Wasan, Kishor M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various lipid and mixed-micelle formulations on the oral absorption and renal toxicity of amphotericin B (AMB) in rats. The maximum concentration of AMB in plasma and the area under the concentration-time curve for 0 to 24 h for AMB were elevated in rats administered triglyceride (TG)-rich AMB formulations in comparison to those in rats given (i) AMB preformulated as a micelle containing sodium deoxycholate with sodium phosphate as a buffer (DOC-AMB), (ii) an AMB-lipid complex suspension, or (iii) AMB solubilized in methanol. Furthermore, our findings suggest that AMB incorporated into TG-based oral formulations has less renal toxicity than DOC-AMB. PMID:14506053

  17. Choroideremia Is a Systemic Disease With Lymphocyte Crystals and Plasma Lipid and RBC Membrane Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Alice Yang; Mysore, Naveen; Vali, Hojatollah; Koenekoop, Jamie; Cao, Sang Ni; Li, Shen; Ren, Huanan; Keser, Vafa; Lopez-Solache, Irma; Siddiqui, Sorath Noorani; Khan, Ayesha; Mui, Jeannie; Sears, Kelly; Dixon, Jim; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Majewski, Jacek; Braverman, Nancy; Koenekoop, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor neuronal degenerations are common, incurable causes of human blindness affecting 1 in 2000 patients worldwide. Only half of all patients are associated with known mutations in over 250 disease genes, prompting our research program to identify the remaining new genes. Most retinal degenerations are restricted to the retina, but photoreceptor degenerations can also be found in a wide variety of systemic diseases. We identified an X-linked family from Sri Lanka with a severe choroidal degeneration and postulated a new disease entity. Because of phenotypic overlaps with Bietti's crystalline dystrophy, which was recently found to have systemic features, we hypothesized that a systemic disease may be present in this new disease as well. Methods For phenotyping, we performed detailed eye exams with in vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography. For genotyping, we performed whole exome sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing confirmations and cosegregation. Systemic investigations included electron microscopy studies of peripheral blood cells in patients and in normal controls and detailed fatty acid profiles (both plasma and red blood cell [RBC] membranes). Fatty acid levels were compared to normal controls, and only values two standard deviations above or below normal controls were further evaluated. Results The family segregated a REP1 mutation, suggesting choroideremia (CHM). We then found crystals in peripheral blood lymphocytes and discovered significant plasma fatty acid abnormalities and RBC membrane abnormalities (i.e., elevated plasmalogens). To replicate our discoveries, we expanded the cohort to nine CHM patients, genotyped them for REP1 mutations, and found the same abnormalities (crystals and fatty acid abnormalities) in all patients. Conclusions Previously, CHM was thought to be restricted to the retina. We show, to our knowledge for the first time, that CHM is a systemic condition with prominent crystals in lymphocytes and

  18. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes: lack of short-term change in response to auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandstrom, R. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole percent phospholipid, 25 mole percent glycolipid, and 25 mole percent free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole percent, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  19. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cano-García, Francisco J.; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M.; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Methods We conducted a case–control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. Results We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM. PMID:22046409

  20. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (-53.8 and -74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs.

  1. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  2. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (−53.8 and −74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs. PMID:25833688

  3. Recent progress on lipid lateral heterogeneity in plasma membranes: From rafts to submicrometric domains.

    PubMed

    Carquin, Mélanie; D'Auria, Ludovic; Pollet, Hélène; Bongarzone, Ernesto R; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2016-04-01

    The concept of transient nanometric domains known as lipid rafts has brought interest to reassess the validity of the Singer-Nicolson model of a fluid bilayer for cell membranes. However, this new view is still insufficient to explain the cellular control of surface lipid diversity or membrane deformability. During the past decades, the hypothesis that some lipids form large (submicrometric/mesoscale vs nanometric rafts) and stable (>min vs s) membrane domains has emerged, largely based on indirect methods. Morphological evidence for stable submicrometric lipid domains, well-accepted for artificial and highly specialized biological membranes, was further reported for a variety of living cells from prokaryot es to yeast and mammalian cells. However, results remained questioned based on limitations of available fluorescent tools, use of poor lipid fixatives, and imaging artifacts due to non-resolved membrane projections. In this review, we will discuss recent evidence generated using powerful and innovative approaches such as lipid-specific toxin fragments that support the existence of submicrometric domains. We will integrate documented mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of these domains, and provide a perspective on their relevance on membrane deformability and regulation of membrane protein distribution.

  4. Recent progress on lipid lateral heterogeneity in plasma membranes: from rafts to submicrometric domains

    PubMed Central

    Carquin, Mélanie; D'Auria, Ludovic; Pollet, Hélène; Bongarzone, Ernesto R.; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transient nanometric domains known as lipid rafts has brought interest to reassess the validity of the Singer-Nicholson model of a fluid bilayer for cell membranes. However, this new view is still insufficient to explain the cellular control of surface lipid diversity or membrane deformability. During the past decade, the hypothesis that some lipids form large (submicrometric/mesoscale vs nanometric rafts) and stable (> min vs sec) membrane domains has emerged, largely based on indirect methods. Morphological evidence for stable submicrometric lipid domains, well-accepted for artificial and highly specialized biological membranes, was further reported for a variety of living cells from prokaryotes to yeast and mammalian cells. However, results remained questioned based on limitations of available fluorescent tools, use of poor lipid fixatives, and imaging artifacts due to non-resolved membrane projections. In this review, we will discuss recent evidence generated using powerful and innovative approaches such as lipid-specific toxin fragments that support the existence of submicrometric domains. We will integrate documented mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of these domains, and provide a perspective on their relevance on membrane deformability and regulation of membrane protein distribution. PMID:26738447

  5. Increased acylated plasma ghrelin, but improved lipid profiles 24-h after consumption of carob pulp preparation rich in dietary fibre and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Gruendel, Sindy; Garcia, Ada L; Otto, Baerbel; Wagner, Karen; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Burget, Lukas; Weickert, Martin O; Dongowski, Gerhard; Speth, Maria; Katz, Norbert; Koebnick, Corinna

    2007-12-01

    We have recently shown that a polyphenol-rich insoluble dietary fibre preparation from carob pulp (Ceratonia siliqua L; carob fibre) decreased postprandial acylated ghrelin, TAG and NEFA during an acute liquid meal challenge test. However, delayed effects of carob fibre consumption are unknown. Therefore, a randomized controlled crossover study in nineteen healthy volunteers consuming foods with or without 50 g carob fibre was conducted. On the subsequent day (day 2), glucose, TAG, total and acylated ghrelin as well as insulin, NEFA and leptin were assessed at baseline and at timed intervals for 300 min after ingestion of standardized bread. Consumption of carob fibre-enriched foods did not affect fasting concentrations of glucose, TAG, total ghrelin, NEFA, insulin and leptin. Fasting acylated ghrelin was increased on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption compared with control (P = 0.046). After consumption of the standard bread on day 2, glucose response (P = 0.029) was increased, and TAG (P = 0.033) and NEFA (P < 0.001) responses were decreased compared with control. Postprandial responses of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin and leptin on day 2 were unaffected by carob fibre consumption the previous day. In conclusion, an increase in total and acylated plasma ghrelin accompanied by enhanced lipid metabolism after carob fibre consumption suggests higher lipid utilization and suppressed lipolysis on the day subsequent to carob fibre consumption. However, elevated glucose levels after carob fibre consumption need to be addressed in future studies.

  6. A Contrast of the Plasma Membrane Lipid Composition of Oat and Rye Leaves in Relation to Freezing Tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, M.; Steponkus, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    The lipid composition of the plasma membrane isolated from leaves of spring oat (Avena sativa L. cv Ogle) was vastly different from that of winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma). The plasma membrane of spring oat contained large proportions of phospholipids (28.8 mol% of the total lipids), cerebrosides (27.2 mol%), and acylated sterylglucosides (27.3 mol%) with lesser proportions of free sterols (8.4 mol%) and sterylglucosides (5.6 mol%). In contrast, the plasma membrane of winter rye contained a greater proportion of phospholipids (36.6 mol%), and there was a lower proportion of cerebrosides (16.4 mol%); free sterols (38.1 mol%) were the predominant sterols, with lesser proportions of sterylglucosides (5.6 mol%) and acylated sterylglucosides (2.9 mol%). Although the relative proportions of individual phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and the molecular species of these two phospholipids were similar in oat and rye, the relative proportions of di-unsaturated species of these two phospholipids were substantially lower in oat than in rye. The relative proportions of sterol species in oat were different from those in rye; the molecular species of cerebrosides were similar in oat and rye, with only slight differences in the proportions of the individual species. After 4 weeks of cold acclimation, the proportion of phospholipids increased significantly in both oat (from 28.8 to 36.8 mol%) and rye (from 36.6 to 43.3 mol%) as a result of increases in the proportions of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. For both oat and rye, the relative proportions of di-unsaturated species increased after cold acclimation, but the increase was greater in rye than in oat. In both oat and rye, this increase occurred largely during the first week of cold acclimation. During the 4 weeks of cold acclimation, there was a progressive decrease in the proportion of cerebrosides in the plasma membrane of rye (from 16.4 to 10.5 mol%), but

  7. Dietary intake and plasma lipid levels: lessons from a study of the diet of health conscious groups.

    PubMed Central

    Thorogood, M; Roe, L; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1990-01-01

    AIM--To re-examine the contentious relation between diet and plasma lipids within a population. DESIGN--Cross sectional sample from a large prospective cohort study of people eating different diets in Britain. Blood samples and diet records collected from subjects. SUBJECTS--Volunteers eating one of four distinct diets--namely, vegans, vegetarians, fish eaters who do not eat meat, and meat eaters. 52 Subjects selected from each group. METHODS--Examination of the relation between nutritional intake recorded in a four day dietary record and plasma lipid concentrations of subjects measured in blood samples collected previously. RESULTS--After controlling for age, sex, and body mass index, the correlation between plasma total cholesterol and the Keys score (which includes dietary cholesterol and saturated and polyunsaturated fat) was 0.37 (p less than 0.001). The mean saturated fat intake in all groups was low (6-14% of energy), but polyunsaturated fat intake was high, so mean total fat intake was generally above that recommended. A high dietary fibre intake was not associated with high carbohydrate intake. Plasma high density lipoprotein values were not associated with any measure of fat intake, but there was a significant correlation of 0.24 between high density lipoprotein values and alcohol intake. CONCLUSIONS--The nature rather than quantity of dietary fat is an important determinant of cholesterol concentrations. Health conscious individuals select a fat modified, rather than a low fat--high carbohydrate diet. National cholesterol lowering dietary advice should be reconsidered. PMID:2369659

  8. High-throughput screening of Australian marine organism extracts for bioactive molecules affecting the cellular storage of neutral lipids.

    PubMed

    Rae, James; Fontaine, Frank; Salim, Angela A; Lo, Harriet P; Capon, Robert J; Parton, Robert G; Martin, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids in specialised organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Using a simple cell-based assay and open-source software we established a high throughput screen for LD formation in A431 cells in order to identify small bioactive molecules affecting lipid storage. Screening an n-butanol extract library from Australian marine organisms we identified 114 extracts that produced either an increase or a decrease in LD formation in fatty acid-treated A431 cells with varying degrees of cytotoxicity. We selected for further analysis a non-cytotoxic extract derived from the genus Spongia (Heterofibria). Solvent partitioning, HPLC fractionation and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS) identified a family of related molecules within this extract with unique structural features, a subset of which reduced LD formation. We selected one of these molecules, heterofibrin A1, for more detailed cellular analysis. Inhibition of LD biogenesis by heterofibrin A1 was observed in both A431 cells and AML12 hepatocytes. The activity of heterofibrin A1 was dose dependent with 20 µM inhibiting LD formation and triglyceride accumulation by ∼50% in the presence of 50 µM oleic acid. Using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue we found that heterofibrin A1 significantly reduces the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids and results in the formation of distinct fatty acid metabolites in both cultured cells and in embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio. In summary we have shown using readily accessible software and a relatively simple assay system that we can identify and isolate bioactive molecules from marine extracts, which affect the formation of LDs and the metabolism of fatty acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Common and Rare Variant Association Study for Plasma Lipids and Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hayato; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Konno, Tetsuo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2016-01-01

    Blood lipid levels are highly heritable and modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and are the leading cause of death worldwide. These facts have motivated human genetic association studies that have the substantial potential to define the risk factors that are causal and to identify pathways and therapeutic targets for lipids and CAD.The success of the HapMap project that provided an extensive catalog of human genetic variations and the development of microarray based genotyping chips (typically containing variations with allele frequencies > 5%) facilitated common variant association study (CVAS; formerly termed genome-wide association study, GWAS) identifying disease-associated variants in a genome-wide manner. To date, 157 loci associated with blood lipids and 46 loci with CAD have been successfully identified, accounting for approximately 12%-14% of heritability for lipids and 10% of heritability for CAD. However, there is yet a major challenge termed "missing heritability problem," namely the observation that loci detected by CVAS explain only a small fraction of the inferred genetic variations. To explain such missing portions, focuses in genetic association studies have shifted from common to rare variants. However, it is challenging to apply rare variant association study (RVAS) in an unbiased manner because such variants typically lack the sufficient number to be identified statistically.In this review, we provide a current understanding of the genetic architecture mostly derived from CVAS, and several updates on the progress and limitations of RVAS for lipids and CAD.

  10. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  11. Cell-penetrating compounds preferentially bind glycosaminoglycans over plasma membrane lipids in a charge density- and stereochemistry-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Prevette, Lisa E; Benish, Nicolas C; Schoenecker, Amber R; Braden, Kristin J

    2015-12-01

    Cell-penetrating compounds (CPCs) are often conjugated to drugs and genes to facilitate cellular uptake. We hypothesize that the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged amines of the cell-penetrating compounds and the negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) extending from cell surfaces is the initiating step in the internalization process. The interactions of generation 5 PAMAM dendrimer, Tat peptide and 25 kDa linear PEI with four different GAGs have been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry to elucidate structure-function relationships that could lead to improved drug and gene delivery methods to a wide variety of cell types. Detailed thermodynamic analysis has determined that CPC-GAG binding constants range from 8.7×10(3) to 2.4×10(6)M(-1) and that affinity is dependent upon GAG charge density and stereochemistry and CPC molecular weight. The effect of GAG composition on affinity is likely due to hydrogen bonding between CPC amines and amides and GAG hydroxyl and amine groups. These results were compared to the association of CPCs with lipid vesicles of varying composition as model plasma membranes to finally clarify the relative importance of each cell surface component in initial cell recognition. CPC-lipid affinity increases with anionic lipid content, but GAG affinity is higher for all cell-penetrating compounds, confirming the role these heterogeneous polysaccharides play in cellular association and clustering.

  12. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) seem resistant to atherosclerosis despite highly elevated plasma lipids during hibernation and active state.

    PubMed

    Arinell, Karin; Sahdo, Berolla; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Baandrup, Ulrik; Fröbert, Ole

    2012-06-01

    Hibernation is an extreme physiological challenge for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in which metabolism is based mainly on lipids. The study objective was to compare plasma lipids in hibernating and active free-ranging brown bears and relate them to arterial histopathology. Blood was drawn from seven immobilized free-ranging brown bears (three females, 2-3 years old) during hibernation in February and from the same bears while active in June and analyzed by enzymatic and automated hematology methods within 48 hours of sampling. Left anterior descending coronary arteries and aortic arches from 12 bears (six females, 1.5-12 years old) killed in hunting were examined by histopathology. Total plasma cholesterol decreased from hibernation to the active period (11.08 ± 1.04 mmol/L vs. 7.89 ± 1.96 mmol/L, P= 0.0028) as did triglyceride (3.16 ± 0.62 mmol/L vs. 1.44 ± 0.27 mmol/L, P= 0.00012) and LDL cholesterol (4.30 ± 0.71 mmol/L vs. 2.02 ± 1.03 mmol/L, P= 0.0075), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. No atherosclerosis, fatty streaks, foam cell infiltration, or inflammation were seen in any arterial samples. Brown bears tolerate elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, physical inactivity, and circulatory slow flow during hibernation without signs of -atherosclerosis. This species might serve as a reverse translational model for atherosclerosis resistance.

  13. Fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in Nigerian women using combined oral and progestin-only injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oyelola, O O

    1993-05-01

    Fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein (apo) profiles were determined in Nigerian women using a low-dose combined oral (Lo-Feminal + Fe) (n = 18), a progestin-only injectable (Depo-Provera) (n = 16) contraceptives and matched controls (n = 18). The mean of plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apo B and Lp(a) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in women using contraceptives than the controls. The mean of total and LDL-cholesterol and apo B were also significantly higher in the oral contraceptive users than those on progestin-only injectables. Furthermore, the mean of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indices, total/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL/HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01), were significantly higher in women on oral contraceptives than the controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the indices in the women using progestin-only injectables and the controls. Based on this finding, it is concluded that the use of steroidal contraceptives is associated with alterations of lipid and apolipoprotein profiles in Nigerian women and that the use of low-dose combined oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased CVD risk.

  14. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat.

  15. Analysis of plasma lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status in patients of oral leukoplakia: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Mostly, all oral cancer lesions are preceded by a stage of premalignancy. The present study aims to evaluate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the venous blood of patients with different clinicopathologic stages of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was designed with the inclusion of 20 new cases of histopathologically proven leukoplakia of various clinical stages along with an equal number of positive and negative control individuals. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were estimated in plasma using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± SD. The statistical comparisons between and within the study groups were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. Results: Significant enhanced lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) with a decrease in antioxidants (P < 0.001) was observed in the venous blood of leukoplakia patients compared with positive as well as negative controls. Accordingly, significant (P < 0.001) pattern of progression in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels was observed at various clinical stages among patients of both control groups. Among enzymes, glutathione showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction along the stages on comparison with two control groups. Conclusion: Enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defense in plasma indicate the development of oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and glutathione Pperoxidase

  16. Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Ortiz, Jennifer; Simmons, Brandi; Wu, Mingyuan; Lyons, Timothy J

    2011-03-01

    Cranberries, high in polyphenols, have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits, although limited clinical trials have been reported to validate these findings. We tested the hypothesis that commercially available low-energy cranberry juice (Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc, Lakeville-Middleboro, Mass) will decrease surrogate risk factors of cardiovascular disease, such as lipid oxidation, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants identified with metabolic syndrome (n = 15-16/group) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: cranberry juice (480 mL/day) or placebo (480 mL/day) for 8 weeks. Anthropometrics, blood pressure measurements, dietary analyses, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screen and 8 weeks of the study. Cranberry juice significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 ± 0.6 to 2.2 ± 0.4 μmol/L [means ± SD], P < .05) and decreased oxidized low-density lipoprotein and malondialdehyde (120.4 ± 31.0 to 80.4 ± 34.6 U/L and 3.4 ± 1.1 to 1.7 ± 0.7 μmol/L, respectively [means ± SD], P < .05) at 8 weeks vs placebo. However, cranberry juice consumption caused no significant improvements in blood pressure, glucose and lipid profiles, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6. No changes in these parameters were noted in the placebo group. In conclusion, low-energy cranberry juice (2 cups/day) significantly reduces lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Warming-Up Affects Performance and Lactate Distribution between Plasma and Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patrick; Zinner, Christoph; Yue, Zengyuan; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Warming-up (WU) is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU); 2. extensive WU (EWU); 3. intensive WU (IWU). Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB), plasma ([LA]plasma) and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC). Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU) and +60 Watt (IWU) higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a “higher preloading” with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility. Key points Warm-up significantly improves performance during 30

  18. Whey protein lycosome formulation improves vascular functions and plasma lipids with reduction of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in prehypertension.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y; Klochkov, Victor A; Chalyk, Natalya E; Kyle, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Parameters reflecting cardiovascular health and inflammation were studied in a pilot clinical trial conducted on 40 patients with prehypertension. The patients were treated with a new proprietary formulation of a whey protein (WP) isolate embedded into lycopene micelles (WPL) during a 1-month period. Control groups received lycopene or WP as a singular formulation or placebo pills for the same period of time. Combined WPL formulation of whey protein and lycopene has caused multiple favorable changes in the cardiovascular function (including a tendency to the reduced systemic blood pressure), the plasma lipid profile, and the inflammatory status of patients with prehypertension, whereas singular formulations of the compounds and placebo did not have such an effect. The reduction of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol fractions and almost two-fold decline in C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory oxidative damage (IOD) levels as well as an increase in nitric oxide (NO), tissue oxygenation (StO(2)), and flow-mediated dilation values constitute the most significant benefit/outcome of the treatment with the combined formulation of whey protein and lycopene. The treatment did not affect the values of ankle-brachial index (ABI), body weight, and body mass index (BMI).

  19. Evaluation of monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low density lipoproteins. A requirement for lipids to maintain antigenic structure.

    PubMed

    Patton, J G; Alley, M C; Mao, S J

    1982-12-17

    Human plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) are composed of approximately 25% apoproteins and 75% lipids (w/w). Immunochemical properties of LDL were studied using monoclonal antibodies. BALB/c mice were immunized with LDL and the spleen cells from these mice were then fused with a non-immunoglobulin secreting myeloma cell line (F0). The clones producing desirable antibodies were selected to study the antigenic properties of LDL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay. First, it was found that the maximal binding of 125I-labeled LDL to polyvinyl chloride microtiter dishes was not temperature dependent. The binding affinity was high with a Ka value of approximately 1.9 X 10(10) M-1 while the monoclonal antibodies possessed an affinity to LDL of 5 X 10(8) M-1 which was 2 orders less than the affinity of LDL to the dishes. The former binding, once established, was irreversible as judged by a subsequent incubation with an excess of unlabeled LDL. The latter binding could be displaced by unlabeled LDL. Therefore, the ELISA technique offered a satisfactory approach to study the interaction between LDL and monoclonal antibodies. Removal of lipids from bound LDL by organic extraction resulted in a 50% loss of immunoreactivity, suggesting that the lipids of LDL are important in maintaining the antigenic structure of LDL. Since the apoprotein of LDL also constitutes approximately 40% of the mass (w/w) of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), the immunoreactivity of VLDL assessed by LDL-monoclonal antibodies was also carried out. Removal of triglycerides from VLDL by lipoprotein lipase resulted in a substantial loss of immunoreactivity as determined by radioimmunoassay. These findings are consistent with the concept that lipids play a role in maintaining the integrity of the antigenic structure of LDL.

