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Sample records for affect previously established

  1. Plantar pressure and daily cumulative stress in persons affected by leprosy with current, previous and no previous foot ulceration.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Carine H M; Slim, Frederik J; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R; Nollet, Frans

    2013-03-01

    Not only plantar pressure but also weight-bearing activity affects accumulated mechanical stress to the foot and may be related to foot ulceration. To date, activity has not been accounted for in leprosy. The purpose was to compare barefoot pressure, in-shoe pressure and daily cumulative stress between persons affected by leprosy with and without previous or current foot ulceration. Nine persons with current plantar ulceration were compared to 15 with previous and 15 without previous ulceration. Barefoot peak pressure (EMED-X), in-shoe peak pressure (Pedar-X) and daily cumulative stress (in-shoe forefoot pressure time integral×mean daily strides (Stepwatch™ Activity Monitor)) were measured. Barefoot peak pressure was increased in persons with current and previous compared to no previous foot ulceration (mean±SD=888±222 and 763±335 vs 465±262kPa, p<0.05). In-shoe peak pressure was only increased in persons with current compared to without previous ulceration (mean±SD=412±145 vs 269±70kPa, p<0.05). Daily cumulative stress was not different between groups, although persons with current and previous foot ulceration were less active. Although barefoot peak pressure was increased in people with current and previous plantar ulceration, it did not discriminate between these groups. While in-shoe peak pressure was increased in persons with current ulceration, they were less active, resulting in no difference in daily cumulative stress. Increased in-shoe peak pressure suggests insufficient pressure reducing footwear in persons with current ulceration, highlighting the importance of pressure reducing qualities of footwear.

  2. Breast cancer subtypes and previously established genetic risk factors: A Bayesian approach

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Poole, Charles; Herring, Amy H.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene expression analyses indicate that breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with at least 5 immunohistologic subtypes. Despite growing evidence that these subtypes are etiologically and prognostically distinct, few studies have investigated whether they have divergent genetic risk factors. To help fill in this gap in our understanding, we examined associations between breast cancer subtypes and previously established susceptibility loci among white and African-American women in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Methods We used Bayesian polytomous logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% posterior intervals (PIs) for the association between each of 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 breast cancer subtypes. Subtypes were defined using 5 immunohistochemical markers: estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (HER1/2) and cytokeratin (CK) 5/6. Results Several SNPs in TNRC9/TOX3 were associated with luminal A (ER/PR+, HER2−) or basal-like breast cancer (ER−, PR−, HER2−, HER1 or CK 5/6+), and one SNP (rs3104746) was associated with both. SNPs in FGFR2 were associated with luminal A, luminal B (ER/PR+, HER2+), or HER2+/ER− disease, but none were associated with basal-like disease. We also observed subtype differences in the effects of SNPs in 2q35, 4p, TLR1, MAP3K1, ESR1, CDKN2A/B, ANKRD16, and ZM1Z1. Conclusion and Impact We found evidence that genetic risk factors for breast cancer vary by subtype and further clarified the role of several key susceptibility genes. PMID:24177593

  3. Treatment with intranasal iloprost reduces disease manifestations in a murine model of previously established COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Pyakurel, Kusma; Naura, Amarjit S; Ibba, Salome V.; Davis, Christian J.; Okpechi, Samuel C.; Happel, Kyle I.; deBoisblanc, Bennett P.; Shellito, Judd; Boulares, A. Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary endothelial prostacyclin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of treatment with a prostacyclin analog in animal models of previously established COPD is unknown. We evaluated the short- and long-term effect of iloprost on inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of COPD. Nineteen mice were exposed to LPS/elastase, followed by either three doses of intranasal iloprost or saline. In the long-term treatment experiment, 18 mice were exposed to LPS/elastase and then received 6 wk of iloprost or were left untreated as controls. In the short-term experiment, iloprost did not change AHR but significantly reduced serum IL-5 and IFN-γ. Long-term treatment with iloprost for both 2 and 6 wk significantly improved AHR. After 6 wk of iloprost, there was a reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) neutrophils, serum IL-1β (30.0 ± 9.2 vs. 64.8 ± 7.4 pg/ml, P = 0.045), IL-2 (36.5 ± 10.6 vs. 83.8 ± 0.4 pg/ml, P = 0.01), IL-10 (75.7 ± 9.3 vs. 96.5 ± 3.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02), and nitrite (15.1 ± 5.4 vs. 30.5 ± 10.7 μmol, P = 0.01). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the lung homogenate was also significantly reduced after iloprost treatment (P = 0.02), and SMA thickness was reduced in the small and medium blood vessels after iloprost (P < 0.001). In summary, short- and long-term treatment with intranasal iloprost significantly reduced systemic inflammation in an LPS/elastase COPD model. Long-term iloprost treatment also reduced AHR, serum nitrite, SMA, and BALF neutrophilia. These data encourage future investigations of prostanoid therapy as a novel treatment for COPD patients. PMID:26851260

  4. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  5. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.

    2008-08-07

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the {sup 238}U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning.

  6. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.

  7. The response of an egg parasitoid to substrate-borne semiochemicals is affected by previous experience

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Ezio; Salerno, Gianandrea; Slimani, Takoua; Frati, Francesca; Conti, Eric; Colazza, Stefano; Cusumano, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Animals can adjust their behaviour according to previous experience gained during foraging. In parasitoids, experience plays a key role in host location, a hierarchical process in which air-borne and substrate-borne semiochemicals are used to find hosts. In nature, chemical traces deposited by herbivore hosts when walking on the plant are adsorbed by leaf surfaces and perceived as substrate-borne semiochemicals by parasitoids. Chemical traces left on cabbage leaves by adults of the harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica) induce an innate arrestment response in the egg parasitoid Trissolcus brochymenae characterized by an intense searching behaviour on host-contaminated areas. Here we investigated whether the T. brochymenae response to host walking traces left on leaf surfaces is affected by previous experience in the context of parasitoid foraging behaviour. We found that: 1) an unrewarded experience (successive encounters with host-contaminated areas without successful oviposition) decreased the intensity of the parasitoid response; 2) a rewarded experience (successful oviposition) acted as a reinforcing stimulus; 3) the elapsed time between two consecutive unrewarded events affected the parasitoid response in a host-gender specific manner. The ecological role of these results to the host location process of egg parasitoids is discussed. PMID:27250870

  8. Does the patients’ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    PubMed Central

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M.; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The direct involvement of clinical pharmacists in patient care is an ever-evolving role in the pharmacy profession. Studies have demonstrated that discharge counseling performed by a clinical pharmacist improves patients’ knowledge of their medications. The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of patients’ educational level and previous counseling on medication knowledge among patients visiting King Abdulaziz Medical City, a tertiary care center. METHODS: The effect of the education level and previous counseling on medication knowledge was assessed in 90 patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings at King Abdul Aziz Medical City during a 5-week period using a questionnaire that contains items to assess patients’ medication knowledge and the pharmacists’ performance during counseling. RESULTS: The average age of the participants was 52.9 ± 17.6 years. The participants’ education level was not significantly associated with gender; however, it was significantly associated with age, P < 0.05. A higher educational level was found to positively affect the aspects of medication knowledge that were assessed in this study (P < 0.05): 35.8-56.9% of the non-educated patients showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 76.2-90.5% for the more educated participants. Furthermore, 13.6%, 38.1%, and 70.0% of the non-educated group, the below high school group and high school education or above group, respectively, demonstrated good to excellent knowledge of their medications’ side effects. Previous counseling was also positively linked to medication knowledge (P < 0.05). Here, 87.8-97.6% of the patients who received previous counseling showed good to excellent recognition of medications, knowledge of their indications, and better knowledge of dosage schedule compared to 37.2-43.2% for those who did not. Finally, 52.9% of the patients who received previous

  9. Factors affecting spruce establishment and recruitment near western treeline, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. E.; Sherriff, R.; Wilson, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Regional warming and increases in tree growth are contributing to increased productivity near the western forest margin in Alaska. The effects of warming on seedling recruitment has received little attention, in spite of forecasted forest expansion near western treeline. Here, we used stand structure and environmental data from white spruce (Picea glauca) stands (n = 95) sampled across a longitudinal gradient to explore factors influencing white spruce growth, establishment and recruitment in southwest Alaska. Using tree-ring chronologies developed from a subset of the plots (n = 30), we estimated establishment dates and basal area increment (BAI) for trees of all age classes across a range of site conditions. We used GLMs (generalized linear models) to explore the relationship between tree growth and temperature in undisturbed, low elevation sites along the gradient, using BAI averaged over the years 1975-2000. In addition, we examined the relationship between growing degree days (GDD) and seedling establishment over the previous three decades. We used total counts of live seedlings, saplings and live and dead trees, representing four cohorts, to evaluate whether geospatial, climate, and measured plot covariates predicted abundance of the different size classes. We hypothesized that the relationship between abundance and longitude would vary by size class, and that this relationship would be mediated by growing season temperature. We found that mean BAI for trees in undisturbed, low elevation sites increased with July maximum temperature, and that the slope of the relationship with temperature changed with longitude (interaction significant with 90% confidence). White spruce establishment was positively associated with longer summers and/or greater heat accumulation, as inferred from GDD. Seedling, sapling and tree abundance were also positively correlated with temperature across the study area. The response to longitude was mixed, with smaller size classes

  10. Object files across eye movements: Previous fixations affect the latencies of corrective saccades.

    PubMed

    Schut, Martijn J; Fabius, Jasper H; Van der Stoep, Nathan; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    One of the factors contributing to a seamless visual experience is object correspondence-that is, the integration of pre- and postsaccadic visual object information into one representation. Previous research had suggested that before the execution of a saccade, a target object is loaded into visual working memory and subsequently is used to locate the target object after the saccade. Until now, studies on object correspondence have not taken previous fixations into account. In the present study, we investigated the influence of previously fixated information on object correspondence. To this end, we adapted a gaze correction paradigm in which a saccade was executed toward either a previously fixated or a novel target. During the saccade, the stimuli were displaced such that the participant's gaze landed between the target stimulus and a distractor. Participants then executed a corrective saccade to the target. The results indicated that these corrective saccades had lower latencies toward previously fixated than toward nonfixated targets, indicating object-specific facilitation. In two follow-up experiments, we showed that presaccadic spatial and object (surface feature) information can contribute separately to the execution of a corrective saccade, as well as in conjunction. Whereas the execution of a corrective saccade to a previously fixated target object at a previously fixated location is slowed down (i.e., inhibition of return), corrective saccades toward either a previously fixated target object or a previously fixated location are facilitated. We concluded that corrective saccades are executed on the basis of object files rather than of unintegrated feature information.

  11. Does previous use affect litter box appeal in multi-cat households?

    PubMed

    Ellis, J J; McGowan, R T S; Martin, F

    2017-02-14

    It is commonly assumed that cats actively avoid eliminated materials (especially in multi-cat homes), suggesting regular litter box cleaning as the best defense against out-of-box elimination. The relationship between previous use and litter box appeal to familiar subsequent users is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between previous litter box use and the identity of the previous user, type of elimination, odor, and presence of physical/visual obstructions in a multi-cat household scenario. Cats preferred a clean litter box to a dirty one, but the identity of the previous user had no impact on preferences. While the presence of odor from urine and/or feces did not impact litter box preferences, the presence of odorless faux-urine and/or feces did - with the presence of faux-feces being preferred over faux-urine. Results suggest neither malodor nor chemical communication play a role in litter box preferences, and instead emphasize the importance of regular removal of physical/visual obstructions as the key factor in promoting proper litter box use.

  12. Does previous open renal surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy affect the outcomes and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Sarılar, Omer; Toptas, Mehmet; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Binbay, Murat

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PNL in patients with a history of open renal surgery or PNL by comparing with primary patients and to compare impact of previous open renal surgery and PNL on the success and complications of subsequent PNL. Charts of patients, who underwent PNL at our institute, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups according to history of renal stone surgery. Patients without history of renal surgery were enrolled into Group 1. Other patients with previous PNL and previous open surgery were categorized as Group 2 and Group 3. Preoperative characteristic, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complication rates were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was accepted as completing clearance of stone and residual fragment smaller than 4 mm. Eventually, 2070 patients were enrolled into the study. Open renal surgery and PNL had been done in 410 (Group 2) and 131 (Group 3) patients, retrospectively. The mean operation time was longer (71.3 ± 33.5 min) in Group 2 and the mean fluoroscopy time was longer (8.6 ± 5.0) in Group 3 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Highest stone clearance was achieved in primary PNL patients (81.62%) compared to the other groups (77.10% in Group 2 and 75.61% in Group 3). Stone-free rate was not significantly different between Group 2 and Group 3. Fever, pulmonary complications, and blood transfusion requirement were not statically different between groups but angioembolization was significantly higher in Group 2. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with renal stones regardless history of previous PNL or open renal surgery. However, history of open renal surgery but not PNL significantly reduced PNL success.

  13. Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily J; Weladji, Robert B; Paré, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. 35:505-512, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Previous appendicitis may affect peritoneal overlap of the mesh in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, R; Di Martino, M; Lipari, G; Sambataro, L

    2002-02-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair is now increasingly performed in bilateral and recurrent groin hernias. The avoidance of direct exposure of the commonly used meshes to the abdominal viscera is considered essential to reduce the risk of bowel adhesions. We report a case of bilateral inguinal hernia repair in a patients who had had an appendectomy performed 8 years earlier for a perforated appendicitis. Probably as a result of previous inflammation, any attempt to dissect the preperitoneal layer in the right side resulted in peritoneal lacerations. Since the peritoneum could not be used to cover the mesh, we decided to position an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) mesh to avoid postoperative adhesions. The mesh was fixed with tacks to the symphysis pubis, Cooper's ligament, the ilio-pubic tract, and the transversalis fascia 2 cm above the hernia defect. This case suggests that in patient with previous appendicitis, a difficult preperitoneal dissection can be expected. In such cases, especially in young patients for whom future surgical operations cannot be excluded, any attempt to reduce adhesions is justified. At the present time, the use of e-PTFE meshes, which induce no tissue reaction, is a good option in this situation.

  15. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  16. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  17. 50 CFR 80.23 - Does a declaration of diversion affect a previous Federal obligation of funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS License Revenue § 80.23 Does a declaration of diversion affect a...

  18. 50 CFR 80.23 - Does a declaration of diversion affect a previous Federal obligation of funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS License Revenue § 80.23 Does a declaration of diversion affect a...

  19. 50 CFR 80.23 - Does a declaration of diversion affect a previous Federal obligation of funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS License Revenue § 80.23 Does a declaration of diversion affect a...

  20. 50 CFR 80.23 - Does a declaration of diversion affect a previous Federal obligation of funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS License Revenue § 80.23 Does a declaration of diversion affect a...

  1. Changes in work affect in response to lunchtime walking in previously physically inactive employees: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Loughren, E A; Kinnafick, F-E; Taylor, I M; Duda, J L; Fox, K R

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity may regulate affective experiences at work, but controlled studies are needed and there has been a reliance on retrospective accounts of experience. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of lunchtime walks on momentary work affect at the individual and group levels. Physically inactive employees (N = 56; M age = 47.68; 92.86% female) from a large university in the UK were randomized to immediate treatment or delayed treatment (DT). The DT participants completed both a control and intervention period. During the intervention period, participants partook in three weekly 30-min lunchtime group-led walks for 10 weeks. They completed twice daily affective reports at work (morning and afternoon) using mobile phones on two randomly chosen days per week. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the data. Lunchtime walks improved enthusiasm, relaxation, and nervousness at work, although the pattern of results differed depending on whether between-group or within-person analyses were conducted. The intervention was effective in changing some affective states and may have broader implications for public health and workplace performance.

  2. Does a previous course of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate affect the subsequent chances of successful Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Bell, G D; Powell, K; Burridge, S M; Harrison, G; Weil, J; Gant, P W; Jones, P H; Trowell, J E

    1992-06-01

    We have performed a retrospective study of 103 patients with either peptic ulcer or non-ulcer dyspepsia, infected with metronidazole-sensitive strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), who were treated with a combination of tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate and metronidazole for a period of at least two weeks. Dual therapy with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate plus metronidazole showed similarly high eradication rates (greater than or equal to 80%) of H. pylori from patients irrespective of age, gender or clinical diagnosis. Most importantly, dual therapy achieved a similar eradication rate of H. pylori infection in 41 patients who had previously been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate alone or in combination with an antibiotic other than metronidazole. It therefore appears that H. pylori does not become resistant to treatment with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

  3. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect - United States, 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Arth, Annelise; Tinker, Sarah; Moore, Cynthia; Canfield, Mark; Agopian, Aj; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-16

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) include anomalies of the brain (anencephaly and encephalocele) and spine (spina bifida). Even with ongoing mandatory folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women of childbearing potential consume a daily supplement containing 400 µg-800 µg of folic acid. Women with a prior NTD-affected pregnancy have an increased risk for having another NTD-affected pregnancy, and if they are planning another pregnancy, the recommendation is that they consume high-dosage folic acid supplements (4.0 mg/day) beginning ≥4 weeks before conception and continuing through the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. To learn whether folic acid supplementation (from multivitamins or single- ingredient supplements) was commonly used during pregnancy by women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy, supplement use was assessed among a convenience sample of women with a previous NTD-affected pregnancy who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. Characteristics of women who previously had an NTD-affected pregnancy and whose index pregnancy (pregnancy included in NBDPS) was either affected by an NTD (N = 17) (i.e., recurrence-cases) or resulted in a live-born infant without a major birth defect (N = 10) (i.e., recurrence-controls) were assessed. Taking a supplement that included folic acid was more common among recurrence-control mothers (80%) than recurrence-case mothers (35%). The recommendation that women should take folic acid supplements just before and during early pregnancy is not being followed by many women and offers an opportunity for NTD prevention, especially among women who are at a higher risk because they have had a previous pregnancy affected by an NTD.

  4. The establishment of the infant intestinal microbiome is not affected by rotavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Li; Arboleya, Silvia; Lihua, Guo; Chuihui, Yuan; Nan, Qin; Suarez, Marta; Solís, Gonzalo; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The microbial colonization of the intestine during the first months of life constitutes the most important process for the microbiota-induced host-homeostasis. Alterations in this process may entail a high-risk for disease in later life. However, the potential factors affecting this process in the infant are not well known. Moreover, the potential impact of orally administered vaccines upon the establishing microbiome remains unknown. Here we assessed the intestinal microbiome establishment process and evaluated the impact of rotavirus vaccination upon this process. Metagenomic, PCR-DGGE and faecal short chain fatty acids analyses were performed on faecal samples obtained from three infants before and after the administration of each dose of vaccine. We found a high inter-individual variability in the early life gut microbiota at microbial composition level, but a large similarity between the infants' microbiomes at functional level. Rotavirus vaccination did not show any major effects upon the infant gut microbiota. Thus, the individual microbiome establishment and development process seems to occur in a defined manner during the first stages of life and rotavirus vaccination appears to be inconsequential for this process. PMID:25491920

  5. Identification of miRNAs Affecting the Establishment of Brassica Alboglabra Seedling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rongfang; Deng, Yanping; Huang, Zhongkai; Chen, Xiaodong; XuHan, Xu; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important for plant development including seed formation, dormancy, and germination, as well as seedling establishment. The Brassica vegetable seedling establishment stage influences the development of high quality seedlings, but also affects the nutrient content of sprouts. Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) seedlings at different growth stages were used to construct two small-RNA (sRNA) libraries. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNAs in 2- and 9-day-old seedlings. An average of 11,722,490 clean reads were generated after removing low-quality reads and adapter contaminants. The results revealed that 37.65 and 26.69% of the sRNAs in 2- and 9-day-old seedlings, respectively, were 24 nt long. In total, 254 known mature miRNA sequences from 228 miRNA families and 343 novel miRNAs were identified. Of these miRNAs, 224 were differentially expressed between the two analyzed libraries. The most abundant miRNAs identified by sequence homology were miR156, miR167, and miR157, each with more than 100,000 sequenced reads. Compared with the expression levels in 2-day-old seedlings, MiR8154 and miR390 were the most up- and down-regulated miRNAs respectively in 9-day-old seedlings. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed-miRNA target genes affecting biological processes revealed that most genes were in the “regulation of transcription” category. Additionally, the expression patterns of some miRNAs and target genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We determined that development-associated miRNAs (e.g., bal-miR156/157/159/166/167/172/396), were highly-expressed during seedling-establishment stage, as were stress-related (bal-miR408) and metabolism-related (bal-miR826) miRNAs. Combined with the low level of targets SPL9 and AP2, it was concluded that miR156-SPL9 and miR172-AP modules play key roles during the B. alboglabra seedling establishment stage. PMID:28018366

  6. Earthworm-mycorrhiza interactions can affect the diversity, structure and functioning of establishing model grassland communities.

    PubMed

    Zaller, Johann G; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m(-2)). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that

  7. Olfactory memory established during trophallaxis affects food search behaviour in ants.

    PubMed

    Provecho, Yael; Josens, Roxana

    2009-10-01

    Camponotus mus ants can associate sucrose and odour at the source during successive foraging cycles and use this memory to locate the nectar in the absence of other cues. These ants perform conspicuous trophallactic behaviour during recruitment while foraging for nectar. In this work, we studied whether Camponotus mus ants are able to establish this odour-sucrose association in the social context of trophallaxis and we evaluated this memory in another context previously experienced by the ant, as a nectar source. After a single trophallaxis of a scented solution, the receiver ant was tested in a Y-maze without any reward, where two scents were presented: in one arm, the solution scent and in the other, a new scent. Ants consistently chose the arm with the solution scent and stayed longer therein. Trophallaxis duration had no effect on the arm choice or with the time spent in each arm. Workers are able to associate an odour (conditioned stimulus) with the sucrose (unconditioned stimulus) they receive through a social interaction and use this memory as choice criteria during food searching.

  8. Does the Establishment of Sustainable Use Reserves Affect Fire Management in the Humid Tropics?

    PubMed

    Carmenta, Rachel; Blackburn, George Alan; Davies, Gemma; de Sassi, Claudio; Lima, André; Parry, Luke; Tych, Wlodek; Barlow, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are experiencing a growing fire problem driven by climatic change, agricultural expansion and forest degradation. Protected areas are an important feature of forest protection strategies, and sustainable use reserves (SURs) may be reducing fire prevalence since they promote sustainable livelihoods and resource management. However, the use of fire in swidden agriculture, and other forms of land management, may be undermining the effectiveness of SURs in meeting their conservation and sustainable development goals. We analyse MODIS derived hot pixels, TRMM rainfall data, Terra-Class land cover data, socio-ecological data from the Brazilian agro-census and the spatial extent of rivers and roads to evaluate whether the designation of SURs reduces fire occurrence in the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, we ask (1) a. Is SUR location (i.e., de facto) or (1) b. designation (i.e. de jure) the driving factor affecting performance in terms of the spatial density of fires?, and (2), Does SUR creation affect fire management (i.e., the timing of fires in relation to previous rainfall)? We demonstrate that pre-protection baselines are crucial for understanding reserve performance. We show that reserve creation had no discernible impact on fire density, and that fires were less prevalent in SURs due to their characteristics of sparser human settlement and remoteness, rather than their status de jure. In addition, the timing of fires in relation to rainfall, indicative of local fire management and adherence to environmental law, did not improve following SUR creation. These results challenge the notion that SURs promote environmentally sensitive fire-management, and suggest that SURs in Amazonia will require special attention if they are to curtail future accidental wildfires, particularly as plans to expand the road infrastructure throughout the region are realised. Greater investment to support improved fire management by farmers living in reserves, in addition to

  9. Does the Establishment of Sustainable Use Reserves Affect Fire Management in the Humid Tropics?

    PubMed Central

    Carmenta, Rachel; Blackburn, George Alan; Davies, Gemma; de Sassi, Claudio; Lima, André; Parry, Luke; Tych, Wlodek; Barlow, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are experiencing a growing fire problem driven by climatic change, agricultural expansion and forest degradation. Protected areas are an important feature of forest protection strategies, and sustainable use reserves (SURs) may be reducing fire prevalence since they promote sustainable livelihoods and resource management. However, the use of fire in swidden agriculture, and other forms of land management, may be undermining the effectiveness of SURs in meeting their conservation and sustainable development goals. We analyse MODIS derived hot pixels, TRMM rainfall data, Terra-Class land cover data, socio-ecological data from the Brazilian agro-census and the spatial extent of rivers and roads to evaluate whether the designation of SURs reduces fire occurrence in the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, we ask (1) a. Is SUR location (i.e., de facto) or (1) b. designation (i.e. de jure) the driving factor affecting performance in terms of the spatial density of fires?, and (2), Does SUR creation affect fire management (i.e., the timing of fires in relation to previous rainfall)? We demonstrate that pre-protection baselines are crucial for understanding reserve performance. We show that reserve creation had no discernible impact on fire density, and that fires were less prevalent in SURs due to their characteristics of sparser human settlement and remoteness, rather than their status de jure. In addition, the timing of fires in relation to rainfall, indicative of local fire management and adherence to environmental law, did not improve following SUR creation. These results challenge the notion that SURs promote environmentally sensitive fire-management, and suggest that SURs in Amazonia will require special attention if they are to curtail future accidental wildfires, particularly as plans to expand the road infrastructure throughout the region are realised. Greater investment to support improved fire management by farmers living in reserves, in addition to

  10. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  11. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  12. Health Care Management Courses in Greek Universities: A First Attempt to Establish Factors Affecting Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsifos, Vangelis; Alegakis, Athanasios; Philalithis, Anastas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The object of this study is to formulate, establish and apply a suitable and reliable tool for measuring the course experience satisfaction of Master graduates. A questionnaire was formulated, based on similar tools, and adjusted to the reality of Hellenic Higher Education, in order to measure the satisfaction of graduates in three Master…

  13. Management factors affecting establishment and yield of bioenergy miscanthus on claypan soil landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy crop Miscanthus x giganteus has been well studied for its establishment and yield in Europe and certain parts of the US Midwest but little has been done to investigate these properties when grown on degraded soils, which are typified as being less productive, and consequently, economically...

  14. Maize Phenology Affects Establishment, Damage, and Development of the Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of maize (Zea mays L.) phenology on establishment and adult emergence of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) as well as plant damage to maize was evaluated in the greenhouse and in field trials in 2001 and 2002. Although neonate western corn rootworm larva...

  15. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  16. Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-06-01

    Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species.

  17. Reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and its inhibition by previous social interaction preferentially affect D1-medium spiny neurons in the accumbens corridor

    PubMed Central

    Prast, Janine M.; Schardl, Aurelia; Schwarzer, Christoph; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one) social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1) region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs), with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody) being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25309368

  18. Contrasts in Student Affect by Institution and Instructor: Establishing a National Baseline for Geoscience Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J.; Husman, J.

    2011-12-01

    The GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research Network) project examines the connection between student learning and the affective domain, which includes student motivations, values, attitudes and learning strategies - factors that can both promote and limit learning. This is the first study to compare and contrast the relationship between student motivation and learning strategies, the nature of classroom instruction, and learning outcomes across a common course taught by multiple instructors at different types of academic institutions. In 2009-2011 we administered pre- and post-course Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaires (MSLQ; Pintrich et al, 1993) to 1990 students in more than 40 introductory geology classes taught by 25 instructors at nine colleges and universities. Students primarily register for the introductory courses to fulfill a general education requirement with a relatively modest proportion (25%) declaring a prior interest in the course topic. This institutional requirement produces a situation where students' motivational orientation is not likely to adjust to their newfound academic environment. The students do not have an interest in the topic, they have little prior knowledge about the content, they do not see connections between the content and their future goals, and they have limited autonomy in their choice of a course (the course is required). In general, we find that across different institutions and instructors, students' motivation and self-regulation degrades. Through classroom observations, and student surveys we have evidence that specific faculty are able to help students maintain some of the positive motivational orientations students bring to the class. The MSLQ contains 15 subscales, six measure motivation (e.g., task value, self-efficacy), and nine focus on different learning strategies (e.g., elaboration, effort regulation). Regardless of institution or instructor, MSLQ scores on many subscales declined from beginning to

  19. Colostrum quality affects immune system establishment and intestinal development of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Zou, Y; Wu, Z H; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2015-10-01

    The first meal of a neonatal calf after birth is crucial for survival and health. The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of colostrum quality on IgG passive transfer, immune and antioxidant status, and intestinal morphology and histology in neonatal calves. Twenty-eight Holstein neonatal male calves were used in the current study, 24 of which were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: those that received colostrum (GrC), transitional milk (GrT, which was obtained after the first milking on 2-3 d after calving), and bulk tank milk (GrB) only at birth. The 4 extra neonatal calves who were not fed any milk were assigned to the control group and were killed immediately after birth to be a negative control to small intestinal morphology and histology detection. Calves in GrC gained more body weight than in GrT, whereas GrB calves lost 0.4 kg compared with the birth weight. Serum total protein, IgG, and superoxide dismutase concentrations were highest in GrC, GrT was intermediate, whereas GrB was the lowest on d 2, 3, and 7. Apparent efficiency of absorption at 48 h, serum complement 3 (C3), and complement 4 (C4) on d 2, 3, and 7 in GrB was low compared with GrC and GrT. On the contrary, malondialdehyde on d 7 increased in GrB. Calves in GrC had better villus length and width, crypt depth, villus height/crypt depth (V/C) value, and mucosal thickness in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas GrT calves had lower villus length and width, crypt depth, and mucosal thickness than those fed colostrum. Villi of calves in GrB were nonuniform, sparse, severely atrophied, and apically abscised, and Peyer's patches and hydroncus were detected. Overall, colostrum is the best source for calves in IgG absorption, antioxidant activities, and serum growth metabolites, and promoting intestinal development. The higher quality of colostrum calves ingested, the faster immune defense mechanism and the more healthy intestinal circumstances they established.

  20. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  1. Multilevel dynamic systems affecting introduction of HIV/STI prevention innovations among Chinese women in sex work establishments.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-10-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the advantage of using empirically documented contextual factors and processes of change in a real-world and real-time setting that can then be tested in the same and other settings. System dynamics modeling offers great promise for addressing persistent problems like HIV and other sexually transmitted epidemics, particularly in complex rapidly developing countries such as China. We generated a system dynamics model of a multilevel intervention we conducted to promote female condoms for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention among Chinese women in sex work establishments. The model reflects factors and forces affecting the study's intervention, implementation, and effects. To build this conceptual model, we drew on our experiences and findings from this intensive, longitudinal mixed-ethnographic and quantitative four-town comparative case study (2007-2012) of the sex work establishments, the intervention conducted in them, and factors likely to explain variation in process and outcomes in the four towns. Multiple feedback loops in the sex work establishments, women's social networks, and the health organization responsible for implementing HIV/STI interventions in each town and at the town level directly or indirectly influenced the female condom intervention. We present the conceptual system dynamics model and discuss how further testing in this and other settings can inform future community interventions to reduce HIV and STIs.

