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Sample records for affect psychological well-being

  1. How Does the Economic Crisis Affect the Psychological Well-Being? Comparing College Students and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…

  2. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24423572

  3. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Does Employee Recognition Affect Positive Psychological Functioning and Well-Being?

    PubMed

    Merino, M Dolores; Privado, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Employee recognition is one of the typical characteristics of healthy organizations. The majority of research on recognition has studied the consequences of this variable on workers. But few investigations have focused on understanding what mechanisms mediate between recognition and its consequences. This work aims to understand whether the relationship between employee recognition and well-being, psychological resources mediate. To answer this question a sample of 1831 workers was used. The variables measured were: employee recognition, subjective well-being and positive psychological functioning (PPF), which consists of 11 psychological resources. In the analysis of data, structural equation models were applied. The results confirmed our hypothesis and showed that PPF mediate the relationship between recognition and well-being. The effect of recognition over PPF is two times greater (.39) with peer-recognition than with supervisor-recognition (.20), and, the effect of PPF over well-being is .59. This study highlights the importance of promoting employee recognition policies in organizations for the impact it has, not only on well-being, but also on the positive psychological functioning of the workers. PMID:26364645

  5. Emotional intelligence and affective intensity as life satisfaction and psychological well-being predictors on nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Augusto-Landa, José-María

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), affective intensity, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being in a sample of nursing professionals. Studies conducted in nursing have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. PEI was measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, which includes the emotional attention, clarity and repair subscales. Affective intensity was measured by Larsen's Affective Intensity Scale. To analyze this relationship, we observed the impact of PEI and affective intensity on life satisfaction and psychological well-being, while controlling the sociodemographic variables. The correlation analyses showed significant relationships between the subscales of these variables. Clarity showed positive relationships with some psychological well-being dimensions. Affective intensity subscales presented relationships with life quality and different subscales of psychological well-being. Regression analyses indicated that repair is the only life satisfaction predictor. Moreover, clarity, some affective intensity dimensions, and sociodemographic variables are the main predictors of psychological well-being. The results confirmed the importance of repair on life quality and psychological well-being. Programs to improve nursing professionals' PEI are needed to increase their psychological well-being and life satisfaction.

  6. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles. PMID:26388814

  7. Teacher Satisfaction with School and Psychological Well-Being Affects Their Readiness to Help Children with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Värnik, Airi; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Tubiana, Alexandra; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In support of a whole-school approach to mental health promotion, this study was conducted to find out whether and how significantly teachers' satisfaction with school and their subjective psychological well-being are related to the belief that they can help pupils with mental health problems. Design: Cross-sectional data were…

  8. Religiosity and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Leondari, Angeliki; Gialamas, Vasilios

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being in a sample of Greek Orthodox Christians. Previous research has documented that personal devotion, participation in religious activities, and religious salience are positively associated with different criteria of psychological well-being. The sample (83 men and 280 women) with an age range from 18 to 48 years, was strongly skewed with respect to sex (77% female) and education level (95% were university students or university graduates). Religiosity was operationalized as church attendance, frequency of prayer and belief salience. In addition, a single item referring to beliefs about God was used. Depression, anxiety, loneliness, and general life satisfaction were selected as dependent variables because they reflect important dimensions of psychological well-being. Preliminary analyses showed that sex was significantly related to the three religiosity variables (church attendance, frequency of prayer, belief salience), with women being more religious than men. Consistent with previous research, correlations suggested that church attendance and belief salience were associated with better life satisfaction. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant positive association between anxiety and frequency of personal prayer. Finally, personal beliefs about God did not seem to relate to any of the psychological well-being measures. The results of the present study partially support the hypothesized association between religiosity and psychological well-being.

  9. Marine Biota and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Cracknell, Deborah; White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Nichols, Wallace J.; Depledge, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to natural environments can have calming and stress-reducing effects on humans. Moreover, previous studies suggest that these benefits may be greater in areas with higher species richness. Our study took advantage of a “natural experiment” to examine people’s behavioral, physiological, and psychological reactions to increases in levels of marine biota in a large aquarium exhibit during three stages of restocking: Unstocked, Partially stocked, and Fully stocked. We found that increased biota levels were associated with longer spontaneous viewing of the exhibit, greater reductions in heart rate, greater increases in self-reported mood, and higher interest. We suggest that higher biota levels, even in managed settings, may be associated with important well-being and health benefits, particularly for individuals not able to access the natural analogues of managed environments.

  10. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  11. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  12. Religion, health, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Green, Morgan; Elliott, Marta

    2010-06-01

    This study compares the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, controlling for work and family. With 2006 GSS data, we assess the effects of religiosity on health and well-being, net of job satisfaction, marital happiness, and financial status. The results indicate that people who identify as religious tend to report better health and happiness, regardless of religious affiliation, religious activities, work and family, social support, or financial status. People with liberal religious beliefs tend to be healthier but less happy than people with fundamentalist beliefs. Future research should probe how religious identity and beliefs impact health and well-being. PMID:19283486

  13. Sleep and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, N. A.; Nelson, C. A.; Stevens, N.; Kitzman, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have linked sleep problems with symptoms of psychopathology, fewer studies have examined the relationship between sleep and dimensions of psychological health as well as depression. To fill this gap, 502 community residents were surveyed about sleep habits, symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as Ryff's six dimensions…

  14. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness.

  15. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. PMID:26354155

  16. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  17. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.

  18. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  19. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  20. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  1. Psychological and Physical Well-Being in the Elderly: The Perceived Well-Being Scale (PWB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reker, Gary T.; Wong, Paul T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of the Perceived Well-Being Scale (PWB), which allows for separate assessment of psychological and physical well-being. Several studies bearing on the psychometric properties and usefulness of the PWB are presented and the implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/CT)

  2. Effects of spiritual well-being on subsequent happiness, psychological well-being, and stress.

    PubMed

    Rowold, Jens

    2011-12-01

    Recently, Gomez and Fisher (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) proposed that four facets of spiritual well-being exist, namely, personal, communal, environmental, and transcendental spiritual well-being. Based on data from three independent studies, the present research effort tested the validity of a German version of (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ-G). It was found that the SWBQ-G was factorially valid and that each of the four SWBQ-G scales was discriminant to mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Also, it was found that the SWBQ-G predicted levels of subsequent happiness, psychological well-being (positive relationship), and stress (negative relationship). These results add to our knowledge about the validity of the construct of spiritual well-being.

  3. Psychological Well-Being and Internet Addiction among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…

  4. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Malaysian Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…

  5. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least p<0.05; most with p<0.001), (b) the two types of well-being were significantly positively correlated and regressions models were significant and (all correlations are at least p<0.01, and regression models are also significant), (c) the effect of internalized stigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning.

  6. Androgyny and Psychological Well-Being: Some Ideological Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worell, Judith

    A conceptual model is presented to examine the hypothesis that androgyny is advantageous to the psychological well-being of both females and males in American society. A format for the multi-dimensional assessment of both sex-role components and indices of well-being is proposed, and possibilities for exploring the interface between these sets of…

  7. Psychological Well-Being Revisited: Advances in Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning, such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from six thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life, (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being, (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life, (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities, (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, (6) and via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience – the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296

  8. Measuring women's psychological well-being in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, E; Wong, E L; Hardee, K; Irwanto; Poerwandari, E K; Severy, L J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of measures of women's psychological well-being in Indonesia, identifies meaningful clusters of women based on the well-being measures, and explores the sociodemographic factors associated with these well-being clusters. This is the first published study to measure psychological well-being among a large sample of Indonesians and the first to focus on women in that country. Rather than use standard measures of psychological well-being developed in Western nations and untested among Asian women, focus groups were conducted to develop an understanding of Indonesian women's perceptions of their own well-being. The focus group findings were used to develop 41 questionnaire items to measure psychological well-being, and the questionnaire was administered to 796 women in Sumatra and Lampung. Factor analysis reduced the well-being variables into five factors accounting for 45% of the total variance: (1) general negative feelings; (2) satisfaction with relationships and ability to control fertility; (3) satisfaction with economic, family and personal conditions; (4) negative feelings regarding marital and domestic issues; and (5) ability to pursue activities outside the home. We constructed five scales based on these factors. Based on their scores on these scales, women grouped into three clusters differentiated by their scores on four of the five scales. Low levels of psychological well-being were associated in bivariate analyses with: (1) rural residence; (2) young age (under age 30); (3) marriage before age 20; (4) low socioeconomic status; and (5) lower educational attainment. PMID:11548134

  9. [Psychological well-being and adolescence: associated factors].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2007-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors.

  10. Increasing psychological well-being and resilience by psychotherapeutic methods.

    PubMed

    Fava, Giovanni A; Tomba, Elena

    2009-12-01

    A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy, has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. A decreased vulnerability to depression and anxiety has been demonstrated after well-being therapy in high-risk populations. There are important implications for the state/trait dichotomy in psychological well-being and for the concept of recovery in mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:19807860

  11. Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Children: The Development and Validation of the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…

  12. Poverty, Psychological Resources and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Joaquina Palomar; Pinol, Nuria Lanzagorta; Uralde, Jorge Hernandez

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out for the purpose of explaining the mediating effects of a number of psychological variables (strategies for coping with stress, competitiveness, mastery, locus of control, depression and self-esteem) in the relationship between poverty and the well-being of individuals. To carry out the study, a non-probabilistic,…

  13. The Psychological Well-Being of Early Identified Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; van Hooijdonk, Mare; Van Viersen, Sietske; Middel-Lalleman, Marieke M. N.; Reijnders, Julièt J. W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychological well-being of gifted primary school children. From a screening sample of 233 children in Grades 1 and 2 across five schools in the Netherlands, 35 children achieving high scores on two out of three selection criteria (teacher nomination, creativity, and nonverbal reasoning ability) and 34 typically developing…

  14. Work Separation Demands and Spouse Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…

  15. Computer-Mediated Communication Modality and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ess, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of Internet usage in American society has added new modes of communication, primarily through computer-mediated communication (CMC)on the Internet. Research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has been mixed and this study attempted to reconcile the discrepancies in results by exploring the…

  16. The College Experience: Protective Factors and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midili, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…

  17. Interpersonal Forgiveness and Psychological Well-Being in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wal, Reine C.; Karremans, Johan C.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to forgive offending peers may be crucial for maintaining long-term friendships in childhood, little is actually known about forgiveness among peers in childhood. In the present research, we examined whether forgiveness among children is related to enhanced psychological well-being. Importantly, we hypothesized that this…

  18. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M; Hensels, I S; Sherr, L

    2016-01-01

    Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12-15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p < .05). Interpersonal violence in the home predicted child depression (β = 0.17, p < .001), trauma symptoms (β = 0.17, p < .001), lower self-esteem (β = -0.17, p < .001), and internalising and externalising behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05), while exposure to community violence predicted trauma symptoms (β = 0.16, p < .001) and behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05). Harsh physical discipline predicted lower self-esteem (β = -0.18, p < .001) and behavioural problems for children (β = 0.24, p < .001). Exposure to home (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.23-2.85) and community violence predicted risk behaviour (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.57-3.62). Over time, there was a decrease in depressed mood and problem behaviours, and an increase in self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children.

  19. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Skeen, S.; Macedo, A.; Tomlinson, M.; Hensels, I. S.; Sherr, L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12–15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p < .05). Interpersonal violence in the home predicted child depression (β = 0.17, p < .001), trauma symptoms (β = 0.17, p < .001), lower self-esteem (β = −0.17, p < .001), and internalising and externalising behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05), while exposure to community violence predicted trauma symptoms (β = 0.16, p < .001) and behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05). Harsh physical discipline predicted lower self-esteem (β = −0.18, p < .001) and behavioural problems for children (β = 0.24, p < .001). Exposure to home (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.23–2.85) and community violence predicted risk behaviour (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.57–3.62). Over time, there was a decrease in depressed mood and problem behaviours, and an increase in self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children. PMID:27002770

  20. Personal mastery and psychological well-being among young grandmothers.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Brandyn-Dior; Brown, Edna; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship quality, personal mastery, and psychological well-being among 83 young Black and White American grandmothers in families with teenage mothers. Interviews were conducted during the early stages of adaptation to grandparenthood due to the birth of a baby to a teenage daughter. Findings indicated that the effects of the mother-daughter relationship are mediated through mastery. When grandmothers feel a sense of mastery, the conflict with the teenage mother is not as detrimental to their psychological health. Findings are discussed in the context of developing supportive services for grandmothers in families with teenage mothers. PMID:22757758

  1. Psychology's contribution to the well-being of older americans.

    PubMed

    Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159432

  2. Developing Psychological Well-Being Scale for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Abed, Nazanin; Pakdaman, Shahla; Heidari, Mahmood; Tahmassian, Karineh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a scale in order to measure psychological well-being in preschool children. Three hundred and seventy five to six year old children participated in the research from 5 regions of Tehran, using accidental sampling method. The participants were individually interviewed with the Well-Being in Preschool Children Scale, and their teachers completed Rutter's Child Behavior Questionnaire about each of them. Data was analyzed with both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods using WLSMV and GEOMIN oblique rotation, to examine factorial structure. Samejima's graded response model was used to access psychometric features of the items. Test-retest reliability was measured and Pearson's correlation was also used to assess divergent and convergent validity. Findings revealed that this scale has 3 main factors: self-concept, life satisfaction and resilience. The validity and reliability of the scale is also satisfactory. The well-being indicators in this scale are consistent with previous research on components of well-being in children. In addition there is a negative correlation between psychological well-being and behavioral problems, which is also illustrated in previous research. PMID:27241414

  3. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25189189

  5. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.

  6. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed. PMID:26436716

  7. Work-related goal perceptions and affective well-being.

    PubMed

    Ingledew, David K; Wray, Josephine L; Markland, David; Hardy, Lew

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to clarify how perceptions of work-related goals influence affective well-being and goal commitment. Participants (N = 201) completed a Goal Perceptions Questionnaire and affect scales. A model was refined using structural equation modelling. Value and success expectation substantially mediated the effects of other goal perceptions on affects and commitment. Both value and success expectation increased commitment, but whereas value increased positive affects, success expectation reduced negative affects. The determinants of value (e.g. personal origin) were different from those of success expectation (e.g. personal control). Through astute goal setting, it is possible to promote well-being without compromising commitment. PMID:15576503

  8. How Does Bullying Affect Health and Well-Being?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does bullying affect health & well-being? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Bullying can lead to physical injury, social problems, emotional ...

  9. Cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being in later life

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-01-01

    The hedonic view on well-being, consisting of both cognitive and affective aspects, assumes that through maximizing pleasurable experiences, and minimizing suffering, the highest levels of well-being can be achieved. The eudemonic approach departs from the concept of a good life that is not just about pleasure and happiness, but involves developing one-self, being autonomous and realizing one’s potential. While these approaches are often positioned against each other on theoretical grounds, this paper investigates the empirical plausibility of this two dimensional view on subjective well-being. The interrelations between common measures such as the General Health Questionnaire, the CES-D inventory of depressive symptoms, the satisfaction with life scale and the eudemonic CASP scale are examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework using the third wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). A multidimensional structure of well-being, distinguishing cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being, is shown to be the best fitting empirical solution. This three dimensional second order structure is neutral to gender in its measurement. A lower influence of feeling energetic on self-actualisation, and of somatic symptoms of depression on affective well-being was noted for respondents in the fourth age in comparison to respondents in the third age. These small measurement artefacts underline that somatic symptoms of later life depression should be distinguished from mood symptoms. Two main social facts are confirmed when we compare the different forms of well-being over gender and life stage: men tend to have a higher level of well-being than women, and well-being is lower in the fourth age than in the third age. Although the three measures are very closely related, with high correlations between .74 and .88, they each have their specific meaning. While affective and cognitive well-being emphasize the use of an internal yardstick to measure well-being

  10. The Relative Importance of Psychological Acceptance and Emotional Intelligence to Workplace Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…

  11. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  12. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  13. Gender, Work-Family Roles, and Psychological Well-Being of Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship of family and work roles to psychological well-being of Blacks. Data from National Survey of Black Americans indicated that more life satisfaction and happiness were not affected by sex-specific social roles. Marriage and parenting did affect these well-being measures. Employed men who did most of household work had…

  14. Religiousness, Race, and Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Social Psychological Mediators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaine, Bruce; Crocker, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Examined predictions (n=125) that the relationship between religious belief and psychological well-being should be more positive among black than white individuals, and the relationship should be mediated by social psychological aspects of religion with positive implications for well-being. Religious belief salience and psychological well-being…

  15. Are Identity Styles Important for Psychological Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vleioras, G.; Bosma, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    A successful identity formation is related to being psychologically well (Erikson, 1963). This link seems to be lost in the identity style literature that focuses either on the maturity of the identity styles, or on adaptive and maladaptive behaviour correlates of identity styles. In this study, we address this lost link. We administered the…

  16. Leisure Activities and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…

  17. Psychological Well-Being of Parents with Early Adolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Susan B.; Steinberg, Laurence

    1990-01-01

    Findings from a study of 129 families with a firstborn child 10 to 15 years old indicated only very modest direct relations between parental well-being and signs of adolescent development, such as pubertal status, mixed-sex social relations, and reasoning skills. Relations were moderated by the strength of parents' orientation toward their work…

  18. Perceived Social Support and Assertiveness as a Predictor of Candidates Psychological Counselors' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…

  19. The role of culture in the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Lavric, Miran; Flere, Sergej

    2008-06-01

    Several measures of religious practice and religious orientation (intrinsic/extrinsic/quest) and two measures of psychological well-being (positive affect and negative affect) have been employed in a cross-cultural survey of undergraduate university students from five different cultural/religious environments: Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, the United States of America, and Japan. Results suggest that measures of exstrinsic, intrinsic, and quest religiosity are not entirely applicable in most of the cultures observed. Nevertheless, it was possible to discern abbreviated cross-culturally valid scales for each dimension. The strength and direction of the correlation between psychological well-being and a particular type of religious orientation proved to depend substantially upon culture. More importantly, the cultural environment plays a crucial role in shaping the relationship between general measures of religiosity and psychological well-being. According to the data, higher general levels of religiosity at the societal level are linked to more positive correlations between religiosity and psychological well-being. The overall picture leads to the conclusion that there is no culturally universal pattern in the relationship between measures of religiosity and psychological well-being and that the particular cultural and religious context should always be considered in studies dealing with this issue.

  20. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  1. Beyond positive psychology? Toward a contextual view of psychological processes and well-being.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes-forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness-can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.

  2. Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment and Psychological Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data (N=220), we examined the contribution of perceived organizational support and four mindsets of organizational commitment (affective, normative, perceived sacrifice associated with leaving and perceived lack of alternatives) to employee psychological well-being. In order to assess the contribution of support and commitment…

  3. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  4. The bright side of migration: hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bobowik, Magdalena; Basabe, Nekane; Páez, Darío

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the multi-dimensional structure of well-being in immigrant population, as well as to explore the complexity of well-being disparities between immigrants and host nationals. We analyzed hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in a sample of 1250 immigrants from Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania and Sub-Saharan Africa, together with that of 500 matched host nationals from Spain. Participants were selected by means of probability sampling with stratification by age and sex. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the re-specified tripartite model of well-being, including hedonic, psychological, and social components of the individual's functioning, was the best fitting model, as compared to alternative models. Importantly, after adjustment for perceived friendship and support, marital status, income, sex and age, immigrants presented higher levels of well-being than host nationals. Compared to host nationals, immigrants reported especially higher eudaimonic well-being: social contribution and actualization, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, and lower levels of well-being only in terms of positive relations with others and negative affect. These results are discussed in the context of positive psychology.

  5. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being

  6. The consequences of perceived discrimination for psychological well-being: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael T; Branscombe, Nyla R; Postmes, Tom; Garcia, Amber

    2014-07-01

    In 2 meta-analyses, we examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being and tested a number of moderators of that relationship. In Meta-Analysis 1 (328 independent effect sizes, N = 144,246), we examined correlational data measuring both perceived discrimination and psychological well-being (e.g., self-esteem, depression, anxiety, psychological distress, life satisfaction). Using a random-effects model, the mean weighted effect size was significantly negative, indicating harm (r = -.23). Effect sizes were larger for disadvantaged groups (r = -.24) compared to advantaged groups (r = -.10), larger for children compared to adults, larger for perceptions of personal discrimination compared to group discrimination, and weaker for racism and sexism compared to other stigmas. The negative relationship was significant across different operationalizations of well-being but was somewhat weaker for positive outcomes (e.g., self-esteem, positive affect) than for negative outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, negative affect). Importantly, the effect size was significantly negative even in longitudinal studies that controlled for prior levels of well-being (r = -.15). In Meta-Analysis 2 (54 independent effect sizes, N = 2,640), we examined experimental data from studies manipulating perceptions of discrimination and measuring well-being. We found that the effect of discrimination on well-being was significantly negative for studies that manipulated general perceptions of discrimination (d = -.25), but effects did not differ from 0 when attributions to discrimination for a specific negative event were compared to personal attributions (d = .06). Overall, results support the idea that the pervasiveness of perceived discrimination is fundamental to its harmful effects on psychological well-being.

  7. Assessing psychological well-being: a holistic investigation of NHS employees.

    PubMed

    Loretto, W; Popham, F; Platt, S; Pavis, S; Hardy, G; MacLeod, L; Gibbs, J

    2005-10-01

    A substantial body of research has investigated the effects of work on the psychological well-being of employees. However, there has been little assessment of the ways in which workplace factors (such as job demands, working conditions, inter-personal relations and workplace change) interact with personal factors (such as work-life balance, family circumstances, key personality traits or demographic characteristics) to affect psychological health. This article reports findings from a study which aimed to construct and test a comprehensive model of the influences on employee well-being within the UK National Health Service (NHS). The results show that psychological well-being is influenced by a complex array of personal, environmental and work factors. A key finding is that there are clear associations between workplace change and well-being and between work-life (im)balance and well-being. These effects appear to be independent of one another and therefore require separate attention from managers and employers. PMID:16194812

  8. Robotic neurorehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke: psychological well-being beyond motor improvement.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco S; De Cola, Maria C; Leo, Antonino; Reitano, Simone; Balletta, Tina; Trombetta, Giovanni; Naro, Antonino; Russo, Margherita; Bertè, Francesco; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-09-01

    Although gait abnormality is one of the most disabling events following stroke, cognitive, and psychological impairments can be devastating. The Lokomat is a robotic that has been used widely for gait rehabilitation in several movement disorders, especially in the acute and subacute phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gait robotic rehabilitation in patients affected by chronic stroke. Psychological impact was also taken into consideration. Thirty patients (13 women and 17 men) affected by chronic stroke entered the study. All participants underwent neurological examination with respect to ambulation, Ashworth, Functional Independence Measure, and Tinetti scales to assess their physical status, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Psychological General Well-being Index, and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced to evaluate the Lokomat-related psychological impact before and after either a conventional treatment or the robotic training. During each rehabilitation period (separated by a no-treatment period), patients underwent a total of 40 1 h training sessions (i.e. five times a week for 8 weeks). After the conventional treatment, the patients did not achieve a significant improvement in the functional status, except balance (P<0.001) and walking ability (P<0.01), as per the Tinetti scale. Indeed, after the robotic rehabilitation, significant improvements were detected in almost all the motor and psychological scales that we investigated, particularly for Psychological General Well-being Index and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced. Manual and robotic-assisted body weight-supported treadmill training optimizes the sensory inputs relevant to step training, repeated practice, as well as neuroplasticity. Several controlled trials have shown a superior effect of Lokomat treatment in stroke patients' walking ability and velocity in particular. Therefore, our preliminary results proved that active robotic training not only

  9. Perceived Discrimination, Internalized Stigma and Psychological Well-Being of People with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination, internalized stigma, and well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public network of social care. Perceived discrimination was positively and significantly correlated with internalized stigma (p < .01 for all measures of perceived discrimination). Blatant individual discrimination, subtle individual discrimination, and internalized stigma were negatively correlated with life satisfaction, affect balance, and psychological well-being (p < .01 for all cases, except for blatant individual discrimination and affect balance, for which is p < .05). Regression and mediation analyses indicate that subtle individual discrimination is the kind of discrimination most negatively associated to the well-being measures (life satisfaction: B = -.18, p < .10; affect balance: B = -.19, p < .10; psychological well-being: B = -.21, p < .05), and that this association is mediated by internalized stigma. Future research should confirm these findings in a longitudinal or experimental model. In light of our findings, we suggest the development and implementation of intervention programs that target subtle discrimination, and point at the importance of implementing programs to reduce internalized stigma. PMID:26459044

  10. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  11. Ethnic community supports and psychological well-being of Vietnamese refugees.