  20. Effects of Cr methionine on glucose metabolism, plasma metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium in Mahabadi goat kids.

    PubMed

    Emami, A; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zali, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) on glucose metabolism, blood metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium (Cr) in Mahabadi goat kids. Thirty-two male kids (16.5 ± 2.8 kg BW, 4-5 months of age) were fed for 90 days in a completely randomized design with four treatments. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg Cr as Cr-Met/animal/daily. Blood samples were collected via heparin tubes from the jugular vein on 0, 21, 42, 63, and 90 days of experiment. On day 70, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted. At the end of the feeding trial, the kids were slaughtered, and the liver, kidney, and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected. Plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were decreased by Cr supplementation (P < 0.05). LD muscle malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased, and plasma and tissue Cr contents increased with increasing supplemental Cr levels (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentrations at 30 and 60 min after glucose infusion were lower in the kids fed 1.5 mg Cr diet than the kids fed control diet (P < 0.05). The IVGTT indicated that the kids supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr had higher glucose clearance rate (K) and lower glucose half-life (T½; P < 0.05). Glucose area under the response curve (AUC) from 0 to 180 min after glucose infusion was decreased linearly (P < 0.01) by supplemental Cr. The results suggested that supplemental Cr may improve glucose utilization and lipid oxidation of meat in fattening kid.

  1. The Overweight: Obesity and Plasma Lipids in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazizova, D.; Puri, B. K.; Singh, I.; Dhaliwal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have reported a higher prevalence of obesity than in the general population, and a trend to an increase in the prevalence of excess weight. However, little information is available on body weight status and lipids levels of adults with ID and co-existing mental illness. The…

  2. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet.

  3. Antioxidant effects of D-004, a lipid extract from the Roystonea regia fruit, on the plasma of healthy men

    PubMed Central

    López, Ernesto; Molina, Vivian; Illnait, José; Oyarzábal, Ambar; Fernández, Lilia C.; Más, Rosa; Gámez, Rafael; Fernández, Julio C.; Jiménez, Sonia; Mesa, Meilis; Hollands, Ivón; Mendoza, Sarahí

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the Roystonea regia fruit that prevents testosterone- and phenylepinephrine-induced prostate hyperplasia in rodents, on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men. We enrolled male volunteers (20–55 years) in good health and without lower urinary tract symptoms. Thirty-four eligible participants were randomized to placebo or D-004 (320 mg) capsules administered daily for 6 weeks. An interim check-up and a final visit were conducted after 3 and 6 weeks of therapy, respectively. Physical examinations were performed at each visit, and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and at treatment completion. Oxidative variables included plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), total hydroxyperoxides (TOH), sulphydryl (SH) groups and total antioxidant status (TAS). We assessed treatment compliance and addressed adverse experiences (AEs) at weeks 3 and 6. At week 6, with D-004, the mean reductions of plasma MDA (26.7%), TOH (18.8%) and SH groups (31.6%), and the mean increase of TAS (35.3%) were significantly different from those of placebo (P < 0.001 for plasma TAS, P < 0.0001 for all other comparisons). D-004 did not differ from the placebo in safety indicators. There were two withdrawals (both in the D-004 group), with one due to dyspepsia (the only AE during the trial). In conclusion, D-004 displayed antioxidant effects on plasma oxidative markers in healthy men, which was consistent with findings from laboratory experimental studies. PMID:19169265

  4. Ozone-derived Oxysterols Affect Liver X Receptor (LXR) Signaling: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIPID-PROTEIN ADDUCTS.

    PubMed

    Speen, Adam M; Kim, Hye-Young H; Bauer, Rebecca N; Meyer, Megan; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Fessler, Michael B; Duncan, Kelly E; Liu, Wei; Porter, Ned A; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-11-25

    When inhaled, ozone (O3) interacts with cholesterols of airway epithelial cell membranes or the lung-lining fluid, generating chemically reactive oxysterols. The mechanism by which O3-derived oxysterols affect molecular function is unknown. Our data show that in vitro exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to O3 results in the formation of oxysterols, epoxycholesterol-α and -β and secosterol A and B (Seco A and Seco B), in cell lysates and apical washes. Similarly, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from human volunteers exposed to O3 contained elevated levels of these oxysterol species. As expected, O3-derived oxysterols have a pro-inflammatory effect and increase NF-κB activity. Interestingly, expression of the cholesterol efflux pump ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), which is regulated by activation of the liver X receptor (LXR), was suppressed in epithelial cells exposed to O3 Additionally, exposure of LXR knock-out mice to O3 enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the lung, suggesting LXR inhibits O3-induced inflammation. Using alkynyl surrogates of O3-derived oxysterols, our data demonstrate adduction of LXR with Seco A. Similarly, supplementation of epithelial cells with alkynyl-tagged cholesterol followed by O3 exposure causes observable lipid-LXR adduct formation. Experiments using Seco A and the LXR agonist T0901317 (T09) showed reduced expression of ABCA1 as compared with stimulation with T0901317 alone, indicating that Seco A-LXR protein adduct formation inhibits LXR activation by traditional agonists. Overall, these data demonstrate that O3-derived oxysterols have pro-inflammatory functions and form lipid-protein adducts with LXR, thus leading to suppressed cholesterol regulatory gene expression and providing a biochemical mechanism mediating O3-derived formation of oxidized lipids in the airways and subsequent adverse health effects.

  5. Comparative study of apolipoprotein-E polymorphism and plasma lipid levels in dyslipidemic and asymptomatic subjects, and their implication in cardio/cerebro-vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia N; Carvalho, Maria G; Fernandes, Ana P S M; Lima, Luciana M; Loures-Valle, Andréia A; Dantas, Julizar; Janka, Zoltán; Palotás, András; Sousa, Marinez O

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein-E (apoE) gene may modulate lipoprotein metabolism at different steps and influence total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDLc) levels, as well as other lipid features. Population studies have documented significant differences in the frequency of apoE alleles which are related to the prevalence of various cardio-vascular and neuro-psychiatric diseases. In this study, the apoE genotypes and allele frequencies were analyzed in 216 individuals (109 dyslipidemic and 107 normo-lipidic subjects), and the relative contribution of apoE polymorphism on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, as well as risk factors was evaluated. In normo-lipidic volunteers, the frequencies of epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4 alleles were 0.042, 0.832 and 0.126, while in dyslipidemic subjects 0.046, 0.835 and 0.119, respectively. No significant difference was observed among epsilon2, epsilon3 or epsilon4 and plasma lipid-lipoprotein levels in the dyslipidemic group. In normo-lipidemics, however, total cholesterol, LDLc and non-HDLc plasma levels were significantly lower in epsilon2 subjects when compared to epsilon3 and epsilon4 individuals. The allelic frequencies of apoE epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4 were similar in dyslipidemic and normo-lipemic subjects, suggesting that apoE polymorphisms have no effect on plasma lipid-lipoprotein levels in dyslipidemic subjects. In contrast, in normo-lipemic subjects the epsilon2 allele showed to be associated with lower total cholesterol and LDLc levels, the mark of a better lipid profile. Depending on other co-existing factors, the epsilon2 allele, therefore, may play either a protective or pathogenic role. This elementary knowledge is a fundamental prerequisite for a possible diagnostic application of these lipoproteins as biomarkers to predict adverse cardio-vascular and/or neuro-psychiatric maladies.

  6. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  7. Evaluation of Physicochemical Deterioration and Lipid Oxidation of Beef Muscle Affected by Freeze-thaw Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. H.; Hossain, M. M.; Rahman, S. M. E.; Amin, M. R.; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the deterioration of physicochemical quality of beef hind limb during frozen storage at −20℃, affected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef hind limb were investigated comparing with unfrozen beef muscle for 80 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to select the best one on the basis of deterioration of physicochemical properties of beef. As the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased, drip loss decreased and water holding capacity (WHC) increased (p<0.05) till two cycles and then decreased. Cooking loss increased in cycle one and three but decreased in cycle two. Moreover, drip loss, WHC and cooking loss affected (p<0.05) by thawing methods within the cycles. However, pH value decreased (p<0.05), but peroxide value (p<0.05), free fatty acids value (p<0.05) and TBARS value increased (p<0.05) significantly as the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased. Moreover, significant (p<0.05) interactive effects were found among the thawing methods and repeated cycles. As a result, freeze-thaw cycles affected the physicochemical quality of beef muscle, causing the degradation of its quality. PMID:26877637

  8. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Effect of fish oil on lateral mobility of prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptors and spatial distribution of lipid microdomains in bovine luteal cell plasma membrane in vitro.

    PubMed

    Plewes, M R; Burns, P D; Graham, P E; Hyslop, R M; Barisas, B G

    2017-01-01

    Lipid microdomains are ordered regions on the plasma membrane of cells, rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, ranging in size from 10 to 200 nm in diameter. These lipid-ordered domains may serve as platforms to facilitate colocalization of intracellular signaling proteins during agonist-induced signal transduction. It is hypothesized that fish oil will disrupt the lipid microdomains, increasing spatial distribution of these lipid-ordered domains and lateral mobility of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α (FP) receptors in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of fish oil on (1) the spatial distribution of lipid microdomains, (2) lateral mobility of FP receptors, and (3) lateral mobility of FP receptors in the presence of PGF2α on the plasma membrane of bovine luteal cells in vitro. Bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir and corpora lutea were digested using collagenase. In experiment 1, lipid microdomains were labeled using cholera toxin subunit B Alexa Fluor 555. Domains were detected as distinct patches on the plasma membrane of mixed luteal cells. Fish oil treatment decreased fluorescent intensity in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, single particle tracking was used to examine the effects of fish oil treatment on lateral mobility of FP receptors. Fish oil treatment increased microdiffusion and macrodiffusion coefficients of FP receptors as compared to control cells (P < 0.05). In addition, compartment diameters of domains were larger, and residence times were reduced for receptors in fish oil-treated cells (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, single particle tracking was used to determine the effects of PGF2α on lateral mobility of FP receptors and influence of fish oil treatment. Lateral mobility of receptors was decreased within 5 min following the addition of ligand for control cells (P < 0.05). However, lateral mobility of receptors was unaffected by addition of ligand for fish oil-treated cells

  10. [Isolation and purification of human blood plasma proteins able to form potassium channels in artificial bilayer lipid membrane].

    PubMed

    Venediktova, N I; Kuznetsov, K V; Gritsenko, E N; Gulidova, G P; Mironova, G D

    2012-01-01

    Protein fraction able to induce K(+)-selective transport across bilayer lipid membrane was isolated from human blood plasma with the use of the detergent and proteolytic enzyme-free method developed at our laboratory. After addition of the studied sample to the artificial membrane in the presence of 100 mM KCl, a discrete current change was observed. No channel activity was recorded in the presence of calcium and sodium ions. Channel forming activity of fraction was observed only in the presence of K+. Using a threefold gradient of KCl in the presence of studied proteins the potassium-selective potential balanced by voltage of -29 mV was registered. This value is very close to the theoretical Nernst potential in this case. This means that the examined ion channel is cation-selective. According to data obtained with MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF and database NCBI three protein components were identified in isolated researched sample.

  11. Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Dandan; Ling, Jie; Lu, Wenhui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender.

  12. Protein sorting by lipid phase-like domains supports emergent signaling function in B lymphocyte plasma membranes

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Matthew B; Shelby, Sarah A; Núñez, Marcos F; Wisser, Kathleen; Veatch, Sarah L

    2017-01-01

    Diverse cellular signaling events, including B cell receptor (BCR) activation, are hypothesized to be facilitated by domains enriched in specific plasma membrane lipids and proteins that resemble liquid-ordered phase-separated domains in model membranes. This concept remains controversial and lacks direct experimental support in intact cells. Here, we visualize ordered and disordered domains in mouse B lymphoma cell membranes using super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy, demonstrate that clustered BCR resides within ordered phase-like domains capable of sorting key regulators of BCR activation, and present a minimal, predictive model where clustering receptors leads to their collective activation by stabilizing an extended ordered domain. These results provide evidence for the role of membrane domains in BCR signaling and a plausible mechanism of BCR activation via receptor clustering that could be generalized to other signaling pathways. Overall, these studies demonstrate that lipid mediated forces can bias biochemical networks in ways that broadly impact signal transduction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19891.001 PMID:28145867

  13. Myricetin Increases Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Protein Expression and Decreases Plasma Lipids and Adiposity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidaemic effects of myricetin. Myricetin exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats were dosed orally with myricetin or fenofibrate, once daily for eight weeks. Myricetin (300 mg kg−1 per day) displayed similar characteristics to fenofibrate (100 mg kg−1 per day) in reducing lowered body weight (BW) gain, visceral fat-pad weights and plasma lipid levels of HFD-fed rats. Myricetin also reduced the hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents, as well as lowered hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and epididymal adipocyte size in HFD-fed rats. Myricetin and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced down-regulation of the hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)α. HFD-induced decreases of the hepatic protein level of acyl-CoA oxidase and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 were up-regulated by myricetin and fenofibrate. The elevated expressions of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) of HFD-fed rats were lowered by myricetin and fenofibrate. These results suggest that myricetin suppressed BW gain and body fat accumulation by increasing the fatty acid oxidation, which was likely mediated via up-regulation of PPARα and down-regulation of SREBP expressions in the liver of HFD-fed rats. PMID:22474525

  14. Inhibition of Gastric Lipase as a Mechanism for Body Weight and Plasma Lipids Reduction in Zucker Rats Fed a Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Romo Vaquero, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María-Josefa; García Villalba, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (REs) exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40%) modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. Methods and Principal Findings RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate) was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. Conclusions Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption. PMID:22745826

  15. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-03-07

    In this study fish oil was incorporated into commercial homogenized milk using different homogenization temperatures and pressures. The main aim was to understand the significance of homogenization temperature and pressure on the oxidative stability of the resulting milks. Increasing homogenization temperature from 50 to 72 degrees C decreased droplet size only slightly, whereas a pressure increase from 5 to 22.5 MPa decreased droplet size significantly. Surprisingly, emulsions having small droplets, and therefore large interfacial area, were less oxidized than emulsions having bigger droplets. Emulsions with similar droplet size distributions, but resulting from different homogenization conditions, had significantly different oxidative stabilities, indicating that properties of significance to oxidation other than droplet size itself were affected by the different treatments. In general, homogenization at 72 degrees C appeared to induce protective effects against oxidation as compared to homogenization at 50 degrees C. The results thus indicated that the actual composition of the oil-water interface is more important than total surface area itself.

  16. Ocimum gratissmum aqueous extract reduces plasma lipid in hypercholesterol-fed hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pei-Yu; Lin, James A.; Ting, Wei-Jen; Lee, Hsueh-Hui; Hsieh, Kuanghui; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lai, Te-Jen; Hwang, Jin-Ming; Liu, Je-rYuh; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperlipidemia is a significant risk factor in the development of atherosclerosis and related diseases which are major health problem in many developed and developing countries that can lead to fatality due to the changes in lifestyle and dietary habits in this modern age. Methods: In the present study, the Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract (OGE) was tested for the lowering effect on the serum lipid level of male hamsters on a high-fat (12%) and high-cholesterol (0.2%) diet (HFCD). Results: The results showed that the levels of serum high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerols (TG) were increased in the HFCD group (113±11, 259±87, 629±175 and 625±262, respectively), as compared to the control normal diet group (51±8, 19±5, 77±16 and 101±44, respectively). When co-treated with various doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of the OGE or rosuvastatin, the rats exhibited the restoration of normal serum LDL-C, TC, and TG levels. Conclusion: Therefore, we suggest that the Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract may have the potential function of lowering serum lipid in rats. PMID:27877073

  17. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  18. Effect of Piper betle on plasma antioxidant status and lipid profile against D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Ganesan; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Betle leaf chewing is an old traditional practice in India and other countries of East Asia. We have investigated the antioxidant and antihyperlipidaemic potential of an alcoholic leaf-extract of Piper betle against D-galactosamine (D-GalN; 400 mg/kg body weight, i.p. single dose) intoxication in male albino Wistar rats. Rats were treated with leaf-extract (200 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric intubations daily for 20 days. The animals were divided randomly into five groups of six animals each as control, control plus extract, D-GalN control, D-GalN-rats on treatment with extract or silymarin, a standard drug. We observed an increase in the plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, and a decrease in vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione concentrations. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly while high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. Further, increase in the levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, free fatty acids in the plasma and tissues of liver and kidney were observed in D-GalN-treated rats. Administration of P. betle leaf-extract prevented the increase or decrease of these parameters and brought towards normality. These results suggest that P. betle could afford a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidaemic effect against D-GalN-intoxication.

  19. Chitosan reduces plasma adipocytokines and lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues and ameliorates insulin resistance in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Lin; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Cheng, Ron-Shan; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2012-05-01

    Chitosan is a natural product derived from chitin. To investigate the hypoglycemic and anti-obesity effects of chitosan, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control, diabetic, and diabetic fed 5% or 7% chitosan. Diabetes was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin/nicotinamide. After 10 weeks of feeding, the elevated plasma glucose, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 and lower adiponetin levels caused by diabetes were effectively reversed by chitosan treatment. In addition, 7% chitosan feeding also elevated plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and lowered the insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment) in diabetic rats. Lower adipocyte granular intensities and higher lipolysis rates in adipose tissues were noted in the 7% chitosan group. Moreover, chitosan feeding reduced hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents and increased hepatic peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α expression in diabetic rats. Our results indicate that long-term administration of chitosan may reduce insulin resistance through suppression of lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues and amelioration of chronic inflammation in diabetic rats.

  20. Naringin and vitamin E influence the oxidative stability and lipid profile of plasma in lambs fed fish oil.

    PubMed

    Bodas, R; Prieto, N; López-Campos, O; Giráldez, F J; Andrés, S

    2011-08-01

    Thirty two Merino lambs (15 weeks old) fed barley straw and fish oil enriched concentrate were used to assess the effect of vitamin E (6 g kg(-1) DM) and naringin (1.5-3 g kg(-1) DM) on plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS), immune response, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides. After 21 days feeding the experimental diets, lambs were subjected to a 4 h transportation stress period and then held 4 more hours without feed. TBARS values before stress were lower for animals consuming vitamine E and naringin when compared to control lambs (P<0.05). However, after stress all groups presented similar levels of TBARS. TAS decreased (P<0.05) in all groups in response to stress with values recovering (P<0.05) to pre-stress values following 4 h of rest. A rise (P<0.05) in serum concentrations of triacylglycerol following 21 d of fish oil supplementation was dampened in lambs consuming vitamin E or naringin. Both pre-stress TBARS and triacylglycerol-reducing effects of naringin added to fish oil enriched concentrate for fattening lambs are reported.

  1. Impact of Lipid Composition and Receptor Conformation on the Spatio-temporal Organization of μ-Opioid Receptors in a Multi-component Plasma Membrane Model

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Kristen A.; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Provasi, Davide; Filizola, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The lipid composition of cell membranes has increasingly been recognized as playing an important role in the function of various membrane proteins, including G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). For instance, experimental and computational evidence has pointed to lipids influencing receptor oligomerization directly, by physically interacting with the receptor, and/or indirectly, by altering the bulk properties of the membrane. While the exact role of oligomerization in the function of class A GPCRs such as the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is still unclear, insight as to how these receptors oligomerize and the relevance of the lipid environment to this phenomenon is crucial to our understanding of receptor function. To examine the effect of lipids and different MOR conformations on receptor oligomerization we carried out extensive coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of crystal structures of inactive and/or activated MOR embedded in an idealized mammalian plasma membrane composed of 63 lipid types asymmetrically distributed across the two leaflets. The results of these simulations point, for the first time, to specific direct and indirect effects of the lipids, as well as the receptor conformation, on the spatio-temporal organization of MOR in the plasma membrane. While sphingomyelin-rich, high-order lipid regions near certain transmembrane (TM) helices of MOR induce an effective long-range attractive force on individual protomers, both long-range lipid order and interface formation are found to be conformation dependent, with a larger number of different interfaces formed by inactive MOR compared to active MOR. PMID:27959924

  2. Vitamin C Prevents Sleep Deprivation-induced Elevation in Cortisol and Lipid Peroxidation in the Rat Plasma.

    PubMed

    Olayaki, L A; Sulaiman, S O; Anoba, N B

    2015-12-20

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is biological stressor that alters metabolic parameters, induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Previous studies have shown that antioxidants substances such as melatonin, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C improved stress tolerance in laboratory animals. In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of administration of vitamin C on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement. In addition, possible processes involved in vitamin C effects on acute and chronic sleep deprivation-induced metabolic derangement were determined. Thirty-five rats (120-250g) were used. The rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats each as Control (CTRL), Acute sleep deprived untreated with vitamin C (AC), Acute sleep deprived treated with vitamin C (AWC), Chronic sleep deprived untreated with vitamin C (CC), Chronic sleep deprived treated with vitamin C (CWC), Chronic sleep deprived + Recovery untreated with vitamin C (RC), and Chronic sleep deprived + Recovery treated with vitamin C (RWC). The SD was carried out for 20h for 1 day on the acute groups, and for 20h/day for 5 days on the chronic group, using the Multiple Modified Platforms (MMP) after oral administration of 300mg/kg of vitamin C to all vitamin C-treated groups. The recovery groups were further observed for five days after SD. The control group were treated with vitamin C and without stress in their home cages. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected for estimation of plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol and malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that acute and chronic SDs significantly  increased MDA and cortisol levels, while significantly reduced the levels of insulin. Treatment with vitamin C reversed the changes in the MDA, cortisol and plasma insulin levels. Additionally, allowing the rats to recover for 5 days after sleep deprivation corrected the observed changes. Plasma glucose was significantly

  3. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

  4. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe*

    PubMed Central

    Di, Guo-qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-guang; Lin, Qi-li

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L WECPN) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe. PMID:22135145

  5. Some factors affecting the dynamics of a plasma-wall interaction simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausing, R. E.; Heatherly, L.; Emerson, L. C.

    1982-12-01

    Isotope mixing and thermal desorption from samples exposed in a glow discharge apparatus were used to study the factors affecting hydrogen recycle and wall inventory. Conditions were chosen to be similar to those expected at the walls in today's experimental fusion devices. The size and nature of the hydrogen reservoir in the wall after plasma pulses was investigated by thermal desorption techniques. Large amounts of deuterium, i.e., 5 × 10 15 D cm -2 remain in the sample 4 min after a single 200 ms plasma pulse. While this result may be explained by a model using bulk diffusion and traps, it is suggested that either a spectrum of desorption energies, or a concentration dependent recombination coefficient, may also be useful in describing the thermal desorption processes. Experiments with various pumping conditions show that readsorption of molecular hydrogen isotopes on the wall should be considered in modeling hydrogen recycle and isotope changeover processes. HD formation without plasmas confirms the role readsorption plays.