  2. Establishment of clonal myogenic cell lines from severely affected dystrophic muscles - CDK4 maintains the myogenic population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A hallmark of muscular dystrophies is the replacement of muscle by connective tissue. Muscle biopsies from patients severely affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) may contain few myogenic cells. Because the chromosomal contraction at 4q35 linked to FSHD is thought to cause a defect within myogenic cells, it is important to study this particular cell type, rather than the fibroblasts and adipocytes of the endomysial fibrosis, to understand the mechanism leading to myopathy. Results We present a protocol to establish clonal myogenic cell lines from even severely dystrophic muscle that has been replaced mostly by fat, using overexpression of CDK4 and the catalytic component of telomerase (human telomerase reverse transcriptase; hTERT), and a subsequent cloning step. hTERT is necessary to compensate for telomere loss during in vitro cultivation, while CDK4 prevents a telomere-independent growth arrest affecting CD56+ myogenic cells, but not their CD56- counterpart, in vitro. Conclusions These immortal cell lines are valuable tools to reproducibly study the effect of the FSHD mutation within myoblasts isolated from muscles that have been severely affected by the disease, without the confounding influence of variable amounts of contaminating connective-tissue cells. PMID:21798090

  3. Elevated ozone negatively affects photosynthesis of current-year leaves but not previous-year leaves in evergreen Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Feng, Zhaozhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Niu, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of leaf age/layer on the response of photosynthesis to chronic ozone (O3), Cyclobalanopsis glauca seedlings, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in sub-tropical regions, were exposed to either ambient air (AA) or elevated O3 (AA + 60 ppb O3, E-O3) for two growing seasons in open-top chambers. Chlorophyll content, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were investigated three times throughout the 2nd year of O3 exposure. Results indicated that E-O3 decreased photosynthetic parameters, particularly light-saturated photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry of current-year leaves but not previous-year leaves. Stomatal conductance of plants grown under ambient conditions partially contributed to the different response to E-O3 between leaf layers. Light radiation or other physiological and biochemical processes closely related to photosynthesis might play important roles. All suggested that leaf ages or layers should be considered when assessing O3 risk on evergreen woody species.

  4. Gene therapy following subretinal AAV5 vector delivery is not affected by a previous intravitreal AAV5 vector administration in the partner eye

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wensheng; Kong, Fansheng; Li, Xia; Dai, Xufeng; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zheng, Qinxiang; Wu, Ronghan; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lü, Fan; Chang, Bo; Li, Qiuhong; Hauswirth, William W.; Pang, Ji-jing

    2009-01-01

    Purpose In an earlier study we found normal adeno-associated viral vector type 2 (AAV2)-mediated GFP expression after intravitreal injection to one eye of normal C57BL/6J mice. However, GFP expression was very poor in the partner eye of the same mouse if this eye received an intravitreal injection of the same vector one month after the initial intravitreal injection. We also found both injections worked well if they were subretinal. In this study, we tested whether the efficiency of subretinal AAV vector transduction is altered by a previous intravitreal injection in the partner eye and more importantly whether therapeutic efficiency is altered in the rd12 mouse (with a recessive RPE65 mutation) after the same injection series. Methods One μl of scAAV5-smCBA-GFP (1x1013 genome containing viral particles per ml) was intravitreally injected into the right eyes of four-week-old C57BL/6J mice and 1 μl of scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65 (1x1013 genome containing viral particles per ml) was intravitreally injected into the right eyes of four-week-old rd12 mice Four weeks later, the same vectors were subretinally injected into the left eyes of the same C57BL/6J and rd12 mice. Left eyes of another cohort of eight-week-old rd12 mice received a single subretinal injection of the same scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65 vector as the positive control. Dark-adapted electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded five months after the subretinal injections. AAV-mediated GFP expression in C57BL/6J mice and RPE65 expression and ERG restoration in rd12 mice were evaluated five months after the second subretinal injection. Frozen section analysis was performed for GFP fluorescence in C57BL/6J mice and immunostaining for RPE65 in rd12 eyes. Results In rd12 mice, dark-adapted ERGs were minimal following the first intravitreal injection of scAAV5-smCBA-RPE65. Following subsequent subretinal injection in the partner eye, dramatic ERG restoration was recorded in that eye. In fact, ERG b-wave amplitudes were

  5. Multilevel Dynamic Systems Affecting Introduction of HIV/STI Prevention Innovations among Chinese Women in Sex Work Establishments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Zhang, Qingning; Dunn, Jennifer; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    Social and public health scientists are increasingly interested in applying system dynamics theory to improve understanding and to harness the forces of change within complex, multilevel systems that affect community intervention implementation, effects, and sustainability. Building a system dynamics model based on ethnographic case study has the…

  6. An Analysis of Zoning and Other Problems Affecting the Establishment of Group Homes for the Mentally Disabled.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-17

    cases, homes had to meet some of these requirements after opening. Just under 30 percent of the sponsors were involved in public hearings, less than one...years old, made up 12 percent of the population. Children, persons 14 years old and under , made up 10 percent of the population, and those over 65 years...Although these serv- ices were often donated, among those who paid, the average cost exceeded $2,000. Legal action to establish a home was under

  7. Factors affecting food handling Practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases are major health problems in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. The problem is more noticeable in developing countries due to prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safer equipments, and lack of education for food handlers. Methods The objective of this study was to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers working in food and drinking establishments of Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Cross-sectional quantitative study design was conducted among 406 food handlers working in 105 food and drink establishments from July to August 2013 in Dangila town. Data were collected using face to face interview with pretested structured questionnaire and physical observation. Result The mean age of the respondents was 22.7 ± 4.2 years of which 62.8% of the food handlers were females. Two hundred thirteen (52.5%) of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status (AOR = 7.52, 95% CI, 1.45-38.97), monthly income (AOR = 0.395, 95% CI, 0.25-0.62), knowledge about food handling (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.05-2.73), existence of shower facility (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.12-3.21) and separate dressing room (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI, 1.11-3.49) were found to be significantly associated with good food handling Practices. Conclusion Above half of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status, monthly income, knowledge status, existence of shower facility, existence of separate dressing room and presence of insect and rodent were factors associated with food handling Practices. PMID:24908104

  8. Headlines Previous Editions

    Science.gov Websites

    Previous Editions: Volume 17 Volume 16 Volume 15 Volume 14 Volume 13 FEB 2017 JAN 2017 DEC 2016 NOV 2016 OCT 2016 SEP 2016 AUG 2016 JUL 2016 JUN 2016 MAY 2016 APR 2016 MAR 2016 FEB ...

  9. Factors affecting establishment and recovery of Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an introduced predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) on eastern hemlock (Pinales: Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Hakeem, A; Grant, J F; Wiggins, G J; Lambdin, P L; Hale, F A; Buckley, D S; Rhea, J R; Parkman, J P; Taylor, G

    2013-12-01

    To reduce populations of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), >500,000 Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji and McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) have been released in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park since 2002. To determine factors affecting establishment and recovery of these predatory beetles, 65 single release sites were sampled using beat sheets from 2008 to 2012. Several abiotic and biotic factors were evaluated for their association with establishment and recovery of S. tsugae. Information on predatory beetle releases (location, year of release, number released, and season of release), topographic features (elevation, slope, Beers transformed aspect, and topographic relative moisture index), and temperature data (minimum and maximum temperatures 1 d after release and average minimum and maximum temperatures 7 d after release) were obtained from Great Smoky Mountains National Park personnel. These factors were evaluated using stepwise logistic regression and Pearson correlation. S. tsugae was recovered from 13 sites 2 to 10 yr after release, and the greatest number was recovered from 2002 release sites. Regression indicated establishment and recovery was negatively associated with year of release and positively associated with the average maximum temperature 7 d after release and elevation (generally, recovery increased as temperatures increased). Several significant correlations were found between presence and number of S. tsugae and year of release, season of release, and temperature variables. These results indicate that releases of S. tsugae should be made in warmer (≍10-25°C) temperatures and monitored for at least 5 yr after releases to enhance establishment and recovery efforts.

  10. Using Novel Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) with Optimized Sensor Model to Determine How Establishments Will Be Affected in a 7.0 Hayward Earthquake Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munnangi, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area is one of the world's most vulnerable places to earthquakes, and being ready is vital to survival. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of places affected in a 7.0 Hayward Earthquake and the effectiveness of earthquake early warning (EEW) in this scenario. We manipulated three variables: the location of the epicenter, the station placement, and algorithm used for early warning. To compute the blind zone and warning times, we calculated the P and S wave velocities by using data from the Northern California Earthquake Catalog and the radius of the blind zone using appropriate statistical models. We came up with a linear regression model directly relating warning time and distance from the epicenter. We used Google Earth to plot three hypothetical epicenters on the Hayward Fault and determine which establishments would be affected. By varying the locations, the blind zones and warning times changed. As the radius from the epicenter increased, the warning times also increased. The intensity decreased as the distance from the epicenter grew. We determined which cities were most vulnerable. We came up with a list of cities and their predicted warning times in this hypothetical scenario. For example, for the epicenter in northern Hayward, the cities at most risk were San Pablo, Richmond, and surrounding cities, while the cities at least risk were Gilroy, Modesto, Lincoln, and other cities within that radius. To find optimal station placement, we chose two cities with stations placed variable distances apart from each other. There was more variability in scattered stations than dense stations, suggesting stations placed closer together are more effective since they provide precise warnings. We compared the algorithms ElarmS, which is currently used in the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) and Onsite, which is a single-sensor approach that uses one to two stations, by calculating the blind zone and warning times for each

  11. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.

  12. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  13. Specific previous experience affects perception of harmony and meter.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C

    2011-10-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was presented simultaneously with a melody. After a listener was familiarized with melodies embedded in contexts, the listener heard melodies in isolation and judged the fit of a final harmonic or metrical probe event. The probe event matched either the familiar (but absent) context or an unfamiliar context. For both harmonic (Experiments 1 and 3) and metrical (Experiment 2) information, exposure to context shifted listeners' preferences toward a probe matching the context that they had been familiarized with. This suggests that listeners rapidly form specific musical memories without explicit instruction, which are then activated during music listening. These data pose an interesting challenge for models of music perception which implicitly assume that the listener's knowledge base is predominantly schematic or abstract.

  14. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  15. Teacher Autonomy in the United States: Establishing a Standard Definition, Validation of a Nationally Representative Construct and an Investigation of Policy Affected Teacher Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwaltney, Kevin Dale

    2012-01-01

    This effort: 1) establishes an autonomy definition uniquely tailored for teaching, 2) validates a nationally generalizable teacher autonomy construct, 3) demonstrates that the model describes and explains the autonomy levels of particular teacher groups, and 4) verifies the construct can represent teacher autonomy in other empirical models. The…

  16. Factors affecting preovulatory concentrations of estradiol and its role in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows using reciprocal embryo transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously (Perry et...

  17. Understanding the State of Discipline in a Suburban High School: Factors That Affect the Perceptions of Stakeholders That Have Responsibility for Establishing and Implementing Disciplinary Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to increase the understanding of the state of discipline of a suburban high school by interrogating the factors that affect the perception held by the school's various stakeholders. The stakeholders in this study consisted of those individuals who have the responsibility for the formation of the school's…

  18. National Institutes of Health chronic graft-versus-host disease staging in severely affected patients: organ and global scoring correlate with established indicators of disease severity and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Baird, Kristin; Steinberg, Seth M; Grkovic, Lana; Pulanic, Drazen; Cowen, Edward W; Mitchell, Sandra A; Williams, Kirsten M; Datiles, Manuel B; Bishop, Rachel; Bassim, Carol W; Mays, Jacqueline W; Edwards, Dean; Cole, Kristen; Avila, Daniele N; Taylor, Tiffany; Urban, Amanda; Joe, Galen O; Comis, Leora E; Berger, Ann; Stratton, Pamela; Zhang, Dan; Shelhamer, James H; Gea-Banacloche, Juan C; Sportes, Claude; Fowler, Daniel H; Gress, Ronald E; Pavletic, Steven Z

    2013-04-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, 189 adult patients were enrolled on the National Cancer Institute's cross-sectional chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) natural history study. Patients were evaluated by multiple disease scales and outcome measures, including the 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Project cGVHD severity scores. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the NIH scoring variables as determinants of disease severity in severely affected patients in efforts to standardize clinician evaluation and staging of cGVHD. Out of 189 patients enrolled, 125 met the criteria for severe cGVHD on the NIH global score, 62 of whom had moderate disease, with a median of 4 (range, 1-8) involved organs. Clinician-assigned average NIH organ score and the corresponding organ scores assigned by subspecialists were highly correlated (r = 0.64). NIH global severity scores showed significant associations with nearly all functional and quality of life outcome measures, including the Lee Symptom Scale, Short Form-36 Physical Component Scale, 2-minute walk, grip strength, range of motion, and Human Activity Profile. Joint/fascia, skin, and lung involvement affected function and quality of life most significantly and showed the greatest correlation with outcome measures. The final Cox model with factors jointly predictive for survival included the time from cGVHD diagnosis (>49 versus ≤49 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.23; P = .0011), absolute eosinophil count at the time of NIH evaluation (0-0.5 versus >0.5 cells/μL, HR = 3.95; P = .0006), and NIH lung score (3 versus 0-2, HR = 11.02; P < .0001). These results demonstrate that NIH organs and global severity scores are reliable measures of cGVHD disease burden. The strong association with subspecialist evaluation suggests that NIH organ and global severity scores are appropriate for clinical and research assessments, and may serve as a surrogate for more complex subspecialist examinations. In this

  19. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  20. New analytical technique for establishing the quality of Soil Organic Matter affected by a wildfire. A first approach using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Waggoner, Derek C.; Almendros, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Fire is one of the most important modulator factors of the environment and the forest. It is able to induce chemical and biological shifts and these, in turn, can alter the physical properties of soil. Generally, fire affects the most reactive fraction, soil organic matter (SOM) (González-Pérez et al., 2004) resulting in changes to several soil properties and functions. To study changes in SOM following a wildfire, researchers can count on several traditional as well as new analytical techniques. One of the most recently employed techniques is Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). This new powerful ultra-high resolution mass spectral technique, together with graphic interpretation tools such as van Krevelen diagrams (Kim et al, 2003), may be used to shed light on alterations caused by the burning of SOM. The objective of this research is to study fire impacts on SOM, using a sandy soil collected under a Cork oak (Quercus suber) in Doñana National Park, Southwest Spain. that was affected by a wildfire in August 2012. Methods: The impact of fire on SOM was studied in various different sieve fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, <0.05 mm) collected in a burned area and an adjacent unburned control site with the same physiographic conditions. Alkaline extracts of SOM from each soil sample were examined using a Bruker Daltonics 12 Tesla Apex Qe FT-ICR-MS equipped with an Apollo II ESI ion source (operating in negative ion mode). The ESI voltages were optimized for each sample, and all spectra were internally calibrated following the procedure of (Sleighter and Hatcher, 2007), after which, peaks were assigned unique molecular formulas using a MatLab script written in house by Dr. Wassim Obeid of Old Dominion University. Results: The van Krevelen diagrams together with the relative intensity of each chemical compound, both obtained by FT-ICR-MS, allowed us to assess SOM quality for each sample and size fractions. The

  1. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  2. Establishing a Continuous Repertoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcroft, Pamela; Holland, James G.

    Investigators in this study looked for conditions that can rapidly establish continuous stimulus control of continuous response variations, or "response mapping." Unlike previous research in stimulus control, where a single stimulus comes to control a single response, 36 5-year-old children received errorless discrimination training at…

  3. 25 CFR 83.8 - Previous Federal acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Previous Federal acknowledgment. 83.8 Section 83.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING THAT AN AMERICAN INDIAN GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.8 Previous Federal acknowledgment....

  4. 25 CFR 83.8 - Previous Federal acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previous Federal acknowledgment. 83.8 Section 83.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING THAT AN AMERICAN INDIAN GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.8 Previous Federal acknowledgment....

  5. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in government...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  6. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  7. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D; Guy, Travis; Buck, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    1. With continued globalization, species are being transported and introduced into novel habitats at an accelerating rate. Interactions between invasive species may provide important mechanisms that moderate their impacts on native species. 2. The European green crab Carcinus maenas is an aggressive predator that was introduced to the east coast of North America in the mid-1800 s and is capable of rapid consumption of bivalve prey. A newer invasive predator, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was first discovered on the Atlantic coast in the 1980s, and now inhabits many of the same regions as C. maenas within the Gulf of Maine. Using a series of field and laboratory investigations, we examined the consequences of interactions between these predators. 3. Density patterns of these two species at different spatial scales are consistent with negative interactions. As a result of these interactions, C. maenas alters its diet to consume fewer mussels, its preferred prey, in the presence of H. sanguineus. Decreased mussel consumption in turn leads to lower growth rates for C. maenas, with potential detrimental effects on C. maenas populations. 4. Rather than an invasional meltdown, this study demonstrates that, within the Gulf of Maine, this new invasive predator can moderate the impacts of the older invasive predator.

  8. Predicting non-suicidal self-injury episodes over a discrete period of time in a sample of women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa: An analysis of self-reported trait and ecological momentary assessment based affective lability and previous suicide attempts

    PubMed Central

    Anestis, Michael D.; Silva, Caroline; Lavender, Jason M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effect of trait affective lability on the relationship between past suicidal behavior and future nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Method 127 adult females diagnosed with bulimia nervosa took part in this study. We hypothesized that individuals with greater levels of self-reported trait affective lability and a greater number of past suicide attempts would engage in a greater number of NSSI episodes over the course of two weeks than would individuals lacking elevations in one or both of those variables, controlling for average level of negative affect and affective lability as measured through ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results The two-way interaction of trait affective lability and past suicidal behavior predicted participants’ number of NSSI episodes during the course of the study. Discussion Interaction of self-reported trait affective lability and past suicidal behavior may exhibit clinical utility in the prediction of patients’ imminent risk of engaging in NSSI. PMID:21744378

  9. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A... prior to the establishment of title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * *...

  10. Completed Suicides and their Previous Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)

  11. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment. PMID:28056595

  12. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  13. Inspections of Previously Monitored Coastal Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    Facility Breakwater, Hawaii .... 12 Yaquina Bay North Jetty, Oregon 14 Siuslaw River Jetties, Oregon 17 Umpqua River Training Jetty, Oregon 21...Facility breakwater, Hawaii 4 Yaquina Bay north jetty, Oregon 5 Siuslaw River jetties, Oregon 6 Umpqua River training jetty, Oregon 7 Crescent City...and the jetty spur head as previously discussed. Umpqua River Training Jetty, Oregon The Federal Navigation Project at the Umpqua River lies within

  14. In Vitro Culture of Previously Uncultured Oral Bacterial Phylotypes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2015-01-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture. PMID:26407883

  15. In vitro culture of previously uncultured oral bacterial phylotypes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G

    2015-12-01

    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture.

  16. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  17. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  18. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  19. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  20. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  1. Obinutuzumab for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jame; Stegner, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Obinutuzumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The approval was based on results of an open-label phase 3 trial that showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone. Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre B- and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis by engaging immune effector cells, directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways, and activating the complement cascade. Immune effector cell activities include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

  2. [Location of the placenta in pregnancy with previous caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Karagiozova, J; Ivanov, St; Masseva, A; Frandeva, B; Ibriam, I

    2014-01-01

    Previous Caesarean section (SC) is considered to be established predisposing factor for abnormal placentation. In this study we examined whether prior SC is a risk factor for low laying placenta. Retrospective documentation was studied of 171 pregnant women after a SC (test group) and of 150 pregnant women after a normal birth (control), and cases of hysterectomy after giving birth to five years. Pathological lying placenta have established at 1.34% in the test group versus 0.67% in controls (p - 0.058), i.e. no proven link between prior Cesarean section and location of the placenta in the lower uterine segment during the next pregnancy. The analysis of cases of postpartum hysterectomy is found that the combination of condition after Cesarean section, placenta praevia and placenta accreta is a risk factor for hysterectomy after childbirth.

  3. Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E.; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Context  Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. Objective  To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Preparticipation physical examinations. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Results  Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Conclusions  Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the

  4. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  5. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.

  6. Conservation of the Red Kite Milvus milvus (Aves: Accipitriformes) Is Not Affected by the Establishment of a Broad Hybrid Zone with the Black Kite Milvus migrans migrans in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Matušík, Hynek; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Nachtigall, Winfried; Bizos, Jiří; Šimčíková, Daniela; Literák, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Among Accipitriformes sensu stricto, only a few species have been reported to form hybrid zones; these include the red kite Milvus milvus and black kite Milvus migrans migrans. M. milvus is endemic to the western Palearctic and has an estimated total population of 20–24,000 breeding pairs. The species was in decline until the 1970s due to persecution and has declined again since the 1990s due to ingestion of rodenticide-treated baits, illegal poisoning and changes in agricultural practices, particularly in its core range. Whereas F1 M. milvus × M. migr. migrans hybrid offspring have been found, F2 and F3 hybrids have only rarely been reported, with low nesting success rates of F1 hybrids and partial hybrid sterility likely playing a role. Here, we analyzed the mitochondrial (CO1 and CytB) and nuclear (Myc) DNA loci of 184 M. milvus, 124 M. migr. migrans and 3 F1 hybrid individuals collected across central Europe. In agreement with previous studies, we found low heterozygosity in M. milvus regardless of locus. We found that populations of both examined species were characterized by a high gene flow within populations, with all of the major haplotypes distributed across the entire examined area. Few haplotypes displayed statistically significant aggregation in one region over another. We did not find mitochondrial DNA of one species in individuals with the plumage of the other species, except in F1 hybrids, which agrees with Haldane´s Rule. It remains to be investigated by genomic methods whether occasional gene flow occurs through the paternal line, as the examined Myc gene displayed only marginal divergence between M. milvus and M. migr. migrans. The central European population of M. milvus is clearly subject to free intraspecific gene flow, which has direct implications when considering the origin of individuals in M. milvus re-introduction programs. PMID:27463515

  7. Establishing versus preserving impressions: Predicting success in the multiple audience problem.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Austin Lee; Cottrell, Catherine A

    2015-12-01

    People sometimes seek to convey discrepant impressions of themselves to different audiences simultaneously. Research suggests people are generally successful in this "multiple audience problem." Adding to previous research, the current research sought to examine factors that may limit this success by measuring social anxiety and placing participants into situations requiring them to either establish or preserve multiple impressions simultaneously. In general, participants were more successful when preserving previously conveyed impressions than when establishing impressions for the first time. In contrast, social anxiety did not affect multiple audience success. In all, this research offers valuable insight into potential challenges that people face in many social situations.

  8. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  9. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N.; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. PMID:27460800

  10. Long-term thermal sensitivity of previously irradiated skin.

    PubMed

    Law, M P; Ahier, R G

    1982-12-01

    The response of the mouse ear to hyperthermia was investigated at 7-64 weeks after irradiation with X rays. Thermal sensitivity was increased by 12 weeks after single doses of 18 to 20 Gy but showed no further changes up to 64 weeks after exposure. It is suggested that the increase in sensitivity to retreatment by hyperthermia several months after the initial course of radiation may be related to the turnover time of the tissue. Although there are reports which suggest that prior irradiation, given more than two months earlier, does not affect the response of human skin or superficial tumours to the mild hyperthermic treatment in current clinical use, more aggressive heat therapy may produce unexpectedly severe responses in previously irradiated sites.

  11. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Noor Azuin; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Basir, Rusliza

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  12. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  13. Establishing Passing Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Joyce R.

    The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…

  14. Establishing a University Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  15. Effects of Previous Acoustic Experience on Behavioral Responses to Experimental Sound Stimuli and Implications for Research.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Ambient noise differs considerably between habitats. Increased ambient noise can affect the physiology and behavior in a variety of taxa. Previous acoustic experience can modify behavior and potentially affect research conclusions in natural and laboratory environments. Acoustic conditions should thus be accounted for, especially in experiments involving experimental sound stimuli. Methods sections should contain acoustic specifications, and a consensus should be achieved over which measurements to include for comparability between researchers. Further investigation of how previous and repeated exposure to sound affects behavior and research conclusions is needed to improve our knowledge of acoustic long-term effects in animal welfare and conservation.

  16. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    PubMed

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  17. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  18. Establishing maintenance performance indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.

    1994-10-01

    Maintenance Performance Indicators (PI) specify where the maintenance department is and which direction it is going allowing for a quick and accurate assessment of the performance of the Maintenance Management Program (MMP). Establishing PI`s for the maintenance department will allow a measure of productivity and a means of feedback for methods improvement. Effective performance of the maintenance department directly effects plant profitability. Improvements in the quality and productivity of the maintenance work force will significantly reduce maintenance costs. The level of performance attained by the maintenance work force is usually guessed at. Guessing will not identify areas needing improvement or help to initiate a corrective action. Maintenance PI`s are required for maintenance departments whose goal is to control maintenance costs while increasing productivity. The application of basic statistical methods will allow a maintenance department to know where they are and which direction they are going. The data presented in this paper is a representation of indicators used in industry as well as developed indicators to establish a complete maintenance performance indicator program. The methodology used in developing this program can be used as a way to manage a cost effective maintenance management program.

  19. Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates from Previously Vaccinated Young Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ADENOVIRUS ISOLATES FROM PREVIOUSLY VACCINATED YOUNG ADULTS D. A. Blasiole...Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates From Previously Vaccinated Young Adults . 6. AUTHORS Daniel A Blasiole, David Metzgar, Luke T Daum, Margaret AK

  20. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  1. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  2. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  3. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  4. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a...

  5. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.405 Use of highest previous rate. (a)(1) Subject to the... new grade which does not exceed the employee's highest previous rate. (2) However, if the...

  6. The Establishing Operation and Teaching Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago Michael (1993) refined and extended the concept of the conditioned establishing operation (CEO). With this paper he updated his previous treatment of the topic (Michael, 1982) by providing terminological refinements and conceptually clear descriptions of the reflexive and transitive CEOs. In the 20 years since the publication of…

  7. Negative affect and drinking drivers: a review and conceptual model linking dissonance, efficacy and negative affect to risk and motivation for change.

    PubMed

    Wells-Parker, Elisabeth; Mann, Robert E; Dill, Patricia L; Stoduto, Gina; Shuggi, Rania; Cross, Ginger W

    2009-05-01

    This review summarizes evidence on negative affect among drinking drivers. Elevations in negative affect, including depressed mood, anxiety and hostility, have long been noted in convicted drinking drivers, and recent evidence suggests an association between negative affect and driving after drinking in the general population. Previous efforts to understand the significance of this negative affective state have ranged from suggestions that it may play a causal role in drinking driving to suggestions that it may interfere with response to treatment and remedial interventions. Recent studies have uncovered an important paradox involving negative affect among convicted drinking drivers (hereafter DUI offenders). DUI offenders with high levels of negative affect recidivated more frequently following a DUI program than did those reporting no or minimal negative affect. However, when a brief supportive motivational intervention was added to the program, offenders with high negative affect levels showed lower recidivism rates than did those with no or minimal negative affect. The review includes studies from the general literature on alcohol treatment in which the same negative affect paradox was reported. In an attempt to understand this paradox, we present a conceptual model involving well-established psychological processes, with a focus on salient discrepancy, the crucial component of cognitive dissonance. In this model, negative affect plays an important role in motivating both continued high-risk drinking as well as therapeutic change. This model suggests that links between motivational states and negative affective processes may be more complex than previously thought. Implications for intervention with DUI offenders are discussed.

  8. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  9. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  10. On establishing reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish a range of reference values for any characteristic one can use Gaussian or nonparametric techniques, whichever are most appropriate. One has the choice of calculating tolerance intervals or percentile intervals. A tolerance interval is said to contain, say 95% of the population with probability, say 0.90. A percentile interval simply simply calculates the values between which 95% of the observations fall. If the data can be said to have a Gaussian distribution, the same precision can be obtained with smaller sample sizes than using the nonparametric techniques. In some cases, data which are not Gaussian can be transformed into a Gaussian form and hence make use of the more efficient Gaussian techniques. In both cases, the data should be checked for outliers or rogue observations and these should be eliminated if the testing procedure fails to imply that they are an integral part of the data. PMID:688072

  11. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    DOEpatents

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  12. Acquisition of cup drinking using previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michael E; Piazza, Cathleen C; Fisher, Wayne W; Oberdorff, Amanda J

    2003-01-01

    We used previously refused foods as positive and negative reinforcement in the acquisition of cup drinking. Cup drinking increased with positive and negative reinforcement, both alone and in combination (without escape extinction), indicating that treatment of food refusal can establish some foods as appetitive stimuli whereas others remain aversive.

  13. Establishing lunar resource viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Fisackerly, R.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential of lunar resources as an important element of space exploration but their viability has not been demonstrated. Establishing whether or not they can be considered in future plans is a multidisciplinary effort, requiring scientific expertise and delivering scientific results. To this end various space agencies and private entities are looking to lunar resources, extracted and processed in situ, as a potentially game changing element in future space architectures, with the potential to increase scale and reduce cost. However, before any decisions can be made on the inclusion of resources in exploration roadmaps or future scenarios some big questions need to be answered about the viability of different resource deposits and the processes for extraction and utilisation. The missions and measurements that will be required to answer these questions, and which are being prepared by agencies and others, can only be performed through the engagement and support of the science community. In answering questions about resources, data and knowledge will be generated that is of fundamental scientific importance. In supporting resource prospecting missions the science community will de facto generate new scientific knowledge. Science enables exploration and exploration enables science.

  14. 14 CFR 77.75 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 77.75... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE (Eff. until 1-18-11) Establishment of Antenna Farm Areas § 77.75 Establishment of antenna farm areas. The airspace areas described in the...

  15. 14 CFR 77.75 - Establishment of antenna farm areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of antenna farm areas. 77.75... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE Establishment of Antenna Farm Areas § 77.75 Establishment of antenna farm areas. The airspace areas described in the following sections of this subpart...

  16. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  17. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  18. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  19. 14 CFR 135.12 - Previously trained crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Previously trained crewmembers. 135.12... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.12 Previously trained crewmembers. A certificate holder may use a crewmember who received...

  20. 77 FR 21144 - Extension of a Previously Approved Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Office of the Secretary Extension of a Previously Approved Collection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... SE., Washington, DC, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except on Federal holidays...: 4532, 4533, 4534, 4535. Type of Review: Extension of a Previously Approved Collection....

  1. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  2. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Subtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  3. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Subtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  4. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  5. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    PubMed

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  6. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  7. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification...

  8. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215... ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215... title 2 of the CFR. Specifically: Guidance in * * * On * * * Previously was in * * * (a) Chapter I,...

  9. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  10. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  11. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352... highest previous rate. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding the discretionary use of an... circumstances approved by DHS. If an employee in a Coast Guard NAFI position is converted to an...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352... highest previous rate. DHS will issue implementing directives regarding the discretionary use of an... circumstances approved by DHS. If an employee in a Coast Guard NAFI position is converted to an...

  14. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance....

  15. 2 CFR 220.40 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 220.40 Section 220.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.40 Relationship to previous issuance....

  16. 2 CFR 220.40 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 220.40 Section 220.40 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.40 Relationship to previous issuance. (a) The guidance in this...

  17. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a)...

  18. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a) The guidance in this...

  19. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General... fissile material package, previously approved by the NRC but without the designation “-85” in the.... (c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved...

  20. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  1. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  2. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  3. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  4. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... previously shipped. 402.5 Section 402.5 Emergency Management and Assistance DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.5 Forwarding commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships...

  5. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  6. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  7. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  8. Previous Webinars about Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Center of Expertise for School IPM hosts a webinar series featuring national experts from across the country relaying educational and practical strategies for establishing and improving integrated pest management programs in schools.