    PubMed

    Thanh Van Tran

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the psychological well-being of 160 Vietnamese refugees in the US. Path analysis was performed by using version 6 of LISREL to assess the structural relationships between variables included in the analysis. The findings reveal that ethnic community supports, self-esteem, and income have significant direct effects on psychological well-being. In addition, education, length of residence, English speaking ability, and social adjustment have significant indirect effects on psychological well-being

  12. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  13. The Complex Nature of Family Support across the Life Span: Implications for Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah J.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and…

  14. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  15. The Role of Social Competence in the Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holopainen, Leena; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Junttila, Niina; Savolainen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between social competence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The role of academic learning disabilities with social competence and psychological well-being was also studied. The sample (n = 412; 207 girls and 205 boys), one complete age group (mean age 15.5 years), was followed from last year of…

  16. [Psychological well-being during pregnancy - early roots of the child's mental health?].

    PubMed

    Luoma, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    The conditions during pregnancy may influence the child's subsequent well-being via developmental programming. On the other hand, recurrence or continuation of the harmful exposure at a later stage during development may be more essential. The parent's mental disorder is one of the best known risk factors potentially affecting the mental health of the child. The mother's depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy have been found to be predictive of symptoms in the young person and in the adult. Regarding the risk of disorder, the recurrence of the exposure to psychological symptoms and accumulation of other risk factors at a later stage of development seem, however, to be more important. PMID:27382834

  17. Parental Locus of Control and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…

  18. A Literature Review Investigating the Relationship between Sports Participation and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, Mitchell Kenneth

    This study investigated the connection between sport, emotion, and psychological health through an examination of the literature on sports participation and psychological health. The review found that while some of the research supports a relationship between psychological well-being and sports participation, some of it is inconclusive. Many…

  19. How Coaches' Motivations Mediate between Basic Psychological Needs and Well-Being/Ill-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Saul; Torregrosa, Miquel; Viladrich, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to test how behavioral regulations are mediated between basic psychological needs and psychological well-being and ill-being in a sample of team-sport coaches. Based on self-determination theory, we hypothesized a model where satisfaction and thwarting of the basic psychological needs predicted…

  20. Religious coping and psychological well-being among Iranian stroke caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Gholamzadeh, Sakineh; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Basri, Hamidon; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aims to explore the relationship between religiosity and psychological well-being of caregivers of stroke survivors in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: A purposive sample of 96 family members, which included 34 daughters-in-law and 62 daughters, who were caring for severe impaired stroke survivors were enrolled in the study. Results: The results showed a significant correlation between positive religious coping and caregivers’ psychological well-being. Positive religious coping accounted for 7.2% of the change in psychological well-being. There was no significant association between demographic factors and caregivers’ psychological well-being. Conclusions: Our results indicated that religious and spiritual belief have a role in caregiver adaptations with the situation. Therefore, in future studies, it is suggested to concentrate on the effects of other characteristics than the demographic variables on psychological well-being. PMID:25400675

  1. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    PubMed Central

    Rae, James R.; Lonborg, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being. PMID:26124733

  2. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    PubMed

    Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.

  3. Volunteering and Psychological Well-Being among Young-Old Adults: How Much Is Too Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Timothy D.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Rodgers, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Research concerned with the relationship between volunteer activity and psychological well-being has typically reported higher levels of well-being among older adult volunteers relative to nonvolunteers. However, few studies have examined nonlinear associations between frequency of volunteer activity and well-being. We examined nonlinear…

  4. The Role of Violated Caregiver Preferences in Psychological Well-Being When Older Mothers Need Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Suitor, J. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Theory and research suggest that congruence between individuals’ preferences for future care and the patterns of care received will affect well-being. In this article, we explore whether older mothers’ psychological well-being was affected by the children they preferred as future caregivers and provide assistance at a later point when the mothers experience illness or injury. Design and Methods: In this article, we use a combination of quantitative and qualitative data collected from 234 older mothers at two points 7 years apart, beginning when the mothers were 65–75 years of age. Results: Multivariate analyses demonstrated that mothers who received assistance from children whom the mothers did not identify as their preferred future caregivers reported higher depressive symptoms at the second wave; receiving care from children identified as preferred caregivers did not affect well-being. Qualitative data suggested that these patterns occurred because the “alternate” caregivers did not possess the socioemotional attributes of preferred children. Implications: These findings contribute to a growing body of research demonstrating the consequences of violated preferences, particularly when individuals are in need of support in later life. PMID:22875016

  5. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress. PMID:27790168

  6. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time

  7. Caregiver Burden, Spirituality, and Psychological Well-Being of Parents Having Children with Thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia

    2016-06-01

    The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others.

  8. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611

  9. [Psychological well-being of young people 18 to 24 years of age and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Maragalhoni, Tauana da Costa; Quincoses, Maiara Tavares; Jansen, Karen; Cruzeiro, Ana Luara Sica; Ores, Liliane; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with psychological well-being among young people 18 to 24 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 1,621 subjects answered a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic data, religion, employment, and substance use, as well as the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess psychiatric disorders. The Faces Scale (Andrews) was used to evaluate psychological well-being. Poisson regression was used for multivariate analysis. Of the total sample, 85.3% displayed psychological well-being, which was positively associated with non-use of illicit drugs, current employment, religion, socioeconomic status (classes A and B), higher educational levels, and absence of psychiatric disorders. Programs to reduce poverty and encourage education and identification and prevention of drug use among youths are of paramount importance to improve their health and psychological well-being.

  10. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  11. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  12. Contributions of Positive Psychology to Peace: Toward Global Well-Being and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…

  13. An International Partnership Promoting Psychological Well-Being in Sri Lankan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka N. S.

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of psychological and educational consultation in an international setting. With the goal of promoting psychological well-being of the school-age population, a partnership was formed between an American school psychologist and a Sri Lankan educational sociologist and teacher educator. The partners, or…

  14. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Well-Being in a Sample of Australian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bore, Miles; Pittolo, Chris; Kirby, Dianne; Dluzewska, Teresa; Marlin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found university students report higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Our aim was to investigate the degree to which personality and contextual factors predict psychological distress and well-being in students over the course of a semester. We also examined whether resilience-building…

  15. Weight Control Behavior as an Indicator of Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatts, Paul E.; Martin, Scott B.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical time for the development of psychological well-being. Weight gain and the emergence of body image concerns during this period can lead to the development of negative psychological states. To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between weight control behavior (WCB; i.e., trying to lose, gain, stay…

  16. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  17. Can We Increase Psychological Well-Being? The Effects of Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a rapidly growing interest in psychological well-being (PWB) as outcome of interventions. Ryff developed theory-based indicators of PWB that are consistent with a eudaimonic perspective of happiness. Numerous interventions have been developed with the aim to increase PWB. However, the effects on PWB measured as coherent outcome have not been examined across studies yet. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions aims to answer the question whether it is possible to enhance PWB. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in PsycINFO, Cochrane and Web of Science. To be included, studies had to be randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions with psychological well-being as primary or secondary outcome measure, measured with either Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales or the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form. The meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. From the 2,298 articles found, 27 met the inclusion criteria. The included studies involved 3,579 participants. Results We found a moderate effect (Cohen’s d = 0.44; z = 5.62; p < .001). Heterogeneity between the studies was large (Q (26) = 134.12; p < .001; I2 = 80.62). At follow-up after two to ten months, a small but still significant effect size of 0.22 was found. There was no clear indication of publication bias. Interventions were more effective in clinical groups and when they were delivered individually. Effects were larger in studies of lower quality. Conclusions It appears to be possible to improve PWB with behavioral interventions. The results are promising for the further development and implementation of interventions to promote PWB. Delivering interventions face-to-face seems to be the most promising option. We recommend to keep including clinical groups in the research of psychological well-being. Heterogeneity is a limitation of the study and there is need for more high-quality studies. PMID:27328124

  18. The relationship between spiritual intelligence with psychological well-being and purpose in life of nurses

    PubMed Central

    Sahebalzamani, Mohammad; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Abasi, Reza; Talebi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spiritual intelligence is defined as the human capacity to ask questions about the ultimate meaning of life and the integrated relationship between us and the world in which we live. It results in an increase in psychological well-being of individuals as well as having a goal in their life. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence with purpose in life and psychological well-being among the nurses. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive correlation study. In this study, 270 nurses were selected from some hospitals of Tehran University through convenient sampling. Data were collected through a four-section questionnaire including demographic characteristics, a 24-item questionnaire of spiritual intelligence and its four components, psychological well-being questionnaire with six subscales and 84 questions, and the questionnaire of purpose in life with 20 questions. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed through SPSS software. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence with psychological well-being and having a purpose in life. Furthermore, there was a significant association between the components of spiritual intelligence including conscious state expansion, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and critical existential thinking with psychological well-being. Conclusion: High level of spiritual intelligence in nurses helps them to improve their psychological well-being and have a purpose in life, which can lead to the health provision of them and their patients. PMID:23983726

  19. Psychological Well-Being and the Human Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Grewen, Karen M.; Algoe, Sara B.; Firestine, Ann M.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Research in human social genomics has identified a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) characterized by up-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory genes and down-regulated expression of Type I interferon- and antibody-related genes. This report seeks to identify the specific aspects of positive psychological well-being that oppose such effects and predict reduced CTRA gene expression. In a new confirmation study of 122 healthy adults that replicated the approach of a previously reported discovery study, mixed effect linear model analyses identified a significant inverse association between expression of CTRA indicator genes and a summary measure of eudaimonic well-being from the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form. Analyses of a 2- representation of eudaimonia converged in finding correlated psychological and social subdomains of eudaimonic well-being to be the primary carriers of CTRA associations. Hedonic well-being showed no consistent CTRA association independent of eudaimonic well-being, and summary measures integrating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being showed less stable CTRA associations than did focal measures of eudaimonia (psychological and social well-being). Similar results emerged from analyses of pooled discovery and confirmation samples (n = 198). Similar results also emerged from analyses of a second new generalization study of 107 healthy adults that included the more detailed Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-being and found this more robust measure of eudaimonic well-being to also associate with reduced CTRA gene expression. Five of the 6 major sub-domains of psychological well-being predicted reduced CTRA gene expression when analyzed separately, and 3 remained distinctively prognostic in mutually adjusted analyses. All associations were independent of demographic characteristics, health-related confounders, and RNA indicators of leukocyte subset distribution. These results identify specific sub-dimensions of eudaimonic

  20. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  1. Contributions of positive psychology to peace: toward global well-being and resilience.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, J Christopher; Christie, Daniel J; White, Mathew P; Das, Chaitali

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an individual's positive experiences, personal well-being, and personal resilience, as defined in current positive psychology, may in fact contribute to personal and interpersonal peace but can also entail detrimental consequences for other individuals, communities, and nations. Second, we describe how peace psychology contains traces of positive psychology, especially with its focus on the pursuit of social justice. Third, reviewing and extending the concept of community resilience, we outline directions for further conceptual and empirical work in positive psychology inspired by peace psychology. Such work would do well to transcend positive psychology's current bias toward individualism and nationalism and to conceptualize well-being and resilience at the level of the "global community." This extended "positive peace psychology" perspective would have important implications for our understanding of how to overcome oppression and work toward global peace.

  2. Contributions of positive psychology to peace: toward global well-being and resilience.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, J Christopher; Christie, Daniel J; White, Mathew P; Das, Chaitali

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an individual's positive experiences, personal well-being, and personal resilience, as defined in current positive psychology, may in fact contribute to personal and interpersonal peace but can also entail detrimental consequences for other individuals, communities, and nations. Second, we describe how peace psychology contains traces of positive psychology, especially with its focus on the pursuit of social justice. Third, reviewing and extending the concept of community resilience, we outline directions for further conceptual and empirical work in positive psychology inspired by peace psychology. Such work would do well to transcend positive psychology's current bias toward individualism and nationalism and to conceptualize well-being and resilience at the level of the "global community." This extended "positive peace psychology" perspective would have important implications for our understanding of how to overcome oppression and work toward global peace. PMID:24128320

  3. A cross-cultural study of adolescents--BMI, body image and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Sujoldzić, Anita; De Lucia, Amelia

    2007-03-01

    Physical, psychological and social changes that occur during adolescence can markedly affect dietary habits and nutritional health. Physical changes including rapid growth place extra nutritional requirements on adolescents, while culture and society require adjustments in all of the aspects of daily living, including psychosocial well-being. Adolescents become focused on the physical appearance and any deviation from the ideal figure can result in negative dieting behavior, social withdrawal, poor self-esteem and increased health vulnerability. The paper presents some of the results of an international comparative study on risk and protective factors of adolescent health and well being, related to BMI, dieting behavior and body image and their relationship to psychosocial well-being (somatic stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Within an ecological cultural framework, it looks at group-specific differences of Albanian and Bosnian adolescents within different socio-cultural contexts across six European countries: two EU members (Italy and Austria) and four communities in the state of socioeconomic and political transition (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Kosovo). The survey collected data from 2000 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The study demonstrated a strong relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction, between body image and dietary habits, and strong effects of body image on all indicators of psychosocial health. In addition to expected marked gender differences in all countries, the obtained results indicate significant intracultural variations related to socioeconomic status as well as considerable intercultural variations due to variable influence specific social and cultural contexts.

  4. Marriage and Psychological Well-Being: Some Evidence on Selection into Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastekaasa, Arne

    1992-01-01

    Higher psychological well-being among married persons may be because of social selection in marriage or of marriage effects. Findings from approximately 9,000 persons revealed that predictive power of well-being measures remained stable throughout 2- to 4-year period. Concluded that selection may play important part in producing association…

  5. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Assisted-Living Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the psychological well-being of elderly assisted-living residents and factors associated with well-being. Depression, life satisfaction, and demographic, health, and social support variables were measured through interviews. A sizeable minority of the residents reported high levels of depressive symptoms and low life satisfaction.…

  6. Adolescent Turning Points: The Association between Meaning-Making and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2012-01-01

    Research findings indicate that the ability to create meaning out of turning points (i.e., significant life experiences) is related to psychological well-being. It is not clear, however, whether individuals who report meaning-making and higher well-being are better adjusted "prior" to the experience of their turning point event. This study…

  7. The Influence of a Positive Psychology Course on Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybury, Karol K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of participation in a positive psychology course on undergraduates' well-being. Twenty-three students from a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States participated in this study. As hypothesized, students reported gains in hope, self-actualization, well-being, agency, and pathway…

  8. The role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work and well-being.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Verena C; Dormann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Building on boundary theory, we hypothesized that not only employees' own work-home segmentation preference but also their partners' work-home segmentation preference is associated with employees' psychological detachment. In addition, partners' psychological detachment should influence employees' psychological detachment. We hypothesized that the presence of children in the household moderates partners' influence on employees' psychological detachment. Further, we expected both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment to contribute to employees' well-being. Participants were 114 dual-earner couples who responded to Web-based questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed our hypotheses. Employees' and their partners' work-home segmentation preferences were associated with employees' psychological detachment. The presence of children moderated the relation between partners' work-home segmentation preference and employees' psychological detachment. The relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Moreover, employees' and their partners' psychological detachment were positively associated. Again, the relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Finally, both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment contributed to employees' well-being.

  9. Psychological well-being revisited: advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia.

    PubMed

    Ryff, Carol D

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from 6 thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life; (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being; (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life; (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities; (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, and (6) via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever-greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience - the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered.

  10. Psychological well-being revisited: advances in the science and practice of eudaimonia.

    PubMed

    Ryff, Carol D

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from 6 thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life; (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being; (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life; (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities; (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, and (6) via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever-greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience - the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296

  11. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

  12. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes. PMID:21558583

  13. A longitudinal study of perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents (N = 2,758) responded to instruments measuring their perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being, including hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that perceived parental psychological control was concurrently related to adolescent psychological well-being at Time 1 and Time 2. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the relationships between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent psychological well-being over time were bidirectional in nature. Regarding the differential contribution of paternal and maternal psychological control to adolescent psychological well-being over time, paternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction at Time 2, particularly for adolescent girls. On the other hand, maternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent self-esteem at Time 2. Relative to those conditions in which one or none of the adolescents' parents was perceived to display high psychological control at Time 1, the psychological well-being of adolescents at Time 2 was poorer under the condition in which both parents were perceived to display high levels of psychological control at Time 1. The clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17115428

  14. Family, religious attendance, and trajectories of psychological well-being among youth.

    PubMed

    Petts, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on adolescent well-being, longitudinal research on the influence of religion on well-being is lacking, and limited studies have looked at how family and religion may work in conjunction with one another to influence adolescent well-being. This study addresses these limitations by using longitudinal data on 5,739 youth to explore whether family structure, changes in family structure, parent-child relationship quality, and religious attendance (overall and with parents) influence trajectories of psychological well-being independently and in conjunction with one another. Results support previous research in showing that parental interaction and attending religious services with parent(s) in late childhood are associated with higher psychological well-being, whereas conflict with parents and residing in a nontraditional family in late childhood are associated with lower well-being among youth. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that attending religious services with parent(s) amplifies the positive influence of parental interaction on psychological well-being, and overall levels of religious attendance over time are less likely to increase well-being among adolescents raised by single parents than for adolescents raised by married parents.

  15. The role of mindfulness and psychological capital on the well-being of leaders.

    PubMed

    Roche, Maree; Haar, Jarrod M; Luthans, Fred

    2014-10-01

    In today's highly competitive and extremely complex global economy, organizational leaders at all levels are facing unprecedented challenges. Yet, some seem to be handling the pressure better than others. Utilizing 4 samples of CEOs/presidents/top (n = 205), middle (n = 183), and junior (n = 202) managers, as well as 107 entrepreneurs, using Structural Equation Modeling we tested the direct effect that their level of mindfulness (heightened awareness) and the mediating effect of their psychological capital (i.e., hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism) may have on their mental well-being. In all 4 samples, mindfulness was found to be negatively related to various dysfunctional outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and negative affect of the managerial leaders and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism) of the entrepreneurs. For all 4 samples, the model with psychological capital mediating the effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional outcomes fit the data best. The study limitations, future research and practical implications of these findings conclude the article.

  16. The role of mindfulness and psychological capital on the well-being of leaders.

    PubMed

    Roche, Maree; Haar, Jarrod M; Luthans, Fred

    2014-10-01

    In today's highly competitive and extremely complex global economy, organizational leaders at all levels are facing unprecedented challenges. Yet, some seem to be handling the pressure better than others. Utilizing 4 samples of CEOs/presidents/top (n = 205), middle (n = 183), and junior (n = 202) managers, as well as 107 entrepreneurs, using Structural Equation Modeling we tested the direct effect that their level of mindfulness (heightened awareness) and the mediating effect of their psychological capital (i.e., hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism) may have on their mental well-being. In all 4 samples, mindfulness was found to be negatively related to various dysfunctional outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and negative affect of the managerial leaders and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism) of the entrepreneurs. For all 4 samples, the model with psychological capital mediating the effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional outcomes fit the data best. The study limitations, future research and practical implications of these findings conclude the article. PMID:24933594

  17. Measuring life quality, physical function and psychological well-being in neurological illness.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Lorna Jane; Hickey, Anne; Hardiman, Orla

    2010-10-01

    There is little in the literature comparing experiences of patients with disabling and uniformly terminal illness (e.g. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and illness characterized by episodic disability and prognostic uncertainty (e.g. multiple sclerosis). This study aimed to compare experiences of disability, quality of life (QoL) and psychological well-being in ALS and MS. One hundred patients with ALS and MS were interviewed at baseline and at six months. Variables measured included function, health related QoL, individualized QoL and psychological distress. Despite the divergent illness experiences of ALS and MS patients, groups did not differ on individualized QoL or mental well-being, and distress was in the normal range. Despite marked deterioration in ALS patients' health, there was no change in mental well-being and QoL. Psychological well-being appeared more important in maintaining QoL (individualized QoL and mental aspects of health related QoL) than physical factors. At the individual level, there was evidence of psychological adaptation to deteriorating function, which underlined the role of specific illness related challenges in determining perceived life quality and emotional well-being. In conclusion, the complex interplay between psychosocial and illness specific factors such as certainty with regard to prognosis has considerable implications for well-being and life quality. Recognizing such factors is essential when designing clinical interventions to promote adjustment and self-management among patients with neurological conditions.

  18. Anxiety, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in Spanish Families with Blind Children. A Change in Psychological Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…

  19. The heart's content: the association between positive psychological well-being and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Julia K; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2012-07-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological functions (e.g., cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic processes) that are most relevant for cardiovascular health. Because PPWB is a broad concept, not all aspects of PPWB may be associated with cardiovascular health. Thus, we distinguish between eudaimonic well-being, hedonic well-being, optimism, and other measures of well-being when reviewing the literature. Findings suggest that PPWB protects consistently against CVD, independently of traditional risk factors and ill-being. Specifically, optimism is most robustly associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular events. In general, PPWB is also positively associated with restorative health behaviors and biological function and inversely associated with deteriorative health behaviors and biological function. Cardiovascular health is more consistently associated with optimism and hedonic well-being than with eudaimonic well-being, although this could be due in part to more limited evidence being available concerning eudaimonic well-being. Some similarities were also evident across different measures of PPWB, which is likely due to measurement overlap. A theoretical context for this research is provided, and suggestions for future research are given, including the need for additional prospective investigations and research that includes multiple constructs of psychological well-being and ill-being.

  20. Psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gettings, Lynda

    2010-06-01

    The psychological well-being of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an important issue, and the advent of measurement tools has led to a better understanding of the mental aspects associated with this chronic illness. Patients with RA are more likely to suffer from anxiety, depression and low self-esteem, with high levels of associated mortality and suicide. The loss of the ability to carry out daily functions owing to RA is also associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the psychological effects of RA can extend to the partners, families and carers of sufferers. Conventional treatment has focused on treating the symptoms of RA and containment of disease progression, but may not necessarily address the psychological issues associated with the condition. Furthermore, patient perception of RA and of the support offered to them can cause further unnecessary psychological distress. Access to psychological support for RA patients has been shown to be inconsistent and haphazard. It is now being recognized that what is needed is a multidisciplinary team approach to treat psychological distress in RA alongside conventional treatment, involving alternative therapies tailored to the psychological needs of the patient. The benefits of treatments such as cognitive behavioural therapy, meditation and exercise are clear and these treatments should be actively encouraged, thereby enabling patients with RA to better manage the psychological burden associated with this chronic condition.