  6. The age dependency of gene expression for plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Snieder, H.; Doornen, L.J.P. van; Boomsma, D.I.

    1997-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and disentangle the genetic and nongenetic causes of stability and change in lipids and (apo)lipoproteins that occur during the lifespan. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) were measured in a group of 160 middle-aged parents and their twin offspring (first project) and in a group of 203 middle-aged twin pairs (second project). Combining the data of both projects enabled the estimation of the extent to which measured lipid parameters are influenced by different genes in adolescence and adulthood. To that end, an extended quantitative genetic model was specified, which allowed the estimation of heritabilities for each sex and generation separately. Heritabilities were similar for both sexes and both generations. Larger variances in the parental generation could be ascribed to proportional increases in both unique environmental and additive genetic variance from childhood to adulthood, which led to similar heritability estimates in adolescent and middle-aged twins. Although the magnitudes of heritabilities were similar across generations, results showed that, for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL, partly different genes are expressed in adolescence compared to adulthood. For triglycerides, only 46% of the genetic variance was common to both age groups; for total cholesterol this was 80%. Intermediate values were found for HDL (66%) and LDL (76%). For ApoA1, ApoB, and Lp(a), the same genes seem to act in both generations. 56 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Differences in seminal plasma and spermatozoa antioxidative systems and seminal plasma lipid and protein levels among boar breeds and hybrid genetic traits.

    PubMed

    Žura Žaja, Ivona; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Vilić, Marinko; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic traits of boars on lipid and protein concentrations and antioxidative system variables in seminal plasma (SP) and spermatozoa and their correlations with semen quality variables. Semen samples from 27 boars: Swedish Landraces (SL), German Landraces (GL), Large Whites (LW), Pietrains (P) and Pig Improvement Company hybrids (PIC-hybrid), aged from 1.5 to 3 years old, were collected. SP was spectrophotometrically analyzed to determine total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), total protein (TP), albumin, and zinc concentrations. The antioxidative system in SP and spermatozoa was established spectrophotometrically by determining total antioxidative status (TAS), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) parameters, as well as copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in spermatozoa. The hybrid boars had higher (P<0.05) SP concentrations of: TC, LDL-C and TAG than P and GL; HDL-C than P, GL and SL; and TP than P and LW. PIC-hybrid had lower values (P<0.05) in spermatozoa of: TAS and CuZnSOD than SL; TSOD and GSH-Px than SL and P; and MnSOD than SL and LW. Differences in SP and spermatozoa antioxidative system variables and the significant differences in SP protein and lipid variables exist among boars of different breeds and hybrid. Novel data and observed differences in semen variables among boar breeds and hybrids and their correlations with semen quality parameters in this study could contribute to better assessment of boar semen quality.

  8. Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 5A sequence variants affect human plasma triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, E. M.; Baye, T. M.; Eckert, J. V.; Abraham, L. J.; Moses, E. K.; Kissebah, A. H.; Martin, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) work closely with leptin and insulin to fine-tune the metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to dietary intake. Losing the sensitivity to excess food intake can lead to obesity, diabetes, and a multitude of behavioral disorders. It is largely unclear how different serotonin receptor subtypes respond to and integrate metabolic signals and which genetic variations in these receptor genes lead to individual differences in susceptibility to metabolic disorders. In an obese cohort of families of Northern European descent (n = 2,209), the serotonin type 5A receptor gene, HTR5A, was identified as a prominent factor affecting plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), supported by our data from both genome-wide linkage and targeted association analyses using 28 publicly available and 12 newly discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 3 were strongly associated with plasma TG levels (P < 0.00125). Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) analysis identified a putative causal promoter SNP (rs3734967) with substantial posterior probability (P = 0.59). Functional analysis of rs3734967 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed distinct binding patterns of the two alleles of this SNP with nuclear proteins from glioma cell lines. In conclusion, sequence variants in HTR5A are strongly associated with high plasma levels of TG in a Northern European population, suggesting a novel role of the serotonin receptor system in humans. This suggests a potential brain-specific regulation of plasma TG levels, possibly by alteration of the expression of HTR5A. PMID:20388841

  9. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  10. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate enhances mood and prosocial behavior without affecting plasma oxytocin and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Oliver G; Eisenegger, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg; von Rotz, Robin; Dornbierer, Dario; Gachet, M Salomé; Heinrichs, Markus; Wetter, Thomas C; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was examined by the Charity Donation Task, the Social Value Orientation test, and the Reciprocity Task. Reaction time, memory, empathy, and theory-of-mind were also tested. Blood plasma levels of GHB, oxytocin, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) were determined. GHB showed stimulating and sedating effects, and elicited euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. In participants with low prosociality, the drug increased donations and prosocial money distributions. In contrast, social cognitive abilities such as emotion recognition, empathy, and theory-of-mind, and basal cognitive functions were not affected. GHB increased plasma progesterone, while oxytocin and testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, DHEA, and ACTH levels remained unaffected. GHB has mood-enhancing and prosocial effects without affecting social hormones such as oxytocin and testosterone. These data suggest a potential involvement of GHB-/GABAB-receptors and progesterone in mood and prosocial behavior.

  11. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Delia I.; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia

    2014-01-01

    In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals. PMID:25180187

  12. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells.

  13. Lipid extracted freeze-dried bank bone sterilized with low temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Yano, H; Nakamura, E; Kaku, N

    2001-01-01

    Ethylene oxide gas (EOG) is widely used for sterilization of freeze-dried bone. Recently EOG is regulated for clinical use because of cytotoxicity and environmental pollution concerns. Low Temperature Plasma Sterilization (LTPS) has no toxicity and mutagenicity working with a hydrogen peroxide gas plasma at 45 degrees centigrade. We have now used this method experimentally and clinically to sterilize freeze-dried bone. Cortical bone with a thickness of 5 mm and cancellous bone with a 10 mm cubic size were prepared, washed, defatted, dehydrated by freeze drying and finally sterilized by LTPS. As a Microbiological test, defatted freeze-dried bone was contaminated with B. subtilis, and after then the contaminated bone was treated with LTPS and the bacteria was proven inactive. Mechanical testing on rabbit cortical bone was investigated by compression testing using a mechanical testing machine. No differences between EOG treated and LTPS treated bone were found. From December 1996, 52 patients who had small and middle bone defects were treated with defatted, freeze-dried and LTPS sterilized bone. Clinical result was good. No deep infections, no transmission of virus infections or severe graft absorption were noted. The LTPS bank bone is safe and useful to reconstruction to small bone defects.

  14. Influence of diet and physical exercise on plasma lipid concentrations in an homogeneous sample of young Spanish Air Force pilots.

    PubMed

    Moreno Vazquez, J M; Garcia Alcon, J L; Campillo Alvarez, J E

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of diet and physical exercise on plasma lipid concentrations--total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and the TC:HDL-C ratio, in a homogeneous (age, sex and anxiety levels) group of young pilots divided into the following groups: A. uncontrolled diet and exercise programme; B. controlled diet and uncontrolled exercise programme; C. controlled diet and exercise programme (n = 90). The dietary intake was a typical Mediterranean diet, which was supervised by the Flight Surgeon. The exercise was based on a physical training programme for pilots, directed by the Physical Training Officer. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test was performed to evaluate the anxiety levels. This test was supervised by a psychologist. The results showed a marked difference in all the lipid parameters studied between groups with an ad libitum diet versus groups with a controlled diet, this difference being demonstrated by TC and TG concentrations lower in the group with a controlled diet, than in the group with an ad libitum diet. A difference in HDL-C concentrations and TC:HDL-C ratio was found between groups with regular physical training (high HDL-C concentration and low TC:HDL-C ratio) versus groups with unlimited exercise (low HDL-C concentrations and high TC:HDL-C ratio). No differences in the state and trait of anxiety were found among any of the groups. Nevertheless, all the pilots showed a considerable increase in their anxiety state over their own anxiety trait.

  15. Lipid Bilayers Are Long-Lived on Solvent Cleaned Plasma-Oxidized poly(dimethyl)siloxane (ox-PDMS)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jonny; Garcia, Luis; Subramaniam, Anand Bala

    2017-01-01

    Although it is well known that phospholipids self-assemble on hydrophilic plasma-oxidized PMDS surfaces (ox-PDMS) to form cell membrane mimetic bilayers, the temporal stability of phospholipid membranes on these surfaces is unknown. Here we report that phospholipid bilayers remain stable on solvent-cleaned ox-PDMS for at least 132 hours after preparation. Absent solvent cleaning, the bilayers were stable for only 36 hours. We characterized the phospholipid bilayers, i) through quantitative comparative analysis of the fluorescence intensity of phospholipid bilayers on ox-PDMS and phospholipid monolayers on native PDMS and, ii) through measurements of the diffusive mobility of the lipids through fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The fluorescence intensity of the phospholipid layer remained consistent with that of a bilayer for 132 hours. The evolution of the diffusive mobility of the phospholipids in the bilayer on ox-PDMS over time was similar to lipids in control bilayers prepared on glass surfaces. Solvent cleaning was essential for the long-term stability of the bilayers on ox-PDMS. Without cleaning in acetone and isopropanol, phospholipid bilayers prepared on ox-PDMS surfaces peeled off in large patches within 36 hours. Importantly, we find that phospholipid bilayers supported on solvent-cleaned ox-PDMS were indistinguishable from phospholipid bilayers supported on glass for at least 36 hours after preparation. Our results provide a link between the two common surfaces used to prepare in vitro biomimetic phospholipid membranes—i) glass surfaces used predominantly in fundamental biophysical experiments, for which there is abundant physicochemical information, with ii) ox-PDMS, the dominant material used in practical, applications-oriented systems to build micro-devices, topographically-patterned surfaces, and biosensors where there is a dearth of information. PMID:28052115

  16. Comparison of plasma lipids and vitamin E in young and middle-aged subjects on potato crisps fried in palmolein and highly oleic sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Truswell, A S; McNeil, Y

    1997-01-01

    We previously found no difference in healthy young adults' plasma cholesterols between palmolein and olive oil as the major dietary lipid, although the former is high in palmitic acid (16:0) but the latter in oleic acid (18:1 cis). In the experiment reported here we compared the effects of palmolein against another monounsaturated oil, highly oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), on plasma cholesterol in both young and middle-aged healthy adults. The test oils were provided as frying oil of potato crisps (150 g/day in men; 100 g/day in women) against low-fat background diets in free-living motivated volunteers. The design was a randomised double-blind 4-week/3-week crossover trial. Compliance was monitored with continuous dietary diaries and by measuring (fasting) plasma lipid fatty-acid pattern. Plasma lipids and vitamin-E compounds were measured at the start and twice at the end of each test period. In combined young plus older subjects (n = 42) mean plasma total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) values were both 7% (significantly) lower on HOSO than on palmolein, but because high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was also 5% lower, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was only 3% lower on HOSO than on palmolein. The difference between the present results with HOSO and previous results with olive oil both compared against palmolein suggest that olive oil is associated with higher plasma cholesterols than other monounsaturated oils. In both the young and older subgroup, LDL-c was lower on HOSO but because HDL-c moved down too in the young subgroup, the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was lower on HOSO only in the older subjects. Palmolein has an unusual pattern of E vitamins, with a high content of tocotrienols, notably the gamma-isomer. Unlike alpha-tocopherol however, there was no sign of these tocotrienols in subjects' plasmas.

  17. Potato tuber expression of Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 increase triacylglycerol and membrane lipids while affecting central carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hofvander, Per; Ischebeck, Till; Turesson, Helle; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Feussner, Ivo; Carlsson, Anders S; Andersson, Mariette

    2016-09-01

    Tuber and root crops virtually exclusively accumulate storage products in the form of carbohydrates. An exception is yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) in which tubers have the capacity to store starch and triacylglycerols (TAG) in roughly equal amounts. This suggests that a tuber crop can efficiently handle accumulation of energy dense oil. From a nutritional as well as economic aspect, it would be of interest to utilize the high yield capacity of tuber or root crops for oil accumulation similar to yellow nutsedge. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which in seed embryos induce fatty acid synthesis, has been shown to be a major factor for oil accumulation. WRINKLED1 was expressed in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers to explore whether this factor could impact tuber metabolism. This study shows that a WRINKLED1 transcription factor could induce triacylglycerol accumulation in tubers of transformed potato plants grown in field (up to 12 nmol TAG/mg dry weight, 1% of dry weight) together with a large increase in polar membrane lipids. The changes in metabolism further affected starch accumulation and composition concomitant with massive increases in sugar content.

  18. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  19. Lipid concentrations of fillets, liver, plasma and lipoproteins of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), fed diets with varying protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Matter, F; Peganova, S; Eder, K

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of the dietary protein concentration on lipid concentrations in fillet and liver and concentrations of lipids in plasma and lipoproteins in African catfish. Two experiments were carried out, in which African catfish were fed diets with various protein concentrations. In experiment 1, semisynthetic diets with various concentrations of casein (350, 450 or 550 g protein/kg) were used. In experiment 2, diets were based on a commercial trout diet supplemented with various amounts of casein or carbohydrates, resulting in protein concentrations between 282 and 545 g/kg diet. In both experiments, the dietary protein concentration had a significant effect on growth, feed conversion ratio and carcass composition. Maximum of body weight gains and feed efficiency ratios were reached in both experiments at the highest dietary protein concentrations. Increasing the dietary protein concentration continuously increased masses of fillets and reduced masses of the liver and adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity. Fish fed the diets with the highest protein concentrations had the lowest concentration of total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol in the fillets, the highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total lipids of fillets and the lowest concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Fish fed the diets with the highest protein concentration also had the lowest concentrations of triglycerides in the liver, the highest percentages of PUFA in liver total lipids and the lowest percentages of SFA. Moreover, fish fed diets with high protein concentrations (501 and 545 g/kg) had significantly lower concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids in plasma than fish fed diets with lower protein concentrations. In conclusion, this study shows that the dietary protein concentration does not only influence growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition in African catfish, but also influences their lipid metabolism and

  20. Boron and silicon: Effects on growth, plasma lipids, urinary cyclic AMP and bone and brain mineral composition of male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborn, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H. . Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Because boron resembles silicon in its chemical properties, an experiment was performed to determine if excessive dietary boron would affect the response to silicon deprivation and, conversely, if silicon would influence the effects of an excessive intake of boron. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to groups of 6 or 12 in a two-by-two factorially arranged experiment. Supplemented to a ground corn/casein diet containing 1.2 [mu]g silicon and 3 [mu]g boron per gram were silicon as sodium metasilicate at 0 or 50 [mu]g/g and boron as orthoboric acid at 0 or 500 [mu]g/g diet. At nine weeks, animals fed high dietary boron had significantly decreased final body weights, liver-weight-to-body-weight ratios, urinary cAMP concentrations, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, glycine, valine, leucine, and lysine concentrations and skull copper, sodium, and manganese concentrations. High dietary boron also significantly increased brain-weight-to-body-weight ratios, magnesium concentrations of femur, brain, and plasma, zinc concentration of femur, and iron concentration of skull. The bone mineral findings suggest that excess dietary boron exerts subtle effects on bone composition. Dietary silicon affected blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and the concentrations of plasma threonine and aspartic acid in animals fed excess boron. Depression of the testes-weight-to-body-weight ratio of animals fed 500 [mu]g boron per gram diet was most marked in animals not fed silicon. Although excessive dietary boron did not markedly enhanced the response of rats to silicon deprivation, dietary silicon affected their response to high dietary boron. Thus, dietary silicon apparently can influence boron toxicity.

  1. Palm oil versus hydrogenated soybean oil: effects on serum lipids and plasma haemostatic variables.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jan I; Muller, Hanne; Seljeflot, Ingebjorg; Kirkhus, Bente

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if replacement of trans fatty acids by palmitic acid in an experimental margarine results in unfavourable effects on serum lipids and haemostatic factors. We have compared the effects of three different margarines, one based on palm oil (PALM-margarine), one based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil (TRANS- margarine) and one with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-margarine), on serum lipids in 27 young women. In nine of the participants fasting levels and diurnal postprandial levels of haemostatic variables on the 3 diets were compared. The sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 provided 11% of energy (E%) in the PALM diet, the same as the sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 and trans fatty acids in the TRANS-diet. Oleic acid provided 10-11E% in all three diets, while PUFA provided 5.7, 5.5 and 10.2 E%, respectively. Total fat provided 30-31% and the test margarines 26% of total energy in all three diets. Each of the diets was consumed for 17 days in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB between the TRANS- and the PALM-diet. HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I were significantly higher on the PALM-diet compared to the TRANS-diet while the ratio of LDL- to HDL-cholesterol was lower, although not significantly (P = 0.077) on the PALM-diet. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB were significantly lower on the PUFA-diet compared to the two other diets. HDL-cholesterol was not different on the PALM- and the PUFA-diet while it was significantly lower on the TRANS-diet compared to the PUFA-diet. Triglycerides and Lp(a) were not different among the three diets. The diurnal postprandial state level of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was significantly decreased on the TRANS-diet compared to the PALM-diet. t-PA activity was also decreased on the PUFA-diet compared to PALM-diet although not significantly (P=0.07). There were no significant differences in neither fasting

  2. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Polyviou, Thelma P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R.; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. PMID:26167296

  3. Terpenes increase the lipid dynamics in the Leishmania plasma membrane at concentrations similar to their IC50 values.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Heverton Silva; Moreira, Rodrigo Alves; Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Fernandes, Kelly Souza; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Alonso, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×10(6) parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+)-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4-9%) at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×10(9) parasites/mL), the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis.

  4. Bile composition, plasma lipids and oxidative hepatic damage induced by calcium supplementation; effects of goat or cow milk consumption.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María J M; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Nestares, Teresa; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; Campos, Margarita S

    2013-05-01

    Calcium-fortified foods, especially milk and dairy products are recommended to be consumed daily for groups in risk of nutritional deficiency, including children, young adults, menopausal women, pregnant women and the elderly, however Ca-supplementation promotes gallstone formation because Ca is a nucleating factor. The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of cow or goat milk-based diets, either normal or Ca-supplemented, on bile composition, biochemical parameters and hepatic antioxidant status. Weanling male rats were randomly divided into six groups, fed standard, goat or cow milk-based diets, either with normal Ca content (5.0 g/kg), or Ca-supplemented (10.0 g/kg), for 2 weeks. Bile cholesterol concentration and output was higher in rats fed goat milk in comparison with those fed with standard and cow-milk-based diet. Ca-supplementation increased lithogenic index with the standard and cow-milk based diets, this change was not observed with the goat milk diet. Activities of plasma transaminases were also lower in the animals fed Ca-supplemented goat milk, in comparison with the other diets assayed. In general, Ca-supplement in the diet led to an increase in the hepatic oxidative damage, with an increase in the activities of all the antioxidant enzymes studied in the standard and cow milk diet, but not with goat milk. The habitual consumption of goat milk has positive effects on the plasma lipid profile, biliary composition and hepatic antioxidant defence. In addition, under our experimental conditions, Ca-supplementation of this type of milk does not increase the lithogenic index, or hepatic oxidative damage.

  5. Effect of dietary fish oil on fatty acid deposition and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver and plasma lipid profile: comparison of two animal models.

    PubMed

    Komprda, T; Rozíková, V; Zamazalová, N; Škultéty, O; Vícenová, M; Trčková, M; Faldyna, M

    2016-10-16

    The objective of the present study was to compare hepatic fatty acid deposition, plasma lipid level and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver of rats (Wistar Albino; n = 32) and pigs (Large White × Landrace; n = 32) randomly assigned into two groups of 16 animals each and fed 10 weeks the diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F; source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, EPA+DHA) or 2.5% of palm oil (P; high content of saturated fatty acids; control). F-rats deposited in the liver three times less EPA, but 1.3 times more DHA than F-pigs (p < 0.05). Dietary fish oil relative to palm oil increased PPARα and SREBP-2 gene expression much strongly (p < 0.01) in the pig liver in comparison with the rat liver, but expression of Insig-1 and Hmgcr genes in the liver of the F-pigs relative to the expression of these genes in the liver of the P-pigs was substantially lower (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) as compared to rats. When plasma lipid concentration in the F-animals was expressed as a ratio of the plasma concentration in the P-counterparts, dietary fish oil decreased HDL cholesterol less (p < 0.01), but LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols more (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively) in rats than in pigs: more favourable effect of fish oil on rat plasma lipids in comparison with pigs can therefore be concluded. Concentration of total cholesterol and both its fractions in the rat plasma was negatively correlated (p < 0.01) with hepatic DHA, but also with unsaturated myristic and palmitic acid respectively. It has been concluded that regarding the similarity of the plasma lipid levels to humans, porcine model can be considered superior; however, using this model, dietary fish oil at the tested amount (2.5%) was not able to improve plasma lipid markers in comparison with saturated palm oil.

  6. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  7. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  8. Binding of plasma membrane lipids recruits the yeast integral membrane protein Ist2 to the cortical ER.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marcel André; Temmerman, Koen; Ercan, Ebru; Nickel, Walter; Seedorf, Matthias

    2009-08-01

    Recruitment of cytosolic proteins to individual membranes is governed by a combination of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. Many proteins recognize phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] at the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane (PM). Here, we show that a protein-lipid interaction can also serve as a dominant signal for the sorting of integral membrane proteins. Interaction with phosphatidly-inositolphosphates (PIPs) at the PM is involved in the targeting of the polytopic yeast protein Ist2 to PM-associated domains of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, binding of PI(4,5)P(2) at the PM functions as a dominant mechanism that targets other integral membrane proteins to PM-associated domains of the cortical ER. This sorting to a subdomain of the ER abolishes proteasomal degradation and trafficking along the classical secretory (sec) pathway. In combination with the localization of IST2 mRNA to the bud tip and other redundant signals in Ist2, binding of PIPs leads to efficient accumulation of Ist2 at domains of the cortical ER from where the protein may reach the PM independently of the function of the sec-pathway.