  9. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... (Malibu Mirage)... 4622001 through 4622200 and 4636001 through 4636020. Table 2--Group 2 (Airplanes Not Previously Affected by AD 99-15-04 R1) Models S/N PA-46-350P (Malibu Mirage)... 4636021 and subsequent. PA...--Model PA-46-350P (Malibu Mirage) and Model PA-46R-350T (Matrix); Emergency Procedures for the...

  10. Navigation and Comprehension of Digital Expository Texts: Hypertext Structure, Previous Domain Knowledge, and Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burin, Debora I.; Barreyro, Juan P.; Saux, Gastón; Irrazábal, Natalia C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In contemporary information societies, reading digital text has become pervasive. One of the most distinctive features of digital texts is their internal connections via hyperlinks, resulting in non-linear hypertexts. Hypertext structure and previous knowledge affect navigation and comprehension of digital expository texts. From the…

  11. Factors Affecting Willingness to Mentor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Gatti, Paola; Quaglino, Gian Piero

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a survey among 300 employees in Northern Italy to assess the willingness to mentor and identify the factors that affect it. Men and respondents with previous mentoring experience indicate a higher willingness to be a mentor. Willingness is affected by personal characteristics that are perceived as necessary for a mentor and the…

  12. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  13. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  14. A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A similar shot to the previous image, this photograph, looking northwest, provides a closer image of the brick penthouse and other devices - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  15. 76 FR 76189 - 2002 Reopened-Previously Denied Determinations;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration 2002 Reopened--Previously Denied Determinations; Notice of Negative... negative determinations on reconsideration regarding eligibility to apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance for workers by case (TA-W-) number regarding negative determinations issued during the period...

  16. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17 Previously... the use of such an FSTD after May 30, 2014 for flight crewmember training, evaluation or...

  17. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  18. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic

    PubMed Central

    Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance. PMID:27656235

  19. Crisis-Affected Populations and Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zenner, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    By definition, humanitarian crises can severely affect human health, directly through violence or indirectly through breakdown of infrastructure or lack of provision for basic human needs, such as safe shelter, food, clean water, and suitable clothing. After the initial phase, these indirect effects are the most important determinants of morbidity and mortality in humanitarian emergencies, and infectious diseases are among the most significant causes of ill health. Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in humanitarian emergencies varies depending on a number of factors, including the country background epidemiology, but will be elevated compared with precrisis levels. TB morbidity and mortality are associated with access to appropriate care and medications, and will also be elevated due to barriers to access to diagnosis and appropriate treatment, including robust TB drug supplies. While reestablishment of TB control is challenging in the early phases, successful treatment programs have been previously established, and the WHO has issued guidance on establishing such successful programs. Such programs should be closely linked to other health programs and established in close collaboration with the country's national treatment program. Individuals who flee the emergency also have a higher TB risk and can face difficulties accessing care en route to or upon arrival in host countries. These barriers, often associated with treatment delays and worse outcomes, can be the result of uncertainties around legal status, other practical challenges, or lack of health care worker awareness. It is important to recognize and mitigate these barriers with an increasing number of tools now available and described.

  20. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  1. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  2. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  3. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  4. 18 CFR 366.6 - Previously authorized activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT BOOKS AND RECORDS Definitions and Provisions Under PUHCA 2005, the Federal... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Previously authorized activities. 366.6 Section 366.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use...

  6. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship...

  7. 25 CFR 83.8 - Previous Federal acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... evidence of previous Federal action acknowledging tribal status shall be made during the technical assistance review of the documented petition conducted pursuant to § 83.10(b). If a petition is awaiting...(b) to demonstrate that it comprises a distinct community at present. However, it need not...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Certification of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... suspended under the laws of the state, the registration with the Secretary shall be ineffective from...

  9. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  10. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  11. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  12. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  13. 15 CFR 970.403 - Previous license and permit obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Certification of Applications § 970.403 Previous license and permit obligations. In order to certify an application, the Administrator must find that the applicant has satisfactorily fulfilled all past...

  14. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs.

  15. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use...

  16. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Rhabdomyosarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-13

    Adult Malignant Mesenchymoma; Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Alveolar Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Embryonal Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Embryonal-botryoid Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation.

  18. 14 CFR 60.17 - Previously qualified FSTDs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 60.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.17 Previously... retain its qualification basis as long as it continues to meet the standards, including the...

  19. Ghosts in the machine: memory interference from the previous trial.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Charalampos; Ferdoash, Afreen; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2015-01-15

    Previous memoranda can interfere with the memorization or storage of new information, a concept known as proactive interference. Studies of proactive interference typically use categorical memoranda and match-to-sample tasks with categorical measures such as the proportion of correct to incorrect responses. In this study we instead train five macaques in a spatial memory task with continuous memoranda and responses, allowing us to more finely probe working memory circuits. We first ask whether the memoranda from the previous trial result in proactive interference in an oculomotor delayed response task. We then characterize the spatial and temporal profile of this interference and ask whether this profile can be predicted by an attractor network model of working memory. We find that memory in the current trial shows a bias toward the location of the memorandum of the previous trial. The magnitude of this bias increases with the duration of the memory period within which it is measured. Our simulations using standard attractor network models of working memory show that these models easily replicate the spatial profile of the bias. However, unlike the behavioral findings, these attractor models show an increase in bias with the duration of the previous rather than the current memory period. To model a bias that increases with current trial duration we posit two separate memory stores, a rapidly decaying visual store that resists proactive interference effects and a sustained memory store that is susceptible to proactive interference.

  20. 31 CFR 202.5 - Previously designated depositaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Previously designated depositaries. 202.5 Section 202.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DEPOSITARIES AND FINANCIAL...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use...

  2. Young Children Choose to Inform Previously Knowledgeable Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunae; Kalish, Charles W.; Weisman, Kara; Johnson, Marissa V.; Shutts, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children recognize that people who know more are better informants than those who know less. How does an individual's prior knowledge affect children's decisions about whom to inform? In 3 experiments, 3- to 6-year-old children were invited to share a novel piece of information with 1 of 2 potential recipients who differed in their recent history…

  3. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D.; Snyder, Adam C.; Smith, Matthew A.; Urban, Nathaniel N.; Kass, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or “spikes” nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other). This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons’ fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs). In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron’s firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1) simulated neurons, 2) in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3) in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony. PMID:26465621

  4. Learning what feelings to desire: socialization of ideal affect through children's storybooks.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Louie, Jennifer Y; Chen, Eva E; Uchida, Yukiko

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that cultural factors influence ideal affect (i.e., the affective states that people ideally want to feel). Three studies tested the hypothesis that cultural differences in ideal affect emerge early in life and are acquired through exposure to storybooks. In Study 1, the authors established that consistent with previous findings, European American preschoolers preferred excited (vs. calm) states more (indexed by activity and smile preferences) and perceived excited (vs. calm) states as happier than Taiwanese Chinese preschoolers. In Study 2, it was observed that similar differences were reflected in the pictures (activities, expressions, and smiles) of best-selling storybooks in the United States and Taiwan. Study 3 found that across cultures, exposure to exciting (vs. calm) storybooks altered children's preferences for excited (vs. calm) activities and their perceptions of happiness. These findings suggest that cultural differences in ideal affect may be due partly to differential exposure to calm and exciting storybooks.

  5. Novel clinical manifestations in Pallister-Killian syndrome: comprehensive evaluation of 59 affected individuals and review of previously reported cases.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Alisha; Liu, Hongbin; Park, Kristen; Campbell, Lindsey B; Jackson, Marie; Kostanecka, Anna; Pipan, Mary; Izumi, Kosuke; Pallister, Phillip; Krantz, Ian D

    2012-12-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare, multi-system developmental diagnosis typically caused by tetrasomy of chromosome 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. The spectrum of clinical manifestations in Pallister-Killian syndrome is wide and includes craniofacial anomalies, clefts, ophthalmologic, audiologic, cardiac, musculoskeletal, diaphragmatic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cutaneous anomalies in association with intellectual disability and seizures. Growth parameters are often normal to elevated at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally. No formal estimate of the prevalence of Pallister-Killian syndrome has been made. Here, we report the clinical findings in 59 individuals with Pallister-Killian syndrome who were ascertained at Pallister-Killian syndrome Foundation family meetings held in the summers of 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2010. In addition, the clinical findings of 152 cases reported in the medical literature were reviewed and compared to the cohort examined here. Several novel clinical characteristics were identified through detailed dysmorphology examinations of this cohort and reassertion of a mild developmental variant is described. This report expands the clinical manifestations of Pallister-Killian syndrome and highlights the variable expressivity of this diagnosis with important implications for diagnosis and counseling.

  6. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  7. Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy Performed after Previous Suprapubic Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Johnson F.; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. PMID:27882057

  8. Characteristics of pregnant women who report previous induced abortions*

    PubMed Central

    Harlap, Susan; Davies, A. Michael

    1975-01-01

    Associations between previous induced abortion and demographic and health factors in pregnancy were measured in 9 874 women who gave birth and who had been interviewed during pregnancy. Previous abortion was most rare among women having their first baby and increased with increasing birth order up to the fourth, thereafter decreasing. It was positively correlated with maternal age and negatively with age at marriage. There was no effect of years of schooling, when other variables were taken into account, but there were significant differences between ethnic groups, abortion being commonest among Jewish women from North African countries and more prevalent in those from western and Asian countries than in the second-generation Israel-born or in Arab women. Women who reported abortions were less likely to be strict as regards religious observance and less likely to have had a previous stillbirth or child death, other variables being equal. They were more likely to be smokers or former smokers and to be delivered of their babies in certain obstetric units. They more often reported vomiting, bleeding, and medication in early pregnancy. On the other hand, there was no significant association with diabetes, anaemia, blood groups, or season of birth. The findings show that women reporting previous induced abortions differ significantly from other pregnant women in a wide range of demographic and health characteristics. Such women may also be biased for complications of pregnancy and outcome, particularly if selected from a clinic population. Observations that indicate a deleterious effect of induced abortions on subsequent pregnancy outcomes must therefore be interpreted with considerable caution. PMID:1083303

  9. Pleuritis due to Brevundimonas diminuta in a previously healthy man.

    PubMed

    Lu, Binghuai; Shi, Yanli; Zhu, Fengxia; Xu, Xiaolin

    2013-03-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta is rarely associated with invasive infections. We report the case of a previously healthy young man with pleural effusion, in which B. diminuta was recovered but incorrectly identified as Kingella kingae when it was freshly isolated. Consequently, the misidentification resulted in initial treatment failure. The correct identification was achieved through further incubation, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and MS.

  10. Cutaneous responses to vaccinia in individuals with previous smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Eric L; Hercher, Michelle; Hammarlund, Erika K; Lewis, Matthew W; Slifka, Mark K; Hanifin, Jon M

    2007-09-01

    The durability of immune responses to smallpox vaccine is a subject of considerable debate. We compared cutaneous vaccinia responses in patients vaccinated in the distant past with vaccine-naïve individuals using serial close-up photographs. The previously vaccinated group had a significantly reduced time course and milder cutaneous reactions. Vaccinated individuals appear to maintain clinically detectable immunity against vaccinia for at least 20 years after smallpox vaccination.

  11. Septa in the appendix: a previously undescribed condition.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, A A

    1985-12-01

    A previously undescribed condition of the appendix, consisting of complete and incomplete septa is reported in 25 cases. The abnormality occurred in persons younger than 30 years. In all cases the lesion was found to be associated with acute appendicitis. Possible factors discussed with respect to aetiology and pathogenesis are: a congenital abnormality similar to intestinal atresia; post-inflammatory fusion of ulcerated, swollen mucosal folds; ischaemia caused by thrombosed vessels; mucosal folding in the process of expulsion of appendiceal contents.

  12. Distractor Repetitions Retrieve Previous Responses and Previous Targets: Experimental Dissociations of Distractor-Response and Distractor-Target Bindings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, Carina; Rothermund, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Even an irrelevant distractor stimulus is integrated into event files. Subsequently repeating the distractor triggers retrieval of the event file; however, an unresolved issue concerns the question of "what" is retrieved by the distractor. While recent studies predominantly assume that the distractor retrieves the previous response, it…

  13. Previously Unrecognized Large Lunar Impact Basins Revealed by Topographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of a large population of apparently buried impact craters on Mars, revealed as Quasi- Circular Depressions (QCDs) in Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [1,2,3] and as Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) [4] in crustal thickness model data [5] leads to the obvious question: are there unrecognized impact features on the Moon and other bodies in the solar system? Early analysis of Clementine topography revealed several large impact basins not previously known [6,7], so the answer certainly is "Yes." How large a population of previously undetected impact basins, their size frequency distribution, and how much these added craters and basins will change ideas about the early cratering history and Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon remains to be determined. Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data [8] will be able to address these issues. As a prelude, we searched the state-of-the-art global topographic grid for the Moon, the Unified Lunar Control Net (ULCN) [9] for evidence of large impact features not previously recognized by photogeologic mapping, as summarized by Wilhelms [lo].

  14. Previous Violent Events and Mental Health Outcomes in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973

  15. Positive affect and psychobiological processes.

    PubMed

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes is independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes.

  16. Women with previous stress fractures show reduced bone material strength

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Fink Eriksen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Bone fragility is determined by bone mass, bone architecture, and the material properties of bone. Microindentation has been introduced as a measurement method that reflects bone material properties. The pathogenesis of underlying stress fractures, in particular the role of impaired bone material properties, is still poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that impaired bone material strength might play a role in the development of stress fractures, we used microindentation in patients with stress fractures and in controls. Patients and methods — We measured bone material strength index (BMSi) by microindentation in 30 women with previous stress fractures and in 30 normal controls. Bone mineral density by DXA and levels of the bone markers C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type-1 procollagen (P1NP) were also determined. Results — Mean BMSi in stress fracture patients was significantly lower than in the controls (SD 72 (8.7) vs. 77 (7.2); p = 0.02). The fracture subjects also had a significantly lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than the controls (0.9 (0.02) vs. 1.0 (0.06); p = 0.03). Bone turnover—as reflected in serum levels of the bone marker CTX—was similar in both groups, while P1NP levels were significantly higher in the women with stress fractures (55 μg/L vs. 42 μg/L; p = 0.03). There was no correlation between BMSi and BMD or bone turnover. Interpretation — BMSi was inferior in patients with previous stress fracture, but was unrelated to BMD and bone turnover. The lower values of BMSi in patients with previous stress fracture combined with a lower BMD may contribute to the increased propensity to develop stress fractures in these patients. PMID:27321443

  17. [Influencing factors of previous testing on blood determination (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schwerd, W; Birkenberger, H

    1977-11-18

    The demonstration of individual characteristics, especially those of the blood group types are substantially disturbed through the hydrogenperoxide- and the luminol spray procedure, which when it is previously employed, can cause changes in the blood spot. These changes are expecially by very small blood spots to be expected, but even larger ones under intensive spraying can be effected. Only with great caution are such spray procedures to be used and then only if it is impossible any other way to gather information about the existance of blood spots.

  18. Mycoplasma hominis necrotizing pleuropneumonia in a previously healthy adolescent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis is a fastidious micro-organism causing systemic infections in the neonate and genital infections in the adult. It can also be the cause of serious extra-genital infections, mainly in immunosuppressed or predisposed subjects. Case Presentation We describe a case of severe pneumonia and pericarditis due to Mycoplasma hominis in a previously healthy adolescent who did not respond to initial therapy. Conclusions Mycoplasma hominis could be an underestimated cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent patients and should be particularly suspected in those not responding to standard therapy. PMID:21106079

  19. Statin-induced myopathy in a patient with previous poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mika H; Gardberg, Maria; Kohonen, Ia; Lähdesmäki, Janne

    2013-11-01

    This report describes a patient with a history of poliomyelitis who developed new, progressive symptoms of muscle fatigue and weakness, suggestive of postpoliomyelitis syndrome. However, comprehensive investigations led to the diagnosis of statin-induced myopathy as the cause of the patient's symptoms. This case highlights the possibility of statin-induced myopathy in patients with a history of poliomyelitis and the differential diagnosis between postpoliomyelitis syndrome and statin-induced myopathy in these patients. The possibility of statin-induced myopathy should be considered when patients with previous poliomyelitis who take statin medication develop symptoms suggestive of postpoliomyelitis syndrome.

  20. Reducing Mission Costs by Leveraging Previous Investments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ron; Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been charged with the responsibility to reduce mission cost by allowing access to previous developments on government and commercial space missions. RSDO accomplishes this responsibility by implementing two revolutionary contract vehicles, the Rapid Spacecraft Acquisition (RSA) and Quick Ride. This paper will describe the concept behind these contracts, the current capabilities available to missions, analysis of pricing trends to date using the RSDO processes, and future plans to increase flexibility and capabilities available to mission planners.

  1. 1979J2 - Discovery of a previously unknown Jovian satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed examination of imaging data of Jupiter taken by Voyager 1 reveals a previously unknown satellite 1979J2. Analysis of the image on the Jovian disk indicates that it is not an atmospheric feature or the shadow of any known satellite. The orbital period is calculated at 16 hours 11 minutes 21.25 seconds + or - 0.5 second and the semimajor axis is 3.1054 Jupiter radii. The observed profile is roughly circular with a diameter of 80 kilometers. An albedo of approximately 0.05 is reported, which is similar to Amalthea's. The geometry of the observational situation is illustrated.

  2. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    PubMed

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L

    2013-12-15

    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; p<0.05), and report substance use (16.35≤χ(2)≥27.57; p<0.01) before the acute injury, compared to those with no previous TBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  3. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  4. Reconsolidation may incorporate state-dependency into previously consolidated memories.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Rodrigo O; Cassini, Lindsey F; Santana, Fabiana; Crestani, Ana P; Duran, Johanna M; Haubrich, Josué; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas; Quillfeldt, Jorge A

    2013-06-19

    Some memories enter into a labile state after retrieval, requiring reconsolidation in order to persist. One functional role of memory reconsolidation is the updating of existing memories. There are reports suggesting that reconsolidation can be modulated by a particular endogenous process taking place concomitantly to its natural course, such as water or sleep deprivation. Here, we investigated whether an endogenous process activated during a natural/physiological experience, or a pharmacological intervention, can also contribute to memory content updating. Using the contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rats, we found that the endogenous content of an aversive memory can be updated during its reconsolidation incorporating consequences of natural events such as water deprivation, transforming a previously stored memory into a state-dependent one. This updating seems to be mediated by the activation of angiotensin AT1 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus and local infusion of human angiotensin II (ANGII) was shown to mimic the water deprivation effects on memory reconsolidation. Systemic morphine injection was also able to turn a previously acquired experience into a state-dependent memory, reproducing the very same effects obtained by water deprivation or local angiotensin II infusion, and suggesting that other state-dependent-inducing protocols would also be able to contribute to memory updating. These findings trigger new insights about the influence of ordinary daily life events upon memory in its continuing reconstruction, adding the realm of reconsolidation to the classical view of endogenous modulation of consolidation.

  5. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  6. African Americans and the medical establishment.

    PubMed

    Smith, C

    1999-09-01

    The African American community's response to the AIDS epidemic has reflected the profound mistrust of the medical establishment which many African Americans feel. Among African Americans, the belief that the epidemic originated in a genocidal plot is widespread. It is thought that organized medicine has been significantly involved in this plot. If we look at African Americans' historical relationship to the medical establishment from the era of slavery to the recent past, the suspicious attitudes which make such beliefs possible can be seen as an intelligible response to a new disease which disproportionately affects African Americans. Successful medical and public health responses to the epidemic have depended and will continue to depend upon overcoming the historical legacy of suspicion and gaining the trust of the community.

  7. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  8. Cortical neural responses to previous trial outcome during learning of a directional choice task.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Mao, Hongwei; Si, Jennie

    2015-04-01

    The outcomes that result from previous behavior affect future choices in several ways, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be determined. Previous studies have shown that the lateral (AGl) and medial (AGm) agranular areas of the rat frontal cortex are involved in the learning and selection of action. Here we describe the activity of single neurons in AGl and AGm as rats learned to perform a directional choice task. Our analysis shows that single-cell activity in AGl and AGm was modulated by the outcome of the previous trial. A larger proportion of neurons encoded the previous trial's outcome shortly after cue onset than during other time periods of a trial. Most of these neurons had greater activity after correct trials than after error trials, a difference that increased as behavioral performance improved. The number of neurons encoding the previous trial's outcome correlated positively with performance accuracy. In summary, we found that neurons in both AGl and AGm encode the outcome of the immediately preceding trial, information that might play a role in the successful selection of action based on past experience.

  9. Cortical neural responses to previous trial outcome during learning of a directional choice task

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Mao, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes that result from previous behavior affect future choices in several ways, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be determined. Previous studies have shown that the lateral (AGl) and medial (AGm) agranular areas of the rat frontal cortex are involved in the learning and selection of action. Here we describe the activity of single neurons in AGl and AGm as rats learned to perform a directional choice task. Our analysis shows that single-cell activity in AGl and AGm was modulated by the outcome of the previous trial. A larger proportion of neurons encoded the previous trial's outcome shortly after cue onset than during other time periods of a trial. Most of these neurons had greater activity after correct trials than after error trials, a difference that increased as behavioral performance improved. The number of neurons encoding the previous trial's outcome correlated positively with performance accuracy. In summary, we found that neurons in both AGl and AGm encode the outcome of the immediately preceding trial, information that might play a role in the successful selection of action based on past experience. PMID:25552636

  10. Assessment of renal function in workers previously exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, C G; Edling, C; Lindberg, E; Kågedal, B; Vesterberg, O

    1985-01-01

    Cadmium induced renal effects were examined in 60 workers (58 men, 2 women) previously exposed to cadmium. Tubular damage in the form of beta 2-microglobulinuria was found in 40%, and urinary albumin and orosomucoid increased significantly with increasing urinary cadmium and increasing relative clearance of beta 2-microglobulin. It is suggested that increased albumin excretion is secondary to the tubular damage. In no case was typical glomerular proteinuria found that could be related to cadmium. Histories of renal stones were more common among the workers with high urinary cadmium concentrations. The glomerular filtration rate was measured in 17 of the workers who had pronounced tubular dysfunction. The average glomerular filtration rate for these men was less than the age adjusted predicted value (mean = 84%). Furthermore, there was a significant (p less than 0.05) correlation (r = -0.47) between tubular reabsorption loss and a decreased glomerular filtration rate. PMID:3904816

  11. Multicentric spinal cord and brain glioblastoma without previous craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    de Eulate-Beramendi, Sayoa A.; Piña-Batista, Kelvin M.; Rodrigo, Victor; Torres-Rivas, Hector E.; Rial-Basalo, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBS) is a highly malignant glioma that rarely presents as an infratentorial tumor. Multicentric gliomas lesions are widely separated in site and/or time and its incidence has been reported between 0.15 and 10%. Multicentric gliomas involving supratentorial and infratentorial region are even more rare. In most cases, infratentorial disease is seen after surgical manipulation or radiation therapy and is usually located in the cerebellum or cervical region. Case Report: We present a rare case of symptomatic multicentric glioma in the brain, fourth ventricle, cervical as well as lumbar glioblastoma in an adult without previous therapeutic intervention. We also review the literature of this rare presentation. Conclusions: This report suggests that GBM is a diffuse disease; the more extended the disease, the worse prognosis it has. The management still remains controversial and further studies are required to understand the prognosis factors of dissemination. PMID:27512613

  12. Lessons from Previous Expeditions for the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuster, J.

    Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and future space missions. From an engineering perspective, the differences between future and past expeditions are considerable. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, and one of the factors that drives the complexity is the requirement to support the crew in the hostile environment of space. The technological differences are significant, but from a behavioral perspective, are the differences really that great between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space? The psychological differences probably are few. This paper discusses some of the most salient behavioral and technical lessons from previous expeditions that can be applied to facilitate the human explora- tion of Mars.

  13. MISSE Thermal Control Materials with Comparison to Previous Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George

    2008-01-01

    Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).

  14. Medial subluxation of the patella without previous lateral retinacular release.

    PubMed

    Richman, N M; Scheller, A D

    1998-07-01

    This case presented a 17-year-old patient with persistent complaints localized to the right patellofemoral joint. Clinical examination demonstrated increased medial translation of the patella on manual stress. In contrast to previous published reports on medial patellar subluxation, this patient had not undergone prior lateral retinacular release. Arthroscopic examination documented medial tracking of the patella as well as excess medial translation. Imbrication of the patient's lateral patellar retinaculum centralized patella tracking and diminished medial translation on stress testing as observed arthroscopically and clinically. This case illustrates that medial patellar subluxation is a subtle problem that may be overlooked in the patient presenting with patellofemoral complaints and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  15. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Yub; Ryu, Woo Sang; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  16. Establishing therapeutic alliance across cultural barriers.

    PubMed

    Cravener, P

    1992-12-01

    1. The therapeutic alliance is a mutually defined helping relationship that encompasses mutual respect and acceptance of ethnocultural variance, predicated upon empathic rapport. 2. Sensitivity to two psycholinguistic phenomena may help establish a transcultural relationship: the detachment effect (limited expression of affect and reduced access to developmental events between languages) and code switching (a complete or partial change of language or dialect within a single utterance or conversation). 3. Issues related to differing sociocultural expectations of nurses and clients will be increasingly encountered as ease of travel combines with economic and political unrest to produce increasing numbers of displaced persons.

  17. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  18. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh B; Corrier, Kristen L; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in unknowns dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four wellknown viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  19. Photometric Properties of Ceres and Comparisons with Previous HST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-Y.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Sykes, M. V.; Hoffmann, M.; Mottola, S.; Schröder, S. E.; Longobardo, A.; Ciarniello, M.; McFadden, L. A.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft entered the first science orbit around its second target, dwarf planet Ceres, in April 2015. The photometric properties of Ceres not only reveal clues about the physical state of the regolith, surface composition, and geological history, but also are important for correcting the data collected under various observing and illumination geometries to a common geometry to facilitate the interpretations of all photometric and spectral data. The Dawn data collected during its approach to Ceres cover phase angles from a few degrees to ~155º, and almost cover the full range of incidence angles and emission angles from 0º to 90º, making an excellent dataset for studying the spectrophotometric properties of Ceres. We report the analysis of the photometric properties of Ceres in the visible wavelengths using the Framing Camera (FC) [1] data through all seven color filters and one clear filter, acquired during the approach and the Survey orbit of the mission. Although previous studies [2-4] suggested a remarkably uniform surface of Ceres, the images collected by Dawn during its approach to the target at a scale of a few km/pixel revealed some small but extremely bright spots and regions, with albedos up to >4 times the average albedo of Ceres, representing the highest contrast so far observed in all asteroids imaged from close distances by spacecraft missions. These bright spots should be geologically young, and might be related to the episodic water sublimation activity of Ceres [5-7]. We performed detailed comparisons of the albedos of these bright spots between previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations and the Dawn observations that span about 10 years to search for any possible changes. By the time of preparing this abstract, the Dawn FChas collected images at pixel scale down to 2.1 km/pixel. By June 2015, the data with a scale of 0.4 km/pixel will have been collected during the Survey Orbit phase.

  20. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    PubMed

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  1. Underground and Previously Undiscovered Rivers in the Mississippi Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, A.; Breaux, A.; Coleman, D.; Inniss, L. V.; Telfeyan, K.; Kim, J.; Schneider, A.; Allison, M. A.; Cable, J. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we show that there are large, and previously undiscovered, groundwater pathways by which water from the Mississippi River is transported to the wetlands and estuaries of the Mississippi River Delta. Results from multiple methodologies suggest that the total flux of groundwater to the coastal zone in the Mississippi River Delta averages 1,000 m3 s-1, and can reach 5,000 m3 s-1 at high flow. We suggest that flow preferentially occurs through paleo-crevasse channels, relict bayous, and other buried deposits of permeable and coarse grained material. These conduits were formed during the present and previous stages of the delta cycle, which occurred in historical (102 y) and late Holocene(103 y) times, respectively. Flow is driven by the hydrological head difference between the river and the estuary, which is seasonally variable in magnitudeand can reach 5-8 m during peak river floods. This talk will present data from hydrological budgets that show a missing fraction in the Mississippi River water budget, and a missing source of fresh water to a large estuary. We will show that water levels in wells in New Orleans fluctuate with the stage of the Mississippi River. Data of Rn concentration indicate advective submarine groundwater flow, whereas Ba concentrations suggest geochemical leachates are entering the estuary. Furthermore, seismic data indicate the prevalence of paleochannels and other buried features that could carry flow. Given the importance of deltas to global geochemical budgets, we suggest that these results may be generalizable: submarine groundwater discharge in deltas may prove to be an important but understudied pathway by which dissolved materials are transported from the continents to the ocean.

  2. Resourcefulness Training for Dementia Caregivers: Establishing Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Lekhak, Nirmala; Burant, Christopher J.; Underwood, Patricia W.; Morris, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Providing care for an elder with dementia can produce extreme stress that adversely affects caregiver health. Learning to be resourceful, which involves practicing resourcefulness skills using a journal or voice recorder, may reduce caregiver stress. However, before testing the effectiveness of journaling and voice recording as resourcefulness training (RT) practice methods, intervention fidelity should first be established. This pilot trial with 63 women dementia caregivers examined the fidelity of journaling and voice recording and whether allowing a choice between the methods affected RT intervention fidelity. Following RT, Resourcefulness Scale scores were similar for journal and recorder methods but higher for caregivers in the choice versus random condition. Patterns of RT skill use documented in journals or recordings were similar for choice and random conditions and for journal and recorder methods. The results support the implementation fidelity of RT that allows caregivers to choose a method to reinforce their resourcefulness skills. PMID:27338751

  3. AGI, a previously unreported D. melanogaster {alpha}-glucosidase: Partial purification, characterization, and cytogenetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.F.; Roberts, D.B.

    1996-04-01

    Inbred Drosophila melanogaster stocks were surveyed for {alpha}-glucosidases with nondenaturing gel electrophoresis using a fluorogenic substrate to stain the gels. The glucosidase most active under these conditions is polymorphic. We established that the polymorphism is genetic in origin and that the glucosidase was not likely to be a previously characterized enzyme. The gene encoding the enzyme was mapped cytogenetically to 33 A1-2- 33A8-B1, confirming that this is an enzyme not yet reported in D. melanogaster. The enzyme was partially purified by elution from nondenaturing gels, which enable us to establish that it has optimal activity at pH 6 and interacts most strongly with {alpha}- 1 -4 glucosides. A developmental and tissue survey suggested that this enzyme could have a purely digestive role or be involved in carbohydrate metabolism inside the organism. We propose that this enzyme is involved in either starch digestion or glycogen metabolism. 37 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Investigating the effect of previous treatments on wheat biomass over multiple spatial frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, A. E.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Lark, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this study we use the maximum overlap discrete packet transform (MODWPT) to investigate residual effects on wheat biomass of fertigation treatments applied to a previous crop. The wheat crop covered nine subplots from a previous experiment on melon response to fertigation. Each subplot had previously received a different level of applied nitrogen. Many factors affect wheat biomass, causing it to vary at different spatial frequencies. We hypothesize that these will include residual effects from fertilizer application (at relatively low spatial frequencies) and the local influence of individual plants from the previous melon crop (at high frequency). To test this hypothesis we use the MODWPT to identify the dominant spatial frequencies of wheat biomass variation, and analyse the relationship to both the previous fertilizer application and the location of individual melon plants in the previous crop. The MODWPT is particularly appropriate for this because it allows us first to identify the key spatial frequencies in the wheat biomass objectively and to analyse them, and their relationship to hypothesized driving factors without any assumptions of uniformity (stationarity) of wheat-biomass variation. The results showed that the applied nitrogen dominated the wheat biomass response, and that there was a noticeable component of wheat-biomass variation at the spatial frequency that corresponds to the melon cropping. We expected wheat biomass to be negatively correlated with the position of melons in the previous crop, due to uptake of the applied nitrogen. The MODWPT, which allows us to detect changes in correlation between variables at different frequencies, showed that such a relationship was found across part of the experiment but not uniformly.