  1. The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…

  2. Reminiscence, Psychological Well-Being, and Ego Integrity in Portuguese Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…

  3. Mental Balance and Well-Being: Building Bridges between Buddhism and Western Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, B. Alan; Shapiro, Shauna L.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical psychology has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease, and only recently has scientific attention turned to understanding and cultivating positive mental health. The Buddhist tradition, on the other hand, has focused for over 2,500 years on cultivating exceptional states of mental well-being as well as…

  4. Refugee children and their families: supporting psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

    PubMed

    Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

  5. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  6. Multiple Health Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being of Chinese Female Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bian, Hui; Wu, Jingjin; Li, Yan; Largo-Wight, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese female college students' multiple health behaviors, their quality of life, and mental and psychological well-being and compared that with American counterparts. A convenience sample of 293 female undergraduates participated in the study during spring 2010, in Eastern China. A traditional self-report paper-pencil…

  7. Quality of Life after Total Laryngectomy: Functioning, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alison; Casey, Erica; Cotton, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important construct when assessing treatment outcomes. Aims: To examine the relative contributions of functioning, psychological well-being and self-efficacy on self-perceived QoL with a sample of total laryngectomy patients in Australia who had surgery for advanced laryngeal cancer. Methods &…

  8. Ethnic Identity and the Daily Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents from Mexican and Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…

  9. Psychological Well-Being among Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, J. H.; Cullen-Powell, L. A.; Cheshire, A.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the proportion of mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who experience distress, particularly in terms of depressed and anxious moods. The present study aimed to address this issue by examining the level of maternal anxious and depressed moods. The associations between maternal psychological well-being and…

  10. Acculturation, Internet Use, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jia Qi; Liu, Xun; Wei, Tianlan; Lan, William

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationships of acculturation as measured with two subscales of cultural maintenance and cultural assimilation, Internet use, and psychological well-being among Chinese international students. A total of 170 Chinese international students participated in this study. Bivariate correlation analyses revealed…

  11. Economic Hardship in the Family of Origin and Children's Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in…

  12. Long-Term Influences of Intergenerational Ambivalence on Midlife Parents' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt, K. Jill; Blieszner, Rosemary; Savla, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    We investigated changes in midlife parents' intergenerational ambivalence toward a focal child and its influence on their psychological well-being over 14 years, as the focal child moved from adolescence into young adulthood. We estimated growth curve models using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,510…

  13. Student Physical Education Teachers' Well-Being: Contribution of Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciyin, Gülten; Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted Self-Determination Theory tenets and aimed to explore whether student physical education (PE) teachers' satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs independently predicts well-being. 267 Turkish student PE teachers were recruited for the study. Two stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed in which each outcome…

  14. Pain and Psychological Well-Being among People with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hee; McConnell, Eleanor S.; Knafl, George J.; Algase, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between self-reported pain and psychological well-being of people with dementia (PWD) living in residential long-term care as indicated by displays of observed emotional expression over the daytime period. Design Secondary analysis using repeated measures of self-report and observational data. Setting and subjects A total of 177 PWD were included from 17 nursing homes and six assisted living facilities in Michigan and Pennsylvania. Methods Negative emotional expression was used as an indicator of reduced psychological well-being. Pain was assessed through PWD's response to a question about presence of pain obtained at each observation. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). Linear mixed models were used that accounted for correlation of negative emotional expression measurements over time for each participant and between participants within the same facility. Results Among 171 participants who were able to express their pain, 44% of PWD reported pain once or more during the daytime period. Severity of cognitive impairment was related to expression of negative emotion. PWD with pain displayed more negative emotional expression than PWD without pain. Conclusions Routine pain assessment is feasible among PWD with moderate to severe dementia and positive report of pain is associated with greater observed negative emotional expression, an indicator of reduced psychological well-being. Improving pain management holds potential for enhancing psychological well-being among PWD living in residential long-term care. PMID:25800276

  15. Pen and Paper: A Prescription for Adolescents' Emotional and Psychological Well Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jennie J.; Davis, James O.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an expressive writing intervention on male, juvenile offenders' (n=25) psychological and emotional well being. Using a quasi-experimental design, participants were assigned to one of three writing conditions and were instructed to write for 15 minutes for five consecutive days about one of the following topics:…

  16. Investigating the Structural Validity of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales across Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard A.; Machin, M. Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Ryff's ("1989b") Psychological Well-Being (PWB) scales measure six related constructs of human functioning. The present paper examined the validity of Ryff's 6-factor PWB model, using data from a life events study (N = 401) and an organisational climate study (N = 679). Previous validation studies, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), have…

  17. The Effects of Gender, Family Satisfaction, and Economic Strain on Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Robert John; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined gender as conditional variable in effects of family satisfaction and economic strain on psychological well-being among married people (n=197). Analysis supported hypothesis that positive effect of family satisfaction was greater among women than among men. Contrary to predictions, inverse effect of economic strain was same for women,…

  18. A Multidimensional Look at Religious Involvement and Psychological Well Being among Urban Elderly African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Charlotte; Mintz, Laurie B.; Mobley, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of religion in the lives of older African Americans is well documented, this is the 1st study to examine the relations between religious involvement and psychological well-being among a sample comprised exclusively of older African Americans. Eighty six participants completed multidimensional measures of religious…

  19. Confronting Stigma: Community Involvement and Psychological Well-Being among HIV-Positive Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Fergus, Stevenson; Reisen, Carol A.; Poppen, Paul J.; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Theories of social integration and stress process posit that community involvement may buffer or may compensate the adverse effects of stigma on psychological well-being. In this article, the authors explore this thesis in a stigmatized and seldom studied group of HIV-positive Latino gay men. Specifically, they examine the effects of community…

  20. Metacognitive Skills, Academic Success and Exam Anxiety as the Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isgör, Isa Yücel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the predicting effect of high school students' metacognitive skills, exam anxiety and academic success levels upon their psychological well-being in a provincial center with a medium-scale population in Eastern Anatolian Region. The research group included totally 251 high school students including…

  1. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  2. Relationship between Religious Involvement and Psychological Well-Being: A Social Justice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranda, Maria P.

    2008-01-01

    Although religion has not been a mainline topic of empirical inquiry in the gerontological social work literature, there has been growing recognition in the past two decades of the health protective effects of religious involvement on both physical and psychological well-being. Depression interferes with both individual and social functioning that…

  3. Ethnic Identity and Psychological Well-Being of International Transracial Adoptees: A Curvilinear Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Research in general has shown a beneficial effect of ethnic identity on adoptees' psychological well-being. However, studies also indicate that overemphasis on birth culture and racial/ethnic differences may negatively impact adoptees' overall adjustment. Using Rojewski's (2005) and Brodzinsky's (1987) propositions of a balanced approach to…

  4. Balancing between Inspiration and Exhaustion: PhD Students' Experienced Socio-Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubb, J.; Pyhalto, K.; Lonka, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores doctoral students' experiences of their scholarly communities in terms of socio-psychological well-being. Further, the study examines how experiences were related to study engagement and to self-reported stress, exhaustion, and anxiety. Altogether 669 doctoral students from the University of Helsinki, Finland, responded a…

  5. Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Grace K.

    A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

  6. Refugee children and their families: supporting psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

    PubMed

    Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration. PMID:25042433

  7. East Asian International Students and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya

    2014-01-01

    The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…

  8. Stressful Life Events and Psychological Well-Being: A Causal Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, David H.

    Previous research linking life events and psychological well being may have been biased by traditional retrospective designs. To eliminate retrospective bias, a prospective design was used in which events were measured before the criterion had occurred. Subjects were 209 male and 159 female participants in the Augmented Baltimore Longitudinal…

  9. Migrant Parents and the Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.

    2011-01-01

    Several million children currently live in transnational families, yet little is known about impacts on their health. We investigated the psychological well-being of left-behind children in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were drawn from the CHAMPSEA study. Caregiver reports from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to…

  10. Examining the Influence of Family Cohesion and Adaptability on Trauma Symptoms and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uruk, Ayse C.; Sayger, Thomas V.; Cogdal, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    This study specifically examined the influence of family cohesion and adaptability on college students' trauma symptoms and psychological well-being in a sample of 189 undergraduate students. The participants were administered the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III (FACES-III), L.A. Symptom Checklist, and Scales of…

  11. Daily Variation in Adolescents' Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…

  12. Body image and psychological well-being in adolescents: the relationship between gender and school type.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul H; Winefield, Anthony H; Anderson, Sarah; Hammarström, Anne; Winefield, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents (N=1281; M age = 15.2 years, SD = 0.51 years) from a state-wide sample of schools provided information about their psychological well-being, family functioning, extraversion, and perceived physical attractiveness and weight, using a questionnaire completed at school. Consistent with previous research, girls were significantly more likely than boys to be dissatisfied with their weight and physical appearance, and these factors explained significantly more variation in self-esteem than in life satisfaction or other measures of psychological well-being. The strong relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for adolescent girls was not moderated by school type (single sex or educational). However, girls who were dissatisfied but psychologically well adjusted tended to be more extraverted, have more close friends and receive greater family support. PMID:21452753

  13. Tai Chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity and exercise appear to improve psychological health. However, the quantitative effects of Tai Chi on psychological well-being have rarely been examined. We systematically reviewed the effects of Tai Chi on stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance in eastern and western populations. Methods Eight English and 3 Chinese databases were searched through March 2009. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled studies and observational studies reporting at least 1 psychological health outcome were examined. Data were extracted and verified by 2 reviewers. The randomized trials in each subcategory of health outcomes were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. The quality of each study was assessed. Results Forty studies totaling 3817 subjects were identified. Approximately 29 psychological measurements were assessed. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that 1 hour to 1 year of regular Tai Chi significantly increased psychological well-being including reduction of stress (effect size [ES], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 1.09), anxiety (ES, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.03), and depression (ES, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.80), and enhanced mood (ES, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.69) in community-dwelling healthy participants and in patients with chronic conditions. Seven observational studies with relatively large sample sizes reinforced the beneficial association between Tai Chi practice and psychological health. Conclusions Tai Chi appears to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and increased self-esteem. Definitive conclusions were limited due to variation in designs, comparisons, heterogeneous outcomes and inadequate controls. High-quality, well-controlled, longer randomized trials are needed to better inform clinical decisions. PMID:20492638

  14. Work and well-being: gender differences in the psychological consequences of employment.

    PubMed

    Pugliesi, K

    1995-03-01

    Differential exposure and vulnerability to social roles and role characteristics have been suggested as accounts for gender differences in well-being. This paper proposes a refinement of these models that incorporates the indirect effect of roles through intervening social and psychological resources. These reformulated models provide the framework for an analysis of gender differences in the psychological consequences of work that estimates the direct and indirect effects of two job conditions, control and complexity, on two dimensions of well-being. Results reveal patterns of differential exposure, but also suggest some gender differences in the intervening variables through which work conditions influence well-being. These differences occur primarily in the proximate effects of self-esteem and social integration on distress and happiness.

  15. The role of self-compassion in physical and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Hall, Cathy W; Row, Kathleen A; Wuensch, Karl L; Godley, Katelyn R

    2013-01-01

    The relation of self-compassion to physical and psychological well-being was investigated among 182 college students. The self-compassion scale was delineated into three composites, following the proposition by Neff that self-compassion consists of three main components: self-judgment versus self-kindness (SJ-SK), a sense of isolation versus common humanity (I-CH), and over-identification versus mindfulness (OI-M). Findings support the association between self-compassion and psychological and physical well-being, but the composites demonstrate different influences. SJ-SK and I-CH were predictive of both depressive symptomatology and physical well-being, and SJ-SK and OI-M were predictive of managing life stressors. The results of this study support and expand prior research on self-compassion.

  16. Academic Attitudes and Psychological Well-Being of Black American Psychology Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…

  17. Gender and alcohol use: the roles of social support, chronic illness, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Green, C A; Freeborn, D K; Polen, M R

    2001-08-01

    Men and women differ in their use of alcohol, in their rates of chronic illnesses and psychological symptoms, and in the social support they receive. In this paper, we assess how the latter three factors are associated with alcohol use, and how these associations differ by gender. Respondents were 3,074 male and 3,947 female randomly selected Health Maintenance Organization members who responded to a mail survey in 1990. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicate that social support is associated with alcohol consumption in similar ways for both genders, yet the associations between some demographic, physical health/functioning, and psychological well-being measures are different for men and women. Men with fewer role limits due to physical health drank more, while women with better psychological well-being drank less. Poor psychological well-being may be a modifiable risk factor for increased alcohol use among women; practitioners should be alert for greater consumption among men with few functional limitations and good health. PMID:11523334

  18. Music, Neuroscience, and the Psychology of Well-Being: A Précis

    PubMed Central

    Croom, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    In Flourish, the positive psychologist Seligman (2011) identifies five commonly recognized factors that are characteristic of human flourishing or well-being: (1) “positive emotion,” (2) “relationships,” (3) “engagement,” (4) “achievement,” and (5) “meaning” (p. 24). Although there is no settled set of necessary and sufficient conditions neatly circumscribing the bounds of human flourishing (Seligman, 2011), we would mostly likely consider a person that possessed high levels of these five factors as paradigmatic or prototypical of human flourishing. Accordingly, if we wanted to go about the practical task of actually increasing our level of well-being, we ought to do so by focusing on practically increasing the levels of the five factors that are characteristic of well-being. If, for instance, an activity such as musical engagement can be shown to positively influence each or all of these five factors, this would be compelling evidence that an activity such as musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. I am of the belief that psychological research can and should be used, not only to identify and diagnose maladaptive psychological states, but identify and promote adaptive psychological states as well. In this article I advance the hypothesis and provide supporting evidence for the claim that musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. Since there has not yet been a substantive and up-to-date investigation of the possible role of music in contributing to one’s living a flourishing life, the purpose of this article is to conduct this investigation, thereby bridging the gap and stimulating discussion between the psychology of music and the psychology of well-being. PMID:22232614

  19. Music, neuroscience, and the psychology of well-being: a précis.

    PubMed

    Croom, Adam M

    2012-01-01

    In Flourish, the positive psychologist Seligman (2011) identifies five commonly recognized factors that are characteristic of human flourishing or well-being: (1) "positive emotion," (2) "relationships," (3) "engagement," (4) "achievement," and (5) "meaning" (p. 24). Although there is no settled set of necessary and sufficient conditions neatly circumscribing the bounds of human flourishing (Seligman, 2011), we would mostly likely consider a person that possessed high levels of these five factors as paradigmatic or prototypical of human flourishing. Accordingly, if we wanted to go about the practical task of actually increasing our level of well-being, we ought to do so by focusing on practically increasing the levels of the five factors that are characteristic of well-being. If, for instance, an activity such as musical engagement can be shown to positively influence each or all of these five factors, this would be compelling evidence that an activity such as musical engagement can positively contribute to one's living a flourishing life. I am of the belief that psychological research can and should be used, not only to identify and diagnose maladaptive psychological states, but identify and promote adaptive psychological states as well. In this article I advance the hypothesis and provide supporting evidence for the claim that musical engagement can positively contribute to one's living a flourishing life. Since there has not yet been a substantive and up-to-date investigation of the possible role of music in contributing to one's living a flourishing life, the purpose of this article is to conduct this investigation, thereby bridging the gap and stimulating discussion between the psychology of music and the psychology of well-being. PMID:22232614

  20. Changing for the Better? Longitudinal Associations Between Volitional Personality Change and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Nathan W; Fraley, R Chris

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has found that a vast majority of people want to change their personality traits--and they may be able to find some degree of success in doing so. However, desires for self-change have been theoretically and empirically linked to reduced well-being. The present study utilized a longitudinal design to better understand the associations between people's desires and attempts to change their personality traits and their psychological well-being. Results indicated that possessing change goals did not necessarily predict growing deficits in well-being over time. In contrast, people who were able to change their personality traits in ways that aligned with their desires tended to experience increases in well-being over time. These findings are consistent with theory that dissatisfaction can precipitate change goals, and successful change can ameliorate dissatisfaction. PMID:27016068

  1. Mental illness and well-being: the central importance of positive psychology and recovery approaches

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A new evidence base is emerging, which focuses on well-being. This makes it possible for health services to orientate around promoting well-being as well as treating illness, and so to make a reality of the long-standing rhetoric that health is more than the absence of illness. The aim of this paper is to support the re-orientation of health services around promoting well-being. Mental health services are used as an example to illustrate the new knowledge skills which will be needed by health professionals. Discussion New forms of evidence give a triangulated understanding about the promotion of well-being in mental health services. The academic discipline of positive psychology is developing evidence-based interventions to improve well-being. This complements the results emerging from synthesising narratives about recovery from mental illness, which provide ecologically valid insights into the processes by which people experiencing mental illness can develop a purposeful and meaningful life. The implications for health professionals are explored. In relation to working with individuals, more emphasis on the person's own goals and strengths will be needed, with integration of interventions which promote well-being into routine clinical practice. In addition, a more societally-focussed role for professionals is envisaged, in which a central part of the job is to influence local and national policies and practices that impact on well-being. Summary If health services are to give primacy to increasing well-being, rather than to treating illness, then health workers need new approaches to working with individuals. For mental health services, this will involve the incorporation of emerging knowledge from recovery and from positive psychology into education and training for all mental health professionals, and changes to some long-established working practices. PMID:20102609

  2. Parenthood and Psychological Well-Being: Theory, Measurement, and Stage in the Family Life Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberson, Debra; Gove, Walter R.

    1989-01-01

    Used data from national survey to examine effect of children on parents' well-being. In general, parents scored better than nonparents on measures of life meaning, while measures of affective well-being and satisfaction were more strongly influenced by context of parenting. Marital status appeared to be particularly important determinant of effect…

  3. Psychological well-being and psychiatric disturbance in dialysis and renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Petrie, K

    1989-03-01

    The rate of psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological well-being and distress were assessed in groups of dialysis, renal transplant and general practice patients. Dialysis patients suffered from significantly higher rates of psychiatric morbidity, with 43 per cent falling into the probable psychiatric case range on the GHQ. Results from the Mental Health Inventory also showed dialysis patients to have a significantly poorer level of psychological adjustment than the other groups. While positive mental health states in dialysis patients were not significantly different from transplant and general practice controls, higher rates of psychological distress were found in patients on dialysis. Distress was characterized by a loss of emotional control and higher levels of depression.

  4. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women.

  5. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  6. Taking the Tension Out of Hypertension: A Prospective Study of Psychological Well-Being and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    TRUDEL-FITZGERALD, Claudia; BOEHM, Julia K.; KIVIMAKI, Mika; KUBZANSKY, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that psychological well-being is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether well-being might be specifically associated with reduced risk of hypertension has not been rigorously investigated in prospective studies. Objective This study examined the prospective association between two measures of psychological well-being and incident hypertension. Methods Participants were 6,384 healthy British civil servants age 39 to 63 from the Whitehall II cohort. Psychological well-being (emotional vitality and optimism) and cardiovascular risk factors (demographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, psychological ill-being) were assessed during the 1991-1994 baseline. Incident hypertension was defined by clinical measures of systolic or diastolic blood pressure >140/90 mmHg, self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, or treatment for hypertension. Follow-up assessments of hypertension took place approximately every three years through 2002-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios. Results There were 2,304 cases of incident hypertension during the follow-up period. High versus low emotional vitality was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hypertension in an age-adjusted model (hazard ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.98). This association was maintained after controlling for demographic characteristics and health status, but was slightly attenuated after adjusting for health behaviors and ill-being. Optimism was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusions High emotional vitality was associated with reduced hypertension risk; favorable health behaviors explained only part of the relationship. Associations did not differ by age, were similar for men and women and were maintained after accounting for ill-being. PMID:24786293

  7. Do regulators of animal welfare need to develop a theory of psychological well-being?

    PubMed

    Haynes, R P

    2001-06-01

    The quest for a "theory of nonhuman minds" to assess claims about the moral status of animals is misguided. Misframed questions about animal minds facilitate the appropriation of animal welfare by the animal user industry. When misframed, these questions shift the burden of proof unreasonably to animal welfare regulators. An illustrative instance of misframing can be found in the US National Research Council's 1998 publication that reports professional efforts to define the psychological well-being of non-human primates, a condition that the US 1985 animal welfare act requires users of primates to promote. The report claims that "psychological well-being" is a hypothetical construct whose validity can only be determined by a theory that defines its properties and links it to observed data. This conception is used to contest common knowledge about animal welfare by treating psychological well-being as a mental condition whose properties are difficult to discover. This framework limits regulatory efforts to treat animal subjects less oppressively and serves the interests of the user industry.A more liberatory framework can be constructed by recognizing the contested nature of welfare norms, where competing conceptions of animal welfare have implications about norm-setting authority, as it does in other regulatory contexts, e.g., food safety,. Properly conceptualized welfare should include both the avoidance of distressful circumstances and the relationship between the animal's capacities to engage in enjoyable activities and its opportunities to exercise these capacities. This conception of animal welfare avoids appropriation by scientific experts. The development of the psychological well-being regulation is a good illustration of how social norms are contested and then appropriated, and a critique of this appropriation shows how it can be challenged.

  8. Psychological well-being, health, and stress sources in Turkish dental students.

    PubMed

    Uraz, Ahu; Tocak, Yasemin Sezgin; Yozgatligil, Ceylan; Cetiner, Sedat; Bal, Belgin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the psychological well-being and overall health of a group of Turkish dental students and their sources of stress. Two hundred and seventy-seven students (57 percent female) from Gazi University Dental Faculty completed the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire, the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index, and the SF-36 Health Survey. The results showed that the DES scores increased over the five-year period. Pressure to perform, faculty and administration, workload, and students' perceptions of their self-efficacy were the most stress-provoking factors. Students whose first choice was dentistry experienced less stress and fewer health problems (p<0.05) than students whose first choice had not been dentistry. Psychological well-being and overall health were significantly associated with year of study. Statistically significant gender differences were observed on depressed mood and anxiety dimension scores of PGWB. Female students experienced greater stress than males, while male students had better overall health than females (p<0.01). Students who lived with their parents had lower PGWB scores (p<0.05). Age was significantly related with the DES and PGWB scores. These results found that stress among these Turkish dental students was influenced by gender, year of study, social background, and lifestyle. Based on the results of this study, recommendations can be made for changes in the dental education system in order to reduce stress among dental students especially during the last two years of study.

  9. Psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavi, Sedigheh Rezaei; Heidarian, Fatemeh; Ashtari, Fereshteh; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, few results on well-being in individuals with neurological disease have been published, while several studies in other groups have indicated that well-being may not be the only absence of psychological distress, but also positive psychological function. The aim of the present study was to compare the psychological well-being (PWB) between the people with Multiple sclerosis (MS) and normal individuals and identify correlated demographic factors to PWB in people with MS disorder. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was performed in July 2012 on 55 people with MS who were referred to MS clinic (located at the Kashani Hospital), Isfahan Neurosciences Research Centre and 83 normal individuals with matched mean of age, level of education, and gender. The participants filled up the 18-item Ryff's PWB and demographic profile. The data were analyzed by SPSS software based on the independent t-test, and ANOVA. Results: There is significant different in all PWB dimensions between people with MS and normal groups. There were no significant differences in PWB in people with MS in relation to gender and marital status, but individuals with higher level of education scored higher in total PWB, positive relationship with others and purpose in life. Conclusion: People with MS are at risk of lower level of PWB. Interventional programs for improving PWB are strongly recommended. PMID:26600827

  10. Disclosure and Psychological Well-Being of Sexually Abused Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kindy Yuk-Ip

    2015-01-01

    The role of disclosure on psychological well-being of adolescents with child sexual abuse experience was investigated in a subsample of 74 disclosers among 800 adolescents recruited in the community in Hong Kong. The results supported that CSA experiences have differential impact on adolescents' psychological well-being. Family characteristics of the disclosers accounted for only a small amount of the variance in an array of psychological well-being measures. CSA characteristics were robust predictors of disclosers' sexual eroticism and externalizing behavioral symptoms. Disclosers' cognitive appraisal of CSA experience and quality of parental attachment were strong predictors of their self-esteem and internalizing behavioral problems. After controlling for the aforementioned factors, negative disclosure experience still significantly predicted lower self-esteem, higher sexual anxiety, more internalizing behavior, and more severe post-traumatic stress disorder responses. Research to understand the factors that generate negative disclosure experiences is needed for developing effective intervention strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of disclosure. PMID:26479960

  11. Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on the psychological well-being of evacuees.