  9. Role of plasma membrane lipid composition on cellular homeostasis: learning from cell line models expressing fatty acid desaturases

    PubMed Central

    Jaureguiberry, María S.; Tricerri, M. Alejandra; Sanchez, Susana A.; Finarelli, Gabriela S.; Montanaro, Mauro A.; Prieto, Eduardo D.; Rimoldi, Omar J.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence has suggested that plasma membrane (PM)-associated signaling and hence cell metabolism and viability depend on lipid composition and organization. The aim of the present work is to develop a cell model to study the endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) effect on PM properties and analyze its influence on cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis. We have previously shown that by using a cell line over-expressing stearoyl-CoA-desaturase, membrane composition and organization coordinate cellular pathways involved in Chol efflux and cell viability by different mechanisms. Now, we expanded our studies to a cell model over-expressing both Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases, which resulted in a permanently higher PUFA content in PM. Furthermore, this cell line showed increased PM fluidity, Chol storage, and mitochondrial activity. In addition, human apolipoprotein A-I-mediated Chol removal was less efficient in these cells than in the corresponding control. Taken together, our results suggested that the cell functionality is preserved by regulating PM organization and Chol exportation and homeostasis. PMID:24473084

  10. Role of plasma membrane lipid composition on cellular homeostasis: learning from cell line models expressing fatty acid desaturases.

    PubMed

    Jaureguiberry, María S; Tricerri, M Alejandra; Sanchez, Susana A; Finarelli, Gabriela S; Montanaro, Mauro A; Prieto, Eduardo D; Rimoldi, Omar J

    2014-04-01

    Experimental evidence has suggested that plasma membrane (PM)-associated signaling and hence cell metabolism and viability depend on lipid composition and organization. The aim of the present work is to develop a cell model to study the endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) effect on PM properties and analyze its influence on cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis. We have previously shown that by using a cell line over-expressing stearoyl-CoA-desaturase, membrane composition and organization coordinate cellular pathways involved in Chol efflux and cell viability by different mechanisms. Now, we expanded our studies to a cell model over-expressing both Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases, which resulted in a permanently higher PUFA content in PM. Furthermore, this cell line showed increased PM fluidity, Chol storage, and mitochondrial activity. In addition, human apolipoprotein A-I-mediated Chol removal was less efficient in these cells than in the corresponding control. Taken together, our results suggested that the cell functionality is preserved by regulating PM organization and Chol exportation and homeostasis.

  11. Lipid and apolipoprotein distribution as a function of density in equine plasma lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, D; Pastier, D; Hannan, Y; Petit, E; Ayrault-Jarrier, M; Nouvelot, A

    1989-01-01

    1. Equine lipoproteins were isolated from plasma by density gradient ultracentrifugation and apolipoprotein composition determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 2. VLDL and IDL were present at low concentration (0.2 mg/ml). Two apoB components of Mr corresponding to human apoB-100 and one apoB-48-like component were represented in VLDL fraction. 3. LDL-1 and LDL-2 subfractions have displayed an almost equal concentration (0.4 mg/ml). Two apoB-100-like components were the major apolipoproteins in each fraction. Small amounts of apoB-48-like component were detectable in LDL-1 and LDL-2. 4. HDL-2 represented a major class of equine lipoproteins (1.8 mg/ml). ApoA-1-like component was the dominant protein in HDL-1, HDL-2 and HDL-3. Dimeric apoA-II-like components were slightly represented in HDL subfractions. 5. HDL-3 displayed the same apolipoprotein pattern as HDL-1 and HDL-2, but two further minor proteins of Mr 20,000 and 14,000 were detected. 6. VHDL represented a minor class of lipoprotein (0.2 mg/ml). ApoA-I-like component was the major apolipoprotein of VHDL. Small amounts of apoA-IV-like, apoE-like, and Mr 55,000 protein were detectable. 7. ApoC-like of Mr lower than 10,000 was represented in all equine lipoprotein classes.

  12. The quantification of lipid and protein oxidation in stallion spermatozoa and seminal plasma: seasonal distinctions and correlations with DNA strand breaks, classical seminal parameters and stallion fertility.

    PubMed

    Morte, Maria Inês; Rodrigues, Ana Margarida; Soares, Diana; Rodrigues, Ana Sofia; Gamboa, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this work was to correlate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage with classic semen parameters in spermatozoa and seminal plasma of fertile and subfertile stallions. Oxidation was measured in both lipids and proteins, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) assay and the DNPH carbonyl groups assay, respectively. Sperm DNA damage was monitored using the TUNEL assay. These parameters were monitored in samples obtained during the breeding and the non-breeding seasons. In general, fertile stallions showed better classical semen parameters, and those parameters improved from the non-breeding to the breeding season, although an increase in sperm production was accompanied by a decrease in the semen quality from subfertile stallions in the breeding season. In terms of oxidation levels we found that there were clear differences whether lipids or proteins were considered. In the breeding season there seemed to be a tendency towards normalizing lipid oxidation in spermatozoa and seminal plasma, and protein oxidation in the seminal plasma, of both fertile and subfertile animals. Thus, differences monitored in the non-breeding season were no longer visible. Interestingly, a higher level of protein oxidation was found in the sperm of fertile animals in the breeding season. Considering that there were positive correlations between sperm protein oxidation and sperm motility and vitality, these results suggests that the oxidation of semen proteins may be important for sperm function. On the other hand, lipid oxidation in the seminal plasma seemed to be a general indicator for sperm damage. In the non-breeding season positive correlations between lipid and protein oxidation levels in both sperm and seminal plasma and several defects in sperm function were found, but only for subfertile animals, thus suggesting that lipid and protein oxidation may aid in the identification of subfertile stallions during the non

  13. High-density lipoprotein affects antigen presentation by interfering with lipid raft: a promising anti-atherogenic strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, S-H; Yuan, S-G; Peng, D-Q; Zhao, S-P

    2010-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Immunomodulation of atherosclerosis emerges as a promising approach to prevention and treatment of this widely prevalent disease. The function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to promote reverse cholesterol transport may explain the ability of its protection against atherosclerosis. Findings that HDL and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) inhibited the ability of antigen presenting cells (APCs) to stimulate T cells might be attributed to lipid raft, a cholesterol-rich microdomain exhibiting functional properties depending largely upon its lipid composition. Thus, modulating cholesterol in lipid raft may provide a promising anti-atherogenic strategy.

  14. Fat high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in comparison with fats high in palmitic acid or high in myristic and lauric acids.

    PubMed

    Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P; Jespersen, J; Sandström, B

    1994-02-01

    The effect of fats high in individual, prevalent saturated dietary fatty acids on lipoproteins and hemostatic variables in young healthy subjects was evaluated in a randomized strictly controlled metabolic feeding study. Three experimental diets: shea butter (S; 42% stearic acid), palm oil (P; 43% palmitic palmitic acid), and palm-kernel oil with high-oleic sunflower oil (ML; 10% myristic acid, 30% lauric acid) were served to 15 men for 3 wk each, separated by washout periods. Diet S compared with diet P resulted in significant reduction in plasma cholesterol (22%) LDL cholesterol (26%), apolipoprotein B (18%), HDL cholesterol (12%), apolipoprotein A-I (13%), and a 13% lower factor VII coagulant activity (P = 0.001). Similar differences were observed between diets S and ML. In conclusion, intake of shea butter high in stearic acid favorably affects blood lipids and factor VII coagulant activity in young men, compared with fats high in saturated fatty acids with 12-16 carbons.

  15. Solid lipid nanoparticles affect microbial colonization and enzymatic activity throughout the decomposition of alder leaves in freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, A C; Mendes, R J; Castro, P G; Silva, A M

    2017-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here, we investigated the effects of SLNs on alder leaf litter decomposition by aquatic microbes. Alder leaves were immersed in a stream of Northeast Portugal to allow microbial colonization before being exposed in microcosms of two types of SLNs at two concentrations for 42 days. Results showed that rates of leaf decomposition decreased with exposure to SLNs. Bacterial biomass was not inhibited by SLNs, and cultivable fungi densities remained constant (SLN-A) or increased (SLN-C) compared with control microcosms. The type and concentration of SLNs influenced differently the leaf colonization by fungi as well as fungal sporulation rate. These effects were accompanied by changes in the community extraenzymatic profile: the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase, Naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (P cycle) and lipases increased in the SLNs microcosms. This study provided the first evidence of the adverse effects of the release of SLNs to streams on leaf litter decomposition. Those effects seem to depend on the composition and concentration of SLNs, as well on the microbial target group, or enzyme. Thus, prior to massive industrial production of these nanomaterials, some measures should be taken to avoid environmental impact affecting the microbial communities responsible for detritus decomposition.

  16. Effects of the PPARα agonist WY-14,643 on plasma lipids, enzymatic activities and mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes in a marine flatfish, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Urbatzka, R; Galante-Oliveira, S; Rocha, E; Lobo-da-Cunha, A; Castro, L F C; Cunha, I

    2015-07-01

    Fibrates and other lipid regulator drugs are widespread in the aquatic environment including estuaries and coastal zones, but little is known on their chronic effects on non-target organisms as marine fish. In the present study, turbot juveniles were exposed to the PPARα model agonist WY-14,643 for 21 days by repeated injections at the concentrations of 5mg/kg (lo-WY) and 50mg/kg (hi-WY), and samples taken after 7 and 21 days. Enzyme activity and mRNA expression of palmitoyl-CoA oxidase and catalase in the liver were analyzed as first response, which validated the experiment by demonstrating interactions with the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress pathways in the hi-WY treatment. In order to get mechanistic insights, alterations of plasma lipids (free cholesterol, FC; HDL associated cholesterol, C-HDL; triglycerides, TG; non-esterified fatty acids, NEFA) and hepatic mRNA expression of 17 genes involved in fatty acid and lipid metabolism were studied. The exposure to hi-WY reduced the quantity of plasma FC, C-HDL, and NEFA. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apolipoprotein E mRNA expression were higher in hi-WY, and indicated an increased formation of VLDL particles and energy mobilization from liver. It is speculated that energy depletion by PPARα agonists may contribute to a higher susceptibility to environmental stressors.

  17. [The characteristics of tissue lipid peroxidation in the internal organs and the lipid metabolic indices of the blood plasma in a low geomagnetic field].

    PubMed

    Babych, V I

    1995-01-01

    It was found in experiments on guinea-pigs and white rats that 100-time weakened magnetic field of the earth considerably increased the activity of peroxide oxidation of lipids (POL) in tissues of inner organs. In the lungs, liver, kidneys, small intestine under the influence of hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF) we have observed reduction of ferment antioxidizing activity and of non-ferment mechanisms in the heart. The process is accompanied by reduction of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides in guinea-pigs and increase of this indices in white rats after 5-day-long stay of animals in the hypogeomagnetic chamber. The data of experiments on white rats underlie a conclusion that the 5-day-long influence of HGMF promotes the change of the carbohydrate metabolism for lipid metabolism. The reaction of guinea-pigs on the stay under the weakened magnetic field of the earth displays in reduction of the level of lipid metabolism indices in the blood serum.

  18. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter V; Larsen, Bodil K; Holm, Jørgen; Gómez-Requeni, Pedro; Dalsgaard, Johanne

    2016-08-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter. The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine concentrations. The transcript levels of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 a), gluconeogenesis (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase) and amino acid catabolism (alanine amino transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase) were significantly affected by the increase in dietary methionine. Changes in gene expression reflected to some extent the decrease in ammonia excretion (P=0.022) and in the hepatosomatic index (HSI; P<0.001) when dietary methionine increased. Postprandial plasma methionine concentrations correlated positively with the dietary level (P<0.001) at the different sampling points. The study shows that the expression of several genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing levels of dietary methionine.

  19. Different patterns of oxidized lipid products in plasma and urine of dengue fever, stroke, and Parkinson's disease patients: cautions in the use of biomarkers of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Yung J; Seet, Raymond C S; Huang, Shan Hong; Long, Lee Hua; Halliwell, Barry

    2009-03-01

    Many products of lipid oxidation have been associated with human diseases. These include F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs), and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Here we present measurements of F2-IsoPs, HETEs, COPs, and arachidonate in single plasma samples of patients with acute (dengue fever and ischemic stroke) and chronic (Parkinson's) diseases, and in age-matched study controls. Urine samples were collected for F2-IsoPs analysis. Our analysis demonstrated elevated F2-IsoPs levels in ischemic stroke, HETEs in Parkinson's disease, dengue fever, and ischemic stroke, and COPs in Parkinson's disease and dengue fever patients, as compared with those in age-matched study controls. Strong but complex correlations were observed between levels of certain oxidized lipid products and age. The relations between various oxidized lipids and dengue fever, stroke, and Parkinson's disease are discussed in relation to the selection and application of biomarkers of oxidative lipid damage, in particular the need for corrections for age and lipid levels.

  20. Lipid profiles of detergent resistant fractions of the plasma membrane in oat and rye in association with cold acclimation and freezing tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Imai, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cold acclimation (CA) results in alteration of the plasma membrane (PM) lipid composition in plants, which plays a crucial role in the acquisition of freezing tolerance via membrane stabilization. Recent studies have indicated that PM structure is consistent with the fluid mosaic model but is laterally non-homogenous and contains microdomains enriched in sterols, sphingolipids and specific proteins. In plant cells, the function of these microdomains in relation to CA and freezing tolerance is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to investigate the lipid compositions of detergent resistant fractions of the PM (DRM) which are considered to represent microdomains. They were prepared from leaves of low-freezing tolerant oat and high-freezing tolerant rye. The DRMs contained higher proportions of sterols, sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids than the PM. In particular, one of the sterol lipid classes, acylated sterylglycoside, was the predominant sterol in oat DRM while rye DRM contained free sterol as the major sterol. Oat and rye showed different patterns (or changes) of sterols and 2-hydroxy fatty acids of sphingolipids of DRM lipids during CA. Taken together, these results suggest that CA-induced changes of lipid classes and molecular species in DRMs are associated with changes in the thermodynamic properties and physiological functions of microdomains during CA and hence, influence plant freezing tolerance. PMID:26904981

  1. Characterization of Lipid Rafts from Medicago truncatula Root Plasma Membranes: A Proteomic Study Reveals the Presence of a Raft-Associated Redox System1[W

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Benoit; Furt, Fabienne; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Michaelson, Louise V.; Carde, Jean-Pierre; Sargueil-Boiron, Françoise; Rossignol, Michel; Napier, Johnathan A.; Cullimore, Julie; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have provided new insights into the role of sphingolipid/sterol-rich domains so-called lipid rafts of the plasma membrane (PM) from mammalian cells, and more recently from leaves, cell cultures, and seedlings of higher plants. Here we show that lipid raft domains, defined as Triton X-100-insoluble membranes, can also be prepared from Medicago truncatula root PMs. These domains have been extensively characterized by ultrastructural studies as well as by analysis of their content in lipids and proteins. M. truncatula lipid domains are shown to be enriched in sphingolipids and Δ7-sterols, with spinasterol as the major compound, but also in steryl glycosides and acyl-steryl glycosides. A large number of proteins (i.e. 270) have been identified. Among them, receptor kinases and proteins related to signaling, cellular trafficking, and cell wall functioning were well represented whereas those involved in transport and metabolism were poorly represented. Evidence is also given for the presence of a complete PM redox system in the lipid rafts. PMID:17337521

  2. Beneficial Effects of Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Digests of Fried Egg and Its Fractions on Blood Pressure, Plasma Lipids and Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Morton, Jude S.; Panahi, Sareh; Kaufman, Susan; Davidge, Sandra T.; Wu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background We have previously characterized several antihypertensive peptides in simulated digests of cooked eggs and showed blood pressure lowering property of fried whole egg digest. However, the long-term effects of this hydrolysate and its fractions on blood pressure are not known. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to determine the effects of long term administration of fried whole egg hydrolysate and its fractions (i.e. egg white and egg yolk) on regulation of blood pressure and associated factors in cardiovascular disease such as plasma lipid profile and tissue oxidative stress. Methods and Results We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an animal model of essential hypertension. Hydrolysates of fried egg and its fractions were prepared by simulated gastro-intestinal digestion with pepsin and pancreatin. 16–17 week old male SHRs were orally administered fried whole egg hydrolysate, non-hydrolyzed fried whole egg, egg white hydrolysate or egg yolk hydrolysates (either defatted, or not) daily for 18 days. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were monitored by telemetry. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the treatment for vascular function studies and evaluating plasma lipid profile and tissue oxidative stress. BP was reduced by feeding fried whole egg hydrolysate but not by the non-hydrolyzed product suggesting a critical role for in vitro digestion in releasing anti-hypertensive peptides. Egg white hydrolysate and defatted egg yolk hydrolysate (but not egg yolk hydrolysate) also had similar effects. Reduction in BP was accompanied by the restoration of nitric oxide (NO) dependent vasorelaxation and reduction of plasma angiotensin II. Fried whole egg hydrolysate also reduced plasma levels of triglyceride although it was increased by the non-hydrolyzed sample. Additionally the hydrolyzed preparations attenuated tissue oxidative stress. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that fried egg hydrolysates exert anti-hypertensive effects

  3. Ultrafine particles affect the balance of endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in the lung: in-vitro and in-vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    increased also one day after UfCP exposure. Immunohistochemistry localized highest concentrations of PGE2 especially in AM one day after UfCP exposure. Conclusion Our results suggest that UfCP exposure affects the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. In allergic mice, where the endogenous balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is already altered, UfCP exposure aggravates the inflammation and the increase in anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving lipid mediators is insufficient to counterbalance the extensive inflammatory response. This may be a contributing mechanism that explains the increased susceptibility of asthmatic patients towards particle exposure. PMID:22809365

  4. α-Tocopherol disappearance rates from plasma depend on lipid concentrations: studies using deuterium-labeled collard greens in younger and older adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G; Leonard, Scott W; Bobe, Gerd; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Grusak, Michael A; Booth, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about α-tocopherol’s bioavailability as a constituent of food or its dependence on a subject’s age. Objective: To evaluate the α-tocopherol bioavailability from food, we used collard greens grown in deuterated water (2H collard greens) as a source of deuterium-labeled (2H) α-tocopherol consumed by younger and older adults in a post hoc analysis of a vitamin K study. Design: Younger (mean ± SD age: 32 ± 7 y; n = 12 women and 9 men) and older (aged 67 ± 8 y; n = 8 women and 12 men) adults consumed a test breakfast that included 120 g 2H collard greens (1.2 ± 0.1 mg 2H-α-tocopherol). Plasma unlabeled α-tocopherol and 2H-α-tocopherol were measured by using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry from fasting (>12 h) blood samples drawn before breakfast (0 h) and at 24, 48, and 72 h and from postprandial samples collected at 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, and 16 h. Results: Times (12.6 ± 2.5 h) of maximum plasma 2H-α-tocopherol concentrations (0.82% ± 0.59% total α-tocopherol), fractional disappearance rates (0.63 ± 0.26 pools/d), half-lives (30 ± 11 h), and the minimum estimated 2H-α-tocopherol absorbed (24% ± 16%) did not vary between age groups or sexes (n = 41). Unlabeled α-tocopherol concentrations were higher in older adults (26.4 ± 8.6 μmol/L) than in younger adults (19.3 ± 4.2 μmol/L; P = 0.0019) and correlated with serum lipids (r = 0.4938, P = 0.0012). In addition, 2H-α-tocopherol half-lives were correlated with lipids (r = 0.4361, P = 0.0044). Conclusions: Paradoxically, α-tocopherol remained in circulation longer in participants with higher serum lipids, but the 2H-α-tocopherol absorbed was not dependent on the plasma lipid status. Neither variable was dependent on age. These data suggest that plasma α-tocopherol concentrations are more dependent on mechanisms that control circulating lipids rather than those related to its absorption and initial incorporation into plasma. This trial was registered at

  5. Common Variants in 6 Lipid-Related Genes Discovered by High-Resolution DNA Melting Analysis and Their Association with Plasma Lipids.

    PubMed

    Carlquist, John F; McKinney, Jason T; Horne, Benjamin D; Camp, Nicola J; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Hopkins, Paul; Clarke, Jessica L; Mower, Chrissa P; Park, James J; Nicholas, Zachary P; Huntinghouse, John A; Anderson, Jeffrey L

    2011-07-10

    BACKGROUND: Total cholesterol was among the earliest identified risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in six genes associated with lipid metabolism and estimate their respective contribution to risk for CHD. METHODS: For 6 lipid-associated genes (LCAT, CETP, LIPC, LPL, SCARB1, and ApoF) we scanned exons, 5' and 3' untranslated regions, and donor and acceptor splice sites for variants using Hi-Res Melting® curve analysis (HRMCA) with confirmation by cycle sequencing. Healthy subjects were used for SNP discovery (n=64), haplotype determination/tagging SNP discovery (n=339), and lipid association testing (n=786). RESULTS: In 17,840 bases of interrogated sequence, 90 variant SNPs were identified; 19 (21.1%) previously unreported. Thirty-four variants (37.8%) were exonic(16 non-synonymous), 28 (31.1%) in intron-exon boundaries, and 28 (31.1%) in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Compared to cycle sequencing, HRMCA had sensitivity of 99.4% and specificity of 97.7%. Tagging SNPs (n=38) explained >90% of the variation in the 6 genes and identified linkage disequilibrium (LD) groups. Significant beneficial lipid profiles were observed for CETP LD group 2, LIPC LD groups 1 and 7, and SCARB1 LD groups 1, 3 and 4. Risk profiles worsened for CETP LD group 3, LPL LD group 4. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity of HRMCA for SNP discovery. Variants identified in these genes may be used to predict lipid-associated risk and reclassification of clinical CHD risk.

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2007-01-19

    The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  7. Determination of the dissociation constants for Ca2+ and calmodulin from the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by a lipid probe that senses membrane domain changes.