  5. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target. PMID:25999844

  6. Crop scents affect the occurrence of trophallaxis among forager honeybees.

    PubMed

    Gil, M; Farina, W M

    2003-05-01

    Previous evidence indicates that the recognition of the nectar delivered by forager honeybees within the colony may have been a primitive method of communication on food resources. Thus, the association between scent and reward that nectar foragers establish while they collect on a given flower species should be retrieved during trophallaxis, i.e., the transfer of liquid food by mouth, and, accordingly, foraging experience could affect the occurrence of these interactions inside the nest. We used experimental arenas to analyze how crop scents carried by donor bees affect trophallaxis among foragers, i.e., donors and receivers, which differ in their foraging experience. Results showed that whenever the foragers had collected unscented sugar solution from a feeder the presence of scents in the solution carried by donors did not affect the occurrence of trophallaxis nor its dynamics. In contrast, whenever the foragers had previous olfactory information, new scents present in the crop of the donors negatively affected the occurrence, but not the dynamics of trophallaxis. Thus, the association learned at the food source seems to be retrieved during trophallaxis, and it is possible that known scents present in the mouthparts of nest-mates may operate as a triggering stimulus to elicit trophallactic behavior within the hive.

  7. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  8. IIIB or not IIIB: a previously unanswered question.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Patel, Parag C; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Drazner, Mark H

    2012-05-01

    The term New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IIIB has been used increasingly in clinical medicine, including as an inclusion criteria for many clinical trials assessing left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Indeed, NYHA class IIIB is incorporated in the Food and Drug Administration's approved indication for the Heartmate II. However, on review of the medical literature, we found that there is no consensus definition of NYHA class IIIB. Until the ambiguity is resolved, we suggest that this designation not be used in clinical practice or by investigators leading clinical trials assessing therapies which convey substantial risk to patients and therefore require clarity in describing the enrolled patient population. With ongoing improvements in LVADs, this therapy will increasingly be considered in patients less sick than those who require inotropic support, providing urgency to establish a consensus system of classifying such patients who nevertheless fall within the spectrum of advanced heart failure. Herein we propose a modification of the standard NYHA classification system which can be used to fill this void.

  9. Microinstability of the hip: a previously unrecognized pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bolia, Ioanna; Chahla, Jorge; Locks, Renato; Briggs, Karen; Philippon, Marc J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hip microinstability is an established diagnosis; however, its occurrence is still debated by many physicians. Diagnosis of hip microinstability is often challenging, due to a lack of specific signs or symptoms, and patients may remain undiagnosed for long periods. This may lead to early manifestation of degenerative joint disease. Consequently, careful patient and family history must be obtained and diagnostic imaging should follow. After a thorough clinical evaluation of the patient with suspected hip microinstability, the physician should focus on how to improve symptoms and functionality in daily and sports activities. Purpose The purpose of this review article was to give a current update regarding this diagnosis and to provide a complete diagnostic approach in order to effectively treat hip microinstability. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis, the non-operative and operative indications for the treatment of this complex and often misdiagnosed pathology. Conclusion Conservative treatment is considered the best initial approach, though, surgical intervention should be considered if symptoms persist or other hip pathology exists. Successful surgical intervention, such as hip arthroscopy, should focus on restoring the normal anatomy of the hip joint in order to regain its functionality. The role of the hip joint capsule has gained particular research interest during the last years, and its repair or reconstruction during hip arthroscopy is considered necessary in order to avoid iatrogenic hip microinstability. Various capsular closure/plication techniques have been developed towards this direction with encouraging results. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066740

  10. Confronting the bomber: coping at the site of previous terror attacks.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D; Mishaeli, Nurit; Ranen, Yaniv; Benatov, Joy; Green, Dovid; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

    2007-03-01

    Terror exposure has become commonplace in Israel, with civilians needing to develop appropriate coping mechanisms. This study investigated coping mechanisms of those who are able to return to leisure activity at sites of previous terror attacks. A specially designed questionnaire, exploring knowledge of the terror event, previous terror exposure, coping mechanisms, state of anxiety, and mood, was administered to 93 restaurant attendees at sites of well-known recent terror attacks (2001-2005). Most respondents were aware of the previous terror attack (92.3%) and most reported no fear at revisiting (70.3%), with 20.9% reporting some anxiety and 5.5% reporting moderate or severe anxiety. Sixty percent reported that they have no fear that a terror attack will reoccur at the same place. Some (27.7%) reported change in practices or decrease in one or more activity, especially use of public transport (18%). The most helpful reported resource for facilitating stress coping following a suicide bombing was to "call or be in touch with friends or relatives," and least helpful was "medicines." Over half of respondents (53%) reported that the current security climate affected their mood. Older individuals and females were more affected by terror events. Study observations confirm that resilience develops in the general population in response to ongoing terror attacks. Response to terror is heterogeneous with a range of coping mechanisms expressed.

  11. Content analysis of previously suicidal college students' experiences.

    PubMed

    Knott, E C; Range, L M

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain actual helpful and unhelpful remarks received from others, 40 previously suicidal students answered open-ended questions about their experiences and completed the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ). Respondents were still moderately suicidal on the SBQ, even though their most recent suicidal episode was an average of 3 years earlier. Respondents reported that family, friends, and personal resources were most helpful in keeping them alive. Those who told someone about their suicidal ideas or plans reported helpful remarks ("The situation is not worth dying for") that appeared to be empathic and thoughtful. Those who told no one about their suicidal ideas or plans, speculated helpful remarks that also appeared to be empathic and thoughtful. In contrast, unhelpful remarks (e.g., "You are stupid") appeared to be simplistic and thoughtless. Implications are that those who are suicidal should be careful in choosing person(s) in whom they confide, and training modules that give examples of actual helpful remarks might be useful for students.

  12. Recurrent arthralgias in a patient with previous Mayaro fever infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shawn F; Patel, Paresh R; Herold, Thomas J S

    2005-04-01

    Mayaro fever is an acute, self-limited, febrile, mosquito-borne viral disease manifested by fever, chills, headache, myalgias, and arthralgias. The virus belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus. Five other mosquito-borne viruses have been described as causing a similar dengue-like illness. The virus was first isolated in 1954, and the first epidemics were described in 1955 in Brazil and Bolivia. Other cases have been reported in Suriname, Brazil, Peru, French Guiana, and Trinidad. Up to 10 to 15% of febrile illnesses in endemic areas have been attributed to Mayaro virus. The exact pathogenesis and pathophysiology among humans is unknown. Animal models have demonstrated necrosis of skeletal muscle, periosteum, perichondrial tissues, and evidence of meningitis and encephalitis. All previous cases of Mayaro fever describe a self-limited illness. No reports of recurrent symptoms exist in the literature. This report describes a case of recurrent arthralgias in a military service member presenting to the emergency department.

  13. Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Hertkorn, Norbert; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Moritz, Franco; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Michalke, Bernhard; Wimpenny, Joshua; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bronsky, Basil; Saraykin, Vladimir; Gabelica, Zelimir; Gougeon, Régis D; Quirico, Eric; Ralew, Stefan; Jakubowski, Tomasz; Haack, Henning; Gonsior, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter; Hinman, Nancy W; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-03-14

    The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR](-), in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High collision energies, which are required for fragmentation, suggest substantial thermal stability of these Mg-metalorganics (CHOMg compounds). This was corroborated by their higher abundance in thermally processed meteorites. CHOMg compounds were found to be present in a set of 61 meteorites of diverse petrological classes. The appearance of this CHOMg chemical class extends the previously investigated, diverse set of CHNOS molecules. A connection between the evolution of organic compounds and minerals is made, as Mg released from minerals gets trapped into organic compounds. These CHOMg metalorganic compounds and their relation to thermal processing in meteorites might shed new light on our understanding of carbon speciation at a molecular level in meteorite parent bodies.

  14. Previously unknown class of metalorganic compounds revealed in meteorites

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Alexander; Kanawati, Basem; Hertkorn, Norbert; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Moritz, Franco; Harir, Mourad; Lucio, Marianna; Michalke, Bernhard; Wimpenny, Joshua; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bronsky, Basil; Saraykin, Vladimir; Gabelica, Zelimir; Gougeon, Régis D.; Quirico, Eric; Ralew, Stefan; Jakubowski, Tomasz; Haack, Henning; Gonsior, Michael; Jenniskens, Peter; Hinman, Nancy W.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR]−, in meteoritic soluble organic matter. High collision energies, which are required for fragmentation, suggest substantial thermal stability of these Mg-metalorganics (CHOMg compounds). This was corroborated by their higher abundance in thermally processed meteorites. CHOMg compounds were found to be present in a set of 61 meteorites of diverse petrological classes. The appearance of this CHOMg chemical class extends the previously investigated, diverse set of CHNOS molecules. A connection between the evolution of organic compounds and minerals is made, as Mg released from minerals gets trapped into organic compounds. These CHOMg metalorganic compounds and their relation to thermal processing in meteorites might shed new light on our understanding of carbon speciation at a molecular level in meteorite parent bodies. PMID:28242686

  15. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both). Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  16. [Thrombocytopenia induced by rifampicin not previously sensitized: a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Neino Mourtala Mohamed, A; Tummino, C; Gouitaa, M; Chanez, P

    2013-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia induced by rifampicin in the absence of prior sensitization is exceptional, especially when it occurs in a patient without risk factors. We report the case of a patient aged 25 years with no past history of medical, surgical or knowledge of having taken rifampicin previously, who was hospitalized for treatment of thrombocytopenic purpura occurring after the initiation of fixed combination quadruple therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) for pulmonary tuberculosis. The biological pretreatment and therapeutic education had not been made. The patient presented with thrombocytopenic purpura 30000/mm(3) on day 9 after the initiation of treatment. The platelet count returned to normal 10 days after discontinuation of treatment. We elected not to reintroduce rifampicin given the strong likelihood that it was responsible for this complication. We conducted a phased reintroduction of isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. No recurrence of the thrombocytopenia occurred. Thus, the diagnosis of rifampicin-induced thrombocytopenia appears to have been confirmed and the patient tolerated the remainder of their treatment well.

  17. Red Algal Mitochondrial Genomes Are More Complete than Previously Reported

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Christopher E.

    2017-01-01

    The enslavement of an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont by the last common eukaryotic ancestor resulted in large-scale gene transfer of endosymbiont genes to the host nucleus as the endosymbiont transitioned into the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial genomes have experienced widespread gene loss and genome reduction within eukaryotes and DNA sequencing has revealed that most of these gene losses occurred early in eukaryotic lineage diversification. On a broad scale, more recent modifications to organelle genomes appear to be conserved and phylogenetically informative. The first red algal mitochondrial genome was sequenced more than 20 years ago, and an additional 29 Florideophyceae mitochondria have been added over the past decade. A total of 32 genes have been described to have been missing or considered non-functional pseudogenes from these Florideophyceae mitochondria. These losses have been attributed to endosymbiotic gene transfer or the evolution of a parasitic life strategy. Here we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes from the red algal parasite Choreocolax polysiphoniae and its host Vertebrata lanosa and found them to be complete and conserved in structure with other Florideophyceae mitochondria. This result led us to resequence the previously published parasite Gracilariophila oryzoides and its host Gracilariopsis andersonii, as well as reevaluate reported gene losses from published Florideophyceae mitochondria. Multiple independent losses of rpl20 and a single loss of rps11 can be verified. However by reannotating published data and resequencing specimens when possible, we were able to identify the majority of genes that have been reported as lost or pseudogenes from Florideophyceae mitochondria. PMID:28175279

  18. Plasma and Brain Pharmacokinetics of Previously Unexplored Lithium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam J.; Kim, Seol-Hee; Tan, Jun; Sneed, Kevin B.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Shytle, R. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Despite its narrow therapeutic window, lithium is still regarded as the gold standard comparator and benchmark treatment for mania. Recent attempts to find new drugs with similar therapeutic activities have yielded new chemical entities. However, these potential new drugs have yet to match the many bioactivities attributable to lithium's efficacy for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Consequently, an intense effort for re-engineering lithium therapeutics using crystal engineering is currently underway. We sought to improve the likelihood of success of these endeavors by evaluating the pharmacokinetics of previously unexplored lithium salts with organic anions (lithium salicylate and lithium lactate). We report that these lithium salts exhibit profoundly different pharmacokinetics compared to the more common FDA approved salt, lithium carbonate, in rats. Remarkably, lithium salicylate produced elevated plasma and brain levels of lithium beyond 48 hours post-dose without the sharp peak that contributes to the toxicity problems of current lithium therapeutics. These findings could be important for the development of the next generation of lithium therapeutics. PMID:25045517

  19. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tiffany J.; Pantanowitz, Liron; Weiss, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up. PMID:26366310

  20. Venetoclax in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew W; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Seymour, John F; Huang, David C S

    2017-01-18

    Venetoclax is the first BCL2 inhibitor to enter routine clinical practice. It is an orally bioavailable small molecule that binds BCL2 very specifically. Acting as a pharmacological mimic of the proteins that initiate apoptosis (a so-called BH3-mimetic), venetoclax rapidly induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells which express high levels of BCL2 and rely on it to maintain their survival. As a single agent, daily venetoclax treatment induced durable responses in 79% of patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma in a Phase 1 study, including complete remissions in 20% of patients. Its use was approved by the FDA in April 2016 for patients with previously treated del(17p) CLL on the basis of a single arm Phase 2 trial demonstrating a 79% response rate and an estimated 1 year progression-free survival of 72% with 400mg/day continuous therapy. This review focuses on venetoclax, its mechanism-of-action, pharmacology and clinical trial data, and seeks to place it in the context of rapid advances in therapy for patients with relapsed CLL, especially those with del(17p) CLL.

  1. New strategies for cultivation and detection of previously uncultured microbes.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Bradley S; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Wertz, John T; Schmidt, Thomas M; Breznak, John A

    2004-08-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O(2) [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO(2) (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO(2). A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture.

  2. Reversible, strokelike migraine attacks in patients with previous radiation therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bartleson, J. D.; Krecke, Karl N.; O'Neill, Brian P.; Brown, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    We report 2 adults with a past history of radiation therapy to the head for malignancy (one with primary B-cell lymphoma confined to the skull and the other with multiple hemangioendotheliomas) who developed episodes consistent with migraine with and without aura. In addition to more typical migraine attacks and beginning many years after their radiation therapy, both patients have experienced infrequent, stereotyped, prolonged, reversible neurologic deficits associated with headache, occasional seizures, and striking, transient, cortical gadolinium enhancement of the posterior cerebral gyri on MRI. Interictal MRI brain scans show stable abnormalities consistent with the patients' previous radiation therapy. The neurologic deficits often progressed over a few days, sometimes lasted weeks, and completely resolved. Electroencephalograms did not show epileptiform activity. Thorough investigation showed no residual or recurrent tumor and no recognized cause for the patients' attacks. We postulate a causal relationship between the patients' remote radiation therapy and their prolonged, strokelike migraine attacks. Radiation-induced vascular changes could provoke the episodes, with or without an underlying migraine diathesis. Recognition of this syndrome can help avoid invasive testing. PMID:12672284

  3. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  4. Factors related to previous tuberculosis treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rifat, Mahfuza; Hall, John; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Husain, Ashaque; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous tuberculosis (TB) treatment status is an established risk factor for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). This study explores which factors related to previous TB treatment may lead to the development of multidrug resistant in Bangladesh. Design We previously conducted a large case–control study to identify risk factors for developing MDR-TB in Bangladesh. Patients who had a history of previous TB treatment, either MDR-TB or non-MDR-TB, were interviewed about their previous treatment episode. This study restricts analysis to the strata of patients who have been previously treated for TB. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Setting Central-level, district-level and subdistrict-level hospitals in rural and urban Bangladesh. Results The strata of previously treated patients include a total of 293 patients (245 current MDR-TB; 48 non-MDR-TB). Overall, 54% of patients received previous TB treatment more than once, and all of these patients were multidrug resistant. Patients with MDR-TB were more likely to have experienced the following factors: incomplete treatment (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.7 to 10.6), adverse reactions due to TB treatment (OR 8.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 20.7), hospitalisation for symptoms associated with TB (OR 16.9; CI 1.8 to 156.2), DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) centre as treatment unit (OR 6.4; CI 1.8 to 22.8), supervised treatment (OR 3.8; CI 1.6 to 9.5); time-to-treatment centre (OR 0.984; CI 0.974 to 0.993). Conclusions Incomplete treatment, hospitalisation for TB treatment and adverse reaction are the factors related to previous TB treatment of patients with MDR-TB. Although the presence of supervised treatment (DOT), less time-to-treatment centres and being treated in DOTS centres were relatively higher among the patients with MDR-TB compared with patients without MDR-TB, these findings include information of

  5. PREVIOUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND BODY BALANCE IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Nowotny-Czupryna, O.; Czupryna, K.; Nowotny, J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate the efficiency of body balance regulation in the elderly and verify whether physical activity in adolescence could influence later physical efficiency. Research was carried out on 62 persons aged between 65 and 96 years of age. Fifty people declared that they undertook physical activity in adolescence, while 12 reported no activity. Stabilographic examinations were performed during trials with open and closed eyes on a horizontally situated platform tilted forward and backward. The centre-of-pressure (COP) path length, sway range area and centre-of-pressure velocity (COP velocity) were assessed. The safety margin when a person leans forward and backward was evaluated as well. On a horizontally situated platform, exclusion of visual control in most of the examined participants resulted in a significant increase in values of examined parameters. Tilting the platform caused in both groups an increase in values of all the parameters. These changes were more visible when a trial with eyes closed was performed and the group of active people obtained better results. These people were also able to use the support area more effectively when changing the position of the body. It was found that body balance disorder affects more often elderly people who were less active in adolescence and that with age visual balance control dominates the proprioceptive one. This means that physical activity directed towards, among other things, forming and improving the body balance regulation system is needed at an early age. PMID:24795500

  6. Idiopathic renal infarction in a previously healthy active duty soldier.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Christa; Mei, Jian M; Martinez, Jorge; Little, Dustin

    2014-02-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is rare, and usually occurs in patients with associated comorbidities. The majority of reported cases have presented with laboratory abnormalities, most notably leukocytosis and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A 50-year-old active duty white male nonsmoker without medical history presented with flank pain. Urinalysis, complete blood count, LDH, and serum creatinine were normal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a right-sided RI. The patient was admitted to the hospital and anticoagulated. Laboratory values remained normal, and a comprehensive workup failed to reveal an etiology for his RI. RI is rare, and affected patients often present with symptoms similar to more common conditions such as lumbago or nephrolithiasis. Elevated LDH may be a clue to the diagnosis, but unlike 92% of the reviewed cases, our patient presented with a normal value. This case suggests that clinicians should consider RI in patients with persistent symptoms for whom more common causes of flank pain have been excluded; including in nonsmoking patients without apparent risk factors for infarction who present with a normal LDH and no leukocytosis.

  7. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The... Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously...

  8. Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy After Previous Prostate Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Volkan; Sahin, Selcuk; Kargi, Taner; Gokhan Seker, Kamil; IlkerComez, Yusuf; IhsanTasci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our objective is to clarify the effect of previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy (OP) on surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: Between August 1, 2009, and March 31, 2013, 380 patients underwent RARP. Of these, 25 patients had undergone surgery for primary bladder outlet obstruction (TURP, 20 patients; OP, 5 patents) (group 1). A match-paired analysis was performed to identify 36 patients without a history of prostate surgery with equivalent clinicopathologic characteristics to serve as a control group (group 2). Patients followed up for 12 months were assessed. Results: Both groups were similar with respect to preoperative characteristics, as mean age, body mass index, median prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, clinical stage, the biopsy Gleason score, D'Amico risk, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification score, the International Prostate Symptom Score, continence, and potency status. RARP resulted in longer console and anastomotic time, as well as higher blood loss compared with surgery-naive patients. We noted a greater rate of urinary leakage (pelvic drainage, >4 d) in group 1 (12% vs 2,8%). The anastomotic stricture rate was significantly higher in group 1 (16% vs 2.8%). No difference was found in the pathologic stage, positive surgical margin, and nerve-sparing procedure between the groups. Biochemical recurrence was observed in 12% (group 1) and 11.1% (group 2) of patients, respectively. No significant difference was found in the continence and potency rates. Conclusions: RARP after TURP or OP is a challenging but oncologically promising procedure with a longer console and anastomosis time, as well as higher blood loss and higher anastomotic stricture rate. PMID:26648678

  9. Hypokalemia in diabetic ketoacidosis is less common than previously reported.

    PubMed

    Jang, Timothy B; Chauhan, Vijai; Morchi, Raveendra; Najand, Hares; Naunheim, Roseanne; Kaji, Amy H

    2015-03-01

    [K+] < 3.5 mmol/L is reported to occur in approximately 4 % of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA.) Therefore, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) recommend the assessment of [K+] before the initiation of insulin treatment to avoid the precipitation of morbid hypokalemia. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of hypokalemia in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with DKA. This was a multicenter retrospective, cross-sectional study at EDs with a combined annual adult census of 155,000. Adult patients diagnosed with DKA in the ED, or who were admitted from the ED and subsequently diagnosed with DKA as determined from the hospital electronic database between January 2008 and December 2008, were included for analysis if they had the following initial laboratory values: (1) serum glucose >13.9 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), (2) serum bicarbonate <18 mmol/L (18 mEq/L) or anion gap >15, and (3) evidence of ketonaemia or ketonuria. 537 patients were diagnosed with DKA in the ED at the participating institutions during the reference period. The median [K+] was 4.9 mmol/L (IQR 4.3, 5.5). There were a total of seven patients with an initial 3.3 < [K+] < 3.5 mmol/L, but none with a [K+] < 3.3 mmol/L. Thus, no patients in our study sample required potassium supplementation before the initiation of insulin treatment. The incidence of hypokalemia in our sample of patients with DKA was much less than previously reported, with no cases requiring potassium supplementation before insulin administration.

  10. Multifunctional Core–Shell Nanoparticles: Discovery of Previously Invisible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many low-abundance biomarkers for early detection of cancer and other diseases are invisible to mass spectrometry because they exist in body fluids in very low concentrations, are masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins, and are very labile. To overcome these barriers, we created porous, buoyant, core–shell hydrogel nanoparticles containing novel high affinity reactive chemical baits for protein and peptide harvesting, concentration, and preservation in body fluids. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) nanoparticles were functionalized with amino-containing dyes via zero-length cross-linking amidation reactions. Nanoparticles functionalized in the core with 17 different (12 chemically novel) molecular baits showed preferential high affinities (KD < 10–11 M) for specific low-abundance protein analytes. A poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-vinylsulfonic acid) shell was added to the core particles. This shell chemistry selectively prevented unwanted entry of all size peptides derived from albumin without hindering the penetration of non-albumin small proteins and peptides. Proteins and peptides entered the core to be captured with high affinity by baits immobilized in the core. Nanoparticles effectively protected interleukin-6 from enzymatic degradation in sweat and increased the effective detection sensitivity of human growth hormone in human urine using multiple reaction monitoring analysis. Used in whole blood as a one-step, in-solution preprocessing step, the nanoparticles greatly enriched the concentration of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides while excluding albumin and other proteins above 30 kDa; this achieved a 10,000-fold effective amplification of the analyte concentration, enabling mass spectrometry (MS) discovery of candidate biomarkers that were previously undetectable. PMID:21999289

  11. Evidence for a previously unrecognized species of owlet-nightjar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the systematic relationships of the three large owlet-nightjars (Aegothelidae) to determine the taxonomic status of a fawn-colored lowland form currently classified as Aegotheles insignis tatei. I examined most of the existing specimens of A. i. insignis (n = 158) and A. crinifrons (n = 23) and all known specimens of A. i. tatei (n = 4). I also examined specimens of A. albertisi (n = 70), A. archboldi (n = 25), A. bennettii (n = 55), A. cristatus (n = 50), A. savesi (n = 1), and A. wallacii (n = 21). Aegotheles i. tatei was distinguishable from A. i. insignis and A. crinifrons by its small size and in seven plumage characters. Aegotheles i. tatei was further distinguishable from one or the other of these taxa by four additional characters. Unique among owlet-nightjars, A. i. tatei has the shortest tarsi, does not have recurved filamentous tips on its facial feathers, and has stiffer feathers on the auricular area and throat. My search of museums revealed two new specimens of A. i. tatei, expanding the known geographic range of this taxon 1,000 km eastward along the southern coast of Papua New Guinea from the upper Fly River to Nunumai, near the Ulamanu River. Unlike the montane A. i. insignis, A. i. tatei inhabits lowland forests where rivers emerge from foothills of the main cordillera. I propose that tatei be elevated to species status and that the name Starry Owlet-Nightjar be adopted based on the bird's markings. Aegotheles crinifrons, A. insignis, and A. tatei pass through a previously unrecognized but distinctive rufous juvenal plumage. These are the only owlet-nightjars known to exhibit this plumage, which calls for reexamination of generic limits within the Aegothelidae.

  12. Significance of U wave polarities in previous anterior myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kanemoto, N.; Imaoka, C.; Suzuki, Y. )

    1991-04-01

    The significance of the polarity of U waves in left precordial leads was evaluated in relation to myocardial perfusion (T1 201 myocardial scintigraphy) and left ventricular function (99m Tc radionuclide ventriculography) in 63 patients with clinical and electrocardiographic evidence of a previous anterior myocardial infarction. Patients were divided into three groups according to the polarity of the U waves: positive U waves, flat U waves, and negative U waves. Twelve matched patients served as normal controls. The following parameters were analyzed: (1) total number of abnormal Q waves; (2) total myocardial perfusion index and regional myocardial perfusion index; (3) global ejection fraction; (4) regional ejection fraction; and (5) number of diseased coronary arteries. The total myocardial perfusion index values were 43.9 {plus minus} 1.0 in controls, 40.8 {plus minus} 3.4 in the positive U wave group, 33.4 {plus minus} 3.5 in the flat U wave group, and 30.3 {plus minus} 4.4 in the patients with negative U waves. Global ejection fractions in these groups were, respectively, 63.9 {plus minus} 8.6%, 65.0 {plus minus} 11.8%, 53.6 {plus minus} 8.1%, and 36.5 {plus minus} 13.6%. The sensitivity of negative U waves suggesting a global ejection fraction of less than 45% was 91.6%, and the specificity was 82.1%. Therefore the size of myocardial infarction increased and left ventricular function decreased, in order, from patients with positive U waves, to those with flat U waves, to those with negative U waves, with statistically significant differences.

  13. Multifunctional core-shell nanoparticles: discovery of previously invisible biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tamburro, Davide; Fredolini, Claudia; Espina, Virginia; Douglas, Temple A; Ranganathan, Adarsh; Ilag, Leopold; Zhou, Weidong; Russo, Paul; Espina, Benjamin H; Muto, Giovanni; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra

    2011-11-30

    Many low-abundance biomarkers for early detection of cancer and other diseases are invisible to mass spectrometry because they exist in body fluids in very low concentrations, are masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins, and are very labile. To overcome these barriers, we created porous, buoyant, core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles containing novel high affinity reactive chemical baits for protein and peptide harvesting, concentration, and preservation in body fluids. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) nanoparticles were functionalized with amino-containing dyes via zero-length cross-linking amidation reactions. Nanoparticles functionalized in the core with 17 different (12 chemically novel) molecular baits showed preferential high affinities (K(D) < 10(-11) M) for specific low-abundance protein analytes. A poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-vinylsulfonic acid) shell was added to the core particles. This shell chemistry selectively prevented unwanted entry of all size peptides derived from albumin without hindering the penetration of non-albumin small proteins and peptides. Proteins and peptides entered the core to be captured with high affinity by baits immobilized in the core. Nanoparticles effectively protected interleukin-6 from enzymatic degradation in sweat and increased the effective detection sensitivity of human growth hormone in human urine using multiple reaction monitoring analysis. Used in whole blood as a one-step, in-solution preprocessing step, the nanoparticles greatly enriched the concentration of low-molecular weight proteins and peptides while excluding albumin and other proteins above 30 kDa; this achieved a 10,000-fold effective amplification of the analyte concentration, enabling mass spectrometry (MS) discovery of candidate biomarkers that were previously undetectable.

  14. Establishing an antimicrobial stewardship program.

    PubMed

    Morris, Andrew M; Stewart, Thomas E; Shandling, Maureen; McIntaggart, Scott; Liles, W Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals are faced with increasing challenges of antibiotic-resistant organisms and rising antimicrobial costs despite widespread attention to infection prevention and control measures. Government, professional organizations and accreditation bodies are all signalling an urgent need for the establishment of programs in hospitals to address antibiotic misuse. Although variations of such "antimicrobial stewardship programs" have been functioning in Canada for some time, a formal approach using change management and quality improvement principles has largely been lacking. We describe how we have established such a program in a teaching hospital, modelled on John Kotter's eight steps of leading change.

  15. Establishing operations and the mand.

    PubMed

    Michael, J

    1988-01-01

    In Verbal Behavior Skinner identifies a small number of elementary verbal relations, one of which is the mand. Because its introduction is at first in terms of unlearned motivative variables, and because the mand's relation to prior controlling events is quite complex, its general significance has probably been underestimated. An extensive treatment of establishing operations, including the warning and the blocked-response conditioned establishing operations is provided, followed by a description of the mand in terms of such operations. The importance of the mand for language training programs is suggested, as well as the reasons why it is typically neglected in such programs.

  16. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  17. Education, occupation, and perception of health amongst previous polio patients compared to their siblings.

    PubMed

    Farbu, E; Gilhus, N E

    2002-05-01

    Patients with previous polio represent a challenge for neurological rehabilitation. We examined 168 previous polio patients and 239 of their siblings, the patients either from the 1950-1954 epidemic cohort, or from a cohort of hospital-admitted rehabilitation patients. Ninety-four paralytic patients and 74 non-paralytic patients were included. All patients and siblings answered the same questionnaires for socioeconomic and health factors and chi-square comparisons were performed. Previous polio did not affect the level of education. Both patients and siblings rated their educational options to have been good. Significantly less patients were full-time employed at the age of 40 years compared to their siblings (P=0.015). This was the result of a lower full-time employment rate amongst the paralytic patients, only 52% of this group being employed full-time. Male patients and paralytic patients reported to have experienced reduced professional options. More patients were living alone compared to their siblings (P=0.035). The perception of general health was lower amongst patients than siblings, as was assessment of total life situation and patients reported more frequently symptoms like pain and tiredness. In conclusion, previous polio had not lowered the polio patients' educational status, but fewer patients were employed full-time at the age of 40 years.