    PubMed

    LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul

    2010-10-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 forced more than one million people to evacuate the Gulf Coast of the United States. This study examines the psychological health and well-being of a subset of evacuees to determine the prevalence of ongoing mental health problems. Interviews were conducted with 101 adults who evacuated to Louisville, Kentucky, and were living in the state at the one-year anniversary of the event or had recently returned to the Gulf Coast. The psychological health and well-being of respondents was evaluated using several well-validated measures. More than one-half met the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder and a majority were suffering from depression and anxiety. The mean quality of life score was 0.6 on a scale from 0-1, suggesting that adaptation and return to pre-hurricane well-being had not occurred 12 months after the storm. The potential for long-term psychological damage exists in this sample of Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Results suggest other evacuees may also be at heightened risk.

  12. The psychological well-being of women of Menoufiya, Egypt. Relationships with family planning.

    PubMed

    Severy, Lawrence J; Waszak, Cynthia; Badawi, Isis; Kafafi, Laila

    2003-03-01

    Researchers surveyed the psychological well-being of 795 women of reproductive age from Menoufiya, Egypt. Five years earlier, these women had provided data relevant to their family planning behavior. This analysis links these data sets to investigate the impact of family planning on women's sense of well-being, within the context of beliefs about appropriate gender-related behaviors. Well-being measures are derived for trait and state dimensions. Use of family planning and number of children born within the preceding 5 years predicted state ratings of happiness, and number of children predicted anxious pride. Neither are related to any of the trait ratings. Further, 3 different gender-role attitudes are vital to the explanation of how women define and feel good about themselves.

  13. Physical and Psychological Well-being of University Students: Survey of Eleven Faculties in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Labeeb, Shokria; Moseley, Lawrence; Kotb, Safaa; El-Houfy, Amira

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined perceived health status and physical and psychological well-being of 3,271 undergraduate students attending eleven faculties in a university in Egypt. Methods: During 2009-2010, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic, physical and psychological health data. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from students’ measured height and weight. Differences across these variables were computed by gender and participating faculties. Results: Whilst more females watched and rated their health favorably, they were more likely to feel psychosomatic/physical health problems, to have seen a medical practitioner or been ill that they had to stay in bed. Females were consistently more likely to feel burdened overall, and across several aspects apart from financial problems. Less females had ‘normal’ BMI, were satisfied with current weight, perceived their body image as ‘just right’, or were not worried about their shape. More males rated their quality of life favorably. About 25% of males and 32% of females were either overweight/obese. Exams, presentations, and the lack of time for studies were the frequently-reported burdens. Comparisons of health/well-being indicators across the participating faculties suggested some evidence of ‘clustering’: Favorable indicators would cluster at some faculties; and conversely, less favorable variables would cluster at other faculties. Conclusions: Generally, the levels of some health complaints and psychological problems/burdens are higher than in other countries. Increased vigilance of university administrators and leaders to monitoring the health and well-being of their students, as well as their health needs is required if policy makers are to operate from a valid evidence base platform. Given cultural factors prevalent in the Eastern Mediterranean region generally, female students might require particular attention. The clustering effects suggest the need

  14. The effects of moderate exercise training on psychological well-being and mood state in women.

    PubMed

    Cramer, S R; Nieman, D C; Lee, J W

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between moderate exercise training (five 45 min sessions/week, brisk walking at 62 beta +/- 2% VO2max for 15 weeks, psychological well-being and mood state was investigated in a group of 35 sedentary, mildly obese women. A 2 (exercise (EX) (N = 18), and nonexercise (NEX) (N = 17) groups) x 3 (baseline, 6-week, 15-week testing sessions) factorial design was used with data analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Four psychological tests were administered: Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), General Well-being Schedule (GWB), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (S-Anxiety), and Profile of Mood States (POMS). The EX and NEX groups had significantly different patterns of change over time for GWB total scores [F(2,66) = 5.72, p = 0.005] and the GWB subscales 'energy level' and 'freedom from health concern or worry'. Scores for the EX group were elevated at both 6 and 15 weeks. General well-being total scores and subscale 'energy level' scores were significantly correlated with improvement in submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (r = -0.41, p = 0.014; r = -0.40, p = 0.017, respectively). Exercise training also had a significant effect on frequency but not intensity of DHS scores, and S-Anxiety, with a significant decrease seen in the EX group at 6 weeks but not 15 weeks. Profile of Mood States scores were not significantly related to exercise training. These data support the results of other studies that have reported improvement in general psychological well-being with exercise training.

  15. Subjective Psychological Well-Being in Families with Blind Children: How Can We Improve It?

    PubMed Central

    Sola-Carmona, Juan J.; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, María T.; Aguilar-Parra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = - 0.62, p = 0.001) and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = - 0.57, p = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction. Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety, and increasing their satisfaction with life. PMID:27092095

  16. Subjective psychological well-being (WHO-5) in assessment of the severity of suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Kõlves, Kairi; Konstabel, Kenn; Wasserman, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    An objective way to measure the severity of suicide attempt is to use different psychometric scales. Aspects of suicide risk like suicidal intent, depression, hopelessness and well-being can be assessed and different practical scales are in use to facilitate the risk assessment procedure. The aims of current study were: 1) to analyse the association between the severity of suicide attempt measured by suicidal intent scale and characteristics of emotional status of suicide attempters measured by depression, hopelessness and well-being scales in different gender and age groups; 2) to test the applicability of well-being measured by the World Health Organisation well-being index (WHO-5) in suicide risk assessment. The data on suicide attempters (n=469) was obtained in Estonia (Tallinn) by the WHO Suicide Prevention-Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behaviours (SUPRE-MISS) methodology. Different psychometric scales were used to measure suicidal intent (Pierce Suicidal Intent Scale) and emotional status (Beck Depression Inventory for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale for hopelessness, WHO-5 for well-being). All psychometric scales correlated well with each other (P<0.05). Low level of well-being associated with high level of suicidal intent, depression and hopelessness. Suicidal intent correlated the most strongly with well-being. Analysis by gender and age groups revealed also significant correlations with two exceptions only: correlation between suicidal intent and hopelessness did not reach the significant level in males and in older adults (40+). The WHO-5 well-being scale, which is a short and emotionally positively loaded instrument measuring protective factors, can be used in settings without psychological/psychiatric expertise in preliminary suicide risk assessment.

  17. Educational preferences, psychological well-being and self-efficacy among people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J H; Cullen, L A; Rowe, I F

    2002-01-01

    As a basis for developing interventions to meet the psycho-educational needs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outpatients attending a regional hospital have been investigated. Specifically, patients' preferences for interventions addressing education (e.g. the disease and its treatment), self-management (e.g. pain-management, exercise) and the consequences (e.g. emotions, impact on work, family relationships) of RA were examined. In addition, psychological well-being and self-efficacy were examined. Results showed that patients preferred education about the disease and its treatment to be delivered on a one-to-one basis by health professionals. Similarly, emotional issues were believed to be best dealt with one-to-one although this could be with a similar other (i.e. a patient). Group interventions were the preferred format for self-management, exercise and relationship issues, whereas videos were thought to be useful for demonstrating use of aids and how other families cope. None of the participants would welcome computer-based interventions. Psychological well-being (e.g. depression, anxiety) remained stable over a 12-month period. Both physical and psychological health status were correlated with arthritis self-efficacy. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to development of interventions to better meet the psycho-educational needs of outpatients with RA.

  18. Life Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being of Older Adults With Cancer Experience: The Role of Optimism and Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Junhyoung

    2016-09-01

    Promoting health and well-being among individuals of advancing age is a significant issue due to increased incidence of cancer among older adults. This study demonstrates the benefits of expecting positive outcomes and participating in volunteer activities among older adults with cancer. We used a nationally representative sample of 2,670 individuals who have experienced cancer from the 2008 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the associations of optimism, volunteerism, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. The level of optimism was a significant predictor of volunteerism, which in turn affected life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The level of engagement in volunteer activities was found to have significant path coefficients toward both life satisfaction and psychological well-being. Our study provides evidence that older adults who have experienced cancer and maintained a positive outlook on their lives and engaged in personally meaningful activities tended to experience psychological well-being and life satisfaction.

  19. The role of psychological well-being in obese and overweight older adults.

    PubMed

    Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Marcellini, Fiorella; Boscaro, Marco; Faloia, Emanuela; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Tirabassi, Giacomo; Bevilacqua, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Being obese or overweight is often associated with impaired quality of life and psychological well-being (PWB) in comparison with normal-weight people (Giuli et al., 2014), both in developed and developing countries. PWB is considered a very important correlate of subjective well-being in people with excess weight. The concept of PWB is based on Ryff's multidimensional model (Ryff, 2014), which considers well-being as eudaemonic concept, and includes six dimensions: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Few studies have analyzed the role of specific correlates of perceived well-being in the obese and overweight Italian older population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of perceived well-being in obese and overweight older adults. Our study included 124 overweight and obese older participants, aged 60 years or more, selected from patients attending the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences of Polytechnic University of Marche (Italy). As previously described (Giuli et al., 2014), the participants were recruited on the basis of specific inclusion/exclusion criteria, in a period of three years (January 2010-December 2012).

  20. The complex nature of family support across the life span: Implications for psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah J; Antonucci, Toni C

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and older adults (ages 50+). A sample of 881 adults (72% White; 26% Black) was drawn from the longitudinal Social Relations, Age, and Health Study. Structural equation modeling indicated that among young and middle-aged adults, increasing family negativity was associated with increases in depressive symptoms over time. In contrast, among older adults, lowered proportion of family in network and an increasing number of family members in the network (i.e., family size) were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms. These findings were moderated by family negativity. Among older adults with low family negativity, having a lower proportion of family and larger family size were associated with decreasing depressive symptoms, but there was no effect among those reporting high family negativity. Overall, these results contribute to an increased understanding of the complex, developmental nature of how family support influences well-being across the life span and highlights unique age differences. PMID:25602936

  1. Relationship between religious involvement and psychological well-being: a social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Aranda, María P

    2008-02-01

    Although religion has not been a mainline topic of empirical inquiry in the gerontological social work literature, there has been growing recognition in the past two decades of the health protective effects of religious involvement on both physical and psychological well-being. Depression interferes with both individual and social functioning that can lead to persistent problems in healthy human development, social relationships, and empowerment in the service of social justice. Attention to the salubrious effects of religious involvement on the psychological well-being among older U.S. racial and ethnic groups is still in its nascent stage. This article examines the relationship among religious involvement, private prayer, and depression in a low-income clinical sample of 230 older U.S.-born and immigrant Latinos. Higher levels of religious attendance were associated with lower risk of depressive illness after adjusting for selective factors such as physical functioning, stress exposure, and social support. Private prayer was not associated with depression. Although immigrants were more likely to attend worship services, they reported the same rates of depression as their U.S.-born counterparts. The study is an initial step toward disentangling the mental health protective effects of religious involvement on the health and well-being of older Latinos in the United States.

  2. Self-Weighing: Helpful or Harmful for Psychological Well-Being? A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pacanowski, C R; Linde, J A; Neumark-Sztainer, D

    2015-03-01

    Conflicting views as to the helpfulness or harmfulness of self-weighing for the control of body weight have been presented in the fields of obesity and eating disorders. Because self-weighing is increasingly being considered as an intervention to promote weight loss or prevent weight gain, it is timely to consider unintended psychological outcomes and behavioral correlates of this behavior. Twenty articles from the published literature examining self-weighing and psychological outcomes or weight control behaviors were reviewed. In evaluating self-weighing and affect (ten studies), self-esteem (four studies) and body evaluation (ten studies), and eating behaviors/cognitions (13 studies), in total, most studies found a negative relationship between self-weighing and outcomes (affect: 4/10, self-esteem: 3/4, body evaluation: 4/10, eating behaviors/cognitions: 6/13). Themes that emerged included relationships between self-weighing and negative outcomes for women and younger individuals, and lack of a relationship or positive outcomes for overweight, treatment seeking individuals. Though self-weighing has shown promise in aiding weight control, the degree to which weight loss, and not self-weighing, affects psychological outcomes is not clear. Further assessment of psychological outcomes in self-weighing research may be warranted, as this review suggests the potential for adverse effects of self-weighing in some individuals. PMID:26627092

  3. Predicting Personality Resiliency by Psychological Well-Being and Its Components in Girl Students of Islamic Azad University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajbafnezhad, Hadi; Khaneh Keshi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict psychological resilience by psychological well-being and its components. The research sample consisted of 216 girl students who were selected through multistage random sampling. The data were collected by implementing psychological resilience and psychological well-being questionnaire and analyzed by using…

  4. Leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in university students.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, J; Castillo, I; Queralt, A

    2011-10-01

    An analysis of psychological well-being (self-esteem and subjective vitality) of 639 Spanish university students was performed, while accounting for the amount of leisure-time physical activity. The Spanish versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Subjective Vitality Scale were employed. Participants were divided into four groups (Low, Moderate, High, and Very high) depending on estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Men and women having higher physical activity rated higher mean subjective vitality; however, differences in self-esteem were observed only in men, specifically between Very high and the other physical activity groups. PMID:22238852

  5. Ethiopian refugee resettlement in the Western United States: social context and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Mcspadden, L A

    1987-01-01

    The reported high level of depression and suicide among 59 Ethiopian single male refugees is often related to their being culturally and ethnically distinct in the US. Research investigating the psychological well-being of these refugees in California, Washington, and Nevada indicates that the level of stress among Ethiopian refugees resettled by agencies is higher than the stress of those resettled by volunteers. When English facility is held constant, the differential ability of these 2 resettlement methodologies to provide appropriate employment and access to higher education varies directly with the stress levels. Recommendations for improvement of resettlement are offered.

  6. Leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in university students.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, J; Castillo, I; Queralt, A

    2011-10-01

    An analysis of psychological well-being (self-esteem and subjective vitality) of 639 Spanish university students was performed, while accounting for the amount of leisure-time physical activity. The Spanish versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Subjective Vitality Scale were employed. Participants were divided into four groups (Low, Moderate, High, and Very high) depending on estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Men and women having higher physical activity rated higher mean subjective vitality; however, differences in self-esteem were observed only in men, specifically between Very high and the other physical activity groups.

  7. Happiness and its relation to psychological well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heizomi, Haleh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Safaian, Abdolrasul

    2015-08-01

    In the present decade, adolescents' mental problems are known as critical problems which have many destructive consequences. This study aimed to measure students' happiness and psychological well-being status in a sample of high school students. The cross sectional study consisted of 403 randomly selected high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Numerous variables including general health status, happiness, self-efficacy, perceived stress, hopefulness and life satisfaction were measured by using self-reported written questionnaires. Significant relation observed between happiness and psychological well-being (r=0.48). Those students with good relationship and those who had reported to enjoy attending social events indicated better mental health status. No causal inferences were investigated due to the non-experimental nature of the study. The findings also revealed that students with higher happiness score have a better school performance. Integration of happiness promotion initiatives into the comprehensive school health programs is recommended to have pleasant environments for a healthy population of adolescents.

  8. On the Psychological Well-Being of Women in the Mid Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind C.; Baruch, Grace K.

    Conceptualization of the lives of adult women and the forces affecting their well-being have concentrated on five constructs: (1) chronological age; (2) menopause and the empty nest; (3) marital status; (4) parity; and (5) multiple role involvement as a source of stress. A re-examination of these variables focused on the concerns and…

  9. P01.02. Positive Psychology: A Path to Greater Well-being

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Focus Area: Supporting Behavioral Change In 1998, when Dr Martin Seligman was president of the American Psychological Association, he proposed a new approach to psychology. The thinking at that time led to a disease-based model in which the focus was on treating mental illness. Dr Seligman advocated, however, that the science should be expanded to include factors that contribute to optimal functioning and greater well-being. He, along with his colleague Dr Csikszentmihalyi, stated, “The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living.” Since this time, a more complete and balanced scientific understanding of the human experience has begun to unfold, with human flourishing being the goal. The five pillars that significantly contribute to a flourishing life and greater well-being include positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. It is important to incorporate these pillars into our professional and personal lives, but in doing so, we must keep in mind the fundamental building blocks to getting there: responsibility, choice, and action. Even as far back as the ancient Greek philosophers, it was believed that “the good life” is not something that happens to us—it is not something the world owes us. There is nothing passive about it. Now, with the scientific model that Positive Psychology has given us, we have a path to follow that will move us in the direction of this “good life.”

  10. The Prospective Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kivimaki, Mika; Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Positive psychological well-being has protective associations with cardiovascular outcomes, but no studies have considered its association with diabetes. This study investigated links between well-being and incident diabetes. Methods At study baseline (1991-1994), 7,800 middle-aged British men and women without diabetes indicated their life satisfaction, emotional vitality, and optimism. Diabetes status was determined by self-reported physician diagnosis and oral glucose tolerance test (screen detection) at baseline and through 2002-2004. Incident diabetes was defined by physician-diagnosed and screen-detected cases combined and separately. Logistic regression estimated the odds of developing diabetes controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., demographics, depressive symptoms). Models were also stratified by gender and weight status. Results There were 562 combined cases of incident diabetes during follow-up (up to 13 years). Well-being was not associated with incident diabetes for combined physician-diagnosed and screen-detected cases. However, when examining the 288 physician-diagnosed cases, life satisfaction (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.76-0.95) and emotional vitality (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.77-0.97) were associated with up to a 15% decrease in the odds of physician-diagnosed diabetes, controlling for demographics (results were similar with other covariates). Optimism was not associated with physician-diagnosed diabetes and no well-being indicator was associated with screen-detected diabetes. Gender and weight status were not moderators. Conclusions Life satisfaction and emotional vitality, but not optimism, were associated with reduced risk of physician-diagnosed diabetes. These findings suggest well-being may contribute to reducing risk of a prevalent and burdensome condition although intervention studies are needed to confirm this. It is unclear why findings differed for physician-diagnosed versus study-screened diabetes. PMID:25603420

  11. Passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Verduyn, Philippe; Lee, David Seungjae; Park, Jiyoung; Shablack, Holly; Orvell, Ariana; Bayer, Joseph; Ybarra, Oscar; Jonides, John; Kross, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Prior research indicates that Facebook usage predicts declines in subjective well-being over time. How does this come about? We examined this issue in 2 studies using experimental and field methods. In Study 1, cueing people in the laboratory to use Facebook passively (rather than actively) led to declines in affective well-being over time. Study 2 replicated these findings in the field using experience-sampling techniques. It also demonstrated how passive Facebook usage leads to declines in affective well-being: by increasing envy. Critically, the relationship between passive Facebook usage and changes in affective well-being remained significant when controlling for active Facebook use, non-Facebook online social network usage, and direct social interactions, highlighting the specificity of this result. These findings demonstrate that passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being.

  12. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    PubMed

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670

  13. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children

    PubMed Central

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child’s visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child’s disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670

  14. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  15. Sleep, diurnal preference, health, and psychological well-being: a prospective single-allelic-variation study.

    PubMed

    Lázár, Alpár S; Slak, Ana; Lo, June Chi-Yan; Santhi, Nayantara; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N; Groeger, John A; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-03-01

    Individual differences in sleep and diurnal preference associate with physical and mental health characteristics, but few genetic determinants of these differences have been identified. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene (rs57875989) has been reported to associate with diurnal preference, i.e., preferred timing of waking and sleep. Here, the authors investigate in a prospective single-candidate genetic variant study whether allelic variation for this polymorphism associates also with reported actual sleep timing and sleep duration, as well as psychological and health measures. Six hundred and seventy-five subjects, aged 20 to 35 yrs, completed questionnaires to assess sleep and psychological and health characteristics and were genotyped for the PER3 VNTR. Homozygosity for the longer allele (PER3(5/5)) of the VNTR was associated with increased morning preference, earlier wake time and bedtime, and reduced daytime sleepiness. Separate analyses of work and rest days demonstrated that the increase in time in bed during rest days was greatest in PER3(5/5) homozygotes. PER3 genotype modified the effects of sleep timing and duration on fluid intelligence and body mass index. Genotype was not associated with physical or psychological characteristics as assessed by the SF-36 Health Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, the Big Five Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System scales, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, even though these measures varied significantly with diurnal preference as assessed by the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Whereas diurnal preference also predicts mental health and psychological characteristics, as well as sleep timing, the PER3 VNTR specifically affects measures of sleep timing and may also modify the effects of sleep on health outcome measures. PMID:22324552

  16. Determinants affecting the well-being of people in the Greater Mekong Subregion countries.

    PubMed

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the determinants/factors affecting the well-being of the Thai and Lao people, and the factors that predict the well-being of those respective peoples. Eight hundred and sixty participants were recruited from three major regions of Thailand and Laos and were selected using multistage random sampling. A self-reported well-being questionnaire was developed using the theoretical framework of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and a questionnaire assessing their perceptions/attitudes concerning the factors affecting their well-being was administered. The major findings were the following: (i) the factors affecting the well-being and the self-reported well-being of Thais and Laotians were significantly different; and (ii) the factors predicting the well-being of Thais included the living and working environment and the availability of medical information and technology at their hospitals. On the other hand, one of the factors predicting the well-being of Laotians was their attitudes toward their society and its cultural values. A comprehensive and system-wide review of mental-health policy planning to improve the well-being of people in Thailand and Laos in accordance with those predicted factors is recommended.

  17. Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily association between normative stressful demands and happiness, and between stressful demands and happiness experienced 1 day after stressors occurred. Moderating effects were significant even after controlling for self-esteem. Although no buffering effects of ethnic centrality were found, the results point to the positive influence of ethnic regard in the daily lives of adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds.

  18. Ethnic identity and the daily psychological well-being of adolescents from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged over the 2-week study period. Ethnic regard moderated the daily association between normative stressful demands and happiness, and between stressful demands and happiness experienced 1 day after stressors occurred. Moderating effects were significant even after controlling for self-esteem. Although no buffering effects of ethnic centrality were found, the results point to the positive influence of ethnic regard in the daily lives of adolescents from ethnic minority backgrounds. PMID:16999802

  19. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  20. Role of self-compassion in psychological well-being among perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Felder, Jennifer N; Lemon, Elizabeth; Shea, Kerry; Kripke, Kate; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-08-01

    Self-compassion is associated with depression and anxiety in general samples. Although recent research indicates that dysfunctional maternal attitudes predict the development of perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms, no research to date has examined the construct of self-compassion and its relationship with psychological well-being in perinatal women. Pregnant and postpartum women (N = 189) completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety history, current depression and anxiety symptom severity, and self-compassion. Women with higher depression and anxiety symptom severity had significantly lower self-compassion. Additionally, women with self-reported prior history of depression or anxiety had significantly lower self-compassion even while controlling for current depression or anxiety symptom severity, respectively. Our results suggest that self-compassion warrants further attention in the study of the development, maintenance, and treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders.