    PubMed

    Mangialavori, Irene; Ferreira-Gomes, Mariela; Pignataro, María F; Strehler, Emanuel E; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain information about conformational changes of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-pump (PMCA) in the membrane region upon interaction with Ca(2+), calmodulin (CaM) and acidic phospholipids. To this end, we have quantified labeling of PMCA with the photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine analog [(125)I]TID-PC/16, measuring the shift of conformation E(2) to the auto-inhibited conformation E(1)I and to the activated E(1)A state, titrating the effect of Ca(2+) under different conditions. Using a similar approach, we also determined the CaM-PMCA dissociation constant. The results indicate that the PMCA possesses a high affinity site for Ca(2+) regardless of the presence or absence of activators. Modulation of pump activity is exerted through the C-terminal domain, which induces an apparent auto-inhibited conformation for Ca(2+) transport but does not modify the affinity for Ca(2+) at the transmembrane domain. The C-terminal domain is affected by CaM and CaM-like treatments driving the auto-inhibited conformation E(1)I to the activated E(1)A conformation and thus modulating the transport of Ca(2+). This is reflected in the different apparent constants for Ca(2+) in the absence of CaM (calculated by Ca(2+)-ATPase activity) that sharply contrast with the lack of variation of the affinity for the Ca(2+) site at equilibrium. This is the first time that equilibrium constants for the dissociation of Ca(2+) and CaM ligands from PMCA complexes are measured through the change of transmembrane conformations of the pump. The data further suggest that the transmembrane domain of the PMCA undergoes major rearrangements resulting in altered lipid accessibility upon Ca(2+) binding and activation.

  8. Direct plasma irradiation affects expression of RNAs in cultured mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Mime; Tokaji, Hideto; Kumagai, Shinya

    2016-12-01

    The expression of RNAs in mouse NIH3T3 cells was altered by low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation. Cell culture liquid media were removed before plasma irradiation so that direct plasma effects can be assessed. After 5 s irradiation, the cells were cultured in media for 1 or 3 h and RNA expression was analyzed using a microarray. When analyzed 1 and 3 h after plasma irradiation, the upregulation of hypothetical transmembrane proteins and U3 small nucleolar RNAs was detected at both time points. Our results provide a basic principle for understanding the molecular mechanisms of plasma effects on mammalian cells.

  9. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, Leonid V; Zakharova, Anna N; Kabachkova, Anastasia V; Kironenko, Tatyana A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  10. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Zakharova, Anna N.; Kabachkova, Anastasia V.; Kironenko, Tatyana A.; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons. PMID:28194116

  11. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  12. Heat Transfer Affected by Transverse Magnetic Field using 3D Modeling of Arc Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Gas shielded metal arc welding is used to join the various metal because this is the high quality joining technology. Thus, this welding is used for a welding of large buildings such as bridges and LNG tanks. However, the welding defect caused by the heat transfer decrement may occur with increasing the wind velocity. This is because that the convection loss increases because the arc deflects to leeward side with increasing the wind velocity. In order to prevent from the arc deflection, it is used that the transverse magnetic field is applied to the arc. However, the arc deflection occurs with increasing the transverse magnetic field excessively. The energy balance of the arc is changed with increasing the convection loss caused by the arc deflection, and the heat transfer to the anode decreases. Therefore, the analysis including the arc and anode is necessary to elucidate the heat transfer to the anode. In this paper, the heat transfer affected by the transverse magnetic field using 3D modeling of the arc plasma is elucidated. The heat transfer to the anode is calculated by using the EMTF(electromagnetic thermal fluid) simulation with increasing the transverse magnetic field. As a result, the heat transfer decreased with increasing the transverse magnetic field.

  13. Plasma soluble (pro)renin receptor is independent of plasma renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations but is affected by ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Geneviève; Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Bergerot, Damien; Chambon, Yann; Hirose, Takuo; Caumont-Prim, Aurore; Tabard, Sylvie Brailly; Baron, Stéphanie; Frank, Michael; Totsune, Kazuhito; Azizi, Michel

    2014-02-01

    A soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) circulates in plasma and is able to bind renin and prorenin. It is not known whether plasma sPRR concentrations vary with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. We measured plasma sPRR, renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in 121 white and 9 black healthy subjects, 40 patients with diabetes mellitus, 41 hypertensive patients with or without renin-angiotensin system blockers, 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, and 10 patients with Gitelman syndrome. Median physiological plasma sPRR concentration was 23.5 ng/mL (interquartile range, 20.9-26.5) under usual uncontrolled sodium diet. sPRR concentration in healthy subjects, unlike renin and prorenin, did not display circadian variation or dependence on age, sex, posture, or hormonal status. sPRR concentrations were ≈25% lower in black than in white subjects, whereas renin concentrations were ≈40% lower. Patients with diabetes mellitus (average renin-high prorenin levels) and with hypertension only (average renin-average prorenin levels) had sPRR concentrations similar to healthy subjects. Renin-angiotensin system blockade was associated with increase of sPRR concentration by ≈12%. sPRR in patients with primary aldosteronism (low renin-low prorenin) and Gitelman syndrome (high renin-high prorenin) were similar and ≈10% higher than in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between sPRR and renin or prorenin. In conclusion, our results show that plasma sPRR concentrations are dependent on ethnicity and independent of renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in healthy subjects and in patients with contrasted degrees of renin-angiotensin system activity.

  14. Liver-specific deletion of the Plpp3 gene alters plasma lipid composition and worsens atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Hilvo, Mika; Parolini, Cinzia; Ganzetti, Giulia S; Dellera, Federica; Ekroos, Kim; Jänis, Minna; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Sirtori, Cesare R; Laaksonen, Reijo; Chiesa, Giulia

    2017-03-14

    The PLPP3 gene encodes for a ubiquitous enzyme that dephosphorylates several lipid substrates. Genome-wide association studies identified PLPP3 as a gene that plays a role in coronary artery disease susceptibility. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Plpp3 deletion on atherosclerosis development in mice. Because the constitutive deletion of Plpp3 in mice is lethal, conditional Plpp3 hepatocyte-specific null mice were generated by crossing floxed Plpp3 mice with animals expressing Cre recombinase under control of the albumin promoter. The mice were crossed onto the athero-prone apoE(-/-) background to obtain Plpp3(f/f)apoE(-/-)Alb-Cre(+) and Plpp3(f/f)apoE(-/-)Alb-Cre(-) offspring, the latter of which were used as controls. The mice were fed chow or a Western diet for 32 or 12 weeks, respectively. On the Western diet, Alb-Cre(+) mice developed more atherosclerosis than Alb-Cre(-) mice, both at the aortic sinus and aorta. Lipidomic analysis showed that hepatic Plpp3 deletion significantly modified the levels of several plasma lipids involved in atherosclerosis, including lactosylceramides, lysophosphatidic acids, and lysophosphatidylinositols. In conclusion, Plpp3 ablation in mice worsened atherosclerosis development. Lipidomic analysis suggested that the hepatic Plpp3 deletion may promote atherosclerosis by increasing plasma levels of several low-abundant pro-atherogenic lipids, thus providing a molecular basis for the observed results.

  15. Dose-dependent effects of siRNA-mediated inhibition of SCAP on PCSK9, LDLR, and plasma lipids in mouse and rhesus monkey[S

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kristian K.; Tadin-Strapps, Marija; Wang, Sheng-ping; Hubert, James; Kan, Yanqing; Ma, Yong; McLaren, David G.; Previs, Stephen F.; Herath, Kithsiri B.; Mahsut, Ablatt; Liaw, Andy; Wang, Shubing; Stout, Steven J.; Keohan, CarolAnn; Forrest, Gail; Coelho, David; Yendluri, Satya; Williams, Stephanie; Koser, Martin; Bartz, Steven; Akinsanya, Karen O.; Pinto, Shirly

    2016-01-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) is a key protein in the regulation of lipid metabolism and a potential target for treatment of dyslipidemia. SCAP is required for activation of the transcription factors SREBP-1 and -2. SREBPs regulate the expression of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis, and LDL-C clearance through the regulation of LDL receptor (LDLR) and PCSK9 expression. To further test the potential of SCAP as a novel target for treatment of dyslipidemia, we used siRNAs to inhibit hepatic SCAP expression and assess the effect on PCSK9, LDLR, and lipids in mice and rhesus monkeys. In mice, robust liver Scap mRNA knockdown (KD) was achieved, accompanied by dose-dependent reduction in SREBP-regulated gene expression, de novo lipogenesis, and plasma PCSK9 and lipids. In rhesus monkeys, over 90% SCAP mRNA KD was achieved resulting in approximately 75, 50, and 50% reduction of plasma PCSK9, TG, and LDL-C, respectively. Inhibition of SCAP function was demonstrated by reduced expression of SREBP-regulated genes and de novo lipogenesis. In conclusion, siRNA-mediated inhibition of SCAP resulted in a significant reduction in circulating PCSK9 and LDL-C in rodent and primate models supporting SCAP as a novel target for the treatment of dyslipidemia. PMID:27707816

  16. Liver-specific deletion of the Plpp3 gene alters plasma lipid composition and worsens atherosclerosis in apoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Hilvo, Mika; Parolini, Cinzia; Ganzetti, Giulia S.; Dellera, Federica; Ekroos, Kim; Jänis, Minna; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Laaksonen, Reijo; Chiesa, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    The PLPP3 gene encodes for a ubiquitous enzyme that dephosphorylates several lipid substrates. Genome-wide association studies identified PLPP3 as a gene that plays a role in coronary artery disease susceptibility. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Plpp3 deletion on atherosclerosis development in mice. Because the constitutive deletion of Plpp3 in mice is lethal, conditional Plpp3 hepatocyte-specific null mice were generated by crossing floxed Plpp3 mice with animals expressing Cre recombinase under control of the albumin promoter. The mice were crossed onto the athero-prone apoE−/− background to obtain Plpp3f/fapoE−/−Alb-Cre+ and Plpp3f/fapoE−/−Alb-Cre− offspring, the latter of which were used as controls. The mice were fed chow or a Western diet for 32 or 12 weeks, respectively. On the Western diet, Alb-Cre+ mice developed more atherosclerosis than Alb-Cre− mice, both at the aortic sinus and aorta. Lipidomic analysis showed that hepatic Plpp3 deletion significantly modified the levels of several plasma lipids involved in atherosclerosis, including lactosylceramides, lysophosphatidic acids, and lysophosphatidylinositols. In conclusion, Plpp3 ablation in mice worsened atherosclerosis development. Lipidomic analysis suggested that the hepatic Plpp3 deletion may promote atherosclerosis by increasing plasma levels of several low-abundant pro-atherogenic lipids, thus providing a molecular basis for the observed results. PMID:28291223

  17. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  18. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish.

  19. Effects of dietary n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protected or not against ruminal hydrogenation on plasma lipids and their susceptibility to peroxidation in fattening steers.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, V; Bauchart, D; Gruffat, D; Laplaud, P M; Durand, D

    2005-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted using crossbred Salers x Charolais fattening steers fed diets enriched with no supplemental oilseeds or oils rich in either n-6 PUFA (from sunflower seeds) or n-3 PUFA (from linseeds) provided either as seeds incorporated in the diet (i.e., not protected from ruminal bacterial hydrogenation) or by chronic infusion into the duodenum (protected form). In the Sunflower experiment, animals (initial age = 454 +/- 20 d; initial BW = 528 +/- 36 kg) received a control diet for 70 d (CS, n = six) consisting of hay and concentrate, or the same basal diet supplemented with sunflower oil (4% of dietary DM), either fed as seeds (SS, n = six) or infused into the duodenum (ISO, n = six). The same experimental design was applied to animals (initial age = 412 +/- 33 d; initial BW = 536 +/- 33 kg) used in the Linseed experiment (CL, LS, and ILO; n = 8 per group). For all animals, blood was sampled every 15 d during 70 d. In both trials, a significant diet x time interaction (P < 0.001) was detected for plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein A-I, phospholipids, and free and esterified cholesterol, with values increasing with time during administration of the PUFA-rich diets being more evident with ISO and ILO diets. Plasma fatty acids were altered with oil infusions, with increased concentrations of n-6 (1.6-fold; P < 0.05) and n-3 PUFA (4.5-fold; P < 0.05) and of their respective indicies of peroxidizability (1.2- and 1.5-fold with Diets ISO and ILO, respectively; P < 0.05). In vitro copper-induced peroxidation of lipids revealed a decreased length of the lag phase in the process of conjugated diene generation by 48% (P < 0.005) with the ILO diet, indicating less resistance against peroxidation than in control steers. Compared with CS, the ISO treatment increased plasma alpha-tocopherol (x2.5; P < 0.05) leading to similar resistance against peroxidation. After depletion of this vitamin, the rates of peroxidation and production of conjugated dienes

  20. Lipid Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  1. Interaction of O and OH radicals with a simple model system for lipids in the skin barrier: a reactive molecular dynamics investigation for plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Paal, Jonas; Aernouts, Stefaan; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2013-10-01

    Plasma medicine has been claimed to provide a novel route to heal wounds and regenerate skin, although very little is currently known about the elementary processes taking place. We carried out a series of ReaxFF-based reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of O and OH radicals with lipids, more specifically with α-linolenic acid as a model for the free fatty acids present in the upper skin layer. Our calculations predict that the O and OH radicals most typically abstract a H atom from the fatty acids, which can lead to the formation of a conjugated double bond, but also to the incorporation of alcohol or aldehyde groups, thereby increasing the hydrophilic character of the fatty acids and changing the general lipid composition of the skin. Within the limitations of the investigated model, no formation of possibly toxic products was observed.

  2. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  3. Meal frequency changes the basal and time-course profiles of plasma nutrient concentrations and affects feed efficiency in young growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Le Naou, T; Le Floc'h, N; Louveau, I; van Milgen, J; Gondret, F

    2014-05-01

    Ingested dietary nutrients and feed energy are partitioned among tissues to sustain body growth. Based on the respective costs of the various metabolic pathways allowing use and storage of feed energy into cells, it may be theorized that daily meal frequency could affect growth, body composition or feed efficiency. This study aimed to determine the effects of daily meal frequency on nutrient partitioning, tissue metabolism and composition, and performance. Young growing pigs (30 kg BW) were offered a same amount of feed either in 2 (M2, n = 15) or 12 (M12, n = 16) meals per day during a 3-wk interventional period. Animals fed twice a day had an accelerated weight gain (+6.4%, P < 0.05) and exhibited a greater G:F (+4%, P = 0.03) than animals fed 12 meals per day during this period. Basal plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, triglyceride, urea, and leptin were lower (P < 0.001) in M2 pigs than in M12 pigs. Meal frequency also changed (P < 0.001) the time-course profiles of plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and lactate in response to meal ingestion. A greater rise and a sharper fall in plasma glucose and insulin levels were observed in M2 pigs compared with M12 pigs. In both groups, similarities were observed in the postprandial time courses of plasma concentrations of insulin and of α-amino nitrogen (used as a measure of total AA). Despite these metabolic responses, tissue lipids, glycogen content, and enzyme activities participating in energy metabolism in muscle and liver were similar (P > 0.10) in both groups at the end of the trial. Percentage of perirenal fat in the body and depth of dorsal subcutaneous fat tissue were not affected by meal frequency, but kidney weight was lower (-18%, P < 0.001) in M2 pigs than in M12 pigs. Altogether, the less frequent daily meal intake improves the conversion of feed into weight gain, without marked modifications of tissue composition in young pigs.

  4. Seminal plasma affects prostaglandin synthesis and angiogenesis in the porcine uterus.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Monika M; Krawczynski, Kamil; Filant, Justyna

    2013-03-01

    Introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract may induce molecular and cellular changes facilitating conception and pregnancy. Because prostaglandins (PGs) and appropriate vascularization of the endometrium are crucial for pregnancy success, the effect of seminal plasma (SP) on PG synthesis and angiogenesis was investigated. Gilts at estrus received an infusion of 100 ml of either SP or PBS (control). Uterine horns were collected on Days 1, 3, 5, and 10 after each treatment. Concentrations of PGE2, PGF2alpha , and PGFM were measured in the uterine lumen and endometrial tissue. Expression of PG synthesis pathway enzymes and angiogenic factors, infiltration of immune cells, and vascular bed development were assessed. One day after SP infusion, the PGE2:PGF2alpha ratio in the uterine lumen was lower than in controls. In endometrial tissue, however, PGE2 levels and the PGE2:PGF2alpha ratio were elevated on Day 10. PG-endoperoxide synthase expression in the endometrium was up-regulated on Day 1 and decreased on Day 5 after SP treatment compared to that in controls. PGF2alpha synthase levels were decreased on Day 5 and 10 in SP-treated animals when compared to controls. SP-induced vascular bed development was apparent shortly before the time corresponding to maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig. Together, these data indicate that the porcine uterus can be sensitized shortly after SP exposure to evoke prolonged effects on PG synthesis and angiogenesis in the endometrium, persisting over the course of the prereceptive phase. Thus, SP can affect uterine receptivity and embryo-maternal interactions in pigs through locally direct and/or indirect mechanisms.

  5. Lipid, Detergent, and Coomassie Blue G-250 Affect the Migration of Small Membrane Proteins in Blue Native Gels

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Paul G.; Harding, Marilyn; Ruprecht, Jonathan J.; Lee, Yang; Kunji, Edmund R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Blue native gel electrophoresis is a popular method for the determination of the oligomeric state of membrane proteins. Studies using this technique have reported that mitochondrial carriers are dimeric (composed of two ∼32-kDa monomers) and, in some cases, can form physiologically relevant associations with other proteins. Here, we have scrutinized the behavior of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier AAC3 in blue native gels. We find that the apparent mass of AAC3 varies in a detergent- and lipid-dependent manner (from ∼60 to ∼130 kDa) that is not related to changes in the oligomeric state of the protein, but reflects differences in the associated detergent-lipid micelle and Coomassie Blue G-250 used in this technique. Higher oligomeric state species are only observed under less favorable solubilization conditions, consistent with aggregation of the protein. Calibration with an artificial covalent AAC3 dimer indicates that the mass observed for solubilized AAC3 and other mitochondrial carriers corresponds to a monomer. Size exclusion chromatography of purified AAC3 in dodecyl maltoside under blue native gel-like conditions shows that the mass of the monomer is ∼120 kDa, but appears smaller on gels (∼60 kDa) due to the unusually high amount of bound negatively charged dye, which increases the electrophoretic mobility of the protein-detergent-dye micelle complex. Our results show that bound lipid, detergent, and Coomassie stain alter the behavior of mitochondrial carriers on gels, which is likely to be true for other small membrane proteins where the associated lipid-detergent micelle is large when compared with the mass of the protein. PMID:23744064

  6. Lipid peroxidation by "free" iron ions and myoglobin as affected by dietary antioxidants in simulated gastric fluids.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Tair; Granit, Rina; Kanner, Joseph

    2005-05-04

    Grilled red turkey muscle (Doner Kabab) is a real "fast food" containing approximately 200 microM hydroperoxides, homogenized in simulated gastric fluid and oxidized more rapidly at pH 3.0 than at pH 5.0, after 180 min, producing 1200 and 600 microM hydroperoxides, respectively. The effects of "free" iron ions and metmyoglobin, two potential catalyzers of lipid peroxidation in muscle foods, were evaluated for linoleic acid peroxidation at pH 3.0 of simulated gastric fluid. The prooxidant effects of free iron ions on linoleic acid peroxidation in simulated gastric fluid was evaluated in the presence of ascorbic acid. At low concentrations of ascorbic acid, the effects were prooxidative, which was reversed at high concentrations. In the presence of metmyoglobin, ascorbic acid with or without free iron enhanced the antioxidative effect. Lipid peroxidation by an iron-ascorbic acid system was inhibited totally by 250-500 microM catechin at pH 3.0. The catechin antioxidant effect was determined also in the iron-ascorbic acid system containing metmyoglobin. In this system, catechin totally inhibited lipid peroxidation at a concentration 20-fold lower than without metmyoglobin. The ability of catechin to inhibit lipid peroxidation was also determined at a low pH with beta-carotene as a sensitive target molecule for oxidation. The results show that a significant protection was achieved only with almost 100-fold higher antioxidant concentration. Polyphenols from different groups were determined for the antioxidant activity at pH 3.0. The results show a high antioxidant activity of polyphenols with orthodihydroxylated groups at the B ring, unsaturation, and the presence of a 4-oxo group in the heterocyclic ring, as demonstrated by quercetin.

  7. Cellular Lipid Composition Affects Sensitivity of Plant Pathogens to Fengycin, an Antifungal Compound Produced by Bacillus subtilis Strain CU12.

    PubMed

    Wise, Cody; Falardeau, Justin; Hagberg, Ingrid; Avis, Tyler J

    2014-10-01

    Fengycin is an antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptide produced by various Bacillus subtilis strains, including strain CU12. Direct effects of fengycin include membrane pore formation and efflux of cellular contents leading to cell death in sensitive microorganisms. In this study, four plant pathogens were studied in order to elucidate the role of membrane lipids in their relative sensitivity to fengycin. Inhibition of mycelial growth in these pathogens varied considerably. Analysis of membrane lipids in these microorganisms indicated that sensitivity correlated with low ergosterol content and shorter phospholipid fatty acyl chains. Sensitivity to fengycin also correlated with a lower anionic/zwitterionic phospholipid ratio. Our data suggest that decreased fluidity buffering capacity, as a result of low ergosterol content, and higher intrinsic fluidity afforded by short fatty acyl chain length may increase the sensitivity of microbial membranes to fengycin. Our results also suggest that lower content in anionic phospholipids may increase fengycin insertion into the membrane through reduced electrostatic repulsion with the negatively charged fengycin. The intrinsic membrane lipid composition may contribute, in part, to the observed level of antimicrobial activity of fengycin in various plant pathogens.

  8. Circadian regulators of intestinal lipid absorption

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M. Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Among all the metabolites present in the plasma, lipids, mainly triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, show extensive circadian rhythms. These lipids are transported in the plasma as part of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are synthesized primarily in the liver and intestine and their production exhibits circadian rhythmicity. Studies have shown that various proteins involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein biosynthesis show circadian expression. Further, intestinal epithelial cells express circadian clock genes and these genes might control circadian expression of different proteins involved in intestinal lipid absorption. Intestinal circadian clock genes are synchronized by signals emanating from the suprachiasmatic nuclei that constitute a master clock and from signals coming from other environmental factors, such as food availability. Disruptions in central clock, as happens due to disruptions in the sleep/wake cycle, affect intestinal function. Similarly, irregularities in temporal food intake affect intestinal function. These changes predispose individuals to various metabolic disorders, such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Here, we summarize how circadian rhythms regulate microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, apoAIV, and nocturnin to affect diurnal regulation of lipid absorption. PMID:25057097

  9. The effect of methanol extracts of tsao-ko (Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire) on digestive enzyme and antioxidant activity in vitro, and plasma lipids and glucose and liver lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Longquan; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu; Sugane, Nozomi; Hosono, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoshijiro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Takatori, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study showed that tsao-ko intake can lower plasma and liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations and has hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity in mice. This study involved separating two major fractions (A and B) from the methanol extracts (MeX) of tsao-ko using silica gel column chromatography, and then determining the effect of the fractions in vivo and in vitro to clarify the most effective components of tsao-ko. An intake of MeX and A fraction statistically significantly reduced body lipids and plasma thiobarbitutic acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations compared with the control and inhibited lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. These reductions were not observed in mice fed the B fraction and these inhibitions of B fraction were mild compared with MeX and A fraction. The plasma and liver TG concentrations of each fraction group did not show significant differences compared with the control. The [M-H](+) and maximum UV absorption of the A fraction were 291 m/z and 279 nm, respectively. The peak of A fraction appeared at a similar time to the epicatechin standard in the LC/MS/MS analysis and the MS/MS spectrum of the A fraction was similar to that of the epicatechin standard. It was concluded that the most effective component of tsao-ko for body lipid reduction and hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity was contained in the polar fraction and the evidence suggested that this component could be epicatechin. However, the strongest TG lowering components of tsao-ko may be methanol insoluble.