  18. Effects of meditation on frontal alpha-asymmetry in previously suicidal individuals.

    PubMed

    Barnhofer, Thorsten; Duggan, Danielle; Crane, Catherine; Hepburn, Silvia; Fennell, Melanie J V; Williams, J Mark G

    2007-05-07

    This study investigated the effects of a meditation-based treatment for preventing relapse to depression, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), on prefrontal alpha-asymmetry in resting electroencephalogram (EEG), a biological indicator of affective style. Twenty-two individuals with a previous history of suicidal depression were randomly assigned to either MBCT (N=10) or treatment-as-usual (TAU, N=12). Resting electroencephalogram was measured before and after an 8-week course of treatment. The TAU group showed a significant deterioration toward decreased relative left-frontal activation, indexing decreases in positive affective style, while there was no significant change in the MBCT group. The findings suggest that MBCT can help individuals at high risk for suicidal depression to retain a balanced pattern of baseline emotion-related brain activation.

  19. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  20. Observation of energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sawad, A.; Saloniemi, O.; Laitinen, T. L.; Kocharov, L. G.; Valtonen, E.

    2009-12-01

    We report new evidence on energetic protons penetrating previous shock wave. We have chosen four Multi Eruption Solar Energetic Particle (MESEP) events from the list presented by Al-Sawad 2007, and observed by Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Two events were studied in details, the event of 2001 October 19-21, which was in association with two X1.6/2B solar flares and halo CMEs separated by ~15 hours and the event of 2000 April 04, which was associated with two CMEs separated by ~8 hours. The other two new MESEP events were on 2000 February 17-19 and 2005 August 22-25. The first event was associated with two CMEs. The first halo CME was associated with M 1.3 solar flare at S29E07 Hα location from the NOAA AR 8827, and with metric and later D-H type II radio bursts, indicating a formation of shock wave, which was later passed near the Earth's orbit and registered, by SOHO, ACE and Wind spacecrafts. The second CME erupted from the south-west after ~13 hours. The second event was associated with two halo CMEs separated by ~16 and erupted from same NOAA AR 10798 in association with M class solar flares. The first halo was in association with metric type II but both were in association with D-H type II. In both events the first CME was decelerating and both events can be classified as gradual SEP events. Our analysis for proton flux anisotropy data, He/P ratio and possible velocity dispersion in the second peak of the intensity-time profile are related to the second CME in both events. This suggests that the energetic protons > 10 MeV penetrate the first shock waves associated with first CMEs in order to reach 1 AU and thus, these observations indicate that capability of interplanetary shock to accelerate high-energy protons gradually declines as shock travels from near the Sun to beyond 1~AU.

  1. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Finding time for job-embedded professional learning is one of the most frequently cited challenges with implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). With "Establishing Time for Professional Learning," practitioners and education leaders use tools to identify current allocations of time for professional learning, analyze how that…

  2. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  3. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  4. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  5. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  6. Establishing Pluripotency in Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Paranjpe, Sarita S.; Veenstra, Gert Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    The earliest steps of embryonic development involve important changes in chromatin and transcription factor networks, which are orchestrated to establish pluripotent cells that will form the embryo. DNA methylation, histone modifications, the pluripotency regulatory network of transcription factors, maternal factors and newly translated proteins all contribute to these transitions in dynamic ways. Moreover, these dynamics are linked to the onset of zygotic transcription. We will review recent progress in our understanding of chromatin state and regulation of gene expression in the context of embryonic development in vertebrates, in particular mouse, Xenopus and zebrafish. We include work on mouse embryonic stem cells and highlight work that illustrates how early embryonic dynamics establish gene regulatory networks and the state of pluripotency. PMID:25857441

  7. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  8. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets.

    PubMed

    Reeck, Crystal; Egner, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features.

  9. REM sleep de-potentiates amygdala activity to previous emotional experiences

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Els; Yao, Justin; Dutt, Shubir; Rao, Vikram; Saletin, Jared M.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Clinical evidence suggests a potentially causal interaction between sleep and affective brain function; nearly all mood disorders display co-occurring sleep abnormalities, commonly involving rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep [1–4]. Building on this clinical evidence, recent neurobiological frameworks have hypothesized a benefit of REM sleep in palliatively decreasing next-day brain reactivity to recent waking emotional experiences [5, 6]. Specifically, the marked suppression of central adrenergic neurotransmitters during REM (commonly implicated in arousal and stress), coupled with activation in amygdala-hippocampal networks that encode salient events, is proposed to (re)process and de-potentiate previous affective experiences, decreasing their emotional intensity [3]. In contrast, the failure of such adrenergic reduction during REM sleep has been described in anxiety disorders, indexed by persistent high-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activity (>30Hz) [7–10]; a candidate factor contributing to hyper-arousal and exaggerated amygdala reactivity [3, 11–13]. Despite these neurobiological frameworks, and their predictions, the proposed benefit of REM sleep physiology in de-potentiating neural and behavioral responsivity to prior emotional events remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that REM sleep physiology is associated with an overnight dissipation of amygdala activity in response to previous emotional experiences, altering functional-connectivity and reducing next-day subjective emotionality. PMID:22119526

  10. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  11. Assisted ventilation in COPD – association between previous hospitalizations and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Toft-Petersen, Anne Pernille; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen

    2016-01-01

    Background In general, previous studies have shown an association between prior exacerbations and mortality in COPD, but this association has not been demonstrated in the subpopulation of patients in need of assisted ventilation. We examined whether previous hospitalizations were independently associated with mortality among patients with COPD ventilated for the first time. Patients and methods In the Danish National Patient Registry, we established a cohort of patients with COPD ventilated for the first time from 2003 to 2011 and previously medicated for obstructive airway diseases. We assessed the number of hospitalizations for COPD in the preceding year, age, sex, comorbidity, mode of ventilation, survival to discharge, and days to death beyond discharge. Results The cohort consisted of 6,656 patients of whom 66% had not been hospitalized for COPD in the previous year, 18% once, 8% twice, and 9% thrice or more. In-hospital mortality was 45%, and of the patients alive at discharge, 11% died within a month and 39% within a year. In multivariate models, adjusted for age, sex, mode of ventilation, and comorbidity, odds ratios for in-hospital death were 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.44), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.19–1.72), and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.30–1.87) with one, two, and three or more hospitalizations, respectively. Hazard ratios for death after discharge from hospital were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.19–1.46), 1.76 (95% CI: 1.52–2.02), and 2.07 (95% CI: 1.80–2.38) with one, two, and three or more hospitalizations, respectively. Conclusion Preceding hospitalizations for COPD are associated with in-hospital mortality and after discharge in the subpopulation of patients with COPD with acute exacerbation treated with assisted ventilation for the first time. PMID:27217743

  12. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Satwant K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. Aims: To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. Settings and Design: The study is based on field investigations. Materials and Methods: Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects′ mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. Results: The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. Conclusions: The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases. PMID:21431003

  13. Cancellous bone healing around strontium-doped hydroxyapatite in osteoporotic rats previously treated with zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Shui, Xueping; Zhang, Li; Hu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent anti-osteoporotic agents. Strontium-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) (SrHA) has been reported to increase bone density and improve trabecular microarchitecture in osteoporotic animals. But information about the effect of SrHA on the surrounding bone tissue in osteoporotic animals previously on BPs treatment is limited. We hypothesize that SrHA will induce increased bone density in the vicinity of the material when compared to HA, even in osteoporotic animals previously treated with BPs. HA and 10%SrHA (HA with 10 mol % calcium substituted by strontium) implants were prepared and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Osteoporotic animal model was established by bilateral ovariectomy. Twelve weeks later, all OVX rats accepted subcutaneous injection of zoledronic acid (ZOL) at the dose of 1.5 μg/kg weekly for another twelve weeks. Subsequently, rod-shaped HA and SrHA implants were inserted in the distal femur of the OVX animals previously treated with ZOL. Eight weeks after implantation, specimens were harvested for histological and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Compared to HA, 10%SrHA raised the percent bone volume by 32.7%, the mean trabecular thickness by 36.5%, the mean trabecular number by 34.3%, the mean connectivity density by 38.4%, while the mean trabecular separation showed no significant difference. 10%SrHA also increased the bone area density by 36.3% in histological analysis. Results from this study indicated that 10%SrHA increased bone density and improved trabecular microarchitecture around implants in osteoporotic animals previously treated with ZOL when compared to HA.

  14. Previous knowledge can induce an illusion of causality through actively biasing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yarritu, Ion; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the way people assess the relationship between a cause and an outcome is closely related to the actual evidence existing about the co-occurrence of these events. However, people's estimations are often biased, and this usually translates into illusions of causality. Some have suggested that such illusions could be the result of previous knowledge-based expectations. In the present research we explored the role that previous knowledge has in the development of illusions of causality. We propose that previous knowledge influences the assessment of causality by influencing the decisions about responding or not (i.e., presence or absence of the potential cause), which biases the information people are exposed to, and this in turn produces illusions congruent with such biased information. In a non-contingent situation in which participants decided whether the potential cause was present or absent (Experiment 1), the influence of expectations on participants' judgments was mediated by the probability of occurrence of the potential cause (determined by participants' responses). However, in an identical situation, except that the participants were not allowed to decide the occurrence of the potential cause (Experiment 2), only the probability of the cause was significant, not the expectations or the interaction. Together, these results support our hypothesis that knowledge-based expectations affect the development of causal illusions by the mediation of behavior, which biases the information received. PMID:25904883

  15. Previous knowledge can induce an illusion of causality through actively biasing behavior.

    PubMed

    Yarritu, Ion; Matute, Helena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the way people assess the relationship between a cause and an outcome is closely related to the actual evidence existing about the co-occurrence of these events. However, people's estimations are often biased, and this usually translates into illusions of causality. Some have suggested that such illusions could be the result of previous knowledge-based expectations. In the present research we explored the role that previous knowledge has in the development of illusions of causality. We propose that previous knowledge influences the assessment of causality by influencing the decisions about responding or not (i.e., presence or absence of the potential cause), which biases the information people are exposed to, and this in turn produces illusions congruent with such biased information. In a non-contingent situation in which participants decided whether the potential cause was present or absent (Experiment 1), the influence of expectations on participants' judgments was mediated by the probability of occurrence of the potential cause (determined by participants' responses). However, in an identical situation, except that the participants were not allowed to decide the occurrence of the potential cause (Experiment 2), only the probability of the cause was significant, not the expectations or the interaction. Together, these results support our hypothesis that knowledge-based expectations affect the development of causal illusions by the mediation of behavior, which biases the information received.

  16. Utility of Whole Exome Sequencing for Genetic Diagnosis of Previously Undiagnosed Pediatric Neurology Patients.

    PubMed

    Kuperberg, Maya; Lev, Dorit; Blumkin, Lubov; Zerem, Ayelet; Ginsberg, Mira; Linder, Ilan; Carmi, Nirit; Kivity, Sarah; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther

    2016-12-01

    Whole exome sequencing enables scanning a large number of genes for relatively low costs. The authors investigate its use for previously undiagnosed pediatric neurological patients. This retrospective cohort study performed whole exome sequencing on 57 patients of "Magen" neurogenetic clinics, with unknown diagnoses despite previous workup. The authors report on clinical features, causative genes, and treatment modifications and provide an analysis of whole exome sequencing utility per primary clinical feature. A causative gene was identified in 49.1% of patients, of which 17 had an autosomal dominant mutation, 9 autosomal recessive, and 2 X-linked. The highest rate of positive diagnosis was found for patients with developmental delay, ataxia, or suspected neuromuscular disease. Whole exome sequencing warranted a definitive change of treatment for 5 patients. Genetic databases were updated accordingly. In conclusion, whole exome sequencing is useful in obtaining a high detection rate for previously undiagnosed disorders. Use of this technique could affect diagnosis, treatment, and prognostics for both patients and relatives.

  17. MDL72222, a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, blocks MDMA's ability to establish a conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, E J; Reid, L D

    1991-06-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has previously been shown to produce a positive conditioned place preference (CPP) among rats. Here the effects of doses of a specific 5-HT3 antagonist, MDL72222, on MDMA's ability to produce a CPP were assessed. A dose of MDL72222 (0.03 mg/kg) blocked the establishment of a MDMA CPP. These results support the suggestions that compounds affecting the 5-HT3 receptor may be of particular interest in studying the pharmacology of self-administered drugs.

  18. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  19. Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

    2012-08-01

    Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents.

  20. School Stratification in New and Established Latino Destinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondero, Molly; Muller, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    The growth and geographic diversification of the school-age Latino population suggest that schools in areas that previously had very few Latinos now serve many of these students. This study uses the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey and the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 to compare public high schools in new and established Latino…

  1. Code Blue! Establishing a Child Care Emergency Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Margaret Leitch

    1996-01-01

    Discusses steps necessary to develop an emergency preparedness plan for child care centers: (1) identifying the need for policies through brainstorming and reviewing previous emergencies; (2) identifying potential issues through consultation; (3) establishing center procedures; (4) identifying a spokesperson to present accurate public information;…

  2. Pregnancy, Delivery, and Neonatal Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer in Patient with Previous Cesarean Scar

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Background What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. Material/Methods The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients’ desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. Results The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. Conclusions Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section. PMID:27636504

  3. Pregnancy, Delivery, and Neonatal Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer in Patient with Previous Cesarean Scar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

    2016-09-16

    BACKGROUND What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. MATERIAL AND METHODS The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients' desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. RESULTS The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. CONCLUSIONS Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section.

  4. NASA establishes office of exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new Office of Exploration that will coordinate agency activities that would “expand the human presence beyond Earth,” particularly to the moon and Mars.Sally K. Ride is serving as the office's acting assistant administrator until mid August. Ride, the first U.S. woman in space, has been in charge of a NASA study to determine a possible new major space goal for the United States. Her study group recently identified four major areas for concentrated examination as possible initiatives for a new national space objective: intensive study of Earth systems for better understanding of how to protect Earth's environment,a stepped-up robotic program to explore the planets, moons, and other solar system bodies,the establishment of a scientific base and a permanent human presence on the moon, andintensive exploration of Mars by robot, followed by human exploration of the planet.

  5. Misoprostol for Labour Induction after Previous Caesarean Section – Forever a “No Go”?

    PubMed Central

    Rath, W.; Tsikouras, P.

    2015-01-01

    Misoprostol in oral or vaginal form is an established method of labour induction worldwide. Its use after previous caesarean section is associated with a high rate of uterine rupture; according to international guidelines it is therefore contraindicated in this setting. However the evidence base for this recommendation comprises case reports, one randomised trial that was discontinued prematurely, and numerous low quality retrospective data analyses published between 1997 and 2004. New insights into e.g. resorption kinetics, dosage and application intervals, dose dependant uterine hyperstimulation rates, as well as increasing clinical experience with misoprostol have lead to a critical reappraisal of these “historical” studies. Accordingly the evidence supporting a ban on vaginal and particularly oral misoprostol for labour induction in the context of a scarred uterus is currently insufficient for a convincing guideline recommendation. In view of the clear advantages of misoprostol over prostaglandin E2 (cheaper, more effective) a retrospective review of registry data should be conducted to determine the incidence of uterine rupture following misoprostol and the circumstances in which it occurs. A prospective, randomised trial could then be conducted on the basis of these findings (e.g. oral misoprostol vs. vaginal prostaglandin E2); known risk factors for uterine rupture including the type of uterine scar would need to be taken into account when selecting patients for vaginal delivery. Until new data from well-designed studies are available, misoprostol will continue to be contraindicated in clinical guidelines for use in labour induction after previous caesarean section. PMID:26719597

  6. 21 CFR 113.83 - Establishing scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... basis of recognized scientific methods to be of a size sufficient to ensure the adequacy of the process... may affect the scheduled process, shall be specified in the scheduled process. Acceptable scientific methods of establishing heat sterilization processes shall include, when necessary, but shall not...

  7. 21 CFR 113.83 - Establishing scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... basis of recognized scientific methods to be of a size sufficient to ensure the adequacy of the process... may affect the scheduled process, shall be specified in the scheduled process. Acceptable scientific methods of establishing heat sterilization processes shall include, when necessary, but shall not...

  8. 21 CFR 113.83 - Establishing scheduled processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... basis of recognized scientific methods to be of a size sufficient to ensure the adequacy of the process... may affect the scheduled process, shall be specified in the scheduled process. Acceptable scientific methods of establishing heat sterilization processes shall include, when necessary, but shall not...

  9. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization.

  10. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  11. Establishing of cancer units in low or middle income african countries: angolan experience - a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Fernando; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Bernardo, Dora; Monteiro, Fernando; Bessa, Fernanda; Santos, Cristina; Oliveira, João Blasques; Santos, Lúcio Lara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The number of cancer cases and related deaths worldwide is expected to double over the next 20-30 years. African countries will be the most affected by the burden of cancer. The improving economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which by itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. Because cancer therapy requires a multidisciplinary approach, trained health professionals, satisfactory infrastructure and appropriate facilities, the availability of effective cancer therapy is a difficult task that requires support. The aim of this article is to share our experience achieved in the establishment of cancer units in Angola and to validate our checklist for this action. Methods The survey method was a questionnaire addressed to Angolan cancer units, in order to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of a checklist developed by the authors - The Cancer Units Assessment Checklist for low or middle income African countries - which was used previously in the establishment of those units. Afterwards, the crucial steps taken for the establishing of the main sites of each cancer unit considering, facilities, resources and professionals, were also recorded. Results All cancer units reported that the checklist was a useful tool in the development of the cancer program for the improvement of the unit or the establishing of cancer unit sites. This instrument helped identifying resources, defining the best practice and identifying barriers. Local experts, who know the best practices in oncology and who are recognized by the local heads, are also important and they proved to be the major facilitators. Conclusion The fight against cancer has just started in Angola. The training, education, advocacy and legislation are ongoing. According to our results, the assessment checklist for the establishment of cancer units is a useful instrument. PMID:25883719

  12. Effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric history.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ilknur; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Biri, Aydan; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in 204 patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes. Patients with poor obstetric history (pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal death, placental abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss) and having hereditary thrombophilia were included in this study. Poor obstetric outcomes were observed more frequently in patients who had not taken anticogulant therapy compared with treated group. Live birth rate, gestational age at birth and Apgar scores were significantly higher in the treated group when compared with the untreated group. There were no significant differences in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery and admission rates to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) had higher gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, live birth rate and a lower abortion rates when compared with controls; in contrast, no significant difference was observed in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. There were no significant differences between control group and both LMWH only and ASA only groups in terms of gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. Only LMWH group had higher live birth rate as compared with control group. The use of only ASA did not seem to affect the perinatal complication rates and outcomes. In conclusion, anticoagulant therapy with both LMWH and ASA seems to provide better obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes.

  13. Does previous abdominal surgery effect the feasibility of total laparoscopic hysterectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Cem; Abalı, Remzi; Taşdemir, Nicel; Aksu, Erson; Akkuş, Didem; Gül, Abdülaziz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of previous abdominal surgery on the feasibility of performing and the safety of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, we analysed 62 laparoscopic hysterectomies which were performed at our institute between February 2011 and January 2013. We chose to perform laparoscopic surgery for all patients, including those who had previously undergone abdominal surgery. The patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 included patients with a history of abdominal surgery (n=24) and Group 2 included patients without a history of abdominal surgery (n=38). Results: The operating period was compared in both groups: 184.43±51.0 min. for Group 1 and 195.41±64.1 min. for Group 2 (p=0.471). Postoperative hospital stay and blood loss was also compared. There was just 1 conversion from TLH to a laparotomy in both groups. None of the patients in Group 1 needed a blood transfusion, whereas 1 in Group 2 did. Conclusion: We found that operation time, postoperative hospital stay, blood loss, rate of operative complications or conversion rate to open surgery between patients with and without a history of abdominal surgery were comparable. Therefore, it appears that a history of abdominal surgery does not adversely affect the safety of TLH. PMID:24592078

  14. Obinutuzumab for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia: overview and perspective.

    PubMed

    Owen, Carolyn J; Stewart, Douglas A

    2015-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common lymphoproliferative disorder in the Western world and predominantly affects older people. Until recently, most studies in CLL focused on younger patients in whom intensive therapy with the addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide was shown to improve survival. Obinutuzumab is a novel type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recently demonstrated an overall survival advantage when combined with chemotherapy in previously untreated older patients with CLL and comorbidities. Obinutuzumab was superior to rituximab in this same study in terms of response rates and progression-free survival. Several preclinical and early phase clinical studies also support the efficacy of obinutuzumab. The most frequent adverse event noted with obinutuzumab is infusion-related reactions, which occur more frequently than with rituximab and are typically restricted to the first cycle of therapy. Based on these results, obinutuzumab should be considered the gold standard mAb for combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with CLL and comorbidities. The marked efficacy of obinutuzumab with a weak chemotherapy backbone implies significant potency of this mAb, making it the ideal partner for combination studies with other agents in CLL.

  15. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  16. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk.

  17. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramatically lower than previously predicted

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  18. The relationship between the Spring Asian Atmospheric circulation and the previous winter Northern Hemisphere annular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. H.; Ding, R. Q.

    2007-01-01

    By using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the Northern Hemisphere annular mode index (NAMI), China dust storm frequency data and China’s 160-station monthly precipitation data, the relationship between the previous winter (December-February) Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM) and the following spring (March-May) Asian atmospheric circulation is examined statistically in this study. Results demonstrate that the relationship between the spring Asian atmospheric circulation and the previous winter NAM is more significant on decadal time scales than on interannual time scales. There are significant negative correlations between the previous winter NAM and the spring temperature in what is almost a troposphere over Northwest China. There is a significant positive correlation between the winter NAMI and following spring geopotential height field over the Mongolian Plateau and Middle Siberia (MPMS) at the upper level. The positive correlation coefficients center moves to the south with the level from high to low. At lower level the high correlation coefficients center is located over the North China. There is a significant negative correlation between the winter NAMI and the surface horizontal wind intensity in the following spring for Northwest China on decadal timescales. The results suggest that a strong NAM in winter is followed by a negative temperature anomaly and a positive anomaly of the spring 500 hPa geopotential height over the MPMS, while at the same time the spring anomaly of the southeast wind is experienced in the surface layer in Northwest China, implying that the intensity of the northwest wind tends to weaken, and vice versa. This circulation pattern can affect the change of the spring dust storm frequency in Northwest China on decadal time scales.

  19. The effects of the previous outcome on probabilistic choice in rats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Andrew T; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of previous outcomes on subsequent choices in a probabilistic-choice task. Twenty-four rats were trained to choose between a certain outcome (1 or 3 pellets) versus an uncertain outcome (3 or 9 pellets), delivered with a probability of .1, .33, .67, and .9 in different phases. Uncertain outcome choices increased with the probability of uncertain food. Additionally, uncertain choices increased with the probability of uncertain food following both certain-choice outcomes and unrewarded uncertain choices. However, following uncertain-choice food outcomes, there was a tendency to choose the uncertain outcome in all cases, indicating that the rats continued to "gamble" after successful uncertain choices, regardless of the overall probability or magnitude of food. A subsequent manipulation, in which the probability of uncertain food varied within each session as a function of the previous uncertain outcome, examined how the previous outcome and probability of uncertain food affected choice in a dynamic environment. Uncertain-choice behavior increased with the probability of uncertain food. The rats exhibited increased sensitivity to probability changes and a greater degree of win-stay/lose-shift behavior than in the static phase. Simulations of two sequential choice models were performed to explore the possible mechanisms of reward value computations. The simulation results supported an exponentially decaying value function that updated as a function of trial (rather than time). These results emphasize the importance of analyzing global and local factors in choice behavior and suggest avenues for the future development of sequential-choice models.

  20. Establishing the credibility of archaeoastronomical sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    This is not a talk about archaeoastronomy per se, but rather about how the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative helps us deal with archaeoastronomical sites as potential World Heritage.In 2011, an attempt to nominate a prehistoric “observatory” site onto the World Heritage List proved unsuccessful because UNESCO rejected the interpretation as statistically and archaeologically unproven. The case highlights an issue at the heart of archaeoastronomical methodology and interpretation: the mere existence of astronomical alignments in ancient sites does not prove that they were important to those who constructed and used the sites, let alone giving us insights into their likely significance and meaning. Advances in archaeoastronomy over several decades have resulted in the development of a substantial body of theory and practice (Ruggles 2014) where the most favoured interpretations depend upon integrating methods from astronomy, anthropology and other disciplines, but individual cases can still engender considerable controversy.The fact that more archaeoastronomical sites are now appearing on national tentative lists prior to their WHL nomination means that this is no longer just an academic issue; establishing the credibility of the archaeoastronomical interpretations is crucial to any assessment of their value in heritage terms.In this talk I shall describe progress that has been made within the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative towards establishing broadly acceptable measures of archaeoastronomical credibility that make sense in the context of the heritage evaluation process. I will focus particularly, but not exclusively, on sites that are included in the Thematic Studies and/or are already included on national Tentative Lists, such as the Portuguese/Spanish seven-stone antas (Neolithic dolmens) and Chankillo in Peru (solar observation device dating to c. 300BC). I will also mention how the recognition of astronomical attributes of potential

  1. Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: effects of training on brain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Popova, Petia; Popov, Tzvetan G; Wienbruch, Christian; Carolus, Almut M; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte S

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study, 57 schizophrenia patients were randomly assigned to (a) computer-based facial affect training that focused on affect discrimination and working memory in 20 daily 1-hour sessions, (b) similarly intense, targeted cognitive training on auditory-verbal discrimination and working memory, or (c) treatment as usual. Neuromagnetic activity was measured before and after training during a dynamic facial affect recognition task (5 s videos showing human faces gradually changing from neutral to fear or to happy expressions). Effects on 10-13 Hz (alpha) power during the transition from neutral to emotional expressions were assessed via MEG based on previous findings that alpha power increase is related to facial affect recognition and is smaller in schizophrenia than in healthy subjects. Targeted affect training improved overt performance on the training tasks. Moreover, alpha power increase during the dynamic facial affect recognition task was larger after affect training than after treatment-as-usual, though similar to that after targeted perceptual-cognitive training, indicating somewhat nonspecific benefits. Alpha power modulation was unrelated to general neuropsychological test performance, which improved in all groups. Results suggest that specific neural processes supporting facial affect recognition, evident in oscillatory phenomena, are modifiable. This should be considered when developing remediation strategies targeting social cognition in schizophrenia.

  2. Kinesics of Affective Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dil, Nasim

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the rationale of studying kinesics of affective instability, describes the phenonmenon of affective instability, examines the role of kinesics in the overall process of communication, and presents three case studies. (Author/AM)

  3. The Inverse Relation Between Risks and Benefits: The Role of Affect and Expertise.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Joanna; Sleboda, Patrycja

    2015-07-01

    Although risk and benefits of risky activities are positively correlated in the real world, empirical results indicate that people perceive them as negatively correlated. The common explanation is that confounding benefits and losses stems from affect. In this article, we address the issue that has not been clearly established in studies on the affect heuristic: to what extent boundary conditions, such as judgments' generality and expertise, influence the presence of the inverse relation in judgments of hazards. These conditions were examined in four studies in which respondents evaluated general or specific benefits and risks of "affect-rich" and "affect-poor" hazards (ranging from investments to applications of stem cell research). In line with previous research, affect is defined as good or bad feelings integral to a stimulus. In contrast to previous research, affect is considered as related both to personal feelings and to social controversies associated with a hazard. Expertise is related to personal knowledge (laypersons vs. experts) as well as to objective knowledge (targets well vs. poorly known to science). The direct comparison of the input from personal and objective ignorance into the inverse relation has not been investigated previously. It was found that affect invoked by a hazard guides general but not specific judgments of its benefits and risks. Technical expertise helps to avoid simplified evaluations of consequences as long as they are well known to science. For new, poorly understood hazards (e.g., stem cell research), expertise does not protect from the perception of the inverse relation between benefits and risks.

  4. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  5. The Relationship Between Functional Movement, Balance Deficits, and Previous Injury History in Deploying Marine Warfighters.

    PubMed

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Lisman, Peter; Sabatino, Marc; Beutler, Anthony I; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-06-01

    Screening for primary musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) is costly and time-consuming. Both the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have been shown to predict future MSK-I. With a goal of optimizing the efficiency of primary MSK-I screening, we studied associations between performance on the FMS and YBT and whether history of MSK-I influenced FMS and YBT scores. In total, 365 deploying Marines performed the FMS and YBT as prescribed. Composite and individual scores were each categorized as high risk or low risk using published injury thresholds: High-risk FMS included composite scores ≤14 and right-to-left (R/L) asymmetry for Shoulder Mobility, In-Line Lunge, Straight Leg Raise, Hurdle Step, or Rotary Stability. High-risk YBT consisted of anterior, posteromedial, and/or posterolateral R/L differences >4 cm and/or composite differences ≥12 cm. Pearson's χ tests evaluated associations between: (a) all FMS and YBT risk groups and (b) previous MSK-I and all FMS and YBT risk groups. Marines with high-risk FMS were twice as likely to have high-risk YBT posteromedial scores (χ = 10.2, p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2). History of any MSK-I was not associated with high-risk FMS or high-risk YBT. However, previous lower extremity MSK-I was associated with In-Line Lunge asymmetries (χ = 9.8, p = 0.002, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). Overall, we found limited overlap in FMS and YBT risk. Because both methods seem to assess different risk factors for injury, we recommend FMS and YBT continue to be used together in combination with a thorough injury history until their predictive capacities are further established.

  6. Neurochemistry of dementia: establishing the links.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, P J; Gambetti, P; Harik, S I; Kalaria, R N; Perry, G; Younkin, S I; Tabaton, M; Unnerstall, J R

    1989-01-01

    Neurochemical research in dementia needs to move beyond descriptive inventories of neurotransmitter systems affected in the specific disorders and to link to molecular studies of mechanism and clinical studies of cognition. New advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Huntington's Disease (HD), and Parkinson's Disease (PD) are being guided by models of how nerve cells die in these disorders. Theories of pathophysiology which address the cellular level need to explain the selective vulnerability of neuronal populations in the different diseases. Clinically, the importance of neurochemical studies will be increased by understanding the bridges between neural and cognitive processes. Clinicians are concerned about the nosology of dementias, diagnostic tests, and more effective therapies. The value of neurochemical studies will be enhanced to the extent that they can contribute to understanding and modifying the clinical phenomenology of these disorders. In this paper, we will briefly review what is known about the neurochemistry of dementia but focus most of our attention on establishing the linkage between this level of description and the levels of description which are either "downstream" (molecular biology) or "upstream" (cognition) in terms of a reductionistic conception of understanding the disease process. We will explore how understanding neurochemistry relates to our understanding of disease mechanism and what constraints neurochemical studies place on understanding clinical aspects of disease. We will conclude by briefly discussing some of the problems with our current understanding of the neurochemistry of dementia and how we can address those problems in the future.

  7. Factors influencing incidental representation of previously unknown conservation features in marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Tom C L; Grech, Alana M; Pressey, Robert L

    2016-02-01

    Spatially explicit information on species distributions for conservation planning is invariably incomplete; therefore, the use of surrogates is required to represent broad-scale patterns of biodiversity. Despite significant interest in the effectiveness of surrogates for predicting spatial distributions of biodiversity, few researchers have explored questions involving the ability of surrogates to incidentally represent unknown features of conservation interest. We used the Great Barrier Reef marine reserve network to examine factors affecting incidental representation of conservation features that were unknown at the time the reserve network was established. We used spatially explicit information on the distribution of 39 seabed habitats and biological assemblages and the conservation planning software Marxan to examine how incidental representation was affected by the spatial characteristics of the features; the conservation objectives (the minimum proportion of each feature included in no-take areas); the spatial configuration of no-take areas; and the opportunity cost of conservation. Cost was closely and inversely correlated to incidental representation. However, incidental representation was achieved, even in a region with only coarse-scale environmental data, by adopting a precautionary approach that explicitly considered the potential for unknown features. Our results indicate that incidental representation is enhanced by partitioning selection units along biophysical gradients to account for unknown within-feature variability and ensuring that no-take areas are well distributed throughout the region; by setting high conservation objectives that (in this case >33%) maximize the chances of capturing unknown features incidentally; and by carefully considering the designation of cost to planning units when using decision-support tools for reserve design. The lessons learned from incidental representation in the Great Barrier Reef have implications for

  8. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  9. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); California Department of Forestry; Firefly... Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); California Department of Forestry; Firefly...