  1. Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation for Primary School Children: Effects on Attention and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana; Furlan, Samantha; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7-8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children's self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher's reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children's internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children's psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children's reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children. PMID:27375510

  2. Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation for Primary School Children: Effects on Attention and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana; Furlan, Samantha; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7–8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children’s self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher’s reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children’s internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children’s psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children’s reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children. PMID:27375510

  3. An overview of studies on psychological well-being in children born following assisted reproductive technologies*

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qi-tao; Pan, Pei-pei; Xu, Xiang-rong; Lou, Hang-ying; Lou, Yi-yun; Jin, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of the past 35 years, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have been increasingly used worldwide, while debates on their safety have been generated. Birth defects and imprinting disorders were reported in previous research. Thus, the psychological development of children born following ARTs has become a major concern nowadays. This review gives a systematic view of psychological well-being of children conceived by different types of ART, including in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening, and in vitro maturation. The previous studies are analyzed in three sections: (1) cognitive, motor, and language developments, (2) behavior problems and socio-emotional development, and (3) parent-child relationship. We conclude that although the majority of the studies on cognitive, motor, and language developments reported comparable achievements in the ART group vs. the naturally conceived group, lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores, worse visual-motor ability or locomotor development, and delayed receptive language competence were found in the ART group. The results on the socio-emotional development were reassuring. As for the behavior problems, a higher prevalence of behavior problems existed in ART children; moreover, ICSI children were found to be at a higher risk of autism than the general population. Meanwhile, ART parents tended to have positive parental attitudes and be more protective of their children. Some suggestions for further research are also given in this review. PMID:24190441

  4. The effect of age on illness cognition, subjective well-being and psychological distress among gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Shacham Shmueli, Einat; Shrira, Amit

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined illness cognition-thoughts and perceptions-patients hold regarding their illness and psychological adaptation in various age groups. More specifically, we aimed to examine whether illness cognition among cancer patients is related to their age. In addition, such association of illness cognition and age was also examined with respect to subjective well-being and psychological distress. A cross-sectional sample comprised of 123 consecutive post-treatment gastric outpatients. Their mean age was 57.31 (SD = 12.74), 56.9% (n = 70) were men and 81.3% (n = 100) were married. The results indicated a higher level of acceptance and a lower level of psychological distress among the young-old participants (60-69) compared with their counterparts. The oldest group (70+ years) had the highest level of helplessness and psychological distress, and the lowest level of acceptance, satisfaction and affect balance compared with the young-old participants. Among gastric cancer patients, age was found to be a factor relevant to the understanding of illness cognitions (acceptance and sense of helplessness) along with subjective well-being and psychological distress. These findings have practical implications for working with older cancer patients. Implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Effects of Participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Michelle Judith

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a pre-test, post-test comparison group design to examine effects of participation in a twelve-week Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course on college students' psychological well-being (Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, Medium Form; Ryff, 1989, 1995, 1996), psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom…

  6. Does regulating others' feelings influence people's own affective well-being?

    PubMed

    Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David; Headley, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a variety of social contexts try to regulate other people's feelings, but how does this process affect the regulators themselves? This research aimed to establish a relationship between people's use of interpersonal affect regulation and their own affective well-being. In a field study, self- and other-reported data were collected from prisoners and staff members in a therapeutic prison using two surveys separated in time. In a laboratory study, a student sample reported their affect before and after attempting to influence the feelings of talent show contestants in a role-play task. The results of both studies indicated congruent associations between the use of affect-improving and affect-worsening interpersonal affect regulation and strategy agents' affective well-being. Our findings highlight that, when performing interpersonal affect regulation, people may not be immune from the effects of their own actions.

  7. Modeling psychological well-being and family relationships among retired older people in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hui-Hsun; Chien, Li-Hui; Lin, Jie-Siang; Yeh, Yi-Hui; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2013-02-01

    Well-being is an important indicator of an individual's quality of life, especially for retired people. In the present study, we investigated the psychological well-being (PWB) of retired Taipei (Taiwan) older people and its associations with sex, family relationships, and health status. A structured questionnaire was used to measure demographics, family relationships, and perceived health status, as well as Ryff's PWB Scales. Data were analyzed from 268 retired olderpeople recruited from social service centres and public parks from September to November 2010. The Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model demonstrated a very good fit of Ryff's PWB Scales and their relations to sex, family relationships, and perceived health status. The link with PWB was stronger for family relationships than for perceived health. The Mandarin translation of Ryff's PWB Scales was found to be suitable and easy to administer to Taiwanese olderpeople. The findings suggest that nurses should note that improving family relations will facilitate the PWB of retired olderpeople, which results in better outcomes of care.

  8. Culture and Well-Being: A New Inquiry Into the Psychological Wealth of Nations.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    What is a good society? Philosophers from Plato to Bentham have argued that a good society is a happy society-namely, a society in which most citizens are happy and free from fear. Since the publication of The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith in 1776, most economists have implicitly assumed that a happy society is a materially wealthy society. Thus, gross national product and related indices became the most popular indicators of the well-being of nations from the 1950s to date. Recently, however, prominent economists as well as political scientists, sociologists, and psychologists have shown that a happy society is not only a materially wealthy society but also a society in which citizens can trust one another, have a sense of freedom, and have close social relationships. The inquiry into the psychological wealth of nations, or the subjective well-being of nations, helps answer a fundamental question in philosophy and social sciences for millennia: "What is a good society?"

  9. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Guoxiang, Zhao; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116

  10. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention.

  11. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

  12. Materialism and well-being among Chinese college students: the mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjie; Yao, Meilin; Yan, Wenfan

    2014-10-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study explored the potential mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and well-being among Chinese college students. The results showed that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction and fully mediated the relationships among materialism and emotional well-being, subjective vitality, and self-actualization. The findings indicated the importance of considering both subjective and psychological well-being and the interpretative power of basic psychological need satisfaction and Chinese culture in the flow from materialism to well-being.

  13. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10441875

  14. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review

    PubMed Central

    Van Hal, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. PMID:25657601

  15. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  16. Effects of workplace intervention on affective well-being in employees' children.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind B

    2016-05-01

    Using a group-randomized field experimental design, this study tested whether a workplace intervention-designed to reduce work-family conflict-buffered against potential age-related decreases in the affective well-being of employees' children. Daily diary data were collected from 9- to 17-year-old children of parents working in an information technology division of a U.S. Fortune 500 company prior to and 12 months after the implementation of the Support-Transform-Achieve-Results (STAR) workplace intervention. Youth (62 with parents in the STAR group, 41 in the usual-practice group) participated in 8 consecutive nightly phone calls, during which they reported on their daily stressors and affect. Well-being was indexed by positive and negative affect and affective reactivity to daily stressful events. The randomized workplace intervention increased youth positive affect and buffered youth from age-related increases in negative affect and affective reactivity to daily stressors. Future research should test specific conditions of parents' work that may penetrate family life and affect youth well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950240

  17. Role of religious attendance and identity conflict in psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Rebecca; Gross, Alan M

    2013-09-01

    A sample of individuals who identified as gay or lesbian were administered measures of church attendance, their religious organization's view of homosexuality, perceived conflict between religious faith identity and sexual orientation identity, social support, depression, and generalized anxiety. Among participants who rated their church as rejecting of homosexuality, greater frequency of attendance was related to a higher incidence of GAD symptoms, but not depression. No correlation was found for those attending accepting faith communities. Those who attend rejecting faith communities attended services less often, experienced greater identity conflict, and reported significantly less social support than those of the Accepted group. Regression analyses indicated that identity conflict and social support did not fully account for the relationship between attendance and GAD symptoms. Overall, findings from the current study support previous suggestions that participation in conservative or rejecting religious communities may adversely affect the emotional well-being of GL individuals.

  18. Psychological well-being, family relations, and developmental issues of children left behind.

    PubMed

    Valtolina, Giovanni G; Colombo, Chiara

    2012-12-01

    The phrase "children left behind" refers to minors who are left in their home country while one or both of their parents emigrate for work for at least six months. From a quantitative point of view, children left behind in countries with strong migratory pressure are many. Separation of families in migration is tied to implications about well-being of the people involved-mainly the children-and of the communities to which they belong. The emotional neglect felt by these children is associated with lack of affection and physical intimacy. Through a review of the literature, the purpose of this paper was to show that distress in this pattern of deprivation is manifested by the children in several ways and in different contexts: low school performance, drop-out from school, conflicts with teachers and peers, anxiety low self-esteem, tendency to feel depressed, apathy, suicidal behaviour, and substance abuse. PMID:23402056

  19. Psychological well-being, family relations, and developmental issues of children left behind.

    PubMed

    Valtolina, Giovanni G; Colombo, Chiara

    2012-12-01

    The phrase "children left behind" refers to minors who are left in their home country while one or both of their parents emigrate for work for at least six months. From a quantitative point of view, children left behind in countries with strong migratory pressure are many. Separation of families in migration is tied to implications about well-being of the people involved-mainly the children-and of the communities to which they belong. The emotional neglect felt by these children is associated with lack of affection and physical intimacy. Through a review of the literature, the purpose of this paper was to show that distress in this pattern of deprivation is manifested by the children in several ways and in different contexts: low school performance, drop-out from school, conflicts with teachers and peers, anxiety low self-esteem, tendency to feel depressed, apathy, suicidal behaviour, and substance abuse.

  20. Effects of Workplace Intervention on Affective Well-Being in Employees' Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.; Kelly, Erin L.; King, Rosalind B.

    2016-01-01

    Using a group-randomized field experimental design, this study tested whether a workplace intervention--designed to reduce work-family conflict--buffered against potential age-related decreases in the affective well-being of employees' children. Daily diary data were collected from 9- to 17-year-old children of parents working in an information…

  1. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  2. Social Support, Unfulfilled Expectations, and Affective Well-Being on Return to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate how social support from the partner is related to mothers' affective well-being during their return to employment after maternity leave and whether expectations of that support have an additional impact. We differentiated four forms of support and their respective expectation discrepancies:…

  3. Relationships between Psychological Well-Being, Happiness, and Educational Satisfaction in a Group of University Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbatir, Rasim Erol

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on music students' psychological well-being and happiness. The purpose was to assess the psychological well-being, happiness and educational satisfaction among a group of university music students. Students participated voluntarily and filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale…

  4. Facilitating College Students' Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being through the Use of Mandalas: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Larson, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between authenticity and psychological well-being, and to examine the effects of creating and interpreting mandalas on the levels of authenticity and psychological well-being of college students. The results and their implications for practice and future research are discussed.…

  5. Socio-Demographic Variables, General Psychological Well-Being and the Mental Health Continuum in an African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…

  6. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601

  7. Prosocial spending and well-being: cross-cultural evidence for a psychological universal.

    PubMed

    Aknin, Lara B; Barrington-Leigh, Christopher P; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Helliwell, John F; Burns, Justine; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Kemeza, Imelda; Nyende, Paul; Ashton-James, Claire E; Norton, Michael I

    2013-04-01

    This research provides the first support for a possible psychological universal: Human beings around the world derive emotional benefits from using their financial resources to help others (prosocial spending). In Study 1, survey data from 136 countries were examined and showed that prosocial spending is associated with greater happiness around the world, in poor and rich countries alike. To test for causality, in Studies 2a and 2b, we used experimental methodology, demonstrating that recalling a past instance of prosocial spending has a causal impact on happiness across countries that differ greatly in terms of wealth (Canada, Uganda, and India). Finally, in Study 3, participants in Canada and South Africa randomly assigned to buy items for charity reported higher levels of positive affect than participants assigned to buy the same items for themselves, even when this prosocial spending did not provide an opportunity to build or strengthen social ties. Our findings suggest that the reward experienced from helping others may be deeply ingrained in human nature, emerging in diverse cultural and economic contexts.

  8. Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being in the U.S. and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Haile, Rahwa; Mohammed, Selina A.; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J.; Sonnega, John; Jackson, James S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses two national probability samples of adults, the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH) to systematically assess how the levels of perceived racial and non-racial discrimination and their effects on self-esteem and mastery in the U.S. compares to those in South Africa. Levels of perceived racial discrimination are higher in the U.S. than South Africa. In the U.S. both African Americans and Caribbean blacks have comparable or higher levels of self-esteem and mastery than whites. In contrast, South African Whites have higher levels of both self-esteem and mastery than blacks, Coloureds and Indians. Perceived discrimination, especially chronic everyday discrimination, is inversely related to self-esteem and mastery in both societies. In South Africa, stress and socioeconomic status (SES) but not discrimination are important determinants of racial differences in self-esteem and mastery. Our main findings indicate that in two racialized societies, perceived discrimination acts independent of demographic factors, other stressors, social desirability, racial identity and SES to negatively affect psychological functioning. PMID:22339224

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Colin; Bore, Miles; Zito, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have reported elevated rates of psychological distress (e.g., depression) in practicing lawyers yet little research has examined predictors of such problems in law students. Specific personality traits have been shown to be predictors of a range of psychological problems. We administered a battery of tests to a cohort of 1st-year…

  10. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  11. Health Care Psychology: Prospects for the Well-Being of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1979-01-01

    Health care psychology is distinguished from traditional child psychology in that it emphasizes clinical application and is concerned with primary mental health care. Diagnosis, classification, prediction, and treatment and control strategies in the field offer definite solutions to problems such as tracheotomy addiction, encopresis, psychogenic…

  12. Subjective Well-Being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-Analysis on Differences Between Cognitive and Affective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843

  13. Perceived occupational stress, affective, and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Matsiggos, Georgios; Stamatoulakis, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined four potential roles of work-related negative affectivity on the associations between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece. Participants (764, predominantly male) completed a battery of self-report measures on perceived occupational stress, negative affectivity, and illness symptoms. In line with previous research, negative affectivity exerted a nuisance effect, by inflating the association between reported stressors and illness symptoms, and significantly predicted illness symptoms, over and above the effects of stressors. In addition, negative affectivity influenced reported illness symptom indirectly, through the effects of stressors, and moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and illness symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affectivity can largely explain and influence in different ways the associations between self-reported stress and physical strain. It is recommended that future studies of occupational stress should control for the effects of negative affectivity, and that health professionals should be cautious of its effects when interpreting relationships between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being. PMID:19185405

  14. Spouse Psychological Well-Being: A Keystone to Military Family Health

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S.; Lester, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Understanding predictors of military spouse psychosocial vulnerability informs efforts to assess, identify, and support at-risk spouses and families. In this analysis we test the effects of family stress and strain on military spouse psychological health, using a sample of female civilian spouses (n=161). Regression findings confirm expectations of the significant contribution of family stressors, strain, and resources in explaining variation in spouses' psychological health, controlling for deployment and socioeconomic factors. Identifying the effects of family stress on military spouse psychological health supports the need for family-centered interventions and prevention programs. PMID:24415897

  15. How should the psychological well-being of zoo elephants be objectively investigated?

    PubMed

    Mason, Georgia J; Veasey, Jake S

    2010-01-01

    Animal welfare (sometimes termed "well-being") is about feelings - states such as "suffering" or "contentment" that we can infer but cannot measure directly. Welfare indices have been developed from two main sources: studies of suffering humans, and of research animals deliberately subjected to challenges known to affect emotional state. We briefly review the resulting indices here, and discuss how well they are understood for elephants, since objective welfare assessment should play a central role in evidence-based elephant management. We cover behavioral and cognitive responses (approach/avoidance; intention, redirected and displacement activities; vigilance/startle; warning signals; cognitive biases, apathy and depression-like changes; stereotypic behavior); physiological responses (sympathetic responses; corticosteroid output - often assayed non-invasively via urine, feces or even hair; other aspects of HPA function, e.g. adrenal hypertrophy); and the potential negative effects of prolonged stress on reproduction (e.g. reduced gametogenesis; low libido; elevated still-birth rates; poor maternal care) and health (e.g. poor wound-healing; enhanced disease rates; shortened lifespans). The best validated, most used welfare indices for elephants are corticosteroid outputs and stereotypic behavior. Indices suggested as valid, partially validated, and/or validated but not yet applied within zoos include: measures of preference/avoidance; displacement movements; vocal/postural signals of affective (emotional) state; startle/vigilance; apathy; salivary and urinary epinephrine; female acyclity; infant mortality rates; skin/foot infections; cardio-vascular disease; and premature adult death. Potentially useful indices that have not yet attracted any validation work in elephants include: operant responding and place preference tests; intention and vacuum movements; fear/stress pheromone release; cognitive biases; heart rate, pupil dilation and blood pressure

  16. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity Between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-being Over Time among African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel D.; Sellers, Robert M.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relationship between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial discrimination predicted the intercept (initial levels) and the slope (rate of change) of psychological well-being over time, and whether racial identity moderates these relationships. The results indicated that African American adolescents who reported higher psychological responses to discrimination frequency levels at the first time point had lower initial levels of well-being. Regressing the slope factor for psychological well-being on frequency of discrimination also revealed a non-significant result for subsequent well-being levels. PMID:21954919

  17. New Horizon of Spiritual Well-Being and Hope among Cancer Patients: A Psychological Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaquat, Sidra; Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the importance of spiritual well-being and hope among cancer patients diagnosed with its different stages. Through stratified sampling techniques, 120 cancer patients from four stages evenly divided into male and female participated in this study. Spiritual Well-being Scale (Paloutzian & Ellison, 1982)…

  18. Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Richard J

    2004-09-29

    One of the most salient features of emotion is the pronounced variability among individuals in their reactions to emotional incentives and in their dispositional mood. Collectively, these individual differences have been described as affective style. Recent research has begun to dissect the constituents of affective style. The search for these components is guided by the neural systems that instantiate emotion and emotion regulation. In this article, this body of research and theory is applied specifically to positive affect and well-being. The central substrates and peripheral biological correlates of well-being are described. A resilient affective style is associated with high levels of left prefrontal activation, effective modulation of activation in the amygdala and fast recovery in response to negative and stressful events. In peripheral biology, these central patterns are associated with lower levels of basal cortisol and with higher levels of antibody titres to influenza vaccine. The article concludes with a consideration of whether these patterns of central and peripheral biology can be modified by training and shifted toward a more salubrious direction. PMID:15347531

  19. Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    One of the most salient features of emotion is the pronounced variability among individuals in their reactions to emotional incentives and in their dispositional mood. Collectively, these individual differences have been described as affective style. Recent research has begun to dissect the constituents of affective style. The search for these components is guided by the neural systems that instantiate emotion and emotion regulation. In this article, this body of research and theory is applied specifically to positive affect and well-being. The central substrates and peripheral biological correlates of well-being are described. A resilient affective style is associated with high levels of left prefrontal activation, effective modulation of activation in the amygdala and fast recovery in response to negative and stressful events. In peripheral biology, these central patterns are associated with lower levels of basal cortisol and with higher levels of antibody titres to influenza vaccine. The article concludes with a consideration of whether these patterns of central and peripheral biology can be modified by training and shifted toward a more salubrious direction. PMID:15347531

  20. Daily goal progress is facilitated by spousal support and promotes psychological, physical, and relational well-being throughout adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak, Brittany K; Feeney, Brooke C

    2016-09-01

    In 2 daily diary studies, we tested the consequences and precursors of daily goal progress throughout the adult life span. Attachment theory posits that exploration-including the pursuit of autonomous goals-promotes well-being across the life span and is facilitated by support from close others. For both young-adult newlyweds (Study 1) and married couples in late adulthood (Study 2), daily independent goal progress predicted same-day and next-day improvements in psychological, physical, and relational well-being. Specifically, when participants made more progress on their goals than usual on one day, they reported increases in positive affect, sleep quality, and relationship quality, and decreased physical symptoms, the following day (as well as concurrently). Additionally, spousal support (i.e., availability, encouragement, and noninterference) enabled same-day and next-day goal progress. Mediational analyses showed indirect links between spousal support and well-being through goal progress. Some effects were moderated by attachment orientation in the newlywed sample; individuals with greater insecure attachment benefited most from goal progress, and spousal support enabled goal progress most strongly for individuals with less anxious attachment. Overall, these results support and extend attachment theoretical propositions regarding the importance of the exploration system across the adult life span. They contribute to existing literature by demonstrating wide-ranging consequences of successful exploration for well-being and by providing evidence for the importance of both exploration and support for exploration into late adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27560610

  1. Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C; Eid, Michael; Cacioppo, John T

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether the empirical differences between affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) might be due to (a) the use of different time frames in measures of AWB and CWB or (b) structural differences. In Study 1, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis indicated that levels of different components are more similar but do not converge completely when the same time frame is used. In Study 2, we found that people are more likely to consider global life circumstances (as opposed to specific events and activities) when they evaluate their CWB, regardless of the specific time frame. In both studies, the time frame did not moderate the associations between AWB and CWB and important correlates (personality, life circumstances).

  2. Taking the long view: Implications of individual differences in temporal distancing for affect, stress reactivity, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Ayduk, Özlem; John, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental work demonstrates that temporal distancing from negative experiences reduces distress. Yet two central questions remain: (a) do people differ in the habitual tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences, and if so (b) what implications does this tendency have for well-being? Seven studies explored these questions. Study 1 describes the construction and reliability of the Temporal Distancing Questionnaire, a new measure of individual differences in the tendency to place negative experiences into a broader future time perspective. Study 2 establishes a nomological network around this construct, examining the relationship of temporal distancing to other theoretically related constructs. Study 3 tests whether people high in temporal distancing (i.e., "high temporal distancers") experience greater concurrent well-being, including greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lesser negative affect, worry, and depressive symptoms. Study 4 examines whether temporal distancing predicts well-being measured at the daily level, and across time. Finally, Studies 5a-5c explore a key way in which temporal distancing may support psychological well-being-by facilitating more adaptive responses to negative experiences. Our results demonstrate that the tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences predicts a more positive profile of affective experiences and stress-reactivity that may support immediate and longer-term well-being. Moreover, many of these findings remained significant when controlling for general reappraisal tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Family and Work Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Hispanic Women Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined contributions of job- and gender-related variables to Hispanic women professionals' mental health. Income, Hispanic group, discrimination, job stress, and peer support related to mental health. Spouse support and spouse ethnicity were associated with stress in balancing roles and psychological distress. Married women reported greater…

  4. Positive Psychology and Mexican American College Students' Subjective Well-Being and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Savage, Miranda C.; Guardiola, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American college students' complete mental health. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, mindfulness, and grit influenced 130 Mexican American college students' life satisfaction and depression. Within the first regression…

  5. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Well-Being among US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Fan, Daisy

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on one of the most significant recent innovations in the conceptualization and measurement of religiousness and spirituality, the Daily Spiritual Experience scale (DSES; Underwood (2006) "Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fur Religion Psychologie," 28, 181-218). Using data from 1998 and 2004 NORC General Social…

  6. Impact of Work Requirements on the Psychological Well-Being of TANF Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2007-01-01

    Psychological distress was investigated in a group of parents who were current and former recipients of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and a group of parents never enrolled in TANF. The study focused on two reported symptoms of distress: depressive and anxiety symptoms. Analysis incorporated cross-sectional data from the Survey of…

  7. Stressful Life Events, Psychological Well-Being, and Parenting in African American Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    The association of stressful life events with mothers' psychological distress and parenting was examined in 79 African American mothers living in 1- and 2-parent households. Findings reveal that stress in the areas of family disruption and work problems was associated with lower maternal acceptance. Family disruption was also positively associated…

  8. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping in Spouses of Demented Elderly: Predictors of Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, William

    While an increasing number of clinical reports and descriptive studies have documented stress-related dysfunction in family caregivers of older adults with chronic dementia, little is known about specific factors that place members at risk for negative outcomes. This study examined the relative effects of psychological and social characteristics…

  9. Psychological Well-Being and Motivation in a Turkish Physical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    Using Self Determination as a framework, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, self-esteem, subjective vitality, and social physique anxiety in physical education. One thousand and eighty two high school students aged between 14 and 19 [mean (M) = 15.89 ± 0.95 years]…

  10. Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity on Mexican American College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…

  11. Is Obesity Stigmatizing? Body Weight, Perceived Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared…

  12. Ethnic Identity, Bicultural Identity Integration, and Psychological Well-Being among Transracial Adoptees: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica

    2015-01-01

    The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently…

  13. Autonomy, Belongingness, and Engagement in School as Contributors to Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Gravely, Amy A.; Roseth, Cary J.

    2009-01-01

    "Self-determination theory" emphasizes the importance of school-based autonomy and belongingness to academic achievement and psychological adjustment, and the theory posits a model in which engagement in school mediates the influence of autonomy and belongingness on these outcomes. To date, this model has only been evaluated on academic outcomes.…

  14. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  15. The role of work in psychological health and well-being: a conceptual, historical, and public policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Blustein, David L

    2008-01-01

    The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the American Psychologist, is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a historical review of vocational psychology and industrial/organizational psychology. The article follows with an overview of contemporary vocational psychology and a presentation of the psychology-of-working perspective, which has emerged from critiques of vocational psychology and from multicultural, feminist, and expanded epistemological analyses of psychological explorations of working. Three illustrative lines of inquiry in which research has affected the potential for informing public policy are presented. These three lines of scholarship (role of work in recovery from mental illness; occupational health psychology; and working, racism, and psychological health) are reviewed briefly to furnish exemplars of how the psychological study of working can inform public policy.