  10. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    PubMed

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5).

  12. Factors Affecting VUV Emission Spectrum near Lyman-{alpha} from a Hydrogen Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, K.; Kasuya, T.; Shimamoto, S.; Wada, M.; Kimura, Y.; Nishiura, M.

    2011-09-26

    Vacuum ultra violet (VUV) emission spectra from plasmas near walls of different metallic materials were measured to estimate the effect upon the local production rate of vibrational excited hydrogen molecules due to plasma wall interaction. Among Cu, Mo, Ni, Ta and Ti, the intensity of band spectrum around Lyman-{alpha} had become the largest when Cu wall was used while it was the smallest for Ti. The role of particle reflection from the plasma electrode surface upon the H{sup -} production by a pure electron volume process is discussed.

  13. Confined diffusion of transmembrane proteins and lipids induced by the same actin meshwork lining the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takahiro K; Iwasawa, Kokoro; Kalay, Ziya; Tsunoyama, Taka A; Watanabe, Yusuke; Umemura, Yasuhiro M; Murakoshi, Hideji; Suzuki, Kenichi G N; Nemoto, Yuri L; Morone, Nobuhiro; Kusumi, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms by which the diffusion rate in the plasma membrane (PM) is regulated remain unresolved, despite their importance in spatially regulating the reaction rates in the PM. Proposed models include entrapment in nanoscale noncontiguous domains found in PtK2 cells, slow diffusion due to crowding, and actin-induced compartmentalization. Here, by applying single-particle tracking at high time resolutions, mainly to the PtK2-cell PM, we found confined diffusion plus hop movements (termed "hop diffusion") for both a nonraft phospholipid and a transmembrane protein, transferrin receptor, and equal compartment sizes for these two molecules in all five of the cell lines used here (actual sizes were cell dependent), even after treatment with actin-modulating drugs. The cross-section size and the cytoplasmic domain size both affected the hop frequency. Electron tomography identified the actin-based membrane skeleton (MSK) located within 8.8 nm from the PM cytoplasmic surface of PtK2 cells and demonstrated that the MSK mesh size was the same as the compartment size for PM molecular diffusion. The extracellular matrix and extracellular domains of membrane proteins were not involved in hop diffusion. These results support a model of anchored TM-protein pickets lining actin-based MSK as a major mechanism for regulating diffusion.

  14. Confined diffusion of transmembrane proteins and lipids induced by the same actin meshwork lining the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Takahiro K.; Iwasawa, Kokoro; Kalay, Ziya; Tsunoyama, Taka A.; Watanabe, Yusuke; Umemura, Yasuhiro M.; Murakoshi, Hideji; Suzuki, Kenichi G. N.; Nemoto, Yuri L.; Morone, Nobuhiro; Kusumi, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the diffusion rate in the plasma membrane (PM) is regulated remain unresolved, despite their importance in spatially regulating the reaction rates in the PM. Proposed models include entrapment in nanoscale noncontiguous domains found in PtK2 cells, slow diffusion due to crowding, and actin-induced compartmentalization. Here, by applying single-particle tracking at high time resolutions, mainly to the PtK2-cell PM, we found confined diffusion plus hop movements (termed “hop diffusion”) for both a nonraft phospholipid and a transmembrane protein, transferrin receptor, and equal compartment sizes for these two molecules in all five of the cell lines used here (actual sizes were cell dependent), even after treatment with actin-modulating drugs. The cross-section size and the cytoplasmic domain size both affected the hop frequency. Electron tomography identified the actin-based membrane skeleton (MSK) located within 8.8 nm from the PM cytoplasmic surface of PtK2 cells and demonstrated that the MSK mesh size was the same as the compartment size for PM molecular diffusion. The extracellular matrix and extracellular domains of membrane proteins were not involved in hop diffusion. These results support a model of anchored TM-protein pickets lining actin-based MSK as a major mechanism for regulating diffusion. PMID:26864625

  15. Common α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor polymorphisms do not affect plasma membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Carl M; Sorensen, Matt W; Angelotti, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Various naturally occurring polymorphic forms of human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified and linked to diverse pathological diseases, including receptors for vasopressin type 2 (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). In most cases, polymorphic amino acid mutations disrupt protein folding, altering receptor function as well as plasma membrane expression. Other pathological GPCR variants have been found that do not alter receptor function, but instead affect only plasma membrane trafficking (e.g., delta opiate and histamine type 1 receptors). Thus, altered membrane trafficking with retained receptor function may be another mechanism causing polymorphic GPCR dysfunction. Two common human α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor (AR) variants have been identified (α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs), but pharmacological analysis of ligand binding and second messenger signaling has not consistently demonstrated altered receptor function. However, possible alterations in plasma membrane trafficking have not been investigated. We utilized a systematic approach previously developed for the study of GPCR trafficking motifs and accessory proteins to assess whether these α2 AR variants affected intracellular trafficking or plasma membrane expression. By combining immunofluorescent microscopy, glycosidic processing analysis, and quantitative fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS), we demonstrate that neither variant receptor had altered intracellular localization, glycosylation, nor plasma membrane expression compared to wild-type α2 ARs. Therefore, pathopharmacological properties of α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs do not appear to be due to altered receptor pharmacology or plasma membrane trafficking, but may involve interactions with other intracellular signaling cascades or proteins.

  16. The absence of chlorophyll b affects lateral mobility of photosynthetic complexes and lipids in grana membranes of Arabidopsis and barley chlorina mutants.

    PubMed

    Tyutereva, Elena V; Evkaikina, Anastasiia I; Ivanova, Alexandra N; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V

    2017-04-05

    The lateral mobility of integral components of thylakoid membranes, such as plastoquinone, xanthophylls, and pigment-protein complexes, is critical for the maintenance of efficient light harvesting, high rates of linear electron transport, and successful repair of damaged photosystem II (PSII). The packaging of the photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in the membrane depends on their size and stereometric parameters which in turn depend on the composition of the complexes. Chlorophyll b (Chlb) is an important regulator of antenna size and composition. In this study, the lateral mobility (the mobile fraction size) of pigment-protein complexes and lipids in grana membranes was analyzed in chlorina mutants of Arabidopsis and barley lacking Chlb. In the Arabidopsis ch1-3 mutant, diffusion of membrane lipids decreased as compared to wild-type plants, but the diffusion of photosynthetic complexes was not affected. In the barley chlorina f2 3613 mutant, the diffusion of pigment-protein complexes significantly decreased, while the diffusion of lipids increased, as compared to wild-type plants. We propose that the size of the mobile fractions of pigment-protein complexes in grana membranes in vivo is higher than reported previously. The data are discussed in the context of the protein composition of antennae, characteristics of the plastoquinone pool, and production of reactive oxygen species in leaves of chlorina mutants.

  17. Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight, and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administration of a water soluble phytostanol compound, FM-VP4, to gerbils.

    PubMed

    Wasan, K M; Najafi, S; Wong, J; Kwong, M; Pritchard, P H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of a FM-VP4 when incorporated into the diet or drinking water on plasma lipids, body weight, and hepatic and renal function following chronic oral administration to gerbils. Gerbils were administered water and food daily containing either no FM-VP4 (controls; n=6), 2% or 4% FM-VP4 incorporated into the gerbil diet (n=6 each treatment group) or 2% or 4% FM-VP4 dissolved in the drinking water (n=6 each treatment group). Body weight and food and water intake were monitored weekly. Following 8 weeks of this regiment blood was obtained via a cardiac puncture and all animals were sacrificed humanely. Plasma obtained from this blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, total triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels by standard enzymatic and precipitation techniques. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were determined by the Friedewald equation. The plasma was also analyzed for changes in hepatic enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and plasma creatinine (renal function) concentrations. 2% and 4% FM-VP4 administration incorporated both into the diet and in the drinking water resulted in a significant decrease in total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration compared to controls. Animals administered 4% FM-VP4 in either their diet or drinking water had significantly lower body weight following the 8 weeks of treatment compared to the other groups. Significant differences in daily water intake was observed in all treatment groups with the exception of the 2% FM-VP4 in diet group compared to controls. Significant differences in daily food intake were observed in gerbils administered 2% FM-VP4 in the drinking water and 4% FM-VP4 in the diet and drinking water groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in total plasma triglyceride concentration was observed in gerbils administered 4% FM-VP4 in their drinking water compared

  18. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p<0.05). In contrast, G3, G4, G5 and G6 showed significant difference (p<0.05) with weight loss by 2.16 g, 10.71g, 7.27 g and 3.23 g respectively 7.27 g and 3.23 g respectively after the treatment. Biochemical analyses on the ratsplasma lipid revealed that the total blood cholesterol content of rats fed with either low

  19. Psoralen and Ultraviolet A Light Treatment Directly Affects Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Signal Transduction by Altering Plasma Membrane Packing.

    PubMed

    Van Aelst, Britt; Devloo, Rosalie; Zachée, Pierre; t'Kindt, Ruben; Sandra, Koen; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Compernolle, Veerle; Feys, Hendrik B

    2016-11-18

    Psoralen and ultraviolet A light (PUVA) are used to kill pathogens in blood products and as a treatment of aberrant cell proliferation in dermatitis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and graft-versus-host disease. DNA damage is well described, but the direct effects of PUVA on cell signal transduction are poorly understood. Because platelets are anucleate and contain archetypal signal transduction machinery, they are ideally suited to address this. Lipidomics on platelet membrane extracts showed that psoralen forms adducts with unsaturated carbon bonds of fatty acyls in all major phospholipid classes after PUVA. Such adducts increased lipid packing as measured by a blue shift of an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe in model liposomes. Furthermore, the interaction of these liposomes with lipid order-sensitive proteins like amphipathic lipid-packing sensor and α-synuclein was inhibited by PUVA. In platelets, PUVA caused poor membrane binding of Akt and Bruton's tyrosine kinase effectors following activation of the collagen glycoprotein VI and thrombin protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1. This resulted in defective Akt phosphorylation despite unaltered phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate levels. Downstream integrin activation was furthermore affected similarly by PUVA following PAR1 (effective half-maximal concentration (EC50), 8.4 ± 1.1 versus 4.3 ± 1.1 μm) and glycoprotein VI (EC50, 1.61 ± 0.85 versus 0.26 ± 0.21 μg/ml) but not PAR4 (EC50, 50 ± 1 versus 58 ± 1 μm) signal transduction. Our findings were confirmed in T-cells from graft-versus-host disease patients treated with extracorporeal photopheresis, a form of systemic PUVA. In conclusion, PUVA increases the order of lipid phases by covalent modification of phospholipids, thereby inhibiting membrane recruitment of effector kinases.

  20. Dry matter, lipids, and proteins of canola seeds as affected by germination and seedling growth under illuminated and dark environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Vasanthan, Thava; Wettasinghe, Mahinda

    2004-12-29

    The effect of germination and growth under illuminated and dark environments on canola seed reserves was investigated. Depletion of proteins and lipids in whole seedlings and their top (leaf/cotyledons) and bottom parts (stem/roots/seed coat) was independent of light, whereas the protein solubility increased at a faster rate under an illuminated environment than in the dark. A rapid increase in free fatty acids but a net decrease of dry matter content in seedlings grown in the dark environment was observed. The dry matter content of seedlings grown in the illuminated environment increased due to photosynthetic biomass accumulation.

  1. Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Starzyński, Rafał R.; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level. PMID:23737963

  2. Iron supplementation in suckling piglets: how to correct iron deficiency anemia without affecting plasma hepcidin levels.

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Rafał R; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Tjalsma, Harold; Swinkels, Dorine W; Pieszka, Marek; Styś, Agnieszka; Mickiewicz, Michał; Lipiński, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning), following intramuscular administration of different concentrations of iron dextran to suckling piglets. To better assess the iron status we developed a novel mass spectrometry assay to quantify pig plasma levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin-25. This hormone is predominantly secreted by the liver and acts as a negative regulator of iron absorption and reutilization. The routinely used protocol with high amount of iron resulted in the recovery of piglets from iron deficiency but also in strongly elevated plasma hepcidin-25 levels. A similar protocol with reduced amounts of iron improved hematological status of piglets to the same level while plasma hepcidin-25 levels remained low. These data show that plasma hepcidin-25 levels can guide optimal dosing of iron treatment and pave the way for mixed supplementation of piglets starting with intramuscular injection of iron dextran followed by dietary supplementation, which could be efficient under condition of very low plasma hepcidin-25 level.

  3. Plasma of Argon Affects the Earliest Biological Response of Different Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Canullo, L; Genova, T; Tallarico, M; Gautier, G; Mussano, F; Botticelli, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the early cell response and protein adsorption elicited by the argon plasma treatment of different commercially available titanium surfaces via a chair-side device. Sterile disks made of grade 4 titanium (n= 450, 4-mm diameter) with 3 surface topographies (machined, plasma sprayed, and zirconia blasted and acid etched) were allocated to receive 4 testing treatments (2% and 10% protein adsorption and cell adhesion with MC3T3-E1 and MG-63). Furthermore, the specimens were divided to undergo 1) argon plasma treatment (10 W, 1 bar for 12 min) in a plasma reactor, 2) ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for 2 h (positive control group), or 3) no treatment (control group). Pretreatment surface analyses based on a scanning electron microscope and profilometer images were also performed. Profilometric analysis demonstrated that the evaluated specimens perfectly suit the standard parameters. The use of argon plasma was capable of affecting the quantity of proteins adsorbed on the different surfaces, notwithstanding their roughness or topographic features at a low fetal bovine serum concentration (2%). UV light treatment for 2 h attained similar results. Moreover, both the plasma of argon and the UV light demonstrated a significant increase in the number of osteoblasts adherent at 10 min in all tested surfaces. Within its limitations, this in vitro study highlights the potential biological benefits of treating implant surfaces with plasma of argon or UV, irrespective of the roughness of the titanium surface. However, in vivo experiments are needed to confirm these preliminary data and settle the rationale of a treatment that might be clinically relevant in case of bone-reparative deficiencies.

  4. Plasma inflammatory and vascular homeostasis biomarkers increase during human pregnancy but are not affected by oily fish intake.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepción M; Mesa, María D; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel

    2012-07-01

    The Salmon in Pregnancy Study investigated whether the increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) from farmed Atlantic salmon affects immune function during pregnancy and atopic disease in neonates compared with a habitual diet low in oily fish. In this context, because the ingestion of (n-3) LC-PUFA may lower the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, we investigated whether the consumption of oily fish affects the levels of inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion factors during pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 123) were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet (control group, n = 61), which was low in oily fish, or to consume two 150-g salmon portions/wk (salmon group, n = 62; providing 3.45 g EPA plus DHA) from 20 wk of gestation until delivery. Plasma inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion factors were measured in maternal plasma samples. Inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-8, hepatocyte growth factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein, increased over the course of pregnancy (P < 0.001), whereas plasma matrix metalloproteinase 9, IL-6, TNFα, and nerve growth factor concentrations were not affected. Vascular homeostasis biomarkers soluble E-selectin, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, and total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 increased as pregnancy progressed (P < 0.001). The plasma sICAM-1 concentration was greater in the control group than in the salmon group at wk 20 (baseline) and 38 (P = 0.007) but there was no group x time interaction, and when baseline concentration was used as a covariate, the groups did not differ (P = 0.69). The remaining biomarkers analyzed were similar in both groups. Therefore, although some inflammatory and vascular homeostasis biomarkers change during pregnancy, they are not affected by the increased intake of farmed salmon.

  5. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures.

  6. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L

    1998-11-01

    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  7. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures. PMID:26782664

  8. Postprandial Spillover of Dietary Lipid into Plasma Is Increased with Moderate Amounts of Ingested Fat and Is Inversely Related to Adiposity in Healthy Older Men123

    PubMed Central

    Puga, Guilherme M.; Meyer, Christian; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2012-01-01

    Adverse effects on health mediated by increased plasma FFA concentrations are well established and older individuals are particularly susceptible to these effects. We sought to determine the effects of the amount of dietary fat on increasing the plasma FFA concentrations as a result of “spillover” of dietary fat into the plasma FFA pool during the postprandial period in older men. Healthy, older participants (63–71 y old) were studied in a randomized, crossover design following ingestions of low (LF) and moderate (MF) amounts of [1,1,1-13C]-triolein-labeled fat, corresponding to 0.4 and 0.7 g of fat/kg body weight, respectively. Spillover of dietary fatty acids into plasma during the 8-h postprandial period (AUC; mmol · L−1 · h) after MF ingestion was 1.2 times greater than that after LF ingestion (2.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1; P < 0.05). The spillover of dietary fatty acids following the MF, but not the LF, ingestion was correlated with the percent body fat (rs = −0.89) and percent body fat-free mass (rs = 0.94) of the men (P < 0.05). After adjusting to the amount of ingested fat, the spillover of dietary fatty acids in the MF trial was disproportionally higher than that in the LF trial (P < 0.05), but the corresponding postprandial plasma TG responses did not differ between trials. In conclusion, spillover of dietary lipid into plasma is disproportionally increased at higher doses of dietary fat and this response is inversely related to adiposity in healthy men of advanced age. PMID:22955513

  9. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dashty, M; Motazacker, M M; Levels, J; de Vries, M; Mahmoudi, M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Rezaee, F

    2014-03-03

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis from the site of synthesis to effector locations. To better understand the role of VLDL and LDL in the transport of proteins, we applied a combination of LTQ ORBITRAP-XL (nLC-MS/MS) with both in-SDS-PAGE gel and in-solution tryptic digestion of pure and defined VLDL and LDL fractions. We identified the presence of 95 VLDL- and 51 LDL-associated proteins including all known apolipoproteins and lipid transport proteins, and intriguingly a set of coagulation proteins, complement system and anti- microbial proteins. Prothrombin, protein S, fibrinogen γ, PLTP, CETP, CD14 and LBP were present on VLDL but not on LDL. Prenylcysteine oxidase 1, dermcidin, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, TFPI-1 and fibrinogen α chain were associated with both VLDL and LDL. Apo A-V is only present on VLDL and not on LDL. Collectively, this study provides a wealth of knowledge on the protein constituents of the human plasma lipoprotein system and strongly supports the notion that protein shuttling through this system is involved in the regulation of biological processes. Human diseases related to proteins carried by VLDL and LDL can be divided in three major categories: 1 - dyslipidaemia, 2 - atherosclerosis and vascular disease, and 3 - coagulation disorders.

  10. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  11. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  12. Thymineless Death in F10-Treated AML Cells Occurs via Lipid Raft Depletion and Fas/FasL co-Localization in the Plasma Membrane with Activation of the Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gmeiner, William H.; Jennings-Gee, Jamie; Stuart, Christopher H.; Pardee, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric fluoropyrimidine F10 displays excellent anti-leukemia activity in pre-clinical models of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) through dual targeting of thymidylate synthase and DNA topoisomerase 1. Here we report that F10 activates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in AML cells by enhancing localization of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) at the plasma membrane and while reducing overall lipid raft levels promotes Fas/FasL co-localization in remaining lipid rafts. The HMG-CoA synthase inhibitor simvastatin was synergistic with F10 and induced cell death via similar apoptotic processes. Our results are consistent with diverse processes activating a common apoptotic pathway characterized by reduced overall levels of lipid rafts and Fas/FasL co-localization in the plasma membrane, including in remaining lipid rafts which may play a role in both cell-survival and cell death signaling. PMID:25510486

  13. Thymineless death in F10-treated AML cells occurs via lipid raft depletion and Fas/FasL co-localization in the plasma membrane with activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Gmeiner, William H; Jennings-Gee, Jamie; Stuart, Christopher H; Pardee, Timothy S

    2015-02-01

    The polymeric fluoropyrimidine F10 displays excellent anti-leukemia activity in pre-clinical models of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) through dual targeting of thymidylate synthase and DNA topoisomerase 1. Here we report that F10 activates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in AML cells by enhancing localization of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) at the plasma membrane and while reducing overall lipid raft levels promotes Fas/FasL co-localization in remaining lipid rafts. The HMG-CoA synthase inhibitor simvastatin was synergistic with F10 and induced cell death via similar apoptotic processes. Our results are consistent with diverse processes activating a common apoptotic pathway characterized by reduced overall levels of lipid rafts and Fas/FasL co-localization in the plasma membrane, including in remaining lipid rafts which may play a role in both cell-survival and cell death signaling.

  14. High dose trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases lean body mass in hamsters, but elevates levels of plasma lipids and liver enzyme biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoran; Joseph, Shama V; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; Jones, Peter J H

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the efficacy of graded doses of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers on body composition, energy expenditure, hepatic and serum lipid liver biomarkers in hamsters. Animals (n = 105) were randomized to seven treatments (control, 1, 2, 3% of c9,t11; 1, 2, 3% of t10,c12) for 28 days. After 28 days treatment, 1-3% of t10,c12 lowered (p < 0.05) body fat mass compared to the control group. The 1-3% t10,c12 and 3% c9,t11 fed groups showed higher (p < 0.05) lean mass compared to other groups. We observed unfavorable changes in plasma total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels in animals fed with 3% t10,c12 CLA isomers. The 2%, 3% t10,c12 groups presented elevated (p < 0.05) ALT levels. The present data suggest that a diet enriched with more than 2% t10, c12 led to liver malfunction and poses unfavorable changes on plasma lipid profiles. The 1% t10,c12 CLA lowered (p < 0.05) body fat mass and increased (p < 0.05) lean body mass. The c9,t11 CLA has less potent actions than t10,c12 CLA. We conclude that the actions of CLA on energy and lipid metabolism are form and dose dependent in the hamster model.