  10. 75 FR 39192 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (Previously Utah State University), et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Exporters, Inc. (Previously Utah State University); Firefly Aviation Helicopter Services (Previously... Helicopters, Inc.; Precision Helicopters, LLC; Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters...

  11. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    .... (previously Ranger Helicopter Services, Inc.); US Helicopter, Inc. (previously Williams Helicopter Tech... Helicopter Tech., Southern Aero Corp., Oregon Helicopters and Lenair Corp); West Coast Fabrications;...

  12. Chemical and toxicological investigations of a previously unknown poisonous European mushroom Tricholoma terreum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xia; Feng, Tao; Shang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Yun-Li; Wang, Fang; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2014-06-02

    The established tradition of consuming and marketing wild mushrooms has focused attention on mycotoxicity, which has become a global issue. In the present study, we describe the toxins found in a previously unknown poisonous European mushroom Tricholoma terreum. Fifteen new triterpenoids terreolides A-F (1-6) and saponaceolides H-P (8-16) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the toxic mushroom T. terreum. Terreolides A-C (1-3) possessed a unique 5/6/7 trioxaspiroketal system, whereas terreolides D-F (4-6) possessed an unprecedented carbon skeleton. Two abundant compounds in the mushroom, saponaceolide B (7) and saponaceolide M (13), displayed acute toxicity, with LD50 values of 88.3 and 63.7 mg kg(-1) when administered orally in mice. Both compounds were found to increase serum creatine kinase levels in mice, indicating that T. terreum may be the cause of mushroom poisoning ultimately leading to rhabdomyolysis.

  13. Chronic Granulomatous Disease Presenting as Aspergillus Fumigatus Pneumonia in a Previously Healthy Young Woman.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Kadaria, Dipen; Sodhi, Amik; Fox, Roy; Williams, Glenn; Threlkeld, Stephen

    2017-04-05

    BACKGROUND Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency disease caused by a genetic defect in the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzyme, resulting in increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. The inheritance can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Patients usually present with repeated infections early in life. We present an unusual case of a 23-year-old patient diagnosed with CGD. CASE REPORT A 23-year-old white woman with no previous history of recurrent infections presented with complaints of fever, shortness of breath, and diffuse myalgia. She had been treated twice for similar complaints recently, but without resolution. She was febrile, tachypneic, tachycardic, and hypoxic at presentation. Physical examination revealed diffuse inspiratory rales. Laboratory results showed leukocytosis. Her initial chest X-ray and CT chest showed reticular nodular interstitial lung disease pattern. Despite being on broad-spectrum antibiotics for 5 days, she continued to require supplemental oxygen and continued to be tachypneic, with minimal activity. Initial diagnostic tests, including bronchoscopy with biopsy and lavage, did not reveal a diagnosis. She then underwent a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lung biopsy. The biopsy slides showed suppurative granulomatous inflammation affecting greater than 50% of the parenchymal lung surface. Fungal hyphae consistent with Aspergillus were present in those granulomas. A diagnosis of CGD was made and she was started on Voriconazole. She improved with treatment. Her neutrophil burst test showed negative burst on stimulation, indicating phagocytic dysfunction consistent with CGD. Autosomal recessive CGD was confirmed by genetic testing. CONCLUSIONS CGD can present in adulthood without any previous symptoms and signs. Clinicians should consider this disease in patients presenting with recurrent or non-resolving infections. Timely treatment and prophylaxis has

  14. Identification and pathway analysis of microRNAs with no previous involvement in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Rodriguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Quintanar-Jurado, Valeria; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Bautista-Piña, Veronica; Arellano-Llamas, Rocio; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    microRNA expression signatures can differentiate normal and breast cancer tissues and can define specific clinico-pathological phenotypes in breast tumors. In order to further evaluate the microRNA expression profile in breast cancer, we analyzed the expression of 667 microRNAs in 29 tumors and 21 adjacent normal tissues using TaqMan Low-density arrays. 130 miRNAs showed significant differential expression (adjusted P value = 0.05, Fold Change = 2) in breast tumors compared to the normal adjacent tissue. Importantly, the role of 43 of these microRNAs has not been previously reported in breast cancer, including several evolutionary conserved microRNA*, showing similar expression rates to that of their corresponding leading strand. The expression of 14 microRNAs was replicated in an independent set of 55 tumors. Bioinformatic analysis of mRNA targets of the altered miRNAs, identified oncogenes like ERBB2, YY1, several MAP kinases, and known tumor-suppressors like FOXA1 and SMAD4. Pathway analysis identified that some biological process which are important in breast carcinogenesis are affected by the altered microRNA expression, including signaling through MAP kinases and TP53 pathways, as well as biological processes like cell death and communication, focal adhesion and ERBB2-ERBB3 signaling. Our data identified the altered expression of several microRNAs whose aberrant expression might have an important impact on cancer-related cellular pathways and whose role in breast cancer has not been previously described.

  15. Identification and Pathway Analysis of microRNAs with No Previous Involvement in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Quintanar-Jurado, Valeria; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Bautista-Piña, Veronica; Arellano-Llamas, Rocio; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    microRNA expression signatures can differentiate normal and breast cancer tissues and can define specific clinico-pathological phenotypes in breast tumors. In order to further evaluate the microRNA expression profile in breast cancer, we analyzed the expression of 667 microRNAs in 29 tumors and 21 adjacent normal tissues using TaqMan Low-density arrays. 130 miRNAs showed significant differential expression (adjusted P value = 0.05, Fold Change = 2) in breast tumors compared to the normal adjacent tissue. Importantly, the role of 43 of these microRNAs has not been previously reported in breast cancer, including several evolutionary conserved microRNA*, showing similar expression rates to that of their corresponding leading strand. The expression of 14 microRNAs was replicated in an independent set of 55 tumors. Bioinformatic analysis of mRNA targets of the altered miRNAs, identified oncogenes like ERBB2, YY1, several MAP kinases, and known tumor-suppressors like FOXA1 and SMAD4. Pathway analysis identified that some biological process which are important in breast carcinogenesis are affected by the altered microRNA expression, including signaling through MAP kinases and TP53 pathways, as well as biological processes like cell death and communication, focal adhesion and ERBB2-ERBB3 signaling. Our data identified the altered expression of several microRNAs whose aberrant expression might have an important impact on cancer-related cellular pathways and whose role in breast cancer has not been previously described. PMID:22438871

  16. Chronic Granulomatous Disease Presenting as Aspergillus Fumigatus Pneumonia in a Previously Healthy Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David; Kadaria, Dipen; Sodhi, Amik; Fox, Roy; Williams, Glenn; Threlkeld, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 23 Final Diagnosis: Chronic granulomatous disease Symptoms: Fever • shortness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bronchoscopy Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency disease caused by a genetic defect in the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzyme, resulting in increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. The inheritance can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Patients usually present with repeated infections early in life. We present an unusual case of a 23-year-old patient diagnosed with CGD. Case Report: A 23-year-old white woman with no previous history of recurrent infections presented with complaints of fever, shortness of breath, and diffuse myalgia. She had been treated twice for similar complaints recently, but without resolution. She was febrile, tachypneic, tachycardic, and hypoxic at presentation. Physical examination revealed diffuse inspiratory rales. Laboratory results showed leukocytosis. Her initial chest X-ray and CT chest showed reticular nodular interstitial lung disease pattern. Despite being on broad-spectrum antibiotics for 5 days, she continued to require supplemental oxygen and continued to be tachypneic, with minimal activity. Initial diagnostic tests, including bronchoscopy with biopsy and lavage, did not reveal a diagnosis. She then underwent a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lung biopsy. The biopsy slides showed suppurative granulomatous inflammation affecting greater than 50% of the parenchymal lung surface. Fungal hyphae consistent with Aspergillus were present in those granulomas. A diagnosis of CGD was made and she was started on Voriconazole. She improved with treatment. Her neutrophil burst test showed negative burst on stimulation, indicating phagocytic dysfunction consistent with CGD. Autosomal recessive CGD was confirmed by genetic testing. Conclusions

  17. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Leah Ticker; Takata, Sandy; Thompson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation, and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference (CPP) for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a CPP, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with CPP was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), indicating that CPP can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  18. Management factors affecting the establishment of pine based silvopastures in southern grasslands in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silvopasture practices are being advocated as a means of maintaining pine forest acreage in the southeast United States; however, scientific data on the design and management of such practices for optimum tree growth are lacking. Studies were conducted near Booneville AR to determine the effects of ...

  19. 40 CFR 35.3110 - Fund establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3110 Fund establishment... grant, into an established water pollution control revolving fund, under section 205(m) of the Act....

  20. 40 CFR 35.3110 - Fund establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3110 Fund establishment... grant, into an established water pollution control revolving fund, under section 205(m) of the Act....

  1. 40 CFR 35.3110 - Fund establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3110 Fund establishment... grant, into an established water pollution control revolving fund, under section 205(m) of the Act....

  2. 40 CFR 35.3110 - Fund establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3110 Fund establishment... grant, into an established water pollution control revolving fund, under section 205(m) of the Act....

  3. 40 CFR 35.3110 - Fund establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds § 35.3110 Fund establishment... grant, into an established water pollution control revolving fund, under section 205(m) of the Act....

  4. 36 CFR 264.10 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.10 Establishment. There is hereby established an official symbol, as depicted herein, to designate and represent the Mount St. Helens...

  5. 36 CFR 264.10 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.10 Establishment. There is hereby established an official symbol, as depicted herein, to designate and represent the Mount St. Helens...

  6. 36 CFR 264.10 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.10 Establishment. There is hereby established an official symbol, as depicted herein, to designate and represent the Mount St. Helens...

  7. 36 CFR 264.10 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.10 Establishment. There is hereby established an official symbol, as depicted herein, to designate and represent the Mount St. Helens...

  8. 36 CFR 264.10 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.10 Establishment. There is hereby established an official symbol, as depicted herein, to designate and represent the Mount St. Helens...

  9. Effects of Previous Laparoscopic Surgical Diagnosis of Endometriosis on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Hong-Lan; Chang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yi; Wang, Yue; Guan, Jing; Cui, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Background: The association between the previous history of endometriosis and obstetric outcomes is still ambiguous. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of previous history of operatively diagnosed endometriosis on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A total of 98 primiparous women who had been diagnosed with endometriosis by previous laparoscopic surgery were included in this retrospective cohort study. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between these women (study group) who had a live birth and 300 women without endometriosis (control group) who had a live birth. In the study group, the pregnancy outcomes of 74 women who conceived naturally (no assisted reproductive technology [ART] subgroup) were simultaneously compared with 24 women who conceived by ART (ART subgroup). Results: Miscarriage was observed in 23 of 98 women with endometriosis (23.5%). There were 75 women who had a live birth after laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis in the study group eventually. On multivariate analysis, the postpartum hemorrhage rate increased significantly in the study group when compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio: 2.265, 95% confidence interval: 1.062, 4.872; P = 0.034). There was an upward tendency of developing other pregnancy-related complications, such as preterm birth, placental abruption, placenta previa, cesarean section, fetal distress/anemia, and others in the study group than in the control group. However, the differences showed no statistical significance. Within the study group, the occurrence rate of postpartum hemorrhage and preterm birth was both higher in the ART subgroup than in the no ART subgroup. The differences both had statistical significance (44.4% vs. 17.5%, P = 0.024 and 27.8% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.010, respectively). At the same time, median (interquartile range) for gestational age at delivery in the ART subgroup was significantly shorter than that in the no ART subgroup (38 weeks [36–39 weeks] vs. 39 weeks [38–40 weeks]; P = 0

  10. Challenges in establishing LLW disposal capacity: Pennsylvania`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, W.P.; Saraka, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    Even though Pennsylvania is host state for the Compact, state implementing legislation was non-existent until early 1988. In February of 1998 Governor Casey signed the Los-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Act) into law. The Act incorporates three years of Departmental work and interaction with the legislature, a Public Advisory Committee on Low-Level Waste, many interest groups and the general public. It is a comprehensive Act that: provides the Department with broad powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program; requires development phase; and establishes benefits and guarantees for communities affected by the establishment and operation of a low-level waste site. The Department considers that its powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program begins with interpreting the provisions established by the Act. Interpretation will establish how the Department intends to implement its authority. The Department is communicating interpretations through various methods such as regulation, policy, and written or verbal guidance. Interpretations typically require a mix of technical, policy, and social solutions to clarify concepts established by law. This paper identifies select items established by law that require technical solutions. Its purpose is to share some creative approaches for solving unmanageable legislature requirements.

  11. Urbanized birds have superior establishment success in novel environments.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Díaz, Mario; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Grim, Tomas; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego; Jokimäki, Jukka; Mänd, Raivo; Markó, Gábor; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2015-07-01

    Many animals have adapted to the proximity of humans and thereby gained an advantage in a world increasingly affected by human activity. Numerous organisms have invaded novel areas and thereby increased their range. Here, we hypothesize that an ability to thrive in urban habitats is a key innovation that facilitates successful establishment and invasion. We test this hypothesis by relating the probability of establishment by birds on oceanic islands to the difference in breeding population density between urban and nearby rural habitats as a measure of urbanization in the ancestral range. This measure was the single-most important predictor of establishment success and the only statistically significant one, with additional effects of sexual dichromatism, number of releases and release effort, showing that the ability to cope with human proximity is a central component of successful establishment. Because most invasions occur as a consequence of human-assisted establishment, the ability to cope with human proximity will often be of central importance for successful establishment.

  12. 29 CFR 541.204 - Educational establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Educational establishments. 541.204 Section 541.204 Labor... Administrative Employees § 541.204 Educational establishments. (a) The term “employee employed in a bona fide... educational establishment by which employed; and (2) Whose primary duty is performing administrative...

  13. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  14. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  15. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  16. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  17. 42 CFR 24.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.1 Establishment. There is established in the Public Health Service (PHS) a Senior...

  18. 29 CFR 1960.86 - Establishing councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The Secretary may establish a council in any area where ten or more Federal establishments totaling 300 or more employees are located within an area having a radius of 50 miles, and there is substantial... MATTERS Field Federal Safety and Health Councils § 1960.86 Establishing councils. (a) Those field...

  19. 20 CFR 900.2 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment. 900.2 Section 900.2 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 900.2 Establishment. The Joint Board has been established by the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant...

  20. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. A report of six new cases and a summary of previous reports.

    PubMed

    Contreras Narváez, Carla; Mola Gilbert, Montserrat; Batlle de Santiago, Enric; Bigas Farreres, Jordi; Giné Serven, Eloy; Cañete Crespillo, Josep

    2016-03-02

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a medical condition which was identified for the first time in 2004 and affects chronic users of cannabis. It is characterized by cyclic episodes of uncontrollable vomiting as well as compulsive bathing in hot water. The episodes have a duration of two to four days. The vomiting is recognizable by a lack of response to regular antiemetic treatment, and subsides only with cannabis abstinence, reappearing in periods of consumption of this substance. The etiology of this syndrome is unknown. Up until June 2014, 83 cases of CHS were published worldwide, four of them in Spain.The first patient of CHS at Mataró Hospital was diagnosed in 2012. Since then, five new cases have been identified. The average duration between the onset of acute CHS episodes and diagnosis is 6.1 years, similar to that observed in previously published cases, an average of 3.1 years. This "delay" of CHS diagnosis demonstrates a lack of awareness with respect to this medical condition in the healthcare profession.With the objective of providing information concerning CHS and facilitating its timely diagnosis, a series of six new cases of CHS diagnosed in Mataró Hospital is presented along with a summary of cases published between 2004 and June 2014.

  1. Do previous sports experiences influence the effect of an enrichment programme in basketball skills?

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Mateus, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2016-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14), (ii) early specialisation (n = 34), and (iii) late specialisation (n = 28), according to information previously provided by the participants about the quantity and type of sporting activities performed throughout their sporting careers. Then, the participants of each path were randomly distributed across control and experimental groups. Variables under study included agility, technical skills circuit, as well as tactical actions performed in a 4-on-4 full-court basketball game. The results indicated improvements in the early and late specialisation paths namely in the experimental training groups. However, the late specialisation path revealed larger benefits, in contrast with the non-structured path, which showed less sensitivity to the enrichment programme, mostly sustained in physical literacy and differential learning. Higher improvements were observed in agility, and also in reducing the number of unsuccessful actions performed during the game. Overall, this study provided evidence of how early sports experiences affect basketball skill acquisition and contribute to adapt to new contexts with motor and technical-tactical challenges. In addition, a path supported by late specialisation might present several advantages in sport performance achievement.

  2. Combining complexity measures of EEG data: multiplying measures reveal previously hidden information.

    PubMed

    Burns, Thomas; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have noted significant differences among human electroencephalograph (EEG) results when participants or patients are exposed to different stimuli, undertaking different tasks, or being affected by conditions such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Such studies often use only one or two measures of complexity and do not regularly justify their choice of measure beyond the fact that it has been used in previous studies. If more measures were added to such studies, however, more complete information might be found about these reported differences. Such information might be useful in confirming the existence or extent of such differences, or in understanding their physiological bases. In this study we analysed publically-available EEG data using a range of complexity measures to determine how well the measures correlated with one another. The complexity measures did not all significantly correlate, suggesting that different measures were measuring unique features of the EEG signals and thus revealing information which other measures were unable to detect. Therefore, the results from this analysis suggests that combinations of complexity measures reveal unique information which is in addition to the information captured by other measures of complexity in EEG data. For this reason, researchers using individual complexity measures for EEG data should consider using combinations of measures to more completely account for any differences they observe and to ensure the robustness of any relationships identified.

  3. Combining complexity measures of EEG data: multiplying measures reveal previously hidden information

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Thomas; Rajan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have noted significant differences among human electroencephalograph (EEG) results when participants or patients are exposed to different stimuli, undertaking different tasks, or being affected by conditions such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Such studies often use only one or two measures of complexity and do not regularly justify their choice of measure beyond the fact that it has been used in previous studies. If more measures were added to such studies, however, more complete information might be found about these reported differences. Such information might be useful in confirming the existence or extent of such differences, or in understanding their physiological bases. In this study we analysed publically-available EEG data using a range of complexity measures to determine how well the measures correlated with one another. The complexity measures did not all significantly correlate, suggesting that different measures were measuring unique features of the EEG signals and thus revealing information which other measures were unable to detect. Therefore, the results from this analysis suggests that combinations of complexity measures reveal unique information which is in addition to the information captured by other measures of complexity in EEG data. For this reason, researchers using individual complexity measures for EEG data should consider using combinations of measures to more completely account for any differences they observe and to ensure the robustness of any relationships identified. PMID:26594331

  4. Effects of Previous Land-Use on Plant Species Composition and Diversity in Mediterranean Forests

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, Yacine; Martínez-García, Felipe; de Frutos, Ángel; Alados, Concepción L.

    2015-01-01

    At some point in their history, most forests in the Mediterranean Basin have been subjected to intensive management or converted to agriculture land. Knowing how forest plant communities recovered after the abandonment of forest-management or agricultural practices (including livestock grazing) provides a basis for investigating how previous land management have affected plant species diversity and composition in forest ecosystems. Our study investigated the consequences of historical “land management” practices on present-day Mediterranean forests by comparing species assemblages and the diversity of (i) all plant species and (ii) each ecological group defined by species’ habitat preferences and successional status (i.e., early-, mid-, and late-successional species). We compared forest stands that differed both in land-use history and in successional stage. In addition, we evaluated the value of those stands for biodiversity conservation. The study revealed significant compositional differentiation among stands that was due to among-stand variations in the diversity (namely, species richness and evenness) of early-, intermediate-, and late-successional species. Historical land management has led to an increase in compositional divergences among forest stands and the loss of late-successional forest species. PMID:26397707

  5. [Word recognition test after general anesthesia: the influence of previous anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Skok, Ira; Sekulić, Ante; Mikulandra, Simon

    2012-03-01

    Among other higher brain functions such as consciousness and learning, general anesthesia also affects memory. A number of information retrieval tests are performed to determine the effects of drugs on explicit memory. In this study, we investigated the recognition of words before and after general anesthesia in subjects having and not having received anesthesia on one or more occasions before the present one. The study included 51 patients, ASA physical status I or II, median age 50, at least high-school graduates, without head trauma, known psychiatric or memory disorder, and taking no psychoactive medication. A standardized anesthesia technique, a single surgical procedure and a defined study-test interval were used. We designed our own test as a combination of story recall test and brief word learning test, both widely used in psychological and psychiatric examination. There was no significant difference in word recognition before and after general anesthesia in either patient group. Many studies indicate that anesthesia and surgery are associated with cognitive impairment lasting for 33 months in 10%-14% of elderly patients. We hypothesized that general anesthetics can cause prolonged cognitive alterations. Study results showed that previous anesthesia in addition to the current one had no significant influence on the word recognition test.

  6. Are all the previously reported genetic variants in limb girdle muscular dystrophy genes pathogenic?

    PubMed Central

    Di Fruscio, Giuseppina; Garofalo, Arcomaria; Mutarelli, Margherita; Savarese, Marco; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of variants in autosomal genes associated with the limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) have been reported as being causative. However, in most cases the proof of pathogenicity derives from their non-occurrence in hundreds of healthy controls and/or from segregation studies in small families. The limited statistics of the genetic variations in the general population may hamper a correct interpretation of the effect of variants on the protein. To clarify the meaning of low-frequency variants in LGMD genes, we have selected all variants described as causative in the Leiden Open Variation Database and the Human Gene Mutation Database. We have systematically searched for their frequency in the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and in our internal database. Surprisingly, the ESP contains about 4% of the variants previously associated with a dominant inheritance and about 9% of those associated with a recessive inheritance. The putative disease alleles are much more frequent than those estimated considering the disease prevalence. In conclusion, we hypothesize that a number of disease-associated variants are non-pathogenic and that other variations are not fully penetrant, even if they affect the protein function, suggesting a more complex genetic mechanisms for such heterogeneous disorders. PMID:25898921

  7. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) and infantile autism: Absence of previously reported point mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Fon, E.A.; Sarrazin, J.; Rouleau, G.A.

    1995-12-18

    Autism is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome of unknown etiology. There is evidence that a deficiency in the enzyme adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL), essential for de novo purine biosynthesis, could be involved in the pathogenesis of certain cases. A point mutation in the ADSL gene, resulting in a predicted serine-to-proline substitution and conferring structural instability to the mutant enzyme, has been reported previously in 3 affected siblings. In order to determine the prevalence of the mutation, we PCR-amplified the exon spanning the site of this mutation from the genomic DNA of patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for autistic disorder. None of the 119 patients tested were found to have this mutation. Furthermore, on preliminary screening using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), no novel mutations were detected in the coding sequence of four ADSL exons, spanning approximately 50% of the cDNA. In light of these findings, it appears that mutations in the ADSL gene represent a distinctly uncommon cause of autism. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Filling cystoureterography facilitates stone visualization in patients with previously inserted double-J ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Kravchick, Sergey George; Shumalinsky, Dmitry; Jeshurun-Koren, Michael; Stepnov, Eugen; Cytron, Shmuel

    2005-06-01

    In our study, we assessed the ability of a filling cystogram to induce vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and to evaluate its role in stone targeting during ESWL in the presence of a double-J ureteral stent (JJ-S). Filling cystoureterography was performed during ESWL in 17 patients with previously inserted 4.7 F JJ-S. The examination ended with stone localization. In every procedure, 3,500 shock waves were delivered with an energy range of 18-23 kV. Patients were evaluated 4 weeks after ESWL. A stone-free result was defined as no evidence of calculi in the first or second visits. Because contrast material was employed in this study, we also evaluated its possible interference with the results of lithotripsy. All radiolucent or poorly calcified stones were successfully localized. In four patients, rhythmic suprapubic manual pressure was performed to initiate VUR. Reflux was low grade in 35% and high grade in 65% of renal units. The efficiency quotient reached 59%. In vitro artificial stones were successfully disintegrated both in water and solutions of Ultravist. In the presence of a JJ-S, filling cystography can easily localize radiolucent stones during SWL. No special catheters or stents are required for this technique. Ultravist in particular does not affect the results of ESWL unfavorably.

  9. Effects of Previous Land-Use on Plant Species Composition and Diversity in Mediterranean Forests.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Yacine; Martínez-García, Felipe; de Frutos, Ángel; Alados, Concepción L

    2015-01-01

    At some point in their history, most forests in the Mediterranean Basin have been subjected to intensive management or converted to agriculture land. Knowing how forest plant communities recovered after the abandonment of forest-management or agricultural practices (including livestock grazing) provides a basis for investigating how previous land management have affected plant species diversity and composition in forest ecosystems. Our study investigated the consequences of historical "land management" practices on present-day Mediterranean forests by comparing species assemblages and the diversity of (i) all plant species and (ii) each ecological group defined by species' habitat preferences and successional status (i.e., early-, mid-, and late-successional species). We compared forest stands that differed both in land-use history and in successional stage. In addition, we evaluated the value of those stands for biodiversity conservation. The study revealed significant compositional differentiation among stands that was due to among-stand variations in the diversity (namely, species richness and evenness) of early-, intermediate-, and late-successional species. Historical land management has led to an increase in compositional divergences among forest stands and the loss of late-successional forest species.

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  11. Variation in founder groups promotes establishment success in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Forsman, Anders; Wennersten, Lena; Karlsson, Magnus; Caesar, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental changes currently pose severe threats to biodiversity, and reintroductions and translocations are increasingly used to protect declining populations and species from extinction. Theory predicts that establishment success should be higher for more variable groups of dissimilar individuals. To test this ‘diversity promotes establishment’ hypothesis, we introduced colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) to different sites in the wild. The number of descendants found at the release sites the subsequent year increased with increasing number of colour morphs in the founder group, and variation in founder groups also positively affected colour morph diversity in the established populations. Since colour morphs differ in morphology, physiology, behaviour, reproductive life history and types of niche used, these findings demonstrate that variation among individuals in functionally important traits promotes establishment success under natural conditions, and further indicate that founder diversity may contribute to evolutionary rescue and increased population persistence. PMID:22456885

  12. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  13. Limitations to seedling establishment in a mesic Hawaiian forest.

    PubMed

    Denslow, Julie S; Uowolo, Amanda L; Hughes, R Flint

    2006-05-01

    While invasive species may be visible indicators of plant community degradation, they may not constitute the only, or even the primary, limitation to stand regeneration. We used seed-augmentation and grass-removal experiments under different canopy conditions to assess the relative importance of dispersal limitation, resource availability, and competition on seedling establishment in the understory shrubs Sophora chrysophilla, Dodonea viscosa, and Pipturus albidus in a montane mesic forest in Hawaii. The study location was an Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha forest at 1000-1500 m elevation on the leeward side of Hawaii Island; it is a closed-canopy forest historically subject to logging and grazing by cattle and sheep and currently dominated by the exotic grass, Ehrharta stipoides, in the herb layer. Seedling establishment after 1 and 2 years was strongly dispersal limited in Sophora and Dodonea, but not in Acacia, a non-augmented species in which abundant seedlings established, nor in Pipterus, in which only one seedling established in 2 years. Grass cover reduced seedling establishment in Acacia, Sophora, and Dodonea and, for the latter two species, seedling establishment was substantially greater in the warmer, more moist forest at the lowest elevation. Light, moisture, and resin-captured N and P were more strongly affected by elevation and canopy composition than by grass cover, but in most cases seedling establishment was not positively correlated with resource availability. Limitations to the establishment of woody seedlings in this forest-grassland mixture vary among species; however, both dispersal limitation and competition from a shade-tolerant grass are important deterrents to regeneration in these forests.

  14. DNA-guided establishment of nucleosome patterns within coding regions of a eukaryotic genome.

    PubMed

    Beh, Leslie Y; Müller, Manuel M; Muir, Tom W; Kaplan, Noam; Landweber, Laura F

    2015-11-01

    A conserved hallmark of eukaryotic chromatin architecture is the distinctive array of well-positioned nucleosomes downstream from transcription start sites (TSS). Recent studies indicate that trans-acting factors establish this stereotypical array. Here, we present the first genome-wide in vitro and in vivo nucleosome maps for the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In contrast with previous studies in yeast, we find that the stereotypical nucleosome array is preserved in the in vitro reconstituted map, which is governed only by the DNA sequence preferences of nucleosomes. Remarkably, this average in vitro pattern arises from the presence of subsets of nucleosomes, rather than the whole array, in individual Tetrahymena genes. Variation in GC content contributes to the positioning of these sequence-directed nucleosomes and affects codon usage and amino acid composition in genes. Given that the AT-rich Tetrahymena genome is intrinsically unfavorable for nucleosome formation, we propose that these "seed" nucleosomes--together with trans-acting factors--may facilitate the establishment of nucleosome arrays within genes in vivo, while minimizing changes to the underlying coding sequences.

  15. Arginase inhibition: a new treatment for preventing progression of established diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    You, Hanning; Gao, Ting; Cooper, Timothy K; Morris, Sidney M; Awad, Alaa S

    2015-09-01

    Our previous publication showed that inhibition of arginase prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, identification of targets that retard the progression of established DN-which is more clinically relevant-is lacking. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that arginase inhibition would prevent the progression of established DN. Effects of arginase inhibition were compared with treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, a current standard of care in DN. Experiments were conducted in Ins2(Akita) mice treated with the arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-l-cysteine (BEC) or captopril starting at 6 wk of age for 12 wk (early treatment) or starting at 12 wk of age for 6 wk (late treatment). Early and late treatment with BEC resulted in protection from DN as indicated by reduced albuminuria, histological changes, kidney macrophage infiltration, urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and restored nephrin expression, kidney nitrate/nitrite, kidney endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation, and renal medullary blood flow compared with vehicle-treated Ins2(Akita) mice at 18 wk of age. Interestingly, early treatment with captopril reduced albuminuria, histological changes, and kidney macrophage infiltration without affecting the other parameters, but late treatment with captopril was ineffective. These findings highlight the importance of arginase inhibition as a new potential therapeutic intervention in both early and late stages of diabetic renal injury.

  16. 21 CFR 807.40 - Establishment registration and device listing for foreign establishments importing or offering...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Any establishment within any foreign country engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation... communication between the foreign establishment's management and representatives of the Food and Drug... registration information in accordance with subpart B of this part. Each foreign establishment shall...

  17. The Berlin Affective Word List for Children (kidBAWL): Exploring Processing of Affective Lexical Semantics in the Visual and Auditory Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Teresa; Braun, Mario; Schmidtke, David; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6–12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the “kidBAWL,” we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies. The results for both modalities show large structural similarities between pupil and adult data (taken from previous studies) indicating that in the present age range, the affective lexicon and the dynamic interplay between language and emotion is already well-developed. Differential effects show that younger children tend to choose less extreme ratings than older children and that rating latencies decrease with age. Overall, our study should help to develop more realistic models of word recognition and reading that include affective processes and offer a methodology for exploring the roots of pleasant literary experiences and ludic reading. PMID:27445930

  18. The Affective Consequences of Cognitive Inhibition: Devaluation or Neutralization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Ferrey, Anne E.; Burt, Dustin H. R.; Pistchik, Meghan; Fenske, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Affective evaluations of previously ignored visual stimuli are more negative than those of novel items or prior targets of attention or response. This has been taken as evidence that inhibition has negative affective consequences. But inhibition could act instead to attenuate or "neutralize" preexisting affective salience, predicting opposite…

  19. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions.