  16. Psychological Well-Being and Social Participation Assessment in Visually Impaired Subjects Playing Torball: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Cagno, A.; Iuliano, E.; Aquino, G.; Fiorilli, G.; Battaglia, C.; Giombini, A.; Calcagno, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27 plus or minus 3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80 plus or minus 2.53), and…

  17. Social Emotional Needs: The Effects of Educational Malnourishment on the Psychological Well-Being of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    After 30 years in the field of gifted education, and, more specifically, 30 years of studying the psychology of gifted students, author Tracy Cross has come to believe that the single greatest threat to the psychological well-being of gifted students is the mismatch between the school's curriculum and the student's needs. Cross argues in…

  18. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  19. Does fiscal discipline towards subnational governments affect citizens' well-being? Evidence on health.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Massimiliano; Turati, Gilberto

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to assess the impact on citizens' well-being of fiscal discipline imposed by the central government on subnational governments. Because healthcare policies involve strategic interactions between different layers of governments in many different countries, we focus on a particular dimension of well-being, namely citizens' health. We model fiscal discipline by considering government expectations of future deficit bailouts from the central government. We then study how these bailout expectations affect the expenditure for healthcare policies carried out by decentralized governments. To investigate this issue, we separate efficient health spending from inefficiencies by estimating an input requirement frontier. This allows us to assess the effects of bailout expectations on both the structural component of health expenditure and its deviations from the 'best practice'. The evidence from the 15 Italian ordinary statute regions (observed from 1993 to 2006) points out that bailout expectations do not significantly influence the position of the frontier, thus not affecting citizens' health. However, they do appear to exert a remarkable impact on excess spending. PMID:23408583

  20. Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…

  1. Covitality Constructs as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being and Depression for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Claire; Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This study was an examination of the strength of relations among covitality, and its underlying constructs of belief in self, emotional competence, belief in others, and engaged living, and two outcome variables: subjective well-being and depression. Participants included 361 Australian secondary school students (75 males and 286 females) who…

  2. Psychological Coping and Well-Being of Male Latino Undergraduates: "Sobreviviendo la Universidad"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Scull, Nicholas C.; Villegas, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 100 male Latino undergraduates' cultural self-esteem, perceived educational barriers, cultural fit, coping responses (CRs), and subsequent well-being within higher education. The most commonly reported CR for Latino males was to actively find out more about the situation and take a positive planned action. Assessing group mean…

  3. Perceived Educational Barriers, Cultural Fit, Coping Responses, and Psychological Well-Being of Latina Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Orozco, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Given the unique educational experiences and disproportional representation of Latinas in higher education, this study examined how Latinas' perception of educational barriers and cultural fit influenced their coping responses and subsequent well-being in college. Participants (N = 98) were primarily second-generation Mexican heritage women who…

  4. Social Support, Psychological Well-Being, and Health among the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portero, Cristina Fernandez; Oliva, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    This article is based on the influence that participation in the Third Age University Program has on the health and well-being of the elderly and with the mediation of social support. The data were obtained from a longitudinal study of 147 elderly students of the Third Age University of Seville (Spain). The hypothesis was that the elders who…

  5. Predicting Job Seeking Frequency and Psychological Well-Being in the Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Karl K. K.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Creed, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on study of unemployed and employed people who were contrasted on variables of well-being, confidence, and employment commitment. The unemployed scored lower on the General Health Questionnaire and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. No differences identified on levels of employment commitment. Discusses results in light of current theories…

  6. The Efficacy of Positive Psychology Interventions to Increase Well-Being and the Role of Mental Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odou, Natasha; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mental imagery ability (MIA) on the efficacy of two positive psychology interventions (PPIs) to enhance well-being. Participants (N = 210) were randomly assigned to either: Three Good Things (TGT), Best Possible Selves (BPS), or a control group and completed well-being questionnaires pre and post intervention.…

  7. The Impact of Resource Constraints on the Psychological Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…

  8. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers and Siblings in Families of Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cianfaglione, Rina; Hastings, Richard P.; Felce, David; Clarke, Angus; Kerr, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Few published studies have reported on the psychological well-being of family members of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT). Eighty-seven mothers of girls and women with RTT completed a questionnaire survey about their daughters' behavioral phenotype, current health, and behavior problems, and their own and a sibling's well-being. Mothers…

  9. Racial identity, academic achievement, and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, C G; Zigler, E

    1995-11-01

    The relation between racial identity and personal psychological functioning was examined within the framework of the "racelessness" construct proposed by Fordham and Ogbu (S. Fordham, 1988; S. Fordham & J. U. Ogbu, 1986). These researchers have proposed that academically successful African American students achieve their success by adopting behaviors and attitudes that distance them from their culture of origin, resulting in increased feelings of depression, anxiety, and identity confusion. Studies 1 and 2 describe the development of the Racelessness Scale (RS) designed to test these assumptions. Study 2 also investigated Race X Achievement level differences in students' responses to the RS. In Study 3, correlations between the RS and measures of depression, self-efficacy, anxiety, alienation, and collective self-esteem were assessed. The pattern of results in Study 2 suggest that the behaviors and attitudes described by Fordham and Ogbu are common to high-achieving adolescents and not specific to African Americans. However, racial differences in the pattern of associations between the RS and measures of depression suggest that racelessness may have important psychological consequences for African American adolescents.

  10. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  11. Typologies of Post-divorce Coparenting and Parental Well-Being, Parenting Quality and Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bastos, Alice; Feinberg, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify post-divorce coparenting profiles and examine whether these profiles differentiate between levels of parents' well-being, parenting practices, and children's psychological problems. Cluster analysis was conducted with Portuguese heterosexual divorced parents (N = 314) to yield distinct post-divorce coparenting patterns. Clusters were based on parents' self-reported coparenting relationship assessed along four dimensions: agreement, exposure to conflict, undermining/support, and division of labor. A three cluster solution was found and replicated. Parents in the high-conflict coparenting group exhibited significantly lower life satisfaction, as well as significantly higher divorce-related negative affect and inconsistent parenting than parents in undermining and cooperative coparenting clusters. The cooperative coparenting group reported higher levels of positive family functioning and lower externalizing and internalizing problems in their children. These results suggested that a positive coparenting alliance may be a protective factor for individual and family outcomes after parental divorce.

  12. Typologies of Post-divorce Coparenting and Parental Well-Being, Parenting Quality and Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Bastos, Alice; Feinberg, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify post-divorce coparenting profiles and examine whether these profiles differentiate between levels of parents' well-being, parenting practices, and children's psychological problems. Cluster analysis was conducted with Portuguese heterosexual divorced parents (N = 314) to yield distinct post-divorce coparenting patterns. Clusters were based on parents' self-reported coparenting relationship assessed along four dimensions: agreement, exposure to conflict, undermining/support, and division of labor. A three cluster solution was found and replicated. Parents in the high-conflict coparenting group exhibited significantly lower life satisfaction, as well as significantly higher divorce-related negative affect and inconsistent parenting than parents in undermining and cooperative coparenting clusters. The cooperative coparenting group reported higher levels of positive family functioning and lower externalizing and internalizing problems in their children. These results suggested that a positive coparenting alliance may be a protective factor for individual and family outcomes after parental divorce. PMID:26518292

  13. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared to normal weight persons, obese II/III persons (body mass index of 35 or higher) are more likely to report institutional and day-to-day interpersonal discrimination. Among obese II/III persons, professional workers are more likely than nonprofessionals to report employment discrimination and interpersonal mistreatment. Obese II/III persons report lower levels of self-acceptance than normal weight persons, yet this relationship is fully mediated by the perception that one has been discriminated against due to body weight or physical appearance. Our findings offer further support for the pervasive stigma of obesity and the negative implications of stigmatized identities for life chances.

  14. Persistent Psychological Well-being Predicts Improved Self-Rated Health Over 9-10 Years: Longitudinal Evidence from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.; Radler, Barry T.; Friedman, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological well-being has been linked with better health, but mostly with cross-sectional evidence. Using MIDUS, a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 4,963), longitudinal profiles of well-being were used to predict in cross-time change over a 9-10 years in self-reported health. Well-being was largely stable, although adults differed in whether they had persistently high versus persistently low or moderate levels of well-being. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, those with persistently high well-being reported better health (subjective health, chronic conditions, symptoms, functional impairment) across time compared to those with persistently low well-being. Further, persistently high well-being was protective of improved health especially among the educationally disadvantaged. The findings underscore the importance of intervention and educational programs designed to promote well-being for greater segments of society. PMID:26617988

  15. Specific Learning Disorders: A Look Inside Children's and Parents' Psychological Well-Being and Relationships.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25609675

  16. Specific Learning Disorders: A Look Inside Children's and Parents' Psychological Well-Being and Relationships.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. The association between psychological well-being and problematic use of Internet communicative services among young people.

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Lecchi, Stefano; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on problematic Internet use have focused almost exclusively on the fact that presence of negative functioning, such as social anxiety, depressive symptoms, or loneliness, represents a risk factor for unhealthy use of the web. For this reason the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between psychological well-being dimensions and problematic use of Internet communicative services. In the current study 495 undergraduate students were recruited. The Italian adaptations of the Psychological Well-being Scales and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) were used to assess psychological well-being dimensions and generalized problematic Internet use, respectively. Psychological well-being dimensions explained a significant portion of variance for the GPIUS2 total score levels, after controlling for sex, age, and occupational status. The levels of Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, and Positive Relations with Others acted as significant negative predictors of the tendency to use the web for regulating negative feelings, compulsive use of the web, and the negative outcomes that can arise as a result. The overall findings of the present study provide preliminary evidence that low psychological well-being is associated with problematic use of Internet communicative services.

  18. Psychological well-being and posttraumatic growth in caregivers of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Claudia; Romito, Francesca; Viscanti, Giovanna; Turaccio, Marina; Lorusso, Vito; Mattioli, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although research has shown that many cancer patients report positive life changes following cancer diagnosis, there are few data in the literature related to PTG in caregivers of cancer patients. However, the few studies available have shown that this kind of positive changes can also be experienced by family members. The aims of this study were to explore PTG in caregivers of cancer patients and to investigate correlations between the Posttraumatic growth, psychological status and QoL of caregivers and those of patients, taking into account also clinical and socio-demographic aspects. Methods: We enrolled 60 patient/caregiver pairs in the Department of Medical Oncology of the National Research Center “Giovanni Paolo II” in Bari. Both patients and caregivers were assessed using the following scales: Posttraumatic growth Inventory (PTGI); Hospital anxiety and depression scale; Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36); ECOG Performance Status. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected. Results: Caregivers showed significantly higher scores than patients in the dimension of “personal strength.” Furthermore, we found a significantly close association between anxiety and depression of caregivers with those of patients. Younger caregivers were better than older ones in terms of physical activity, vitality, mental health, and social activities. Although the degree of relationship with the patient has no significant effect on the dependent variables of the study, it was found that caregivers with a degree of kinship more distant to the patient have less physical pain than the closest relatives. Conclusion: Results of the present study show that caregivers of cancer patients may experience post-traumatic growth as the result of their caregiver role. It would be interesting to investigate in future research which factor may mediate the presence of post-traumatic growth. PMID:25477853

  19. Occupational stress in submariners: the impact of isolated and confined work on psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Brasher, Kate S; Dew, Angela B C; Kilminster, Shaun G; Bridger, Robert S

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed to identify work-related and personal factors associated with occupational stress in submariners. Work and well-being questionnaires were distributed to 219 male submariners (mean age 34 years), as part of a larger cohort study involving a stratified sample of 4951 Royal Navy (RN) personnel. The stress rate in submariners was 40%; significantly higher than the stress rate in the general RN, although once demographic factors were controlled for in a matched control sample, this difference was no longer significant. A summary model accounted for 49% of the variance in submariner stress, with key differences emerging between the occupational factors associated with stress in submariners and in the general RN. The longitudinal nature of this study permits stress in submariners to be monitored over 5 years, which will provide valuable insights into the chronicity of stress in this specialised occupational group. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper contributes to the current literature on the negative impact of working in isolated conditions. It is demonstrated that occupational stress in submarines can be partially explained using current theories of stress in the workplace. However, the constraints of a restricted environment introduce additional factors which can also be associated with occupational stress. PMID:20191405

  20. Does psychological strengths and subjective well-being predicting parental involvement and problem solving among Malaysian and Indian students?

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Tahir, Lokman Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the predictors of psychological strengths and subjective well-being for dealing with academic stress perceived by university engineering students. Sample of 400 Malaysian (N = 180 boys and N = 220 girls) age varies 18 to 25 years and 400 Indian students (N = 240 boys and N = 160 girls) age varies 18 to 25 years from public universities were participated. Quantitative method was used for data analysis. Findings shows that gender, religiosity and socioeconomic status are significantly influencing psychological strengths and subjective well-being of both Indian and Malaysian students. Findings also revealed that parental involvement and problem solving coping styles were significantly predicting psychological strengths and subjective well-being among both countries participants. Findings of the current study provide the insight for the educators, and parents dealing with adolescents. PMID:25674482

  1. Does psychological strengths and subjective well-being predicting parental involvement and problem solving among Malaysian and Indian students?

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Tahir, Lokman Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the predictors of psychological strengths and subjective well-being for dealing with academic stress perceived by university engineering students. Sample of 400 Malaysian (N = 180 boys and N = 220 girls) age varies 18 to 25 years and 400 Indian students (N = 240 boys and N = 160 girls) age varies 18 to 25 years from public universities were participated. Quantitative method was used for data analysis. Findings shows that gender, religiosity and socioeconomic status are significantly influencing psychological strengths and subjective well-being of both Indian and Malaysian students. Findings also revealed that parental involvement and problem solving coping styles were significantly predicting psychological strengths and subjective well-being among both countries participants. Findings of the current study provide the insight for the educators, and parents dealing with adolescents.

  2. Effectiveness of an adventure-based training programme in promoting the psychological well-being of primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Li, William H C; Chung, Joyce O K; Ho, Eva K Y

    2013-11-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of an adventure-based training programme in promoting the psychological well-being of primary schoolchildren. A randomised controlled trial was conducted, with 56 primary school pupils randomly assigned to the experimental group participating in the adventure-based training programme and 64 to the attention placebo control group. Children in the experimental group reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms, lower anxiety levels and higher self-esteem than those in the attention placebo control group. This study provides some evidence that the adventure-based training programme is effective in promoting the psychological well-being of Hong Kong Chinese schoolchildren. PMID:23221616

  3. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  4. The relation between short-term emotion dynamics and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Marlies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Not only how good or bad people feel on average, but also how their feelings fluctuate across time is crucial for psychological health. The last 2 decades have witnessed a surge in research linking various patterns of short-term emotional change to adaptive or maladaptive psychological functioning, often with conflicting results. A meta-analysis was performed to identify consistent relationships between patterns of short-term emotion dynamics-including patterns reflecting emotional variability (measured in terms of within-person standard deviation of emotions across time), emotional instability (measured in terms of the magnitude of consecutive emotional changes), and emotional inertia of emotions over time (measured in terms of autocorrelation)-and relatively stable indicators of psychological well-being or psychopathology. We determined how such relationships are moderated by the type of emotional change, type of psychological well-being or psychopathology involved, valence of the emotion, and methodological factors. A total of 793 effect sizes were identified from 79 articles (N = 11,381) and were subjected to a 3-level meta-analysis. The results confirmed that overall, low psychological well-being co-occurs with more variable (overall ρ̂ = -.178), unstable (overall ρ̂ = -.205), but also more inert (overall ρ̂ = -.151) emotions. These effect sizes were stronger when involving negative compared with positive emotions. Moreover, the results provided evidence for consistency across different types of psychological well-being and psychopathology in their relation with these dynamical patterns, although specificity was also observed. The findings demonstrate that psychological flourishing is characterized by specific patterns of emotional fluctuations across time, and provide insight into what constitutes optimal and suboptimal emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822133

  5. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Supported Employment for People with Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Job Breakdown on Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Pauline; Jahoda, Andrew; Dagnan, Dave; Kemp, John; Williams, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper focuses on the transition to supported employment for people with intellectual disabilities paying particular attention to the impact of job breakdown on psychological well-being; an issue often omitted from studies. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine people with intellectual disabilities were interviewed within 3 months of…

  7. Relationship of Psychological Well-Being with Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Social Support amongst University Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji

    The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…

  8. Death of Parents and Adult Psychological and Physical Well-Being: A Prospective U.S. National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Nadine F.; Jun, Heyjung; Song, Jieun

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective, attachment theory, and gender theory, this study aims to examine the impact of death of a father, a mother, or both parents, as well as continuously living with one or both parents dead (in contrast to having two parents alive) on multiple dimensions of psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, happiness,…

  9. The Relationship among Work Possible Selves, Socioeconomic Position, and the Psychological Well-Being of Individuals in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among work possible selves, socioeconomic position, gender, and psychological well-being. Participants were college students in early adulthood (N = 201), aged 20 to 35. Work possible selves, a construct based on the theory of possible selves, were examined. The results showed relationships between…

  10. Perceived Economic Strain and Psychological Well-Being: The Mediational Role of Parental Relations in Turkish Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uçanok, Zehra; Güre, Ays?en

    2014-01-01

    This study primarily aims to explore the association between perceived economic strain, parent-adolescent relational qualities and psychological well-being and to investigate the dyadic parental relationships during early adolescence. A total of 414 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 14 (M= 12.58, SD = 0.90) from three different socioeconomic…

  11. Reliability and Validity of a Shorter Chinese Version for Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ren-Hau

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a new and shorter Chinese version of Ryff's psychological well-being scale. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: In recent years there have been several versions of this scale, including 84-item, 54-item and 18-item versions. Researchers in different countries have built on Ryff's…

  12. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  13. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being over Time among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Upton, Rachel D.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Sellers, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial…

  14. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  15. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  16. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in the Context of Relationships at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…

  17. From Emotional and Psychological Well-Being to Character Education: Challenging Policy Discourses of Behavioural Science and "Vulnerability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to challenge a strong consensus that governments must intervene in a worsening crisis of emotional and psychological well-being. The article relates rising estimates of problems and corresponding calls for intervention in educational settings to the increasingly blurred boundaries between a cultural therapeutic ethos, academic…

  18. Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed by Beck Youth Inventory among Pupils with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…

  19. An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rosemary A.; Ploubidis, George B.; Huppert, Felicia A.; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effective measurement range of Ryff's Psychological Well-being scales (PWB). It applies normal ogive item response theory (IRT) methodology using factor analysis procedures for ordinal data based on a limited information estimation approach. The data come from a sample of 1,179 women participating in a…

  20. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  1. Body Perceptions, Weight Control Behavior, and Changes in Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being over Time: A Longitudinal Examination of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt Yuan, Anastasia S.

    2010-01-01

    This study used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to explore gender differences in the relationship between body perceptions and behavior and changes in adolescents' psychological well-being over a one-year time period. The sample included 12,814 adolescents (51% girls) aged 11-20 comprised of 68% Non-Hispanic White, 15% African…

  2. Psychological Well-Being in the Early Life Course: Variations by Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Owens, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    Our analysis focuses on the implications of social status characteristics for children's psychological well-being. Drawing on social evaluation theories and stress-based explanations, we hypothesized that disadvantage cumulates across statuses (the double jeopardy hypothesis) and over time as children move into the adolescent years. To test this…

  3. Psychological Well-Being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS;n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs;n = 135), and Fragile X syndrome (n = 46). Fathers of sons or…

  4. The Importance of Social Learning Environment Factors for Affective Well-Being among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Ella Maria Cosmovici

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether perceived inclusion and exclusion with peers at school, as well as self-reported bullying exposure, affected positive and negative affect among 1161 students from grades five through seven. Positive affect was significantly, but only weakly, affected by perceived exclusion and inclusion. Negative affect was not related to…

  5. The associations of illness perceptions and self-efficacy with psychological well-being of patients in preparation for joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Magklara, Eleni; Morrison, Val

    2016-09-01

    Patient well-being on referral to surgery likely affects their surgical experience yet few studies examine pre-surgical correlates of well-being. Guided by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive theory, this study examined whether illness and emotional representations, general and domain self-efficacy were associated with pre-surgical well-being. The pre-surgical assessment of a three-wave prospective study is reported. Fifty-four hip and knee replacements patients (mean age = 69.33; SD = 8.57) were recruited in the pre-surgery educational clinic at a UK general hospital. Patients completed a questionnaire-pack including the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale, the Falls-Efficacy Scale, and the Short Form of Psychological Well-Being Index. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that above and beyond demographic and clinical characteristics, negative emotional representations were associated with lower psychological well-being while strong general self-efficacy beliefs were positively related to psychological well-being. Independent of demographic and clinical characteristics, joint replacement patients' psychological well-being was associated with their cognitions and emotional reactions to their condition before surgery. Early interventions could potentially target these modifiable factors to improve pre-surgical well-being in this group of patients, with potential for additional post-surgical benefit.

  6. The associations of illness perceptions and self-efficacy with psychological well-being of patients in preparation for joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Magklara, Eleni; Morrison, Val

    2016-09-01

    Patient well-being on referral to surgery likely affects their surgical experience yet few studies examine pre-surgical correlates of well-being. Guided by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive theory, this study examined whether illness and emotional representations, general and domain self-efficacy were associated with pre-surgical well-being. The pre-surgical assessment of a three-wave prospective study is reported. Fifty-four hip and knee replacements patients (mean age = 69.33; SD = 8.57) were recruited in the pre-surgery educational clinic at a UK general hospital. Patients completed a questionnaire-pack including the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale, the Falls-Efficacy Scale, and the Short Form of Psychological Well-Being Index. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that above and beyond demographic and clinical characteristics, negative emotional representations were associated with lower psychological well-being while strong general self-efficacy beliefs were positively related to psychological well-being. Independent of demographic and clinical characteristics, joint replacement patients' psychological well-being was associated with their cognitions and emotional reactions to their condition before surgery. Early interventions could potentially target these modifiable factors to improve pre-surgical well-being in this group of patients, with potential for additional post-surgical benefit. PMID:26610604

  7. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  8. Functions of reminiscence and the psychological well-being of young-old and older adults over time.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Norm; Cappeliez, Philippe; Claxton, Amy

    2011-03-01

    Existing cross-sectional research demonstrates an association between reminiscence functions and well-being in later life. The results of this study replicate and extend previous findings in separate participant samples above and below 70 years of age. Findings suggest a link between reminiscence functions and psychological well-being, and indirectly between reminiscence and well-being 16 months thereafter. Invariance analyses reveal few differences in association between reminiscence and well-being when young-old (n = 196) and older adults (n = 215) are compared. These findings suggest a direct positive association between self-positive reminiscence functions (identity, death preparation, and problem-solving) and a direct negative association between self-negative functions (boredom reduction, bitterness revival, and intimacy maintenance) and psychological well-being (life satisfaction, depressive, and anxiety symptoms). In contrast, prosocial reminiscence functions (conversation, teach/inform others) appear to have an indirect association with well-being (i.e., via self-positive and self-negative functions). These findings are discussed relative to evolving theory and research linking cognition and health. PMID:21140308

  9. Effects of customer entitlement on service workers' physical and psychological well-being: a study of waitstaff employees.

    PubMed

    Fisk, Glenda M; Neville, Lukas B

    2011-10-01

    This exploratory study examines the nature of customer entitlement and its impact on front-line service employees. In an open-ended qualitative inquiry, 56 individuals with waitstaff experience described the types of behaviors entitled customers engage in and the kinds of service-related "perks" these individuals feel deserving of. Participants explained how they responded to entitled customers, how and when managers became involved, and how their dealings with these patrons influenced their subjective physical and psychological well-being. We found that the behaviors of entitled customers negatively impacted waitstaff employees. Participants reported physiological arousal, negative affect, burnout, and feelings of dehumanization as a result of dealing with these patrons. While respondents drew on a variety of strategies to manage their encounters with entitled customers, they indicated workplace support was often informal and described feeling abandoned by management in dealing with this workplace stressor. Approaching customer entitlement as a form of microaggression, we offer recommendations for practice and suggest new directions for future research. PMID:21688917

  10. Effects of customer entitlement on service workers' physical and psychological well-being: a study of waitstaff employees.