  15. Dopamine induces lipid accumulation, NADPH oxidase-related oxidative stress, and a proinflammatory status of the plasma membrane in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Begieneman, Mark P V; Ter Horst, Ellis N; Rijvers, Liza; Meinster, Elisa; Leen, René; Pankras, Jeannette E; Fritz, Jan; Kubat, Bela; Musters, René J P; van Kuilenburg, André B P; Stap, Jan; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2016-11-01

    Excess catecholamine levels are suggested to be cardiotoxic and to underlie stress-induced heart failure. The cardiotoxic effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine are well recognized. However, although cardiac and circulating dopamine levels are also increased in stress cardiomyopathy patients, knowledge regarding putative toxic effects of excess dopamine levels on cardiomyocytes is scarce. We now studied the effects of elevated dopamine levels in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. H9c2 cells were cultured and treated with dopamine (200 μM) for 6, 24, and 48 h. Subsequently, the effects on lipid accumulation, cell viability, flippase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, subcellular NADPH oxidase (NOX) protein expression, and ATP/ADP and GTP/GDP levels were analyzed. Dopamine did not result in cytotoxic effects after 6 h. However, after 24 and 48 h dopamine treatment induced a significant increase in lipid accumulation, nitrotyrosine levels, indicative of ROS production, and cell death. In addition, dopamine significantly reduced flippase activity and ATP/GTP levels, coinciding with phosphatidylserine exposure on the outer plasma membrane. Furthermore, dopamine induced a transient increase in cytoplasmic and (peri)nucleus NOX1 and NOX4 expression after 24 h that subsided after 48 h. Moreover, while dopamine induced a similar transient increase in cytoplasmic NOX2 and p47(phox) expression, in the (peri)nucleus this increased expression persisted for 48 h where it colocalized with ROS. Exposure of H9c2 cells to elevated dopamine levels induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and a proinflammatory status of the plasma membrane. This can, in part, explain the inflammatory response in patients with stress-induced heart failure.

  16. Effects of dehulled adlay on plasma glucose and lipid concentrations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a diet enriched in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Pao-Hua; Chiang, Wenchang; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2006-09-01

    Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a cereal food for humans and has been also used as a superior medical herb substance and functional food for traditional treatment of diabetes in China. However, its scientific basis as a functional food is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary dehulled adlay on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations in diabetic rats. The diabetic male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, induced by injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg subcutaneously), were fed a cholesterol-rich diet (0.5% cholesterol) containing corn starch or dehulled adlay for four weeks. After completion of the experimental period, the abdominal adipose tissue and liver of rats were excised and weighed, and the plasma glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were assayed. The results showed that diabetic rats fed a dehulled adlay diet exhibited a greater adipose tissue weight (9.36 +/- 3.43 vs. 5.39 +/- 3.04 g, p < 0.05) and a reduced food intake (39.3 +/- 5.9 vs. 61.0 +/- 11.7 g/day, p < 0.05) when compared with animals fed a cornstarch diet. Significantly decreased plasma glucose (261.6 +/- 96.6 vs. 422.1 +/- 125.4 mg/dL, p < 0.05), total cholesterol (289.4 +/- 140.6 vs. 627.3 +/- 230.5 mg/dL, p < 0.05), and triglyceride (52.3 +/- 14.4 vs. 96.5 +/- 36.6 mg/dL, p < 0.05) levels were observed in rats fed the dehulled adlay diet. In addition, the ingestion of dehulled adlay appears to significantly decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plus very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol concentrations. Rats fed a dehulled adlay diet showed an increase in fecal weight and cholesterol contents of stools. Although a significantly decreased plasma thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) value was observed in diabetic rats fed the dehulled adlay diet (6.2 +/- 3.4 vs. 11.0 +/- 3.8 nmol malondialdehyde (MDA)/mL, p < 0.05), no significant difference in the hepatic TBARS value was observed between

  17. Lactation Affects Isolated Mitochondria and Its Fatty Acid Composition but Has No Effect on Tissue Protein Oxidation, Lipid Peroxidation or DNA-Damage in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valencak, Teresa G.; Raith, Johannes; Staniek, Katrin; Gille, Lars; Strasser, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Linking peak energy metabolism to lifespan and aging remains a major question especially when focusing on lactation in females. We studied, if and how lactation affects in vitro mitochondrial oxygen consumption and mitochondrial fatty acid composition. In addition, we assessed DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls to extrapolate on oxidative stress in mothers. As model system we used C57BL/6NCrl mice and exposed lactating females to two ambient temperatures (15 °C and 22 °C) while they nursed their offspring until weaning. We found that state II and state IV respiration rates of liver mitochondria were significantly higher in the lactating animals than in non-lactating mice. Fatty acid composition of isolated liver and heart mitochondria differed between lactating and non-lactating mice with higher n-6, and lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lactating females. Surprisingly, lactation did not affect protein carbonyls, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, nor did moderate cold exposure of 15 °C. We conclude that lactation increases rates of mitochondrial uncoupling and alters mitochondrial fatty acid composition thus supporting the “uncoupling to survive” hypothesis. Regarding oxidative stress, we found no impact of lactation and lower ambient temperature and contribute to growing evidence that there is no linear relationship between oxidative damage and lactation. PMID:26805895

  18. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  19. Oral administration of fumonisin B1 and T-2 individually and in combination affects hepatic total and mitochondrial membrane lipid profile of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Szabó, A; Szabó-Fodor, J; Fébel, H; Mézes, M; Bajzik, G; Kovács, M

    2016-09-01

    Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) compared to a toxin-free control diet. Samplings were performed after 4 weeks (blood and liver). Bodyweight of T-2-fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight was increased dramatically (threefold of control). Liver total phospholipids (PLs) provided slight alterations in the fatty acid (FA) composition; all three toxin-treated groups showed a decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) proportion. In the liver mitochondrial PL FA composition, margaric acid (C17:0) proportion decreased in the separated toxin treatments compared to the combined setting. Oleic acid (C18:1 n9) proportion was increased and arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6) was decreased in the FB1-treated group, while docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n3) was decreased in the separated treatments. The total monounsaturation was significantly higher in the FB1 group's mitochondrial PL FA profile. After 4 weeks, all toxin treatments decreased the blood plasma reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, and FB1 increased the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio. Both mycotoxins seem to cross the hepatocellular and the hepatic mitochondrial membrane, without drastic membrane disruption, as assessed from the PL FA composition, but inducing detectable lipid peroxidation.

  20. [Lipid and lipoprotein profile in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Deiana, L; Pes, G M; Carru, C; Tidore, M; Cherchi, G M

    1992-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common relapsing dermatosis characterized by an increased epidermal cell proliferation. In this work we studied the lipid and lipoprotein pattern in 17 patients affected by long-standing psoriasis and in 20 normal controls. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and Apolipoprotein AI and B levels were measured; VLDL, LDL and HDL chemical composition was assessed by preparative ultracentrifugation. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were significantly lower in the patient group; chemical analysis of the main lipoprotein classes showed compositional abnormalities consistent with an accelerated turnover of these particles. We believe that epidermal cell proliferation can play a role in determining these changes.

  1. Dependence of radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2013-06-01

    We investigate how the neoclassical thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by the effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift-kinetic simulation code for calculating the radial thermal diffusivity of ion in the perturbed region under an assumption of zero electric field. Here, the perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and near the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. We find that the dependence of the radial thermal diffusivity on parameters of the toroidal plasma is represented as \\chi_r=\\chi_r^{(0)} \\{1+ c_0\\,(\\omega_b/\

  2. Proteomic analysis of seminal plasma from asthenozoospermia patients reveals proteins that affect oxidative stress responses and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Hua-Rong; Shi, Hui-Juan; Ma, Duan; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Lin, Biaoyang; Li, Run-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Asthenozoospermia (AS) is a common cause of human male infertility. In one study, more than 80% of the samples from infertile men had reduced sperm motility. Seminal plasma is a mixture of secretions from the testis, epididymis and several male accessory glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles and Cowper's gland. Studies have shown that seminal plasma contains proteins that are important for sperm motility. To further explore the pathophysiological character of AS, we separated the seminal plasma proteins from AS patients and healthy donors using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion, and then subjected the proteins to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 741 proteins were identified in the seminal plasma, with a false discovery rate of 3.3%. Using spectral counting, we found that 45 proteins were threefold upregulated and 56 proteins were threefold downregulated in the AS group when compared with the control. Most of these proteins originated from the epididymis and prostate. This study identified a rich source of biomarker candidates for male infertility and indicates that functional abnormalities of the epididymis and prostate can contribute to AS. We identified DJ-1-a protein that has been shown elsewhere to be involved in the control of oxidative stress (OS)-as a downregulated protein in AS seminal plasma. The levels of DJ-1 in AS seminal plasma were about half of those in the control samples. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species were 3.3-fold higher in the AS samples than in the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that downregulation of DJ-1 is involved in OS in semen, and therefore affects the quality of the semen.

  3. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  4. Cold plasma inactivates salmonella on grape tomatoes in a commercial PET plastic container without affecting quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The number of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of fresh tomatoes has increased. Little research has been conducted on the effects of direct treatment of cold plasma (CP) on the microbial decontamination and preservation of bulk tomatoes packaged in comme...

  5. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on daily weight gain, lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet was studied. The control group was given normal feed while the other three groups received 50 g egg yolk/kg feed. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight; while the test control and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route. On gas chromatographic analysis of the aqueous crude extract, the phytosterol and tannins fractions contained 100 % of β-sitosterol and tannic acid respectively. The mean daily weight gain of the test control group was higher though not significantly, than those of the other groups. The plasma total cholesterol levels, cardiac risk ratio and atherogenic coefficient of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the test groups, but not significantly higher than that of the control group. The plasma low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control and test groups. The plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol of the test control group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control group, but not significantly lower than those of the test groups. There were no significant differences in the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the atherogenic index of plasma of all the groups. These results indicate a dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of the extract, thus suggesting a likely protective role of the extract against the development of cardiovascular diseases. It also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active agents in the leaves. PMID:27418909

  6. Effects of parenteral infusion with fish-oil or safflower-oil emulsion on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids, and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Chao, C Y; Yeh, S L; Lin, M T; Chen, W J

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using fish-oil (FO) versus safflower-oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino-acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were assigned to two different groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300 kcal. kg(-1). d(-1), with 40% of the non-protein energy as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or FO. After receiving TPN for 6 d, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture; control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: FO control group (FOC; n = 7), FO sepsis group (FOS; n = 8), SO control group (SOC; n = 8), and SO sepsis group (SOS; n = 9). The results of the study demonstrated that plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids did not differ between the FO and SO groups, regardless of whether the animals were septic. SOS had significantly higher total lipids and cholesterol content in the liver than did the SOC group. The FOS group, however, showed no difference from the FOC group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS group than in the SOC group, whereas no difference in these two amino acids was observed between the FOC and FOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in both septic groups than in the groups without sepsis when either FO or SO was infused. Plasma glutamine levels, however, did not differ across groups. No differences in interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or leukotriene B(4) concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction in septic rats preinfused with FO

  7. Effects of parenteral infusion with medium-chain triglycerides and safflower oil emulsions on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S; Chao, C; Lin, M; Chen, W

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) versus safflower oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were divided into two groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300kcal/kg/day with 40% of the non-protein energy provided as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or a mixture of MCT and soybean oil (9:1) (MO). After receiving TPN for 6 days, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture, whereas control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: MCT control group (MOC, n= 8), MCT sepsis group (MOS, n= 8), safflower oil control group (SOC, n= 8), and safflower oil sepsis group (SOS, n= 11). The results of the study demonstrated that the MOS group had lower hepatic lipids than did the SOS group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS than in the SOC group, but no differences in these two amino acids were observed between the MOC and MOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in septic groups than in those without sepsis despite whether MCT or safflower oil was infused. Plasma glutamine and alanine levels, however, did not differ between septic and non-septic groups either in the SO or MO groups. No differences in interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and leukotriene B(4)concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction is septic rats preinfused MCT is not as obvious as those preinfused safflower oil. Compared with safflower oil, TPN with MCT administration has better effects on

  8. Single Lipid Molecule Dynamics on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Membrane Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Philip P.; Weisgerber, Alan W.; Feuerbach, Alec M.; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    The plasma membrane is a highly compartmentalized, dynamic material and this organization is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes. Nanoscale domains allow proteins to organize for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and other essential processes. Even in the absence of proteins, lipids have the ability to organize into domains as a result of a variety of chemical and physical interactions. One feature of membranes that affects lipid domain formation is membrane curvature. To directly test the role of curvature in lipid sorting, we measured the accumulation of two similar lipids, 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE) and hexadecanoic acid (HDA), using a supported lipid bilayer that was assembled over a nanopatterned surface to obtain regions of membrane curvature. Both lipids studied contain 16 carbon, saturated tails and a head group tag for fluorescence microscopy measurements. The accumulation of lipids at curvatures ranging from 28 nm to 55 nm radii was measured and fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulated more than fluorescein labeled HDA at regions of membrane curvature. We then tested whether single biotinylated DHPE molecules sense curvature using single particle tracking methods. Similar to groups of fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulating at curvature, the dynamics of single molecules of biotinylated DHPE was also affected by membrane curvature and highly confined motion was observed. PMID:28294967

  9. Prenatal exposure to common environmental factors affects brain lipids and increases risk of developing autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christine T; Wais, Joshua; Crawford, Dorota A

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been on the rise over recent years. The presence of diverse subsets of candidate genes in each individual with an ASD and the vast variability of phenotypical differences suggest that the interference of an exogenous environmental component may greatly contribute to the development of ASDs. The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is released from phospholipids of cell membranes, and is important in brain development and function; PGE2 is involved in differentiation, synaptic plasticity and calcium regulation. The previous review already described extrinsic factors, including deficient dietary supplementation, and exposure to oxidative stress, infections and inflammation that can disrupt signaling of the PGE2 pathway and contribute to ASDs. In this review, the structure and establishment of two key protective barriers for the brain during early development are described: the blood-brain barrier; and the placental barrier. Then, the first comprehensive summary of other environmental factors, such as exposure to chemicals in air pollution, pesticides and consumer products, which can also disturb PGE2 signaling and increase the risk for developing ASDs is provided. Also, how these exogenous agents are capable of crossing the protective barriers of the brain during critical developmental periods when barrier components are still being formed is described. This review underlines the importance of avoiding or limiting exposure to these factors during vulnerable periods in development.

  10. Light intensity and N/P nutrient affect the accumulation of lipid and unsaturated fatty acids by Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Su, Gaomin; Li, Zheng; Chang, Jingyu; Zeng, Xianhai; Sun, Yong; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2015-09-01

    In this study, different light intensities (80, 160, 240 and 320 μmol/m(2) s) and various mediums including control medium (CM), N/P rich medium (NPM), N rich medium (NM), and P rich medium (PM) were applied for cultivation of Chlorella sp. It was revealed that cultivation of Chlorella sp. in CM under the light intensity of 320 μmol/m(2) s led to a lipid content up to 30% enhancement, which was higher than the results of other cases. A rather high unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content of 7.5% and unsaturated fatty acid/total fatty acid (UFA/TFA) ratio of 0.73 were obtained under 320 μmol/m(2) s in CM, indicating that the CM-320 system was applicable for the generation of UFA. Moreover, Chlorella sp. cultivated in PM under 320 μmol/m(2) s provided higher TFA content (7.3%), which was appropriate for biofuel production.

  11. Robust computational method for fast calculations of multicharged ions lineshapes affected by a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, E.; Oks, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transport phenomena in plasmas, such as, e.g., resistivity, can be affected by electrostatic turbulence that frequently occurs in various kinds of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Transport phenomena are affected most significantly by a low-frequency electrostatic turbulence—such as, e.g., ion acoustic waves, also known as ionic sound—causing anomalous resistivity. In this case, for computing profiles of spectral lines, emitted by plasma ions, by any appropriate code for diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to calculate the distribution of the total quasistatic field. For a practically important situation, where the average turbulent field is much greater than the characteristic ion microfield, we develop a robust computational method valid for any appropriate distribution of the ion microfield at a charged point. We show that the correction to the Rayleigh distribution of the turbulent field is controlled by the behavior of the ion microfield distribution at large fields—in distinction to the opposite (and therefore, erroneous) result in the literature. We also obtain a universal analytical expression for the correction to the Rayleigh distribution based on the asymptotic of the ion microfield distribution at large fields at a charged point. By comparison with various known distributions of the ion microfield, we show that our asymptotic formula has a sufficiently high accuracy. Also exact computations are used to verify the high accuracy of the method. This robust approximate, but accurate method yields faster computational results than the exact calculations and therefore should be important for practical situations requiring simultaneous computations of a large number of spectral lineshapes (e.g., for calculating opacities)—especially for laser-produced plasmas.

  12. Methods for isolation of cell-free plasma DNA strongly affect DNA yield.

    PubMed

    Fleischhacker, Michael; Schmidt, Bernd; Weickmann, Sabine; Fersching, Debora M I; Leszinski, Gloria S; Siegele, Barbara; Stötzer, Oliver J; Nagel, Dorothea; Holdenrieder, Stefan

    2011-11-20

    Extracellular nucleic acids are present in plasma, serum, and other body fluids and their analysis has gained increasing attention during recent years. Because of the small quantity and highly fragmented nature of cell-free DNA in plasma and serum, a fast, efficient, and reliable isolation method is still a problem and so far there is no agreement on a standardized method. We used spin columns from commercial suppliers (QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit from Qiagen; NucleoSpin Kit from Macherey-Nagel; MagNA Pure isolation system from Roche Diagnostics) to isolate DNA from 44 plasma samples in parallel at laboratories in Berlin and Munich. DNA in all samples was quantified by real-time PCR on a LightCycler 480 using three different targets (GAPDH, ß-globin, ERV). The quantities of cell-free DNA for the different isolation methods and genes varied between medians of 1.6 ng/mL and 28.1 ng/mL. This considerable variation of absolute DNA values was mainly caused by the use of different isolation methods (p<0.0001). Comparable results were achieved by the use of the genes GAPDH and ERV while higher values were obtained by use of ß-globin. The laboratory site had only minor influence on DNA yield when manual extraction methods were used.

  13. The modification of serum lipids after acute coronary syndrome and importance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Balci, Bahattin

    2011-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pathology characterized by low-grade vascular inflammation rather than a mere accumulation of lipids. Inflammation is central at all stages of atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndrome significantly affects the concentration and composition of the lipids and lipoproteins in plasma. Plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein levels increase, while high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels decrease. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. However, post-event changes in lipid and lipoproteins lead to delays in the choice of the treatment. This review focuses on the mechanism and the clinical importance of the relevant changes.

  14. Lipid rafts and detergent-resistant membranes in epithelial keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    McGuinn, Kathleen P; Mahoney, Mỹ G

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the plasma membrane has markedly increased since Singer and Nicolson proposed the fluid mosaic model in 1972. While their revolutionary theory of the lipid bilayer remains largely valid, it is now known that lipids and proteins are not randomly dispersed throughout the plasma membrane but instead may be organized within membrane microdomains, commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Lipid rafts are highly dynamic, detergent resistant, and enriched with both cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. The two main types are flotillin-rich planar lipid rafts and caveolin-rich caveolae. It is proposed that flotillin and caveolin proteins regulate cell communication by compartmentalizing and interacting with signal transduction proteins within their respective lipid microdomains. Consequently, membrane rafts play an important role in vital cellular functions including migration, invasion, and signaling; thus, alterations in their microenvironment can initiate signaling pathways that affect cellular function and behavior. Therefore, the identification of lipid rafts and their associated proteins is integral to the study of transmembrane signaling. Here, we review the current standard protocols and biochemical approaches used to isolate and define raft proteins from epithelial cells and tissues. Furthermore, in Section 3 of this chapter, detailed protocols are offered for isolating lipid rafts by subjection to detergent and sucrose density centrifugation, as well as an approach for selectively isolating caveolae. Methods to manipulate rafts with treatments such as methyl-β-cyclodextrin and flotillin III are also described.

  15. Comparison of the lipid properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Osthoff, Gernot; Hugo, Arno; Bouwman, Henk; Buss, Peter; Govender, Danny; Joubert, Chris C; Swarts, Jannie C

    2010-01-01

    The results presented describe and compare the fatty acid composition and melting properties of captive, healthy wild, and pansteatitis-affected wild crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Differences in fatty acid composition between intramuscular and adipose fat is noted in captive crocodiles, and the latter differs from wild crocodiles as a result of different diets. Adipose fat of healthy wild crocodiles differs minimally from diseased ones, respectively with 37.3+/-2.6% vs. 43.2+/-2.3% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 43.2+/-2.9% in dead crocodiles, while polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease from 27.3+/-1.9% to as low as 21.9+/-3.6% respectively. Of the unsaturated fatty acids 18:2n-6 decreased from 6.5+/-2.6% in unaffected crocodiles to 3.5+/-0.6% in highly affected and 3.2+/-0.4% in dead crocodiles, and 22:5n-3 from 2.8+/-0.6% to 1.8+/-0.3% and 2.2+/-0.3% respectively. The melting properties as determined by differential scanning calorimetry show that extracted adipose fat is a small degree softer in pansteatitis-affected tissue, specifically in the temperature range 7-36 degrees C, and does not contribute to the hard texture noted for adipose fat tissue of pansteatitis-affected animals. A high moisture content of 51.0+/-19.7% of the fat tissue of pansteatitis-affected animals vs.17.1+/-8.0% of healthy ones, suggests that physiological changes due to interstitial inflammation may contribute to the hard texture.

  16. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  17. Adipose weight gain during chronic insulin treatment of mice results from changes in lipid storage without affecting de novo synthesis of palmitate.

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Fledelius, Christian; Olsen, Grith Skytte; Hellerstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Insulin treatment is associated with increased adipose mass in both humans and mice. However, the underlying dynamic basis of insulin induced lipid accumulation in adipose tissue remains elusive. To assess this, young female C57BL6/J mice were fed a low fat diet for 3 weeks, treated subsequently with 7 days of constant subcutaneous insulin infusion by osmotic minipumps and compared to mice with only buffer infused. To track changes in lipid deposition during insulin treatment, metabolic labeling was conducted with heavy water for the final 4 days. Blood glucose was significantly lowered within one hour after implantation of insulin loaded mini pumps and remained lower throughout the study. Insulin treated animals gained significantly more weight during treatment and the mean weight of the subcutaneous adipose depots was significantly higher with the highest dose of insulin. Surprisingly, de novo palmitate synthesis within the subcutaneous and the gonadal depots was not affected significantly by insulin treatment. In contrast insulin treatment caused accumulation of triglycerides in both depots due to either deposition of newly synthesised triglycerides (subcutaneous depot) or inhibition of lipolysis (gonadal depot).