  20. Clinically important FEV1 declines among coal miners: an exploration of previously unrecognised determinants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, M. L.; Petsonk, E. L.; Beeckman, L. A.; Wagner, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relation between occupational exposure to dust and loss of ventilatory lung function is now well established. However, many exposures during work and other activities might also have important roles in determining clinically important losses of lung function. In this study, we attempted to explore additional plausible determinants of exposures and other potential risk factors for clinically important decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) during work in dusty trades. METHODS: The study was performed in 264 underground coal miners whose lung function had been followed up for an average of 11 years. With an extensive follow up questionnaire, miners were asked about their occupational and non-occupational exposures, smoking, personal and family medical history, and living conditions during childhood. RESULTS: Several variables of the mine environment (as well as previously recognised effects of mining work and region) were found to be associated with excess decline in FEV1, including work in roof bolting, exposure to explosive blasting, and to control dust spraying water that had been stored in holding tanks. Use of respiratory protection seemed to reduce the risk of decline in FEV1. Other factors that were found to be associated with declines in pulmonary function included smoking, body mass, weight gain, childhood pneumonia, and childhood exposure in the home to passive tobacco smoke and possibly smoke due to wood and coal fuels. Miners with excessive decline in FEV1 were less likely to be working in mining jobs at follow up. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the existence of additional risk factors for decline in lung function in dusty trades, and may be useful in developing additional approaches to the prevention of chronic respiratory disease.   PMID:10658541

  1. Toothbrushing procedure in schoolchildren with no previous formal instruction: variables associated to dental biofilm removal.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Glenda N; Sorazabal, Ana L; Salgado, Pablo A; Squassi, Aldo F; Klemonskis, Graciela L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the association between features regarding brushing procedure performed by schoolchildren without previous formal training and the effectiveness of biofilm removal. Out of a population of 8900 6- and 7-year-old schoolchildren in Buenos Aires City, 600 children were selected from schools located in homogeneous risk areas. Informed consent was requested from parents or guardians and formal assent was obtained from children themselves. The final sample consisted of 316 subjects. The following tooth brushing variables were analyzed: toothbrush-gripping, orientation of active part of bristles with respect to the tooth, type of movement applied, brushing both jaws together or separately, including all 6 sextants and duration of brushing. The level of dental biofilm after brushing was determined by O'Leary's index, acceptable cut-off point = 20%. Four calibrated dentists performed observations and clinical examinations. Frequency distribution, central tendency and dispersion measures were calculated. Cluster analyses were performed; proportions of variables for each cluster were compared with Bonferroni's correction and OR was obtained. The most frequent categories were: palm gripping (71.51%); perpendicular orientation (85.8%); horizontal movement (95.6%); separate addressing of jaws (68%) and inclusion of all 6 sextants (50.6%). Mean duration of brushing was 48.78 ± 27.36 seconds. 42.7% of the children achieved an acceptable biofilm level. The cluster with the highest proportion of subjects with acceptable post-brushing biofilm levels (p<0.05) differed significantly from the rest for the variable "inclusion of all 6 sextants in brushing procedure". OR was 2.538 (CI 95% 1.603 - 4.017). Inclusion of all six sextants could be a determinant variable for the removal of biofilm by brushing in schoolchildren, and should be systematized as a component in oral hygiene education.

  2. Beliefs about willpower moderate the effect of previous day demands on next day's expectations and effective goal striving.

    PubMed

    Bernecker, Katharina; Job, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that beliefs about willpower affect self-regulation following previous self-regulatory demands (Job et al., 2010). Some people believe that their willpower is limited, meaning that after a demanding task it needs to be replenished (limited theory). By contrast, others believe that willpower is not limited and that previous self-control tasks even activate willpower (non-limited theory). We hypothesized that when people experience a demanding day their beliefs about willpower predict their expected capacity to self-regulate and their actual self-regulation on the following day. In a daily diary study (N = 157), we measured students' daily level of demands, their expected performance in unpleasant tasks, and their effective goal striving. Results showed that following a demanding day, students with a non-limited theory had higher expectations about their progress in unpleasant tasks and were striving more efficiently for their goals than students with a limited theory. These findings suggest that beliefs about willpower affect whether demands experienced on a previous day have positive or negative consequences on people's self-regulation.

  3. Beliefs about willpower moderate the effect of previous day demands on next day’s expectations and effective goal striving

    PubMed Central

    Bernecker, Katharina; Job, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that beliefs about willpower affect self-regulation following previous self-regulatory demands (Job et al., 2010). Some people believe that their willpower is limited, meaning that after a demanding task it needs to be replenished (limited theory). By contrast, others believe that willpower is not limited and that previous self-control tasks even activate willpower (non-limited theory). We hypothesized that when people experience a demanding day their beliefs about willpower predict their expected capacity to self-regulate and their actual self-regulation on the following day. In a daily diary study (N = 157), we measured students’ daily level of demands, their expected performance in unpleasant tasks, and their effective goal striving. Results showed that following a demanding day, students with a non-limited theory had higher expectations about their progress in unpleasant tasks and were striving more efficiently for their goals than students with a limited theory. These findings suggest that beliefs about willpower affect whether demands experienced on a previous day have positive or negative consequences on people’s self-regulation. PMID:26528198

  4. Changes in Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs Across Treatment Modalities for Seasonal Affective Disorder: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Light Therapy, and their Combination"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    significant response rate of only 43% in those experiencing moderate to severe SAD symptoms ( Terman et al., 1989). In addition, residual...Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD; Williams, Link, Rosenthal, Amira, & Terman , 1992) and the Beck Depression Inventory – Second Edition...compared at post- treatment based on pre-determined criteria established in previous SAD research ( Terman et al.1989). Post-treatment remission rates

  5. Affective Responses of Overseas Student-Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; MacKay, Brenda B.

    2007-01-01

    Universities offering teacher education degrees are finding the world to be significantly smaller than did previous generations. Increasingly, American students are completing their required student teaching in foreign contexts. The present research study used rigorous qualitative methods in order to appraise the affective experiences from a…

  6. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  7. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by…

  8. Rodent empathy and affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2011-10-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. Thus, rodent behavioral models can now be developed to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp's theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.

  9. 77 FR 36286 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Previous Participation... also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Previous Participation Certification. OMB... participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval...

  10. Pregnancy hemoperitoneum and placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pridjian, G.; Rich, N.E.; Montag, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation has never been described. Reported is a case of placenta percreta with hemoperitoneum associated with a second-trimester incomplete abortion in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure.

  11. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  12. 12 CFR 225.140 - Disposition of property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... satisfaction of debts previously contracted. 225.140 Section 225.140 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted. (a) The Board recently considered the... acquiring and holding assets acquired in satisfaction of a debt previously contracted in good faith (a...

  13. 12 CFR 225.140 - Disposition of property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfaction of debts previously contracted. 225.140 Section 225.140 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted. (a) The Board recently considered the... acquiring and holding assets acquired in satisfaction of a debt previously contracted in good faith (a...

  14. 75 FR 91 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair) Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Directives; Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair) Model CL-600-2B16 (CL-604...: Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair): Docket No. FAA-2009-1227; Directorate... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate previously held...

  15. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien...

  16. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien...

  17. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien...

  18. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien...

  19. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien...

  20. Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella Bacteriophages Previously Used in Phage Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Hong, Y; Fealey, M; Singh, A; Walton, K; Martin, C; Harman, N J; Mahlie, J; Ebner, P D

    2015-12-01

    The use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents to control Salmonella in food production has gained popularity over the last two decades. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that bacteriophages can be direct fed to limit Salmonella colonization and transmission in pigs. Here, we characterized the bacteriophages in our treatment cocktail in terms of lytic spectrum, growth kinetics, survivability under various conditions, and genomic sequencing. PCR-based fingerprinting indicated that 9 of the 10 phages, while related, were distinct isolates. Single-step growth kinetics analysis determined that the eclipse periods, latent periods, and burst sizes averaged 21.5 min, 31.5 min, and 43.3 particles, respectively. The viability of the phages was measured after exposure to various pH ranges, temperatures, digestive enzymes, UV light, and chlorinated water. Temperatures greater than 87.5°C, pH of <2.0, UV light (302 and 365 nm), and chlorinated water (500 ppm) inactivated the tested phages. Only select bacteriophages, however, were affected by incubation at temperatures of ≤75.0°C or pH of 4.0 to 10.0. Genomic sequencing of the phage with the broadest spectrum in the collection (effectively lysed all four Salmonella serovars tested), vB_SalM_SJ2, revealed it to belong to the Viunalikevirus genus of the Myoviridae family. Of the 197 predicted open reading frames, no toxin-associated, lysogenic, Salmonella virulence, or antimicrobial resistance genes were identified. Taken together, these data indicate that phages, as biologicals, may require some manner of protection (e.g., microencapsulation) to remain viable under various physiological and manufacturing conditions. In addition, based on its ability to effectively lyse diverse Salmonella serovars, phage vB_SalM-SJ2 could be further developed as an important biocontrol agent in various aspects of food production when the exact serovar or strain of contaminating Salmonella is not yet known.

  1. Analysis on Population Level Reveals Trappability of Wild Rodents Is Determined by Previous Trap Occupant

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Live trapping is central to the study of small mammals. Thus, any bias needs to be understood and accounted for in subsequent analyses to ensure accurate population estimates. One rarely considered bias is the behavioural response of individuals to the trap, in particular the olfactory cues left behind by previous occupants (PO). We used a data set of 8,115 trap nights spanning 17 separate trapping sessions between August 2002 and November 2013 in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK to examine if the decision to enter a trap was affected by the PO, if this was detectable in traditional Capture-Mark-Recapture trapping data (i.e., individuals not uniquely marked), and if it was possible for this effect to bias the population estimates obtained. Data were collected on Apodemus sylvaticus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus agrestis. Three Generalised Linear Models revealed a significant tendency for the three species to enter traps with same-species PO. With, for example, A. sylvaticus 9.1 times more likely to enter a same species PO trap compared to one that contained a M. agrestis in the grassland during the nocturnal period. Simulation highlighted that, when all other factors are equal, the species with the highest PO effect will have the highest capture rate and therefore return more accurate population estimates. Despite the large dataset, certain species-, sex-, and/ or age-combinations were under-represented, and thus no effects of any additional individual-specific characteristics could be evaluated. Uniquely marking individuals would allow for the PO effect to be disentangled from other biases such as trap-shyness and spatial heterogeneity, but may not be possible in all cases and will depend on the aims of the study and the resources available. PMID:26689683

  2. Affective Scaffolds, Expressive Arts, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Some theorists have argued that elements of the surrounding world play a crucial role in sustaining and amplifying both cognition and emotion. Such insights raise an interesting question about the relationship between cognitive and affective scaffolding: in addition to enabling the realization of specific affective states, can an affective niche also enable the realization of certain cognitive capacities? In order to gain a better understanding of this relationship between affective niches and cognition, I will examine the use of expressive arts in the context of psychotherapy and peacebuilding. In these settings, environmental resources and interpersonal scaffolds not only evoke emotion and encourage the adoption of particular bodily affective styles, but also support the development of capacities for self-awareness and interpersonal understanding. These affective scaffolds play a crucial role in therapy and peacebuilding, in fact, insofar as they facilitate the development of self-knowledge, enhance capacities associated with social cognition, and build positive rapport and trust among participants. I will argue that this is because affectivity is linked to the way that subjects frame and attend to their surroundings. Insofar as the regulation and modification of emotion goes hand in hand with opening up new interpretive frames and establishing new habits of mind, the creation of an affective niche can contribute significantly to various modes of cognition. PMID:27014164

  3. Subjective cognitive-affective status following thalamic stroke.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Daniela; Ostendorf, Florian; Kopp, Ute A; Kraft, Antje; Bohner, Georg; Nabavi, Darius G; Kathmann, Norbert; Ploner, Christoph J

    2013-02-01

    Previous patient studies suggest that thalamic stroke may yield persistent deficits in several cognitive domains. At present, the subjective dimension and everyday relevance of these impairments is unclear, since many patients with thalamic stroke only show minor changes on physical examination. Here, we have studied subjective consequences of focal thalamic lesions. A sample of 68 patients with a history of ischemic thalamic stroke was examined by using established clinical self-report questionnaires assessing memory, attention, executive functions, emotional status and health-related quality of life. In order to control for general factors related to cerebrovascular disease, self-reports were compared to an age-matched group of 34 patients with a history of transient ischemic attack. Thalamic lesions were co-registered to an atlas of the human thalamus. Lesion overlap and subtraction analyses were used for lesion-to-symptom mapping. When both patient groups were compared, no significant differences were found for either questionnaire. However, when subgroups were compared, patients with infarctions involving the posterior thalamus showed significant emotional disturbances and elevated anxiety levels compared to patients with more anterior lesions. Our findings thus point to the existence of a persistent affective impairment associated with chronic lesions of the posterior thalamus. This syndrome may result from damage to connections between medial pulvinar and extra-thalamic regions involved in affective processing. Our findings suggest that the posterior thalamus may contribute significantly to the regulation of mood.

  4. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Soil is not only essential for establishing a sustainable bio-economy, but also plays a key role also in a broad range of societal challenges including 1) climate change mitigation and adaptation, 2) land use change 3) water resource protection, 4) biotechnology for human health, 5) biodiversity and ecological sustainability, and 6) combating desertification. Soils regulate and support water, mass and energy fluxes between the land surface, the vegetation, the atmosphere and the deep subsurface and control storage and release of organic matter affecting climate regulation and biogeochemical cycles. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate

  5. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  6. 75 FR 1595 - Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and Solicitation of Nominations for Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... affecting Smart Grid activities. II. Structure The Director of NIST shall appoint the members of the... National Institute of Standards and Technology Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and solicitation of...

  7. 76 FR 2801 - Revocation and Establishment of Compulsory Reporting Points; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... removes and establishes high altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting points in the vicinity of the United... administrative change and does not affect the boundaries, altitudes, or operating requirements of the airspace... establishing the TOVAD Compulsory Reporting Point on the U.S./Canadian border. Alaskan High Altitude...

  8. Competition between Free-Floating Plants Is Strongly Driven by Previously Experienced Phosphorus Concentrations in the Water Column

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Neefjes, Rozemarijn E. M.; van Zuidam, Bastiaan G.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients can determine the outcome of the competition between different floating plant species. The response of floating plants to current phosphorus levels may be affected by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations because some species have the ability to store excess phosphorus for later use. This might have an impact on their competition. Here, we investigate the effect of previous and actual phosphorus concentrations on the growth rate of free-floating plant species (Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minor/gibba and Ricciocarpus natans)and the effect of phosphorus history on the competition between L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides and between L. minor/gibba and R. natans. As expected, plant growth was lower when previously kept at low instead of high phosphorus concentrations. Growth of L. minor/gibba and A. filiculoides with a phosphorus rich history was comparable for low and high actual phosphorus concentrations, however, internal phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower with low actual phosphorus concentration. This indicates that both species perform luxury phosphorus uptake. Furthermore, internal P concentration in Azolla and Lemna increased within two weeks after a period of P deficit without a strong increase in growth. A. filiculoides in a mixture with L. minor/gibba grew faster than its monoculture. Morphological differences may explain why A. filiculoides outcompeted L. minor/gibba and these differences may be induced by phosphorus concentrations in the past. Growth of L. minor/gibba was only reduced by the presence of A. filiculoides with a high phosphorus history. Growth of L. minor/gibba and R. natans in mixtures was positively affected only when they had a high phosphorus history themselves and their competitor a low phosphorus history. These observations clearly indicate that phosphorus history of competing plants is important for understanding the outcome of the competition. Therefore, actual and previously experienced phosphorus

  9. 7 CFR 63.300 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment. 63.300 Section 63.300 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Revolving Fund § 63.300 Establishment. The NSIIC Revolving...

  10. 36 CFR 901.2 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishment. 901.2 Section 901.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION BYLAWS OF THE CORPORATION § 901.2 Establishment. (a) Creation. The Corporation, a wholly owned instrumentality of the...

  11. 36 CFR 901.2 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment. 901.2 Section 901.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION BYLAWS OF THE CORPORATION § 901.2 Establishment. (a) Creation. The Corporation, a wholly owned instrumentality of the...

  12. 36 CFR 1151.1 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment. 1151.1 Section 1151.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD BYLAWS § 1151.1 Establishment. The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board...

  13. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiol, Marlena; O'Connor, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this two-part paper is to develop a process model of unlearning established organizational routines. The model traces the interactions among three unlearning sub-processes: ostensive aspects of initial destabilization of an established routine; performative aspects of ongoing discarding-from-use of old behaviors and…

  14. Establishment of HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3) with stable DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Lin; HUANG, Xu-He; ZHOU, Ping-Ping; YU, Guo-Long; YAN, Jin; QIN, Bing; YAN, Xin-Ge; DIAO, Li-Mei; LIN, Peng; KUANG, Yi-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are indispensable co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into host cells. In our previous study, we identified that dopamine receptor-interacting protein 78 (DRiP78) and Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) are the CXCR4 and CCR5 homo- or hetero-dimer-interacting proteins. DRiP78 and NHERF1 are able to influence the co-receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking. Over-expression of NHERF1 affects the ligands or HIV-1 gp120-induced CCR5 internalization and HIV-1 production. It is reasonable to speculate that DRiP78 and NHERF1, as well as the signaling pathways involved in viral replication, would probably affect HIV-1 replication through regulating the co-receptors. In this present study, we designed two short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the DRiP78 and NHERF1, respectively, and constructed the pLenti6/BLOCK-iT-DEST lentiviral plasmids expressing DRiP78 or NHERF1 shRNA. The packaged lentiviruses were used to transduce the widely-applied HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3). Then, cells with stable knockdown were established through selecting transduced cells with Blasticidin. This study, for the first time, reported the establishment of the GHOST(3) with DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown, which is the first stable cell line with HIV-1 co-receptor-interacting molecular defects. PMID:26018859

  15. High Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Features in Patients Previously Treated for Nonfunctioning Pituitary Macroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Joustra, Sjoerd D.; Claessen, Kim M. J. A.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; van Beek, André P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) with suprasellar extension show disturbed sleep characteristics, possibly related to hypothalamic dysfunction. In addition to hypopituitarism, both structural hypothalamic damage and sleep restriction per se are associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with NFMA is not well established. Our objective was to study the prevalence and risk factors for (components of) the metabolic syndrome in patients treated for NFMA. Design The metabolic syndrome (NCEP-ATP III criteria) was studied in an unselected cohort of 145 NFMA patients (aged 26–88yr, 44% female) in long-term remission after treatment, receiving adequate stable hormone replacement for any pituitary deficiencies. The results were compared to population data of 63,995 Dutch inhabitants by standardization (LifeLines cohort study). Results NFMA patients showed increased risk for reduced HDL-cholesterol (SMR 1.59, 95% CI 1.13–2.11), increased triglyceride levels (SMR 2.31, 95% CI 1.78–2.90) and the metabolic syndrome (SMR 1.60, 95% CI 1.22–2.02), but not for increased blood pressure, waist circumference or hyperglycemia. Preoperative visual field defects independently affected the risk for increased blood pressure (OR 6.5, 95% CI 1.9–22.2), and hypopituitarism was associated with a body mass index - dependent risk for increased waist circumference (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2) and the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–1.9). Conclusions Patients treated for NFMA are increased at risk for developing the metabolic syndrome, mainly due to decreased HDL-cholesterol and increased triglycerides. Risk factors included hypopituitarism and preoperative visual field defects. Hypothalamic dysfunction may explain the metabolic abnormalities, in addition to intrinsic imperfections of hormone replacement therapy. Additional research is required to explore the relation between

  16. 19 CFR 177.12 - Modification or revocation of interpretive rulings, protest review decisions, and previous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... be evidence to establish that: (A) There was an actual determination by a Customs officer regarding... establishing whether the requisite treatment occurred, Customs will give diminished weight to transactions involving small quantities or values, and Customs will give no weight whatsoever to informal entries and...

  17. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  18. Individual Differences in Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  19. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  20. How Body Affects Brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Wendy A

    2016-08-09

    Studies show that physical exercise can affect a range of brain and cognitive functions. However, little is known about the peripheral signals that initiate these central changes. Moon et al. (2016) provide exciting new evidence that a novel myokine, cathepsin B (CTSB), released with exercise is associated with improved memory.

  1. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  2. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  3. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  4. Influence of a previous neck sprain on recovery after whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Nee, Patrick A

    2008-12-01

    The impact of a previous neck sprain on recovery from whiplash injury is unknown as published studies have produced conflicting results. This article reviews the literature on the prognosis of a second whiplash injury, distinguishing between previous injuries with and without complete recovery. The best available evidence suggests that a previous injury with incomplete recovery represents an adverse prognostic indicator. However, where there has been complete recovery, the prior injury does not influence the prognosis.

  5. 75 FR 26889 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University) et al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... to read as follows: Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); Firefly Aviation... International Aviation, Inc.); International Helicopters, Inc.; Precision Helicopters, LLC; Robinson Air...

  6. 77 FR 32069 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes. This proposed..., Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes, certificated in any category, serial numbers...

  7. Previous chronic exogenous glucocorticoid administration in vivo does not affect functional characteristics and cellular lifespan of human skin fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pratsinis, Harris; Dimozi, Anastasia; Pilichos, Konstantinos; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Yiacoumettis, Andreas M; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2011-06-01

    Excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) has been reported to lead to skin atrophy and impaired wound healing. The present study investigates whether human skin fibroblasts suffer permanent damages due to a long-term exposure to GC excess. Fibroblasts obtained from patients being under GC treatment for periods over one year were cultured under standard conditions in vitro, and studied regarding pivotal parameters involved in skin homeostasis and aging, i.e. collagen production, cell proliferation, and cellular replicative lifespan. No statistical differences were observed regarding these functions compared to those of normal human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, no differences between normal and patient-derived cells were observed regarding their sensitivity to a supra-physiological cortisol concentration. In conclusion, the prolonged exposure of human skin fibroblasts in vivo to high concentrations of exogenously-administered GC does not lead to persistent adverse effects on their physiology.

  8. Modelling the Noise-Robustness of Infants’ Word Representations: The Impact of Previous Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Christina; Bosch, Louis ten; Fikkert, Paula; Boves, Lou

    2015-01-01

    During language acquisition, infants frequently encounter ambient noise. We present a computational model to address whether specific acoustic processing abilities are necessary to detect known words in moderate noise—an ability attested experimentally in infants. The model implements a general purpose speech encoding and word detection procedure. Importantly, the model contains no dedicated processes for removing or cancelling out ambient noise, and it can replicate the patterns of results obtained in several infant experiments. In addition to noise, we also addressed the role of previous experience with particular target words: does the frequency of a word matter, and does it play a role whether that word has been spoken by one or multiple speakers? The simulation results show that both factors affect noise robustness. We also investigated how robust word detection is to changes in speaker identity by comparing words spoken by known versus unknown speakers during the simulated test. This factor interacted with both noise level and past experience, showing that an increase in exposure is only helpful when a familiar speaker provides the test material. Added variability proved helpful only when encountering an unknown speaker. Finally, we addressed whether infants need to recognise specific words, or whether a more parsimonious explanation of infant behaviour, which we refer to as matching, is sufficient. Recognition involves a focus of attention on a specific target word, while matching only requires finding the best correspondence of acoustic input to a known pattern in the memory. Attending to a specific target word proves to be more noise robust, but a general word matching procedure can be sufficient to simulate experimental data stemming from young infants. A change from acoustic matching to targeted recognition provides an explanation of the improvements observed in infants around their first birthday. In summary, we present a computational model

  9. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  10. 7 CFR 981.30 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.30 Establishment. A Board of ten members, with...

  11. 7 CFR 981.30 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.30 Establishment. A Board of ten members, with...

  12. 7 CFR 981.30 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.30 Establishment. A Board of ten members, with...

  13. 7 CFR 981.30 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.30 Establishment. A Board of ten members, with...

  14. 7 CFR 981.30 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.30 Establishment. A Board of ten members, with...

  15. Regional Instrumentation Facilities Established by NSF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Analytical Chemistry, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the six regional instrumentation facilities established by the National Science Foundation. These centers make available to scientists state-of-the-art instrumentation such as: gas chromatographs; lasers; NMR spectrometers; X-rays; and others. (CS)

  16. Establishing an enteric bacteria reference laboratory in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark

    2014-06-09

    In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.

  17. Dynamic Synchronization of Teacher-Students Affection in Affective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei

    2011-01-01

    Based on Bower's affective network theory, the article links the dynamic analysis of affective factors in affective instruction, and presents affective instruction strategic of dynamic synchronization between teacher and students to implement the best ideal mood that promotes students' cognition and affection together. In the process of teaching,…

  18. Simulator Study of Lunar Orbit Establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Simulator Study of Lunar Orbit Establishment. The film was made using the Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach Simulator (LOLA). It represents the view an astronaut would see if he were looking toward the lunar horizon just prior to and during retrofire for orbit establishment. During this period the astronaut is essentially flying backward, therefore the lunar surface features appear to be moving away during the flight. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030976. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  19. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Leah Ticker; Takata, Sandy; Thompson, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation, and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference (CPP) for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30–55 months. Children displayed a CPP, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with CPP was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), indicating that CPP can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills. PMID:26257617

  20. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are affected by crop management.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Philippe; Tremblay, Gilles; Pageau, Denis; Liu, Wucheng

    2010-05-12

    Soybeans are an important source of tocopherols, which have health-beneficial properties. Previous studies have demonstrated that environmental factors may affect soybean tocopherol concentrations; the impact of specific crop management strategies, however, remains poorly understood. Experiments were conducted for 2 years at three sites in Quebec to determine the impact on soybean tocopherol concentrations of seeding rate, row spacing, seeding date, cultivar, and P and K fertilization. Total and alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Overall, alpha-tocopherol was the most responsive to the factors evaluated; the response of other tocopherols was often lower or inconsistent across environments. The seeding rate affected alpha-tocopherol concentrations in three out of five environments; seeding at a rate of 40 seeds m(-2) resulted in 4% higher concentrations than seeding at a higher rate. Wide row spacing (more than 36 cm) resulted in two out of five environments in 6% higher alpha-tocopherol concentrations as compared to narrower row spacing. The seeding date had a greater impact; mid- to late-May seeding across four environments resulted in 45% greater alpha-tocopherol concentrations than seeding at later dates. Phosphorus and K fertilization had a negligible impact on tocopherol concentrations. Across experiments, large differences were observed between environments; plants grown in northern environments consistently had lower concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols but higher concentrations of delta-tocopherol. Differences between cultivars were also consistent, ranging between 10 and 30%, depending on the tocopherol. Results demonstrate that soybean tocopherol concentrations are affected by crop management and thus suggest that specific recommended agronomic practices may need to be established for the production of soybeans for the functional food market.

  1. The ghost of social environments past: dominance relationships include current interactions and experience carried over from previous groups.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Colby J; Salali, Gul Deniz; Jackson, Andrew L

    2011-12-23

    Dominance hierarchies pervade animal societies. Within a static social environment, in which group size and composition are unchanged, an individual's hierarchy rank results from intrinsic (e.g. body size) and extrinsic (e.g. previous experiences) factors. Little is known, however, about how dominance relationships are formed and maintained when group size and composition are dynamic. Using a fusion-fission protocol, we fused groups of previously isolated shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) into larger groups, and then restored groups to their original size and composition. Pre-fusion hierarchies formed independently of individuals' sizes, and were maintained within a static group via winner/loser effects. Post-fusion hierarchies differed from pre-fusion ones; losing fights during fusion led to a decline in an individual's rank between pre- and post-fusion conditions, while spending time being aggressive during fusion led to an improvement in rank. In post-fusion tanks, larger individuals achieved better ranks than smaller individuals. In conclusion, dominance hierarchies in crabs represent a complex combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, in which experiences from previous groups can carry over to affect current competitive interactions.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix L to Part 121 - Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Previously Effective L Appendix L to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. L Appendix L to Part 121—Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective Appendix L...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix L to Part 121 - Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Previously Effective L Appendix L to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. L Appendix L to Part 121—Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective Appendix L...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix L to Part 121 - Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Previously Effective L Appendix L to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. L Appendix L to Part 121—Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective Appendix L...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix L to Part 121 - Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Previously Effective L Appendix L to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. L Appendix L to Part 121—Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective Appendix L...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix L to Part 121 - Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Previously Effective L Appendix L to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. L Appendix L to Part 121—Type Certification Regulations Made Previously Effective Appendix L...

  7. 14 CFR 121.406 - Credit for previous CRM/DRM training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit for previous CRM/DRM training. 121... previous CRM/DRM training. (a) For flightcrew members, the Administrator may credit CRM training received before March 19, 1998 toward all or part of the initial ground CRM training required by § 121.419....

  8. 14 CFR 121.406 - Credit for previous CRM/DRM training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit for previous CRM/DRM training. 121... previous CRM/DRM training. (a) For flightcrew members, the Administrator may credit CRM training received before March 19, 1998 toward all or part of the initial ground CRM training required by § 121.419....

  9. 14 CFR 121.406 - Credit for previous CRM/DRM training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit for previous CRM/DRM training. 121... previous CRM/DRM training. (a) For flightcrew members, the Administrator may credit CRM training received before March 19, 1998 toward all or part of the initial ground CRM training required by § 121.419....

  10. 14 CFR 121.406 - Credit for previous CRM/DRM training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit for previous CRM/DRM training. 121... previous CRM/DRM training. (a) For flightcrew members, the Administrator may credit CRM training received before March 19, 1998 toward all or part of the initial ground CRM training required by § 121.419....

  11. 76 FR 37629 - Airworthiness Directives: Lycoming Engines (Type Certificate Previously Held by Textron Lycoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-13-03 Lycoming Engines (Type certificate previously held by Textron Lycoming...-03-AD; Amendment 39-16726; AD 2011-13-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives: Lycoming Engines (Type Certificate Previously Held by Textron Lycoming) and Teledyne Continental Motors...

  12. 78 FR 76050 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron uticas, S.A.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by... engine due to a missing bolt. This AD requires modifying the PPC lever attachment system. We are...

  13. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... valid study. 152.93 Section 152.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency....

  14. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein.

  15. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported... receipt of an application (Application), filed on April 19, 2013, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously...

  16. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... application (Application), filed on October 26, 2012, by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported...

  17. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied... (Application), filed on August 8, 2011, by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  18. 76 FR 72436 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Reinstatement with Change of a Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Previously Approved Collection; Visibility Valuation Survey: Pilot Study AGENCY: U.S. Department of the...' willingness to pay for improvements in environmental quality. A stated preference survey will be required for...: Visibility Valuation Survey Pilot Study. Type of Request: This is a reinstatement of a previously...

  19. 14 CFR 47.35 - Aircraft last previously registered in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft last previously registered in the United States. 47.35 Section 47.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.35 Aircraft last previously registered in the...