    PubMed

    Fisk, Glenda M; Neville, Lukas B

    2011-10-01

    This exploratory study examines the nature of customer entitlement and its impact on front-line service employees. In an open-ended qualitative inquiry, 56 individuals with waitstaff experience described the types of behaviors entitled customers engage in and the kinds of service-related "perks" these individuals feel deserving of. Participants explained how they responded to entitled customers, how and when managers became involved, and how their dealings with these patrons influenced their subjective physical and psychological well-being. We found that the behaviors of entitled customers negatively impacted waitstaff employees. Participants reported physiological arousal, negative affect, burnout, and feelings of dehumanization as a result of dealing with these patrons. While respondents drew on a variety of strategies to manage their encounters with entitled customers, they indicated workplace support was often informal and described feeling abandoned by management in dealing with this workplace stressor. Approaching customer entitlement as a form of microaggression, we offer recommendations for practice and suggest new directions for future research.

  11. Effects of psychological well-being, physical status, and social support on oxygen-dependent COPD patients' level of functioning.

    PubMed

    Lee, R N; Graydon, J E; Ross, E

    1991-10-01

    Thirty oxygen-dependent patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) participated in a descriptive correlational study in which investigators examined the relationship between oxygen-dependent COPD patients' psychological well-being, physical status, social support, and level of functioning. Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) theory of psychological stress and coping was used to guide the study. Using multiple regression analysis, physical symptoms had the most predictive power in relation to the level of functioning, accounting for 44.3% of the variance. Among the symptoms, dyspnea had the greatest influence on functioning.

  12. The Impact of Infertility on the Psychological Well-Being, Marital Relationships, Sexual Relationships, and Quality of Life of Couples: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Luk, Bronya Hi-Kwan; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to identify, with supporting evidence, the effect of infertility on couples. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Plus articles were searched for relevant studies (2000-2014) published in English. Twenty articles were included in this review. The results showed that infertility affected couples in the following four aspects of their life: psychological well-being, marital relationships, sexual relationships, and quality of life. There is evidence that infertility has a negative effect on the psychological well-being and sexual relationships of couples, but the evidence is inconclusive for the effect on marital relationships and quality of life. PMID:25211377

  13. The Impact of Infertility on the Psychological Well-Being, Marital Relationships, Sexual Relationships, and Quality of Life of Couples: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Luk, Bronya Hi-Kwan; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to identify, with supporting evidence, the effect of infertility on couples. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Plus articles were searched for relevant studies (2000-2014) published in English. Twenty articles were included in this review. The results showed that infertility affected couples in the following four aspects of their life: psychological well-being, marital relationships, sexual relationships, and quality of life. There is evidence that infertility has a negative effect on the psychological well-being and sexual relationships of couples, but the evidence is inconclusive for the effect on marital relationships and quality of life.

  14. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents. PMID:9120405

  15. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.

  16. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  17. How Enrichment Affects Exploration Trade-Offs in Rats: Implications for Welfare and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Becca; Champagne, Frances A.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2013-01-01

    We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding ‘the good life.’ Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60) were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance) while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal). Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P<.0001), the enrichment-maintenance group showed a significantly greater exploratory tendency (P<.01) despite having equivalent levels of activity (P>.3). Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without) enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed. PMID:24376721

  18. Attachment and psychological well-being among adolescents with and without disabilities in Kenya: the mediating role of identity formation.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Amina; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Murugami, Margret; Mazrui, Lubna; Arasa, Josephine

    2013-10-01

    The current study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between attachment and identity development, and their influence on psychological well-being in adolescents with and without disabilities in Kenya. The sample was composed of 296 adolescents (151 with disabilities and 145 without any disability). The mean age in our sample was 16.84 years (SD = 1.75). Adolescents with disabilities had significantly lower scores in identity formation, paternal attachment, and life satisfaction. A path model indicated that identity formation partially mediated the relationship between secure attachment and psychological well-being. Our findings indicate that both parent and peer attachment play an important role in the identity formation and psychological well-being of adolescents in Kenya, irrespective of a disabling condition. A multigroup analysis indicated that while the structure of the relationship between variables held for groups, the pattern and strength of the relationships differed. Implications for practice, especially the guidance and counseling services in schools, are discussed. PMID:24011101

  19. Cultivating multiple aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation accounts for psychological well-being through decreased rumination

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, mindfulness meditation has gained prominence as an adjunctive psychotherapeutic technique. In fact, a vast literature of controlled studies has found that mindfulness meditation is related to improved mental health across a variety of disorders. Elucidating the components involved in mindfulness meditation’s positive impact on psychological well-being is an important step in more precisely identifying the populations that would most benefit from its therapeutic utilization. Yet, a consensus regarding the particular underlying mechanisms that contribute to these outcomes is very much limited. There are many reasons for this, including the inconsistent operationalization and use of mindfulness meditation across research investigations. Despite the elusive mechanisms, many studies seem to indicate that cultivating different aspects of attention is a feasible, consistent, and parsimonious starting point bridging mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Attention in itself is a complex construct. It comprises different networks, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, and is also explained in terms of the way it is regulated. This paper supports a previously suggested idea that cultivating all aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation leads to greater psychological well-being through decreased ruminative processes. Ruminative processes are decreased by engaging in both focused and receptive attention, which foster the ability to distract and decenter. PMID:26170728

  20. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula.

  1. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  2. How does a vacation from work affect employee health and well-being?

    PubMed

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A E; Sonnentag, Sabine; Taris, Toon; de Weerth, Carolina; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2011-12-01

    Health and well-being (H&W) improve during vacation. However, it is unclear whether this general development applies to all employees, while also little is known about the underlying processes causing such an improvement. Our research questions were: (1) Does every worker experience a positive effect of vacation on H&W? and (2) Can vacation activities and experiences explain changes in H&W during vacation? In a 7-week longitudinal field study, 96 workers reported their H&W 2 weeks before, during, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after a winter sports vacation on 6 indicators (health status, mood, fatigue, tension, energy level and satisfaction). Sixty percent of the sample experienced substantial improvement of H&W during and after vacation. Yet, a small group experienced no (23%) or a negative effect of vacation (17%). Spending limited time on passive activities, pleasure derived from vacation activities, and the absence of negative incidents during vacation explained 38% of the variance in the vacation effect. Although vacation has a positive, longer lasting effect for many, it is not invariably positive for all employees. Choosing especially pleasant vacation activities and avoiding negative incidents as well as passive activities during active vacations apparently contributes to the positive effect of vacation on H&W. PMID:21678165

  3. How does a vacation from work affect employee health and well-being?

    PubMed

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A E; Sonnentag, Sabine; Taris, Toon; de Weerth, Carolina; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2011-12-01

    Health and well-being (H&W) improve during vacation. However, it is unclear whether this general development applies to all employees, while also little is known about the underlying processes causing such an improvement. Our research questions were: (1) Does every worker experience a positive effect of vacation on H&W? and (2) Can vacation activities and experiences explain changes in H&W during vacation? In a 7-week longitudinal field study, 96 workers reported their H&W 2 weeks before, during, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after a winter sports vacation on 6 indicators (health status, mood, fatigue, tension, energy level and satisfaction). Sixty percent of the sample experienced substantial improvement of H&W during and after vacation. Yet, a small group experienced no (23%) or a negative effect of vacation (17%). Spending limited time on passive activities, pleasure derived from vacation activities, and the absence of negative incidents during vacation explained 38% of the variance in the vacation effect. Although vacation has a positive, longer lasting effect for many, it is not invariably positive for all employees. Choosing especially pleasant vacation activities and avoiding negative incidents as well as passive activities during active vacations apparently contributes to the positive effect of vacation on H&W.

  4. Ovum pick-up in dairy heifers: does it affect animal well-being?

    PubMed

    Petyim, S; Båge, R; Madej, A; Larsson, B

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick-up (OPU) technique on animal well-being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice-weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4-month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG-metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2(1/2) min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU ('restraint', 'epidural', 'device in' and 'puncture') were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre-OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG-metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4-month sessions. The response to 'device in' and 'puncture' varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.

  5. The Influence of Environment and Personality on the Affective and Cognitive Component of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has two components: affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB). The present study demonstrated that AWB and CWB have are influenced by different factors in a nationally representative sample in Germany (N = 1053). Neuroticism was a stronger predictor of AWB than CWB. Unemployment and regional differences…

  6. In the eye of the beholder: views of psychological well-being among middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Ryff, C D

    1989-06-01

    Although the topic of psychological well-being has generated considerable research, few studies have investigated how adults themselves define positive functioning. To probe their conceptions of well-being, interviews were conducted with a community sample of 171 middle-aged (M = 52.5 years, SD = 8.7) and older (M = 73.5 years, SD = 6.1) men and women. Questions pertained to general life evaluations, past life experiences, conceptions of well-being, and views of the aging process. Responses indicated that both age groups and sexes emphasized an "others orientation" (being a caring, compassionate person, and having good relationships) in defining well-being. Middle-aged respondents stressed self-confidence, self-acceptance, and self-knowledge, whereas older persons cited accepting change as an important quality of positive functioning. In addition to attention to positive relations with others as an index of well-being, lay views pointed to a sense of humor, enjoying life, and accepting change as criteria of successful aging.

  7. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children. PMID:15515041

  8. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy: An Effective Intervention for Improving Psychological Well-Being in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Applebaum, Allison; Kulikowski, Julia; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy (MCGP) to reduce psychological distress and improve spiritual well-being in patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced cancer (N = 253) were randomly assigned to manualized eight-session interventions of either MCGP or supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the treatment and 2 months after treatment. The primary outcome measures were spiritual well-being and overall quality of life, with secondary outcome measures assessing depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, anxiety, and physical symptom distress. Results Hierarchical linear models that included a priori covariates and only participants who attended ≥ three sessions indicated a significant group × time interaction for most outcome variables. Specifically, patients receiving MCGP showed significantly greater improvement in spiritual well-being and quality of life and significantly greater reductions in depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and physical symptom distress compared with those receiving SGP. No group differences were observed for changes in anxiety. Analyses that included all patients, regardless of whether they attended any treatment sessions (ie, intent-to-treat analyses), and no covariates still showed significant treatment effects (ie, greater benefit for patients receiving MCGP v SGP) for quality of life, depression, and hopelessness but not for other outcome variables. Conclusion This large randomized controlled study provides strong support for the efficacy of MCGP as a treatment for psychological and existential or spiritual distress in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:25646186

  9. Work conditions and employees' self-set goals: goal processes enhance prediction of psychological distress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pomaki, Georgia; Maes, Stan; Ter Doest, Laura

    2004-06-01

    Although previous theory and research suggest that employee well-being should be predicted by work conditions (viz., Karasek and colleagues' job demands-control-social support [J-DCS] model), other factors are also likely to be important. In this study, the authors consider correlates of employee psychological distress and well-being using a goal-focused approach grounded in Ford's (1992) motivational systems theory. Specifically, work conditions and midlevel work goal processes (WGP) were examined in a questionnaire study of health care employees. Regarding predictions derived from the J-DCS model, the authors found full support for the iso-strain, partial support for the nonlinearity, and no support for the buffer hypothesis. Of importance, however, WGP (i.e., cognitions and emotions involved in the pursuit of self-set work goals) explained variance in job satisfaction, burnout, depression, and somatic complaints, over and above that of the J-DCS model. This suggests that investigation of WGP can enhance our understanding of employee psychological distress and well-being.

  10. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children.

  11. Spirituality vis-a-vis Islam as prerequisite to Arab American well being: the implications of Eurocentrism for mainstream psychology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ronald E; Breland-Noble, Alfiee

    2011-01-01

    Due to the historical preponderance of racial and/or intellectual homogeneity in the field of psychology, Eurocentrism set the "gold standard" for its method of intervention. As such, it might be argued that psychology remains a bastion of Eurocentric thought despite the globalization of knowledge and the influx of racially and ethnically diverse scientists into the research endeavor. At the same time and the significant increase in the immigrant Arab population, Arab Americans remain a less familiar component of society. Among the various Arab populations, spirituality through Islam is fundamental. Thus, psychologists would be remiss to exclude a critical aspect of Arab American life from intervention when it is essential to well-being.

  12. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  13. SELF-CONCEPT DIFFERENTIATION AND SELF-CONCEPT CLARITY ACROSS ADULTHOOD: ASSOCIATIONS WITH AGE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING*

    PubMed Central

    DIEHL, MANFRED; HAY, ELIZABETH L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the identification of conceptually meaningful groups of individuals based on their joint self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC) scores. Notably, we examined whether membership in different SCD-SCC groups differed by age and also was associated with differences in psychological well-being (PWB). Cluster analysis revealed five distinct SCD-SCC groups: a self-assured, unencumbered, fragmented-only, confused-only, and fragmented and confused group. Individuals in the self-assured group had the highest mean scores for positive PWB and the lowest mean scores for negative PWB, whereas individuals in the fragmented and confused group showed the inverse pattern. Findings showed that it was psychologically advantageous to belong to the self-assured group at all ages. As hypothesized, older adults were more likely than young adults to be in the self-assured cluster, whereas young adults were more likely to be in the fragmented and confused cluster. Thus, consistent with extant theorizing, age was positively associated with psychologically adaptive self-concept profiles. This study examined whether conceptually meaningful subgroups of individuals can be identified based on their joint scores on self-concept differentiation (SCD) and self-concept clarity (SCC). Specifically, we considered whether individuals within such subgroups differed systematically from one another on measures of positive and negative psychological well-being (PWB). Of interest to us was also whether there were age differences in the distribution of adults across the SCD-SCC groups and whether age moderated the association between PWB and SCD-SCC grouping. PMID:22010361

  14. Dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on psychological well-being of older Malaysian couples: an actor–partner interdependence model

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Masud, Jariah; Haron, Sharifah Azizah; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of literature indicating that attitudes toward aging significantly affect older adults’ psychological well-being. However, there is a paucity of scientific investigations examining the role of older adults’ attitudes toward aging on their spouses’ psychological well-being. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the dyadic effects of attitude toward aging on the psychological well-being of older couples. Methods Data for the present study, consisting of 300 couples aged 50 years and older, were drawn from a community-based survey entitled “Poverty among Elderly Women: Case Study of Amanah Ikhtiar” conducted in Peninsular Malaysia. An actor–partner interdependence model using AMOS version 20 (Europress Software, Cheshire, UK) was used to analyze the dyadic data. Results The mean ages of the husbands and wives in this sample were 60.37 years (±6.55) and 56.33 years (±5.32), respectively. Interdependence analyses revealed significant association between older adults’ attitudes toward aging and the attitudes of their spouses (intraclass correlation =0.59; P<0.001), and similar interdependence was found for psychological well-being (intraclass correlation =0.57; P<0.001). The findings from AMOS revealed that the proposed model fits the data (CMIN/degrees of freedom =3.23; goodness-of-fit index =0.90; confirmatory fit index =0.91; root mean square error of approximation =0.08). Results of the actor–partner independence model indicated that older adults’ psychological well-being is significantly predicted by their spouses’ attitudes toward aging, both among older men (critical ratio =2.92; P<0.01) and women (critical ratio =2.70; P<0.01). Husbands’ and wives’ own reports of their attitudes toward aging were significantly correlated with their own and their spouses’ psychological well-being. Conclusion The findings from this study supported the proposed Spousal Attitude–Well-Being Model, where older

  15. The effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on fitness, blood pressure, and psychological stress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Norris, R; Carroll, D; Cochrane, R

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether fitness alters psychological and physiological indices of well-being, male police officers were assigned to either an aerobic or anaerobic training condition or to a no treatment control group. The training groups met three times per week in 45 min sessions aimed at improving either cardiovascular endurance or muscle strength. Aerobic fitness level, heart rate, blood pressure and self-report of stress and well-being were measured prior to and following 10 weeks of training. Post-training fitness measures confirmed the effectiveness of training and between group differences for physiological and self-report measures were found. Subjects undergoing aerobic training evinced larger changes on the self-report measures of well-being and stress than the anaerobic trainers and both groups showed significant improvement when compared to controls. This experiment provides support for the hypothesis that exercise, and in particular aerobic exercise, has positive effects of well-being. It is suggested that future research might usefully explore the particular contribution of different aspects of the training situation to these effects.

  16. Profiling retirees in the retirement transition and adjustment process: examining the longitudinal change patterns of retirees' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mo

    2007-03-01

    The author used role theory, continuity theory, and the life course perspective to form hypotheses regarding the different retirement transition and adjustment patterns and how different individual and contextual variables related to those patterns. The longitudinal data of 2 samples (n(1) = 994; n(2) = 1,066) from the Health and Retirement Survey were used. Three latent growth curve patterns of retirees' psychological well-being were identified as coexisting in the retiree samples through growth mixture modeling (GMM) analysis. On the basis of the latent class membership derived from GMM, retiree subgroups directly linked to different growth curve patterns were profiled with individual (e.g., bridge job status) and contextual variables (e.g., spouse working status). By recognizing the existence of multiple retiree subgroups corresponding to different psychological well-being change patterns, this study suggests that retirees do not follow a uniform adjustment pattern during the retirement process, which reconciles inconsistent previous findings. A resource perspective is further introduced to provide a more integrated theory for the current findings. The practical implications of this study are also discussed at both individual level and policy level. PMID:17371091

  17. Life Course Pathways of Adverse Childhood Experiences Toward Adult Psychological Well-Being: A Stress Process Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195

  18. Sexual Stigma, Psychological Well-Being and Social Engagement among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule, or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual; limiting interaction with MSM to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Our findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of MSM in Beirut, much like what has been found in Western gay communities. PMID:23730919

  19. Sexual stigma, psychological well-being and social engagement among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn J; Aunon, Frances M; Kaplan, Rachel L; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore sexual identity development among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon; the stigma experienced by these men; and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 men who have sex with men and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual and limiting interaction with men who have sex with men to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of men who have sex with men in Beirut, much as has been found in Western gay communities. PMID:23730919

  20. Death of Parents and Adult Psychological and Physical Well-Being: A Prospective U.S. National Study

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Nadine F.; Jun, Heyjung; Song, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective, attachment theory, and gender theory, this study aims to examine the impact of death of a father, a mother, or both parents, as well as continuously living with one or both parents dead (in contrast to having two parents alive) on multiple dimensions of psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, happiness, self-esteem, mastery, and psychological wellness), alcohol abuse (binge drinking), and physical health (self-assessed health). Analyses of longitudinal data from. 8,865 adults in the National Survey of Families and Households 1987–1993 reveal that a father’s death leads to more negative effects for sons than daughters and a mother’s death leads to more negative effects for daughters than sons. Problematic effects of parent loss are reflected more in men’s physical health reports than women’s. This study’s results suggest that family researchers and practitioners working with aging families should not underestimate the impact of filial bereavement on adult well-being. PMID:19212446

  1. The psychology of health and well-being in mass gatherings: A review and a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Nick; Reicher, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings bring large numbers of people into physical proximity. Typically, this physical proximity has been assumed to contribute to ill health (e.g., through being stressful, facilitating infection transmission, etc.). In this paper, we add a new dimension to the emerging field of mass gatherings medicine. Drawing on psychological research concerning group processes, we consider the psychological transformations that occur when people become part of a crowd. We then consider how these transformations may have various consequences for health and well-being. Some of these consequences may be positive. For example, a sense of shared identity amongst participants may encourage participants to view others as a source of social support which in turn contributes to a sense of health and well-being. However, some consequences may be negative. Thus, this same sense of shared identity may result in a loss of disgust at the prospect of sharing resources (e.g., drinking utensils) which could, in turn, facilitate infection transmission. These, and related issues, are illustrated with research conducted at the Magh Mela (North India). We conclude with an agenda for future research concerning health practices at mass gatherings.

  2. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Youth with Fragile X Syndrome: Syndrome Specificity and within-Syndrome Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, P.; Abbeduto, L.; Murphy, M.; Richmond, E.; Giles, N.; Bruno, L.; Schroeder, S.; Anderson, J.; Orsmond, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research on parental well-being has focused largely on Down syndrome and autism; however, fragile X syndrome is likely to pose different challenges for parents compared with these other diagnostic conditions. Moreover, there is considerable variability among youth with fragile X syndrome; for example, 25% to 33% of affected youth meet…

  3. Stress from daily hassles in couples: its effects on intradyadic stress, relationship satisfaction, and physical and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Falconier, Mariana K; Nussbeck, Fridtjof; Bodenmann, Guy; Schneider, Hulka; Bradbury, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    According to the systemic-transactional stress model (STM; G. Bodenmann, European Review of Applied Psychology, 1997; 47: 137), extradyadic stress from daily hassles can have a negative impact on the individual psychological and physical health and the couple's relationship. This study is the first one to test the STM propositions in a model that includes both partners' individual and relational outcomes simultaneously. The model also includes actor and partner effects as well as the interdependence between partners' processes. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 110 community couples in Switzerland. Consistent with STM predictions, results from the path model analysis indicate that for actor effects extradyadic stress from daily hassles relates directly to lower psychological (increase in anxiety symptoms) and physical well-being and only indirectly to lower relationship satisfaction through increased intradyadic stress from relationship problems and also through more depressive symptomatology in men. The female extradyadic stress and intradyadic stress had partner effects on the male intradyadic stress and the male relationship satisfaction, respectively. Limitations as well as research and clinical implications for marriage and family therapists are discussed. PMID:24807831

  4. The influence of cognitive development and perceived racial discrimination on the psychological well-being of African American youth.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on the cognitive development measure, youth were categorized as having pre-formal or formal reasoning abilities. The results indicate no significant differences in perceptions of individual, cultural or collective/institutional racism between pre-formal reasoning and formal reasoning adolescents. However, the results do suggest that perceptions of collective/institutional racism were more harmful for the self-esteem of pre-formal reasoning youth than the self-esteem of formal reasoning youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.

  5. The effect of weight-loss dieting on cognitive performance and psychological well-being in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J; Tiggemann, M

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of a weight reduction diet on cognitive performance and psychological well-being among overweight women. A total of 42 women undertook a 12-week weight reduction diet while 21 women maintained their usual diet and exercise habits for 12 weeks. All women completed neuropsychologcial tests of speed of information processing, executive function, working memory, immediate and delayed recall and recognition, and verbal ability. They also completed measures of weight locus of control, dieting beliefs, self-esteem, mood and dysfunctional attitudes, before and after the 12-week interval. Being on the diet had a minimal impact on cognitive performance and a positive effect on emotional eating, feelings of depression and dysfunctional attitudes. A sense of control over weight and eating behaviour increased among the dieters, but an internal locus of control was negatively related to self-esteem.

  6. Perceived family and friend support and the psychological well-being of American and Chinese elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Poulin, John; Deng, Rong; Ingersoll, Travis Sky; Witt, Heather; Swain, Melanie

    2012-12-01

    This study examines two sources of informal support-perceived family and friend support-and the psychological well-being-self-esteem, depression and loneliness-of 150 Chinese and 145 American elders. There were no significant differences between the elderly American and Chinese persons' mean scores on family and friend support. The multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms (country x family support and country x friend support), however, indicated that the relationship between family support and depression and family support and loneliness was stronger for the Chinese elderly than the US elderly. Conversely, the relationship between friend support and depression and friend support and loneliness is stronger for US elderly than Chinese elderly. The implications of these findings for social work practice in both countries is discussed.