  18. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

  19. Localization of lipid raft proteins to the plasma membrane is a major function of the phospholipid transfer protein Sec14.

    PubMed

    Curwin, Amy J; Leblanc, Marissa A; Fairn, Gregory D; McMaster, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    The Sec14 protein domain is a conserved tertiary structure that binds hydrophobic ligands. The Sec14 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential with studies of S. cerevisiae Sec14 cellular function facilitated by a sole temperature sensitive allele, sec14(ts). The sec14(ts) allele encodes a protein with a point mutation resulting in a single amino acid change, Sec14(G266D). In this study results from a genome-wide genetic screen, and pharmacological data, provide evidence that the Sec14(G266D) protein is present at a reduced level compared to wild type Sec14 due to its being targeted to the proteosome. Increased expression of the sec14(ts) allele ameliorated growth arrest, but did not restore the defects in membrane accumulation or vesicular transport known to be defective in sec14(ts) cells. We determined that trafficking and localization of two well characterized lipid raft resident proteins, Pma1 and Fus-Mid-GFP, were aberrant in sec14(ts) cells. Localization of both lipid raft proteins was restored upon increased expression of the sec14(ts) allele. We suggest that a major function provided by Sec14 is trafficking and localization of lipid raft proteins.

  20. Correction of patient results for Beckman Coulter LX-20 assays affected by interference due to hemoglobin, bilirubin or lipids: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Vermeer, Henricus J; Steen, Gerard; Naus, André J M; Goevaerts, Berrie; Agricola, Pauline T; Schoenmakers, Christian H H

    2007-01-01

    The influence of interference by hemolysis, icterus and lipemia on the results of routine chemistries may lead to wrong interpretations. On Synchron LX-20 instruments (Beckman Coulter) serum or plasma indices can be used as reliable semi-quantitative measures of the magnitude of such interference. In an article recently published in this journal, we presented the results of a multicenter study carried out in Dutch hospitals in which we determined cutoff indices for analytes above which analytically significant interference exists. Clinically significant interference cutoff indices were also derived for these analytes. In this article, we describe the handling of patient samples with clinically significant interference by hemolysis, icterus or lipemia. We investigated several possible approaches for correction of the result: dilution of the interference; mathematical correction in the case of hemolysis; treatment with ferrocyanide to destroy bilirubin; and removal of lipids in lipemic patient samples. We concluded, that mathematical correction of potassium or lactate dehydrogenase results in hemolytic samples can only be carried out if intravascular hemolysis is ruled out. Hemoglobin quantification in serial patient samples, combined with measurement of haptoglobin, represents a useful tool to rule out in vivo hemolysis. We derived an algorithm for this situation. We do not simply recommend mathematical correction, unless it is clinically acceptable. We present formulas for potassium and lactate dehydrogenase: corrected potassium=measured potassium-(hemolytic index increment x 0.14); corrected lactate dehydrogenase=measured lactate dehydrogenase-(hemolytic index increment x 75). The dilution studies indicated that dilution is only applicable for bilirubin, C-reactive protein and iron. The results of treatment with ferrocyanide were poor, and we do not recommend this method. Removal of lipids using high-speed centrifugation or LipoClear (StatSpin Inc.), a non

  1. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  2. Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Scott A.; Zaccagni, Hayden; Bichell, David P.; Christian, Karla G.; Mettler, Bret A.; Donahue, Brian S.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hemolysis, occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is associated with lipid peroxidation and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Acetaminophen (ApAP) inhibits lipid peroxidation catalyzed by hemeproteins and in an animal model attenuated rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ApAP attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing CPB. Design Single center prospective randomized double blinded study. Setting University-affiliated pediatric hospital. Patients Thirty children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect. Interventions Patients were randomized to ApAP (OFIRMEV® (acetaminophen) injection, Cadence Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) or placebo every 6 hours for 4 doses starting before the onset of CPB. Measurement and Main Results Markers of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation (isofurans and F2-isoprostanes) and AKI were measured throughout the perioperative period. CPB was associated with a significant increase in free hemoglobin (from a pre-bypass level of 9.8±6.2 mg/dl to a peak of 201.5±42.6 mg/dl post-bypass). Plasma and urine isofuran and F2-isoprostane concentrations increased significantly during surgery. The magnitude of increase in plasma isofurans was greater than the magnitude in increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofurans compared to placebo (P=0.02 for effect of study drug). There was no significant effect of ApAP on plasma F2-isoprostanes or urinary makers of lipid peroxidation. ApAP did not affect postoperative creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin or prevalence of AKI. Conclusion CPB in children is associated with hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofuran concentrations. Future studies are needed to establish whether other therapies that attenuate or prevent the effects of free hemoglobin result in more effective inhibition of lipid peroxidation in patients

  3. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-02

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples.

  4. Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. Results A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver–operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, α-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and α-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences

  5. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  6. Lactation Intensity and Fasting Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins, Non-esterified Free Fatty Acids, Leptin and Adiponectin in Postpartum Women with Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The SWIFT cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Erica P.; Kim, Catherine; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Marcovina, Santica; Walton, David; Azevedo, Robert A.; Fox, Gary; Elmasian, Cathie; Young, Stephen; Salvador, Nora; Lum, Michael; Crites, Yvonne; Lo, Joan C.; Ning, Xian; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Lactation may influence future progression to type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, biomarkers associated with progression to glucose intolerance have not been examined in relation to lactation intensity among postpartum women with previous GDM. This study investigates whether higher lactation intensity is related to more favorable blood lipids, lipoproteins and adipokines after GDM pregnancy independent of obesity, socio-demographics and insulin resistance. Methods The Study of Women, Infant Feeding, and Type 2 Diabetes (SWIFT) is a prospective cohort study that recruited 1,035 women diagnosed with GDM by the 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) after delivery of a live birth in 2008–2011. Research staff conducted 2-hour 75 gram OGTTs, and assessed lactation intensity, anthropometry, lifestyle behaviors and socio-demographics at 6–9 weeks postpartum (baseline). We assayed fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, non-esterified free fatty acids, leptin and adiponectin from stored samples obtained at 6–9 weeks postpartum for in 1,007 of the SWIFT participants who were free of diabetes at baseline. Mean biomarker concentrations were compared among lactation intensity groups using multivariable linear regression models. Results Increasing lactation intensity showed graded monotonic associations with fully adjusted mean biomarkers: 5–8% higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), 20–28% lower fasting triglycerides, 15–21% lower leptin (all trend P-values<0.01), and with 6% lower adiponectin, but only after adjustment for insulin resistance (trend P-value=0.04). Conclusion Higher lactation intensity was associated with more favorable biomarkers for type 2 diabetes, except for lower plasma adiponectin, after GDM delivery. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess whether these effects of lactation persist to predict progression to glucose intolerance. PMID:24931281

  7. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks.

  8. Factors affecting the plasma insulin concentration shortly after accidental injury in man.

    PubMed Central

    Frayn, K N; Maycock, P F; Little, R A; Yates, D W; Stoner, H B

    1987-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on plasma insulin concentrations in the acutely injured. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations have been measured in 504 patients within 8 h of injury, and related to the severity of injury as assessed by the injury severity score (ISS). As in previous surveys of injured patients, an extremely wide range of insulin concentrations was found (2-141 mU/l). Most of the variability occurred at lower severities of injury. In very severely injured patients (ISS greater than or equal to 30), insulin concentrations were uniformly suppressed (less than 20 mU/l), especially in relation to the hyperglycaemia in these patients. Two small subgroups, patients dying within 3 h of injury and known psychiatric patients on psycho-active drugs, differed from the general pattern in displaying elevated insulin concentrations despite very severe injuries. The results bear out the idea that insulin secretion is usually acutely suppressed by adrenaline after severe injury; after less severe injuries, however, the response is much less uniform. PMID:3304325

  9. Exploration of Lipid Metabolism in Relation with Plasma Membrane Properties of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cells: Influence of L-Carnitine

    PubMed Central

    Le Borgne, Françoise; Guyot, Stéphane; Logerot, Morgan; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Demarquoy, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) arises as a consequence of mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a membrane-spanning protein that connects the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. The most distinctive features of DMD are a progressive muscular dystrophy, a myofiber degeneration with fibrosis and metabolic alterations such as fatty infiltration, however, little is known on lipid metabolism changes arising in Duchenne patient cells. Our goal was to identify metabolic changes occurring in Duchenne patient cells especially in terms of L-carnitine homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism both at the mitochondrial and peroxisomal level and the consequences on the membrane structure and function. In this paper, we compared the structural and functional characteristics of DMD patient and control cells. Using radiolabeled L-carnitine, we found, in patient muscle cells, a marked decrease in the uptake and the intracellular level of L-carnitine. Associated with this change, a decrease in the mitochondrial metabolism can be seen from the analysis of mRNA encoding for mitochondrial proteins. Probably, associated with these changes in fatty acid metabolism, alterations in the lipid composition of the cells were identified: with an increase in poly unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in medium chain fatty acids, mono unsaturated fatty acids and in cholesterol contents. Functionally, the membrane of cells lacking dystrophin appeared to be less fluid, as determined at 37°C by fluorescence anisotropy. These changes may, at least in part, be responsible for changes in the phospholipids and cholesterol profile in cell membranes and ultimately may reduce the fluidity of the membrane. A supplementation with L-carnitine partly restored the fatty acid profile by increasing saturated fatty acid content and decreasing the amounts of MUFA, PUFA, VLCFA. L-carnitine supplementation also restored muscle membrane fluidity. This suggests that regulating lipid metabolism in DMD cells may

  10. Exploration of lipid metabolism in relation with plasma membrane properties of Duchenne muscular dystrophy cells: influence of L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, Françoise; Guyot, Stéphane; Logerot, Morgan; Beney, Laurent; Gervais, Patrick; Demarquoy, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) arises as a consequence of mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is a membrane-spanning protein that connects the cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. The most distinctive features of DMD are a progressive muscular dystrophy, a myofiber degeneration with fibrosis and metabolic alterations such as fatty infiltration, however, little is known on lipid metabolism changes arising in Duchenne patient cells. Our goal was to identify metabolic changes occurring in Duchenne patient cells especially in terms of L-carnitine homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism both at the mitochondrial and peroxisomal level and the consequences on the membrane structure and function. In this paper, we compared the structural and functional characteristics of DMD patient and control cells. Using radiolabeled L-carnitine, we found, in patient muscle cells, a marked decrease in the uptake and the intracellular level of L-carnitine. Associated with this change, a decrease in the mitochondrial metabolism can be seen from the analysis of mRNA encoding for mitochondrial proteins. Probably, associated with these changes in fatty acid metabolism, alterations in the lipid composition of the cells were identified: with an increase in poly unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in medium chain fatty acids, mono unsaturated fatty acids and in cholesterol contents. Functionally, the membrane of cells lacking dystrophin appeared to be less fluid, as determined at 37°C by fluorescence anisotropy. These changes may, at least in part, be responsible for changes in the phospholipids and cholesterol profile in cell membranes and ultimately may reduce the fluidity of the membrane. A supplementation with L-carnitine partly restored the fatty acid profile by increasing saturated fatty acid content and decreasing the amounts of MUFA, PUFA, VLCFA. L-carnitine supplementation also restored muscle membrane fluidity. This suggests that regulating lipid metabolism in DMD cells may

  11. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    plasma triglyceride concentrations compared to the control (-53% and -65%, respectively) and ferulic acid (-47% and -60%, respectively) diets. Hamsters fed the control and ferulic acid diets had significantly higher plasma vitamin E concentrations compared to the RBO (201% and 161%, respectively) and oryzanol (548% and 462%, respectively) diets; the ferulic acid and oryzanol diets had significantly lower plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels than the control (-57% and -46%, respectively) diet. The oryzanol-fed hamsters excreted significantly more coprostenol and cholesterol in their feces than the ferulic acid (127% and 120%, respectively) diet. The control diet had significantly greater aortic TC and FC accumulation compared to the RBO (115% and 89%, respectively), ferulic acid (48% and 58%, respectively) and the oryzanol (74% and 70%, respectively) diets. However, only the RBO and oryzanol diets had significantly lower aortic cholesterol ester accumulation compared to the control (-73% and -46%, respectively) diet. The present study suggests that at equal dietary levels, oryzanol has a greater effect on lowering plasma non-HDL-C levels and raising plasma HDL-C than ferulic acid, possibly through a greater extent to increase fecal excretion of cholesterol and its metabolites. However, ferulic acid may have a greater antioxidant capacity via its ability to maintain serum vitamin E levels compared to RBO and oryzanol. Thus, both oryzanol and ferulic acid may exert similar antiatherogenic properties, but through different mechanisms.

  12. Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although statins (STs) are drugs of first choice in hypercholesterolemic patients, especially in those at high cardiovascular risk, some of them are intolerant to STs or refuse treatment with these drugs. In view of this, we have evaluated the lipid-lowering effect of a nutraceutical pill containing berberine (BBR) and of ezetimibe, as alternative treatments, in monotherapy or in combination, in 228 subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (HCH), with history of STs intolerance or refusing STs treatment. In addition, since PCSK9 was found up-regulated by STs dampening their effect through an LDL receptors (LDLRs) degradation, and BBR suppressed PCSK9 expression in cellular studies, we supplemented the stable lipid-lowering therapy of 30 genotype-confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia heterozygotes (HeFH) with BBR, searching for a further plasma cholesterol reduction. Plasma lipid pattern was evaluated at baseline and during treatments. Results In HCH subjects the nutraceutical pill resulted more effective than EZE in lowering LDL cholesterol (−31.7% vs −25.4%, P < 0.001) and better tolerated. On treatment, LDL-C level below 3.36 mmol/L (≤130 mg/dl) was observed in 28.9% of subjects treated with the nutraceutical pill and 11.8% of those treated with EZE (P <0.007). In the group treated with EZE the subjects carrying the G allele of the g.1679 C > G silent polymorphism of NPC1L1 gene showed a higher response to EZE than homozygous for the common allele (GG + CG: LDL-C −29.4±5.0%, CC −23.6±6.5%, P <0.001). Combined treatment with these drugs was as effective as STs in moderate doses (LDL cholesterol −37%, triglycerides −23%). In HeFH patients the addition of BBR resulted in LDL cholesterol reductions inversely related to those induced by the stable therapy (r = −0.617, P <0.0001), with mean 10.5% further decrease. Conclusions The alternative treatments tested in our HCH subjects were rather effective and safe. The findings in

  13. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Esi-Ms/Ms) Analysis of the Lipid Molecular Species Composition of Yeast Subcellular Membranes Reveals Acyl Chain-Based Sorting/Remodeling of Distinct Molecular Species En Route to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Schneiter, Roger; Brügger, Britta; Sandhoff, Roger; Zellnig, Günther; Leber, Andrea; Lampl, Manfred; Athenstaedt, Karin; Hrastnik, Claudia; Eder, Sandra; Daum, Günther; Paltauf, Fritz; Wieland, Felix T.; Kohlwein, Sepp D.

    1999-01-01

    Nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-MS/MS) was employed to determine qualitative differences in the lipid molecular species composition of a comprehensive set of organellar membranes, isolated from a single culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Remarkable differences in the acyl chain composition of biosynthetically related phospholipid classes were observed. Acyl chain saturation was lowest in phosphatidylcholine (15.4%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; 16.2%), followed by phosphatidylserine (PS; 29.4%), and highest in phosphatidylinositol (53.1%). The lipid molecular species profiles of the various membranes were generally similar, with a deviation from a calculated average profile of ∼± 20%. Nevertheless, clear distinctions between the molecular species profiles of different membranes were observed, suggesting that lipid sorting mechanisms are operating at the level of individual molecular species to maintain the specific lipid composition of a given membrane. Most notably, the plasma membrane is enriched in saturated species of PS and PE. The nature of the sorting mechanism that determines the lipid composition of the plasma membrane was investigated further. The accumulation of monounsaturated species of PS at the expense of diunsaturated species in the plasma membrane of wild-type cells was reversed in elo3Δ mutant cells, which synthesize C24 fatty acid-substituted sphingolipids instead of the normal C26 fatty acid-substituted species. This observation suggests that acyl chain-based sorting and/or remodeling mechanisms are operating to maintain the specific lipid molecular species composition of the yeast plasma membrane. PMID:10459010

  14. TNFα Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P<0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but no dose effect (P>0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma haptoglobin. Most plasma eicosanoids were not affected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P<0.05) over the first week of lactation, reflecting elevated inflammatory mediators in the days immediately following parturition. Dry matter and water intake, milk yield, and milk fat and protein yields were all decreased (P<0.05) by rbTNFα treatments by 15 to 18%. Concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P = 0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P = 0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

  15. TNFα altered inflammatory responses, impaired health and productivity, but did not affect glucose or lipid metabolism in early-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Farney, Jaymelynn K; Mamedova, Laman K; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Bradford, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P<0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but no dose effect (P>0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma haptoglobin. Most plasma eicosanoids were not affected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P<0.05) over the first week of lactation, reflecting elevated inflammatory mediators in the days immediately following parturition. Dry matter and water intake, milk yield, and milk fat and protein yields were all decreased (P<0.05) by rbTNFα treatments by 15 to 18%. Concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P=0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P=0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows.

  16. Relationship between plasma lipids and palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and synthetase activities with peroxisomal proliferation in rats treated with fibrates.

    PubMed Central

    Alegret, M.; Ferrando, R.; Vázquez, M.; Adzet, T.; Merlos, M.; Laguna, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. The time-course of the effect of clofibrate (CFB), bezafibrate (BFB) and gemfibrozil (GFB) on lipid plasma levels and palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase and synthetase activities, as well as the correlations with the peroxisomal proliferation phenomenon have been studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2. The administration of the three drugs caused a significant reduction in body weight gain, accompanied with a paradoxical increase in food intake in groups treated with BFB and GFB. 3. Drug treatment produced gross hepatomegaly and increase in peroxisomal beta-oxidation, and these parameters were strongly correlated. The order of potency was BFB > CFB > or = GFB. 4. Both plasma cholesterol (BFB approximately CFB > GFB) and triglyceride (BFB approximately GFB > CFB) levels were reduced in treated animals. There was an inverse correlation between these parameters and peroxisomal beta-oxidation, although the peroxisomal proliferation seemed to explain only a small part of the hypolipidemic effect observed. 5. Cytosolic and microsomal (but not mitochondrial) palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase activities were increased by the three drugs (BFB > CFB > GFB), probably by inducing the hydrolase I isoform, which is insensitive to inhibition by fibrates in vitro. The increased hydrolase activities were directly and strongly correlated with peroxisomal beta-oxidation. 6. Palmitoyl-CoA synthetase activity was also increased by the treatment with fibrates (BFB > CFB > GFB), probably as a consequence of the enhancement of hydrolase activities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7915611

  17. A diet containing n-3 and n-6 fatty acids favorably alters the renal phospholipids, eicosanoid synthesis and plasma lipids in nephrotic rats.

    PubMed

    Barcelli, U O; Beach, D C; Thompson, B; Weiss, M; Pollak, V E

    1988-11-01

    The nephrotic syndrome was induced in rats by intravenous adriamycin (3 mg/kg). The rats were then divided into four groups which, for six weeks, were pair-fed diets containing beef tallow (BT), fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 fatty acids, evening primrose oil (EPO), a source of n-6 fatty acids, or a combination of evening primrose oil and fish oil, 75:25 (EPO:FO). The fat content of the diets was 15%. Significant incorporation of the fatty acids into kidney phospholipids was demonstrated. Diets containing FO, EPO and EPO:FO lowered plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol levels as compared with diets containing BT. Only EPO:FO raised high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, as compared with BT. The combination EPO:FO prevented the tenfold suppression of aortic 6-keto-PGF1 alpha caused by FO. These changes in plasma lipids and eicosanoid production are potentially antiatherogenic and may prevent glomerular sclerosis. The combination of EPO and FO, containing n-6 and n-3 fatty acids may offer advantages over either family of fatty acids in this model of nephrotic syndrome.

  18. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  19. Short-term administration of tall oil phytosterols improves plasma lipid profiles in subjects with different cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, P J; Howell, T; MacDougall, D E; Feng, J Y; Parsons, W

    1998-06-01

    To assess the short-term cholesterol-lowering potential of sitostanol-containing tall oil plant sterols, 22 subjects consumed fixed-food diets over two 10-day periods with or without 21.2 mg/kg body weight/d tall oil phytosterols (sitosterol 62%, sitostanol 21%, campesterol 16%, and campestanol 1%) in a randomized crossover study design. On day 10 of each diet, plasma lipoprotein cholesterol levels, plasma phytosterol concentrations, and cholesterol biosynthesis rates were determined. Total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were lower (P < .01) after administration of tall oil phytosterol (4.7 +/- 0.3 and 3.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively) versus placebo (5.0 +/- 0.3 and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, respectively). Tall oil treatment had no effect on the plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L) versus placebo (1.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L). Similarly, plasma triglyceride (TG) levels did not differ between tall oil (1.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) and placebo (1.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) treatments. Plasma campesterol (15.8 +/- 3.7 mmol/mol cholesterol) and sitosterol (6.0 +/- 2.1 mmol/mol cholesterol) levels were not different after tall oil treatment versus placebo treatment (15.4 +/- 2.3 and 6.4 +/- 2.0 mmol/mol cholesterol, respectively). Plasma sitostanol levels were essentially undetectable. No difference was observed in cholesterol biosynthesis between tall oil (0.045 +/- 0.004 pools/d) and placebo (0.034 +/- 0.004 pools/d) treatments; however, the effect of treatments in subjects with different cholesterol levels varied. In subjects with lower cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR) increased from 0.0291 +/- 0.0054 pools/d after placebo to 0.0509 +/- 0.0049 pools/d (P < .05) after phytosterol treatment. In subjects with higher cholesterol values, the red blood cell cholesterol FSR did not change significantly after treatment. These results demonstrate the short-term efficacy of tall

  20. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.