  20. Previous Mental Health Service Utilization and Change in Clients' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, James F.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    Although a potentially important factor in case conceptualization and treatment planning, the impact of previous treatment on subsequent counseling response has received little empirical attention. Using archival data, this study aimed to (a) report the prevalence of previous treatment utilization in a counseling population, (b) examine potential…

  1. 18 CFR 401.114 - Data and information previously disclosed to the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Records and Information § 401.114 Data and information previously disclosed to the public. Any Commission... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data and information previously disclosed to the public. 401.114 Section 401.114 Conservation of Power and Water...

  2. 9 CFR 95.23 - Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Previously used meat covers... STRAW, OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.23 Previously used meat covers; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Cloth or burlap which has been used to cover fresh or frozen...

  3. 21 CFR 822.14 - May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again? 822.14 Section 822.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Surveillance Plan § 822.14 May I reference information previously submitted instead of submitting it again?...

  4. 14 CFR 121.406 - Credit for previous CRM/DRM training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for previous CRM/DRM training. 121... previous CRM/DRM training. (a) For flightcrew members, the Administrator may credit CRM training received before March 19, 1998 toward all or part of the initial ground CRM training required by § 121.419....

  5. Affect in electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Glaser, J; Salovey, P

    1998-01-01

    Recent U.S. history provides vivid illustrations of the importance of politicians' emotional displays in subsequent judgments of them. Yet, a review of empirical research on the role of affect (emotion, mood, and evaluation) in electoral politics reveals little work that has focused on the impact of candidates' emotional expression on voters' preferences for them. A theoretical framework is proposed to identify psychological mechanisms by which a target's displays of emotion influence judgments of that target. Findings from the emerging literature on emotions and politics challenge the traditional assumption of political science that voters make decisions based solely on the cold consideration of nonaffectively charged information. The affect and politics literature, although somewhat unfocused and broad, represents an interdisciplinary domain of study that contributes to the understanding of both electoral politics and social interaction more generally.

  6. 20 CFR 702.102 - Establishment and modification of compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and jurisdictional areas. 702.102 Section 702.102 Employees... Establishment and modification of compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and jurisdictional areas... otherwise determined by the Director (see 51 FR 4282, Feb. 3, 1986). The boundaries of the...

  7. 20 CFR 702.102 - Establishment and modification of compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and jurisdictional areas. 702.102 Section 702.102 Employees... Establishment and modification of compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and jurisdictional areas... otherwise determined by the Director (see 51 FR 4282, Feb. 3, 1986). The boundaries of the...

  8. 20 CFR 702.102 - Establishment and modification of compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and jurisdictional areas. 702.102 Section 702.102 Employees... Establishment and modification of compensation districts, establishment of suboffices and jurisdictional areas... otherwise determined by the Director (see 51 FR 4282, Feb. 3, 1986). The boundaries of the...

  9. Personality Differences Between Established and Less-established Male and Female Creative Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Stephen P.

    1978-01-01

    The California Psychological Inventory (CP I) was used to discriminate between 60 male and 60 female creative artists who were further identified as established or not established in their field. Creative females resembled their male counterparts more than did males and females in general. Discrimination between established and less established…

  10. Conditions affecting the foreskin.

    PubMed

    Hunter, David

    This article aims to provide an update on the anatomy of, and some of the conditions affecting, the foreskin. The cultural and religious significance of the foreskin will be explored, as well as nursing care and health promotion needs of men. The possible link between circumcision status and human immunodeficiency virus will be briefly discussed. Maintaining cleanliness of the genitals is advocated to reduce the incidence of inflammatory conditions.

  11. Comprehensive affected environment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Energy Vision 2020 evaluates the affected environment to help provide a baseline for measuring the environmental consequences of alternative energy strategies. Because this report is also an environmental impact statement, special emphasis is given to the environment. This regional perspective takes in both natural conditions and those resulting from human development. It considers socioeconomic, air, water, and land resources. This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report provides the overview for the environmental assessment.

  12. Point pattern match-based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    SciTech Connect

    Paglieroni, David W.

    2016-06-07

    A method and system is provided that applies attribute- and topology-based change detection to objects that were detected on previous scans of a medium. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, detection strength, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The locations define a three-dimensional network topology forming a constellation of previously detected objects. The change detection system stores attributes of the previously detected objects in a constellation database. The change detection system detects changes by comparing the attributes and topological consistency of newly detected objects encountered during a new scan of the medium to previously detected objects in the constellation database. The change detection system may receive the attributes of the newly detected objects as the objects are detected by an object detection system in real time.

  13. Mosquitoes and the environment in Nile Delta villages with previous rift valley fever activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egypt is affected by serious human and animal mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF). We investigated how potential RVF virus mosquito vector populations are affected by environmental conditions in the Nile Delta region of Egypt by collecting mosquitoes and environmental data from t...

  14. Development of oak plantations established for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive areas that are currently in agricultural production within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley are being restored to bottomland hardwood forests. Oaks (Quercus sp.), sown as seeds (acorns) or planted as seedlings, are the predominant trees established on most afforested sites. To compare stand development and natural invasion on sites afforested by planting seedlings or by sowing acorns, we sampled woody vegetation on ten 14- to 18-year-old oak plantations established to provide wildlife habitat. Stem densities of about 900 oaks/ha were comparable between stands established by sowing 4000 acorns/ha and stands established by planting 900 seedlings/ha. Densities of oaks in stands established from seedlings increased 38% from densities detected when these stands were 4- to 8-year-old. Densities of oaks established from field-sown acorns increased >100% during this same 10-year span. Oaks that were planted as seedlings were larger than those established from acorns, but trees resulting from either afforestation method were larger than trees naturally colonizing these sites. Natural invasion of woody species varied greatly among afforested sites, but was greater and more diverse on sites sown with acorns. Afforested stands were dominated by planted species, whereas naturally invading species were rare among dominant canopy trees. When afforestation objectives are primarily to provide wildlife habitat, we recommend, sowing acorns rather than planting seedlings. Additionally, planting fewer seeds or seedlings, diversifying the species planted, and leaving non-planted gaps will increase diversity of woody species and promote a more complex forest structure that enhances the suitability of afforested sites for wildlife.

  15. Contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations to establish derived manding skills in adults with severe developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Rocio; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate derived manding skills in 2 adults with severe developmental disabilities and language deficits by contriving transitive conditioned establishing operations. Specifically, we evaluated whether a history of reinforced conditional discrimination learning would ultimately result in a derived mand repertoire, in which participants manded for items that were needed to complete chained tasks. After mastering the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS), participants were taught to mand for the needed items by exchanging pictures of the items for the items themselves. They were then taught to conditionally relate the dictated names of the items to the corresponding pictures of the items and to relate the dictated names to the corresponding printed words. We then tested, in the absence of reinforcement, whether participants would mand for the items needed to complete the chained tasks using text rather than pictures. Both participants showed the emergence of derived mands and some derived stimulus relations as a result of this instruction. Some of the derived relations were shown to be intact at 1-month follow-up, and scores on derived mand probes were higher at follow-up than before training. In addition, the 2 participants vocally requested the needed items on maintenance test probes, a skill that was never trained and was not previously in their repertoires. These results suggest that a history of reinforced relational responding may facilitate the expansion of a number of verbal skills and emphasize the possibility of a synthesis of Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior and derived stimulus relations into language-training efforts for persons with significant disabilities.

  16. A Previous Miscarriage and a Previous Successful Pregnancy Have a Different Impact on HLA Antibody Formation during a Subsequent Successful Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Geneugelijk, Kirsten; Hönger, Gideon; van Deutekom, Hanneke Wilhelmina Maria; Hösli, Irene Mathilde; Schaub, Stefan; Spierings, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Inherited paternal HLA antigens from the semi-allogeneic fetus may trigger maternal immune responses during pregnancy, leading to the production of child-specific HLA antibodies. The prevalence of these HLA antibodies increases with the number of successful pregnancies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a single prior miscarriage on HLA antibody formation during a subsequent successful pregnancy. Women with a successful pregnancy with one or more prior miscarriages (n = 229) and women with a successful pregnancy without a prior miscarriage (n = 58), and their children were HLA typed. HLA antibody analyses were performed in these women to identify whether HLA antibodies were formed against mismatched HLA class-I antigens of the last child. The percentage of immunogenic antigens was significantly lower after a single successful pregnancy that was preceded by a single miscarriage (n = 18 women) compared to a successful pregnancy that was preceded by a first successful pregnancy (n = 62 women). Thus, our data suggest that a previous miscarriage has a different impact on child-specific HLA antibody formation during a subsequent successful pregnancy than a previous successful pregnancy. The lower immunogenicity in these women cannot be explained by reduced numbers of immunogenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes. In conclusion, our observations indicate that increasing gravidity is not related to an increased prevalence of HLA antibodies in a single successful pregnancy that was preceded by a single prior miscarriage. PMID:27999574

  17. Bulimia nervosa patient diagnosed with previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood: clinical case report, literature review, and diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Serfontein, Jaco; Müller, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    There is increasing literature suggesting a link between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs), especially bulimia nervosa. ADHD is under-diagnosed in girls and children of high intelligence are typically missed. We identified a case of a 23-year-old woman suffering from severe bulimia nervosa and previously unsuspected ADHD in adulthood; we diagnosed and treated her with extended-release methylphenidate. We performed a literature review on the ADHD and bulimia nervosa comorbidity. We discuss the reasons why her ADHD remained undiagnosed and the difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in patients with EDs. We suggest that identifying comorbid ADHD is crucial for these patients and argue for the use of a structured interview, collateral history and investigation of onset of symptoms to establish a diagnosis of ADHD in adults with bulimia nervosa. Comorbidities and overlap of symptomatology need to be taken into account.

  18. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fleeter, Sanford

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  19. Psychological factors affecting migraine.

    PubMed

    Shulman, B H

    1989-01-01

    Psychological factors are known to increase the severity and intensity of headaches. When they are shown to be present, an appropriate psychiatric diagnosis is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (DSMIII-R) category of psychological factors affecting physical condition (code no. 316.0). These factors can be differentiated into stress factors, personality traits, psychodynamic factors, learned behaviors, and mood disturbances. The factors overlap and intertwine in the average headache patient. Attention to these factors in a systematic way should enhance our understanding and treatment of the chronic headache patient.

  20. 77 FR 34388 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; CYSVIEW (Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; CYSVIEW (Previously HEXVIX) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  1. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate..., Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue...

  2. 77 FR 44432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate...., Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Groves, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch,...

  3. Status of Exotic and Previously Common Native Coccinellids (Coleoptera) in South Dakota Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last two decades, three previously common coccinellids (Adalia bipunctata (L.), Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Coccinella novemnotata Herbst) have declined in abundance in South Dakota, while two invasive species (Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Harmonia axyridis (Pall...

  4. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice...

  5. 24 CFR 200.217 - Filing of previous participation certificate on prescribed form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... date as may be allowed by HUD, all principals in HUD multifamily mortgage and project based subsidy programs must submit an electronic Previous Participation Certificate (form HUD-2530) via HUD's secure...

  6. Watching a previous victory produces an increase in testosterone among elite hockey players.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Putnam, Susan K

    2010-04-01

    Previous research indicates that testosterone concentrations are highly responsive to human competitive interactions and that winners have elevated testosterone concentrations relative to losers. Also, there is some evidence that simply observing others compete can have a similar effect on the endocrine system. Here, in two studies, we examined the extent to which elite male hockey players would demonstrate an increase in testosterone concentrations after watching themselves engaged in a previous successful competitive interaction. Results indicated that watching a previous victory produced a significant increase in testosterone concentrations (42-44% increase), whereas watching a previous defeat or a neutral video did not produce a significant change in testosterone (17% and 6%, respectively). Given that natural fluctuations in testosterone have been shown to influence future competitive and aggressive behaviours, the current studies may have important practical implications for individuals involved in competitive sports.

  7. The false fame illusion in people with memories about a previous life.

    PubMed

    Peters, Maarten J V; Horselenberg, Robert; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2007-03-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with full-blown memories of highly implausible events are prone to commit source monitoring errors. Participants reporting previous-life memories and those without such memories completed a false fame task. This task provides an index of source monitoring errors (i.e., misclassifying familiar non-famous names as famous names). Participants with previous-life memories had a greater tendency to judge the names of previously presented non-famous people as famous than control participants. The two groups did not differ in terms of correct recognition of new non-famous names and famous names. Although dissociation, cognitive failures, sleep-related experiences, depressive symptoms, and signs of psychological distress were all significantly higher in participants with previous-life memories than in controls, these variables did not predict the false fame illusion.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Eight Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Previously Characterized Using an Electrophoretic Typing Scheme.

    PubMed

    Mussa, Huda J; VanWagoner, Timothy M; Morton, Daniel J; Seale, Thomas W; Whitby, Paul W; Stull, Terrence L

    2015-11-25

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of human disease. Strains were selected for genome sequencing to represent the breadth of nontypeable strains within the species, as previously defined by the electrophoretic mobility of 16 metabolic enzymes.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Eight Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Previously Characterized Using an Electrophoretic Typing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Mussa, Huda J.; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of human disease. Strains were selected for genome sequencing to represent the breadth of nontypeable strains within the species, as previously defined by the electrophoretic mobility of 16 metabolic enzymes. PMID:26607889

  10. 77 FR 32169 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ...) highlights activities such as counseling, marketing, meetings/conferences, and services to businesses as... Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Small Business Transportation... Quarterly Report Form (DOT F 4502) AGENCY: Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization...

  11. Cybrid studies establish the causal link between the mtDNA m.3890G>A/MT-ND1 mutation and optic atrophy with bilateral brainstem lesions

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, Leonardo; Ghelli, Anna Maria; Iommarini, Luisa; Maresca, Alessandra; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Liguori, Rocco; Zanna, Claudia; Barboni, Piero; De Nardo, Vera; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Rizzo, Giovanni; Tonon, Caterina; Lodi, Raffaele; Calvaruso, Maria Antonietta; Cappelletti, Martina; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Achilli, Alessandro; Pala, Maria; Torroni, Antonio; Carelli, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    Complex I (CI) deficiency is a frequent cause of mitochondrial disorders and, in most cases, is due to mutations in CI subunit genes encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In this study, we establish the pathogenic role of the heteroplasmic mtDNA m.3890G>A/MT-ND1 (p.R195Q) mutation, which affects an extremely conserved amino acid position in ND1 subunit of CI. This mutation was found in a young-adult male with optic atrophy resembling Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and bilateral brainstem lesions. The only previously reported case with this mutation was a girl with fatal infantile Leigh syndrome with bilateral brainstem lesions. Transfer of the mutant mtDNA in the cybrid cell system resulted in a marked reduction of CI activity and CI-dependent ATP synthesis in the presence of a normally assembled enzyme. These findings establish the pathogenicity of the m.3890G>A/MT-ND1 mutation and remark the link between CI mutations affecting the mtDNA-encoded ND subunits and LHON-like optic atrophy, which may be complicated by bilateral and symmetric lesions affecting the central nervous system. Peculiar to this mutation is the distribution of the brainstem lesions, with sparing of the striatum in both patients. PMID:23246842

  12. Acute Type B Aortic Dissection in a Patient with Previous Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Hun; Rha, Seung-Woon

    2017-01-01

    Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) was relatively safe, and became a widely performed procedure. If aortic dissection (AD) occurred in patient with previous EVAR, it could cause fatal complications like endograft collapse. Surgical treatment was limited in this situation for comorbidities and complex anatomies. Here we report a rare case of acute type B AD developed following trans-radial coronary intervention in a patient with previous EVAR of abdominal aortic aneurysm, which was treated with thoracic EVAR. PMID:28377913

  13. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    PubMed

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  14. Seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kurlansik, Stuart L; Ibay, Annamarie D

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a combination of biologic and mood disturbances with a seasonal pattern, typically occurring in the autumn and winter with remission in the spring or summer. In a given year, about 5 percent of the U.S. population experiences seasonal affective disorder, with symptoms present for about 40 percent of the year. Although the condition is seasonally limited, patients may have significant impairment from the associated depressive symptoms. Treatment can improve these symptoms and also may be used as prophylaxis before the subsequent autumn and winter seasons. Light therapy is generally well tolerated, with most patients experiencing clinical improvement within one to two weeks after the start of treatment. To avoid relapse, light therapy should continue through the end of the winter season until spontaneous remission of symptoms in the spring or summer. Pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and cognitive behavior therapy are also appropriate treatment options and have been shown to be as effective as light therapy. Because of the comparable effectiveness of treatment options, first-line management should be guided by patient preference.

  15. [Establishment of endometriosis subcutaneous model in immunodeficient nude mice].

    PubMed

    Ni, H J; Zhang, Z; Dai, Y D; Zhang, S Y

    2016-09-06

    Objective: To establish a model of endometriosis in immunodeficient nude mice and compare the outcome of the model construction between two different techniques. Methods: Eighteen nude mice were divided into 2 groups, with 9 mice in each group. All nude mice received a subcutaneous transplantation of endometrial fragments, followed by sutured the wounded skin (sutured group) or not (no-sutured group). Then the success rate of the model construction, inflammation of the wounds and the animal survival rate in the two groups were analyzed. Result: In no-sutured group, the survival rate of animal and the success rate of the model construction were 9/9 and 8/9 respectively, with 8/9 survival rate and 7/9 success rate in sutured group. No significant difference was found between the two groups. And no obvious inflammation was presented in the wounds for both groups. Conclusion: It is an effective method to establish animal model of endometriosis by subcutaneous transplantation in nude mice. After transplantation, it does not affect the outcome of the survival rate of the animal and the success rate of the model construction whether we suture the wounded skin. Considering the shorter operation time, we found it's a simpler and time saving method to establish endometriosis by subcutaneously transplanting endometrial fragments in nude mice with no skin-sutured. And this model is worth of promotion.

  16. New Ages for Gorgona Island, Colombia: Implications for Previous Petrogenetic and Tectonic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Duran, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Ferrari, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Gorgona Island, located 50 km to the west of the Colombian Pacific coast, is the only known site with Phanerozoic komatiites in the world besides a key element in several reconstruction of the interaction between the Caribbean and the South America Plate. The Gorgona komatiites are part of an igneous complex that also includes picritic basalts and breccias, gabbros and peridotites (dunites and wherlites), and is covered by deformed mid-Eocene and younger underformed marine sediments. Datings of the igneous rocks were only performed on basalts and include an 86 Ma K-Ar age, an 88.9 ± 1.2 Ma weighted mean of four Ar-Ar ages and an 89.2 ± 5.2 Ma Re-Os isochron age from basalts. Gorgona rocks are affected by reverse faulting with a general eastward vergence. The island is the only subaerially exposed part of a NE elongated sliver accreted in a dextral transpressional regime to the South America continental margin between the Late Eocene and the Early Miocene. Petrologic studies found large spread in radiogenic isotopes and incompatible trace element ratios in Gorgona ultramafic rocks, which have been interpreted as requiring at least two different sources of: 1) a depleted mantle responsible for the generation of the komatiites and most basalts, and 2) an enriched mantle responsible for some rarer enriched basalts and picrites. Despite the large compositional and isotopic heterogeneity the most common interpretation is that the Gorgona ultramafic rocks are the product of a single mantle plume, although it has recently proposed that this would be a separate plume from that generating the bulk of the Caribbean plateau at ~90 Ma. Our new study focused on the geochronology of the Gorgona igneous suite as we consider that this tectonically and petrologically complex island is unlike to have such a narrow age range. We attempted to date eight samples of komatiites, basalts and gabbros by Ar-Ar laser step heating. For four of these samples we successfully obtain

  17. TU-CD-BRD-01: Making Incident Learning Practical and Useful: Challenges and Previous Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzell, G.

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  18. Neurogenesis and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Benjamin A; Hen, René

    2011-03-01

    The neurogenesis hypothesis of depression was originally formed upon the demonstration that stress impacts levels of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Since then much work has established that newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus are required for mediating some of the beneficial effects of antidepressant treatment. Recent studies combining behavioral, molecular and electrophysiological approaches have attempted to make sense of the role young neurons play in modulating mood by demonstrating a potential role in regulating the circuitry in the brain that underlies depression. Here we discuss the work that led to the neurogenesis hypothesis of depression, and the subsequent studies that have sought to test this hypothesis. We also discuss different animal models of depression that have been used to test the role of neurogenesis in mediating the antidepressant response.

  19. The Shape Bias Is Affected by Differing Similarity among Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime; Jaffery, Gul; Swensen, Lauren; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that visual properties of objects can affect shape-based categorization in a novel-name extension task; however, we still do not know how a relationship between visual properties of objects affects judgments in a novel-name extension task. We examined effects of increased visual similarity among the target and…

  20. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery in Patients Who Previously Underwent Open Renal Stone Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Erdal; Saribacak, Ali; Ozkanli, Ahmet Oguz; Başar, Mehmet Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To ascertain whether retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is as effective in patients treated previously with open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on the same kidney as in patients with no previous ORSS. Methods. There were 32 patients with renal stones who had previous ORSS and were treated with RIRS in the study group (Group 1). A total of 38 patients with renal stones who had no previous ORSS and were treated with RIRS were selected as the control group (Group 2). Recorded data regarding preoperative characteristics of the patients, stone properties, surgical parameters, outcomes, SFRs (no fragments or small fragments <4 mm), and complications between groups were compared. Results. Mean age, mean BMI, mean hospital stay, and mean operative time were not statistically different between groups. Mean stone size (10.1 ± 5.6 versus 10.3 ± 4.2; p = 0.551) and mean stone burden (25.4 ± 14.7 versus 23.5 ± 9.9; p = 0.504) were also similar between groups. After the second procedures, SFRs were 100% and 95% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.496). No major perioperative complications were seen. Conclusion. RIRS can be safely and effectively performed with acceptable complication rates in patients treated previously with ORSS as in patients with no previous ORSS. PMID:26357570

  1. The relationship between findings on magnetic resonance imaging and previous history of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Tonosu, Juichi; Oka, Hiroyuki; Matsudaira, Ko; Higashikawa, Akiro; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and previous low back pain (LBP) in participants without current LBP. Current LBP was defined as LBP during the past month. Previous LBP was defined as a history of medical consultation for LBP. Ninety-one participants without current LBP were included. Sagittal T2-weighted MRI was used to assess the intervertebral space from T12/L1 to L5/S1. These images were classified into five grades based on the Pfirrmann grading system. Furthermore, we evaluated the presence of disk bulging, high-intensity zone, and spondylolisthesis. We compared the MRI findings between groups with (27 participants) and without (64 participants) previous LBP without current LBP. Intraobserver and interobserver kappa values were evaluated. Participants had an average age of 34.9 years; 47 were female and 44 were male; and their average body mass index was 21.8 kg/m2. Compared to the group of participants without previous LBP, the group of participants with previous LBP had a significantly higher incidence of disk degeneration such as a Pfirrmann grade ≥3, disk bulging, and high-intensity zone in the analyses adjusted by age and sex. There were no significant differences in spondylolisthesis between the groups. An odds ratio of >10 was only found for Pfirrmann grade ≥3, ie, a Pfirrmann grade ≥3 was strongly associated with a history of previous LBP in participants without current LBP. PMID:28096690

  2. Wives without husbands: Gendered vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections among previously married women in India

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Kimberly; Dandona, Rakhi; Walters, Lawrence C.; Dandona, Lalit; Lakshmi, Vemu; Schneider, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using population-based and family structural data from a high HIV-prevalence district of southern India, this paper considers four suggested social scenarios used to explain the positive correlation between HIV prevalence and previously married status among Indian women: I) infection from and then bereavement of an infected husband; II) abandonment after husbands learn of their wives’ HIV status; III) economic instability after becoming previously married, leading women to seek financial support through male partners; IV) the social status of being previously married exposing women to sexual harassment and predation. By also considering seroprevalence of two other common sexually transmitted infections (STI), herpes and syphilis, in a combined variable with HIV, we limit the likelihood of the first two scenarios accounting for the greater part of this correlation. Through a nuanced analysis of household residences patterns (family structure), standard of living and education, we also limit the probability that scenario three explains a greater portion of the correlation. Scenario four emerges as the most likely explanation for this correlation, recognizing that other scenarios are also possible. Further, the interdisciplinary literature on the social position of previously married women in India strongly supports the suggestion that, as a population, previously married women are sexually vulnerable in India. Previously married status as an STI risk factor requires further biosocial research and warrants concentrated public health attention. PMID:22519844

  3. Impact of previous lupus nephritis on maternal and fetal outcomes during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Miguel A; Cruz-Reyes, Claudia; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Romero, Griselda T; Cruz-Cruz, Polita; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Jara, Luis J

    2012-05-01

    Previous reports suggest that renal involvement before pregnancy or active renal disease during pregnancy may be associated with poor fetal and maternal outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) women. We report our experience of fetal and maternal complications in pregnant lupus women with and without previous lupus nephritis. We analyzed the clinical records of pregnant SLE patients attended in a tertiary reference center during a 5-year period. Patients were allocated into two groups according to the presence or absence of previous lupus nephritis. Women were evaluated monthly during pregnancy and at least 1 month postpartum. Maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy were abstracted. We included 95 pregnancies in 92 patients. Compared with pregnant women without lupus nephritis (n = 60), pregnancies with previous lupus nephritis (n = 35) were associated with a higher risk of maternal complications (88.5% vs. 43.3%, p = 0.00001), higher rate of lupus flares (54.2% vs. 25%, p = 0.004), and renal flares (45.7% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.00001), but most of which in most instances were reversible. On the other hand, fetal outcome was similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that previous lupus nephritis and active lupus at conception were predictors of adverse maternal outcome. Pregnancies in women with previous lupus nephritis had a higher rate of maternal complications in comparison with those without. However, fetal prognosis was similar in both groups.

  4. The Feasibility of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients with Previous Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Diez, J.; Delbene, R.; Ferreres, A.

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried in 1500 patients submitted to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to ascertain its feasibility in patients with previous abdominal surgery. In 411 patients (27.4%) previous infraumbilical intraperitoneal surgery had been performed, and 106 of them (7.06%) had 2 or more operations. Twenty five patients (1.66%) had previous supraumbilical intraperitoneal operations (colonic resection, hydatid liver cysts, gastrectomies, etc.) One of them had been operated 3 times. In this group of 25 patients the first trocar and pneumoperitoneum were performed by open laparoscopy. In 2 patients a Marlex mesh was present from previous surgery for supraumbilical hernias. Previous infraumbilical intraperitoneal surgery did not interfere with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, even in patients with several operations. There was no morbidity from Verres needle or trocars. In the 25 patients with supraumbilical intraperitoneal operations, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was completed in 22. In 3, adhesions prevented the visualization of the gallbladder and these patients were converted to an open procedure. In the 2 patients Marlex mesh prevented laparoscopic cholecystectomy because of adhesions to abdominal organs. We conclude that in most instances previous abdominal operations are no contraindication to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9515231

  5. Previous hospital admissions and disease severity predict the use of antipsychotic combination treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although not recommended in treatment guidelines, previous studies have shown a frequent use of more than one antipsychotic agent among patients with schizophrenia. The main aims of the present study were to explore the antipsychotic treatment regimen among patients with schizophrenia in a catchment area-based sample and to investigate clinical characteristics associated with antipsychotic combination treatment. Methods The study included 329 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia using antipsychotic medication. Patients were recruited from all psychiatric hospitals in Oslo. Diagnoses were obtained by use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I). Additionally, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and number of hospitalisations and pharmacological treatment were assessed. Results Multiple hospital admissions, low GAF scores and high PANSS scores, were significantly associated with the prescription of combination treatment with two or more antipsychotics. The use of combination treatment increased significantly from the second hospital admission. Combination therapy was not significantly associated with age or gender. Regression models confirmed that an increasing number of hospital admission was the strongest predictor of the use of two or more antipsychotics. Conclusions Previous hospital admissions and disease severity measured by high PANSS scores and low GAF scores, predict the use of antipsychotic combination treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Future studies should further explore the use of antipsychotic drug treatment in clinical practice and partly based on such data establish more robust treatment guidelines for patients with persistently high symptom load. PMID:21812996

  6. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of an outbreak with scrub typhus in previously unrecognized areas, Jiangsu province, China 2013.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianli; Tan, Zhongming; Ren, Dafei; Zhang, Xiang; He, Yilin; Bao, Changjun; Liu, Dapeng; Yi, Qianhua; Qian, Weijuan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Chunxia; Wang, Shenjiao; Wu, Bin; Yang, Haiyu; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Wendong; Zhu, Yefei; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Fenyang

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), eschar (88.2%), rash (87.7%), chills (87.7%), and headache (66.8%). A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8) and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2) and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1) of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China.

  7. 78 FR 73742 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... panel was identified. The affected panel is used as the lower part of the fuselage between Frame (FR... AD would not have a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the...

  8. 78 FR 38095 - Request for Comments of a Previously Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... INFORMATION: Title: Air Bag Deactivation. OMB Control Number: 2127-0588. Affected Public: Private individuals... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Collection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of...

  9. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  10. 14 CFR 1203.900 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment. 1203.900 Section 1203.900 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM NASA... Security Information,” and the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended, there is...

  11. Revitalizing an Established Program for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Alison, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Deliberately introducing change into an established English language program, in which faculty, students, and administrators are comfortable with courses and procedures, is unsettling and often costly. Why, then, would overworked program directors, coordinators, and faculty decide to overhaul their curricula, testing procedures, and academic…

  12. Establishing Vocal Verbalizations in Mute Mongoloid Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenhagen, Ronald G.

    Behavior modification as an attack upon the problem of mutism in mongoloid children establishes the basis of the text. Case histories of four children in a state institution present the specific strategy of speech therapy using verbal conditioning. Imitation and attending behavior, verbal chaining, phonetic theory, social reinforcement,…

  13. 7 CFR 1450.212 - Establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment payments. 1450.212 Section 1450.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  14. 7 CFR 1450.212 - Establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment payments. 1450.212 Section 1450.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  15. 7 CFR 1450.212 - Establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment payments. 1450.212 Section 1450.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  16. 7 CFR 1450.212 - Establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment payments. 1450.212 Section 1450.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  17. MHEC Survey Establishes Midwest Property Insurance Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwestern Higher Education Commission Risk Management Institute Research Bulletin, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This publication presents the results of a survey of over 200 midwestern colleges and universities on their property insurance programs and establishes benchmarks to help these institutions evaluate their insurance programs. Findings included the following: (1) 51 percent of respondents currently purchase their property insurance as part of a…

  18. 29 CFR 1960.86 - Establishing councils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Field Federal Safety and Health Councils § 1960.86 Establishing councils. (a) Those field...

  19. Mands for Information Generalize across Establishing Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechago, Sarah A.; Carr, James E.; Grow, Laura L.; Love, Jessa R.; Almason, Season M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study extends the literature on teaching mands for information by assessing whether mands generalize across different establishing operations (EOs). Three children with autism were taught to perform multiple behavior chains, 3 of which included a common response (e.g., "Where is the spoon?") used for different purposes. An…

  20. Establishing a Center to Support Faculty Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Laura; Kozleski, Elizabeth; Muth, Rodney; Rhodes, Lynn K.; White, Kim Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the establishment in fall 2002 of a School of Education Research Center designed to support faculty in increasing productivity and quality in research. Details are provided about center goals, services, staffing, space, resources, and logistics during the first year of operation. In addition, data are shared about faculty…