  7. FOOD INSECURITY AND ITS RELATION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG SOUTH INDIAN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Elsa; Panicker, Siju Thomas; Chandy, Sara; Steward, Wayne T.; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity (FI) and its link with depression and quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India are not well-documented. We analyzed cohort data from 243 male and 129 female PLHIV from Bengaluru, and found 19% of men and 26% of women reported moderate or severe FI over a six-month period. Women reported higher mean depression than men, and lower mean QOL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for HIV stigma and demographic covariates, both male and female PLHIV with moderate to severe FI showed lower mean QOL than those reporting mild to no FI. Male but not female food insecure participants also had higher depression scores in adjusted regression analyses. As ART has improved the physical health of PLHIV, more effort is being invested in improving their psychological well-being. Our results suggest such interventions could benefit from including nutritional support to reduce FI among PLHIV. PMID:25488171

  8. The role of spiritual experiences and activities in the relationship between chronic illness and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Shoshana H; Hannum, Susan M; Gaines, Jean M; Marx, Katherine A; Parrish, John M

    2012-12-01

    Our research explores the correlates of spiritual experiences over a 2-year period in a sample of older adults (N = 164; mean age 81.9 years) living in a continuing care retirement community. Utilizing responses to the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, scores were analyzed for changes over time and for their hypothesized moderating effect in the relationship between chronic illness impact and markers of psychological well-being (as measured by the Geriatric Depression and Life Satisfaction scales). Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant decline (P < .01) in the reported spiritual experiences over a 2-year period of time, and t tests showed a significant difference by gender (P < .01) in years 1 and 2, with women reporting higher levels of spiritual experiences than men. Analyses found low spirituality scores associated with low life satisfaction in all years (baseline: r = -.288, P < .01; year 1: r = -.209, P < .05; year 2: r = -.330, P < .001). Only weak associations were detected between low spirituality and the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline (r = .186, P < .05) and year 2 (r = .254, P < .01). Moderation effects of spirituality on the relationship between chronic illness impact and markers of psychological well-being were explored in all years, with a statistically significant effect found only for the presence of depressive symptoms in year 2. Higher impact of chronic illnesses is associated with more depressive symptoms under conditions of low spirituality. Future research may center upon longer-duration evaluation of reliance upon spiritual practices and their impact in care management models.

  9. Soccer results affect subjective well-being, but only briefly: a smartphone study during the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Götz, Friedrich M; Gehrig, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators' subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects increasing as a function of goal difference. Moreover, this gain in well-being was only found in spectators supporting the German soccer team, allowing us to rule out a general emotional contagion effect affecting all spectators. Although soccer results are associated with national identity and pride, their effects on subjective well-being were short-lived and only affected supporters.

  10. Soccer results affect subjective well-being, but only briefly: a smartphone study during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Stefan; Götz, Friedrich M.; Gehrig, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators’ subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects increasing as a function of goal difference. Moreover, this gain in well-being was only found in spectators supporting the German soccer team, allowing us to rule out a general emotional contagion effect affecting all spectators. Although soccer results are associated with national identity and pride, their effects on subjective well-being were short-lived and only affected supporters. PMID:26029124

  11. Promoting the psychological well-being of Italian youth: a pilot study of a high school mental health program.

    PubMed

    Veltro, Franco; Ialenti, Valentina; Iannone, Claudia; Bonanni, Emiliana; Morales García, Manuel Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    School is potentially one of the most important and effective agencies for the promotion of mental health. For this reason, in Italy, the Mental Health Department of The National Health Institute has developed an intervention based on a structured handbook. The aim of this intervention is to promote the psychological well-being of the students. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of this intervention through a quasi-experimental study design of four classes (two were control) of secondary education, including 79 students aged 14 to 16 years (15.35 ± 0.68). Assessments were administered before and after the intervention. The results showed improvement in perceived self-efficacy (p ≤ .001), emotional coping (p = .003), and overall well-being (p < .05). The students' perception of usefulness was also increased (p < .05); the intervention successfully promoted the idea of life as a continuous process of learning, in change and growth (p < .05). The intervention was effective despite some limitations described by authors related to a lack of involvement of relatives and the team teachers, as well as the absence of homework; however, the adoption of a program promoting life skills, problem solving, and goal definition training is recommended with the use of a revised handbook.

  12. Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs, Self-Determined Exercise Motivation, and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers Exercising in Group-Based Versus Individual-Based Contexts.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Geoff P; Gordon, James A R; Mueller, Marcus B; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    We compared mothers who exercised predominantly in group settings, those who exercised predominantly in individual settings, and those who exercised equally in group and individual contexts among the following: (a) satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness); (b) self-determined exercise motivation; and (c) psychological well-being. With clear implications for mothers' exercise interventions we found that exercising either predominantly in group contexts or in mixed group and individual settings was associated with mothers having significantly higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined exercise motivation than those exercising predominantly alone.

  13. Psychosocial Well-Being of Children in HIV/AIDS-Affected Families in Southwest China: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Tao; Yan, Zhihua; Duan, Song; Wang, Changhe; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the psychosocial well-being of children in HIV/AIDS-affected families in rural China from the child's and caregiver's perspectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among children living in HIV/AIDS-affected families (n = 16), their caregivers (n = 16) and key community informants (n = 5). Our findings showed that all of…

  14. Using the Daydreaming Frequency Scale to Investigate the Relationships between Mind-Wandering, Psychological Well-Being, and Present-Moment Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Stawarczyk, David; Majerus, Steve; Van der Linden, Martial; D’Argembeau, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that mind-wandering – the occurrence of stimulus-independent and task-unrelated thoughts – is associated with negative affect and lower psychological well-being. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship is due to the occurrence of mind-wandering per se or to the fact that people who mind wander more tend to be generally less attentive to present-moment experience. In three studies, we first validate a French translation of a retrospective self-report questionnaire widely used to assess the general occurrence of mind-wandering in daily life – the Daydreaming Frequency Scale. Using this questionnaire, we then show that the relationship between mind-wandering frequency and psychological distress is fully accounted for by individual differences in dispositional mindful awareness and encoding style. These findings suggest that it may not be mind-wandering per se that is responsible for psychological distress, but rather the general tendency to be less aware and attentive to the present-moment. Thus, although mind-wandering and present-moment awareness are related constructs, they are not reducible to one another, and are distinguishable in terms of their relationship with psychological well-being. PMID:23055995

  15. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism.

  16. Individual differences in amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activity are associated with evaluation speed and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    van Reekum, Carien M; Urry, Heather L; Johnstone, Tom; Thurow, Marchell E; Frye, Corrina J; Jackson, Cory A; Schaefer, Hillary S; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether individual differences in amygdala activation in response to negative relative to neutral information are related to differences in the speed with which such information is evaluated, the extent to which such differences are associated with medial prefrontal cortex function, and their relationship with measures of trait anxiety and psychological well-being (PWB). Results indicated that faster judgments of negative relative to neutral information were associated with increased left and right amygdala activation. In the prefrontal cortex, faster judgment time was associated with relative decreased activation in a cluster in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24). Furthermore, people who were slower to evaluate negative versus neutral information reported higher PWB. Importantly, higher PWB was strongly associated with increased activation in the ventral ACC for negative relative to neutral information. Individual differences in trait anxiety did not predict variation in judgment time or in amygdala or ventral ACC activity. These findings suggest that people high in PWB effectively recruit the ventral ACC when confronted with potentially aversive stimuli, manifest reduced activity in subcortical regions such as the amygdala, and appraise such information as less salient as reflected in slower evaluative speed.

  17. Moving beyond the welfare standard of psychological well-being for nonhuman primates: the case of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gluck, John P

    2014-04-01

    Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan "for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates." In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of the programs substantially up to "professional judgment" at the local level. Recently, however, the Institute of Medicine, in its path-finding 2011 report on the necessity of chimpanzee use in research, bypassed this flexible and contingent concept, and instead, required as a central precondition that chimpanzees be housed in "ethologically appropriate" environments. In so doing, obligations of ethical treatment of one great ape species were elevated above the needs of some research. The evolution and significance of this change are discussed. PMID:24627265

  18. Moving beyond the welfare standard of psychological well-being for nonhuman primates: the case of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gluck, John P

    2014-04-01

    Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan "for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates." In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of the programs substantially up to "professional judgment" at the local level. Recently, however, the Institute of Medicine, in its path-finding 2011 report on the necessity of chimpanzee use in research, bypassed this flexible and contingent concept, and instead, required as a central precondition that chimpanzees be housed in "ethologically appropriate" environments. In so doing, obligations of ethical treatment of one great ape species were elevated above the needs of some research. The evolution and significance of this change are discussed.

  19. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424

  20. Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Luhmann, Maike; Fisher, Rachel R; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-08-01

    Does trait self-control (TSC) predict affective well-being and life satisfaction--positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well-being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well-being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism--that TSC may boost well-being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice-virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self-control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict.

  1. Changing Mental Health and Positive Psychological Well-Being Using Ecological Momentary Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Verkuil, Bart; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F

    2016-01-01

    , 13 studies were included, and a small to medium effect was found (g=0.40, 95% CI: 0.22-0.57). Yet, these between-subject analyses were at risk for publication bias and were not suited for moderator analyses. Furthermore, the overall quality of the studies was relatively low. Conclusions Results showed that there was a small to medium effect of EMIs on mental health and positive psychological well-being and that the effect was not different between outcome types. Moreover, the effect was larger with additional support by an MHP. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to further strengthen the results and to determine potential moderator variables. Overall, EMIs offer great potential for providing easy and cost-effective interventions to improve mental health and increase positive psychological well-being. PMID:27349305

  2. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  3. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Wager, Tor D.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  4. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  5. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  6. An Investigation into Psychological Well-Being Levels of Higher Education Students with Respect to Personality Traits and Self-Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricaoglu, Halim; Arslan, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being, personal traits and self-compassion levels, and to find out whether personal traits and self-compassion level significantly predict psychological well-being. The study sample is composed of 232 (36.5%) students from Education Faculty of Selçuk University,…

  7. Psychological interventions to improve psychological well-being in people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    PubMed Central

    Farrand, Paul; Matthews, Justin; Dickens, Chris; Anderson, Martin; Woodford, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dementia and mild cognitive impairment are associated with an increased risk of depression, anxiety, psychological distress and poor mental health-related quality of life. However, there is a lack of research examining the evidence base for psychological interventions targeting general psychological well-being within this population. Furthermore, there is little research relating to the design of randomised controlled trials examining psychological interventions for dementia and mild cognitive impairment, such as effective recruitment techniques, trial eligibility and appropriate comparators. Methods and analysis Systematic review of electronic databases (CINAHL; EMBASE; PsychInfo; MEDLINE; ASSIA and CENTRAL), supplemented by expert contact, reference and citation checking, and grey literature searches. Published and unpublished studies will be eligible for inclusion with no limitations placed on year of publication. Primary outcomes of interest will be standardised measurements of depression, anxiety, psychological distress or mental health-related quality of life. Eligibility and randomisation proportions will be calculated as secondary outcomes. If data permits, meta-analytical techniques will examine: (1) overall effectiveness of psychological interventions for people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment in relation to outcomes of depression, anxiety, psychological distress or mental health-related quality of life; (2) clinical and methodological moderators associated with effectiveness; (3) proportions eligible, recruited and randomised. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required for the present systematic review. Results will inform the design of a feasibility study examining a new psychological intervention for people with dementia and depression, with dissemination through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at relevant conferences. Trial registration number CRD42015025177. PMID:26817638

  8. A Flaw in Gerontological Assessment: The Weak Relationship of Elderly Superficial Life Satisfaction to Deep Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Bryan L.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed degree of relationship between superficial and deep psychological adjustment among elderly individuals (n=86). Found only moderate correlation between shallow and deep psychological adjustment as measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale for life satisfaction (shallow) and Eriksonian-based Measures of Psychosocial Development (deep).…

  9. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year: A Positive Psychology Strategy for Promoting Law Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Rachael; Duffy, James; Huggins, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence in Australia and overseas has established that in many university disciplines, students begin to experience elevated levels of psychological distress in their first year of study. There is now a considerable body of empirical data that establishes that this is a significant problem for law students. Psychological distress may…

  10. Minority Stress Experiences and Psychological Well-Being: The Impact of Support from and Connection to Social Networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carolyn F.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Holloway, Ian W.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2013-01-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk, but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using Minority Stress Theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N=233). Results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. Findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. Results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences. PMID:23412944

  11. Minority stress experiences and psychological well-being: the impact of support from and connection to social networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball communities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carolyn F; Schrager, Sheree M; Holloway, Ian W; Meyer, Ilan H; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-02-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using minority stress theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N = 233). The results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. The findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. The results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences.

  12. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features. PMID:27417620

  13. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    PubMed

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their 'normality'. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  14. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    PubMed

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their 'normality'. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features. PMID:27417620

  15. Parental practices predict psychological well-being in midlife: life-course associations among women in the 1946 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, F. A.; Abbott, R. A.; Ploubidis, G. B.; Richards, M.; Kuh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Certain parenting styles are influential in the emergence of later mental health problems, but less is known about the relationship between parenting style and later psychological well-being. Our aim was to examine the association between well-being in midlife and parental behaviour during childhood and adolescence, and the role of personality as a possible mediator of this relationship. Method Data from 984 women in the 1946 British birth cohort study were analysed using structural equation modelling. Psychological well-being was assessed at age 52 years using Ryff’s scales of psychological well-being. Parenting practices were recollected at age 43 years using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Extraversion and neuroticism were assessed at age 26 years using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Results In this sample, three parenting style factors were identified : care; non-engagement; control. Higher levels of parental care were associated with higher psychological well-being, while higher parental non-engagement or control were associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. The effects of care and non-engagement were largely mediated by the offspring’s personality, whereas control had direct effects on psychological well-being. The psychological well-being of adult women was at least as strongly linked to the parenting style of their fathers as to that of their mothers, particularly in relation to the adverse effects of non-engagement and control. Conclusions This study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the effects of parenting practices on psychological well-being in midlife. The effects of parenting, both positive and negative, persisted well into mid-adulthood. PMID:19995477

  16. Bright versus dim ambient light affects subjective well-being but not serotonin-related biological factors.

    PubMed

    Stemer, Bettina; Melmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Kemmler, Georg; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A

    2015-10-30

    Light falling on the retina is converted into an electrical signal which stimulates serotonin synthesis. Previous studies described an increase of plasma and CNS serotonin levels after bright light exposure. Ghrelin and leptin are peptide hormones which are involved in the regulation of hunger/satiety and are related to serotonin. Neopterin and kynurenine are immunological markers which are also linked to serotonin biosynthesis. In this study, 29 healthy male volunteers were exposed to bright (5000lx) and dim (50lx) light conditions for 120min in a cross-over manner. Subjective well-being and hunger as well as various serotonin associated plasma factors were assessed before and after light exposure. Subjective well-being showed a small increase under bright light and a small decrease under dim light, resulting in a significant interaction between light condition and time. Ghrelin concentrations increased significantly under both light conditions, but there was no interaction between light and time. Correspondingly, leptin decreased significantly under both light conditions. Hunger increased significantly with no light-time interaction. We also found a significant decrease of neopterin, tryptophan and tyrosine levels, but no interaction between light and time. In conclusion, ambient light was affecting subjective well-being rather than serotonin associated biological factors.

  17. Psychosocial factors and psychological well-being: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Bum-Joon; LAMICHHANE, Dirga Kumar; JUNG, Dal-Young; MOON, So-Hyun; KIM, Seong-Jin; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker’s well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ≥15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women were in a low well-being group. In a univariate analysis, most of the psychosocial factors on working conditions are significantly related with a worker’s low well-being, except for insufficient job autonomy in both genders and job insecurity for males only. After adjusting for sociodemographic and structural factors on working conditions, job dissatisfaction, lack of reward, lack of social support, violence and discrimination at work still showed a statistically significant association with a worker’s low well-being for both genders. We found that psychosocial working conditions were associated with the workers’ well-being. PMID:26726830

  18. Prevention in the Twenty-First Century: Promoting Health and Well-Being in Education and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…

  19. Relationship of Weight-Based Teasing and Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Methods: Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these,…

  20. Effects of Mindfulness-Based versus Interpersonal Process Group Intervention on Psychological Well-Being with a Clinical University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…

  1. Linking Metatraits of the Big Five to Well-Being and Ill-Being: Do Basic Psychological Needs Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Omer Faruk; Koydemir, Selda

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that two higher order factors underlie the Big-Five dimensions and that these two factors provide a parsimonious taxonomy. However, not much empirical evidence has been documented as to the extent to which these traits relate to certain psychological constructs. In this study, we tested a structural model to…

  2. The Role of Work in Psychological Health and Well-Being: A Conceptual, Historical, and Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the "American Psychologist," is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a…

  3. Promoting Psychological Well-Being in an Urban School Using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Patrick B.; Summerville, Meredith A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Patterson, Julie; Earnshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    School psychology has recently reconceptualized its service provision model to include multitiered systems of academic and psychosocial promotion, prevention, and intervention. The availability of evidence-based programs and advances in school consultation theory accompany the paradigm shift of the field. Despite these advances, implementing…

  4. Measuring positive affect and well-being after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Positive Affect and Well-being bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Bertisch, Hilary; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific Positive Affect and Well-being (PAWB) item bank with flexible options for administration. Design Qualitative feedback from patient and provider focus groups was used to expand on the Neurological Disorders and Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) positive affect & well-being item bank for use in SCI. New items were created and revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 32-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the PAWB questions. Results A unidimensional model was observed (Confirmatory Fit Index = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.094) and measurement precision was good (reliability in theta of –2.9 to 1.2 is roughly equivalent to classical reliability of 0.95 or above). Twelve items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes, the DIF was determined to be negligible and would have little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 28 retained items Conclusions This study indicates that the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life PAWB bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and a computer adaptive test is available. PMID:26010970

  5. The Stress Moderating Role of Benefit Finding on Psychological Distress and Well-Being Among Women Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the perception of having experienced growth as a result of a stressful event, often termed benefit finding, moderates the effects of stress (both physical symptomatology and social conflict) on psychological distress and well-being. For this cross-sectional study, an ethnically diverse sample (N =138) of women living with HIV/AIDS completed a series of self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that physical symptoms, social conflict, and benefit finding were associated with psychological distress and positive affect, even after controlling for social support, locus of control, and demographic confounds. Significant interactions revealed that among women with a high number of HIV-related physical symptoms, benefit finding moderated the negative effects of physical symptoms on both depressive and anxious symptoms. Benefit finding was not found to moderate the effects of social conflict. These findings suggest a potential mechanism (i.e., stress buffering) by which benefit finding could promote psychological adjustment. Further, the finding that benefit finding only moderated the growth-inducing stressor (e.g., the illness), but not the effects of other stressors (e.g., social conflict), suggests possible limits to the stress-buffering role of benefit finding. PMID:17103124

  6. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. PMID:27372801

  7. Applying Intervention Mapping to Develop a Community-Based Intervention Aimed at Improved Psychological and Social Well-Being of Unmarried Teenage Mothers in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried…

  8. Assessing Psychological Symptoms and Well-Being: Application of a Dual-Factor Mental Health Model to Understand College Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaramian, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A dual-factor mental health model includes measures of positive psychological well-being in addition to traditional indicators of psychopathology to comprehensively determine mental health status. The current study examined the utility of this model in understanding the psychological adjustment and educational functioning of college students. A…

  9. Balancing concern for other with concern for self: links between unmitigated communion, communion, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Aubé, Jennifer

    2008-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the importance of distinguishing between positive (communion) and negative (unmitigated communion) characteristics when investigating the relation between traditional feminine gender roles and psychological adjustment. However, previous work has relied on cross-sectional analysis of self-reported unmitigated communion and self-reported emotional distress. The present series of studies was designed to address this limitation by using multiple methodologies to examine the relation between unmitigated communion (UC) and psychological adjustment. Study 1 examined the relation between self- and peer reports in a sample of 102 college students. Study 2 examined the relation between communion, UC, and adjustment in a community sample of 94 adults using a 10-year longitudinal design. Study 3 used a daily diary methodology to examine the relation between these constructs, social functioning, and depressed mood in a sample of 78 college women. Results from the three studies converged to demonstrate that unmitigated communion is an important factor that impacts negatively on the psychological adjustment of men and women. PMID:18186712

  10. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  11. Marital Satisfaction among Older Couples: The Role of Satisfaction with Social Networks and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ruth; Isherwood, Linda; Burton, Cassandra; Kitwe-Magambo, Katie; Luszcz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is important for health and well-being, although determinants of satisfaction among older couples are unclear. Much of the marital literature has focused on the role of the spouse, in isolation from satisfaction with broader social relationships. We conducted separate semi-structured interviews with both members of n = 40…

  12. Labour Market Problems and Psychological Well-Being: A Panel Study of Canadian Youth in Transition from School to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; Krahn, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Four-year panel survey data were used to examine the effects of well-being on school-to-work transition of Canadian youth. Such labor market problems as unemployment and underemployment had small, significant negative effects on self-esteem, depression, and powerlessness for high school graduates but not college graduates. Effects of education…

  13. Psychological Needs as Mediators? The Relationship between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Well Being in People Diagnosed with Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnell, Katie E.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Adachi, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in compromised bone strength, increased fracture risk, and reduced well being. With evidence attesting to the positive effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on biomedical health in people with…

  14. Psychological Well-Being and Family Satisfaction Levels Five Years After Being Confirmed as a Carrier of the Machado-Joseph Disease Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos; Gomes, Elisabete; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Bettencourt, Conceição; Raposo, Mafalda; Kay, Teresa Taylor; MacLeod, Patrick; Vasconcelos, João

    2012-01-01

    The present study on long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) aimed to evaluate the psychological well-being and the familial satisfaction of subjects that 5 years prior received an unfavorable result in the predictive testing (PT). The study included 47 testees of Azorean origin (23 from the island of Flores and 24 from S. Miguel) that completed the fourth evaluation session of the MJD protocol, and undertook a neurological examination at the moment of participation in the study. Nearly 50% of testees were symptomatic at the time of the study. Psychological well-being of the 47 participants was evaluated using the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). The family satisfaction scale by adjectives was applied to obtain information on family dynamics. The average PGWB score of the total participants was of 73.3, a value indicative of psychological well-being. Nearly half of the testees presented scores indicating psychological well-being, whereas scores indicating moderate (28.9%) or severe (23.7%) stress were found in the remaining. The average score in the PGWB scale was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic subjects; moreover, the distinct distribution of the well-being categories seen in the two groups shows an impact of the appearance of first symptoms on the psychological state. Motives for undertaking the test, provided 5 years prior, failed to show an impact in well-being. The average score for familial satisfaction was of 134, a value compatible with high familial satisfaction, which represented the most frequent category (59.6%). Results demonstrate that well-being and family satisfaction need to be monitored in confirmed carriers of the MJD mutation. The inclusion of acceptance studies, after PT, as well as the development of acceptance training actions, should be of major importance to anticipate the possibility of psychological damage. PMID:23153003

  15. 'Feel the Feeling': Psychological practitioners' experience of acceptance and commitment therapy well-being training in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Wardley, Matt Nj; Flaxman, Paul E; Willig, Carla; Gillanders, David

    2016-08-01

    This empirical study investigates psychological practitioners' experience of worksite training in acceptance and commitment therapy using an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, and three themes emerged from the interpretative phenomenological analysis data analysis: influence of previous experiences, self and others and impact and application The significance of the experiential nature of the acceptance and commitment therapy training is explored as well as the dual aspects of developing participants' self-care while also considering their own clinical practice. Consistencies and inconsistencies across acceptance and commitment therapy processes are considered as well as clinical implications, study limitations and future research suggestions.

  16. Women of the 1950s and the "Normative" Life Course: The Implications of Childlessness, Fertility Timing, and Martial Status for Psychological Well-Being in Late Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Pienta, Amy Mehraban; Brown, Tyson H.

    2007-01-01

    We explore women's psychological well-being in late midlife in relation to childlessness and timing of entry into motherhood. Using two U.S. surveys, Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (1992) and National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) (Sweet, Bumpass, & Call, 1988), we assess the well-being of childless women in their 50s compared to…

  17. [The effect of writing about the perceived benefits of interpersonal transgressions on psychological well-being in Japanese college students].

    PubMed

    Hatori, Kenji; Ishimura, Ikuo; Kashimura, Masami; Asano, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the effect of writing about the perceived benefits (WPB) of an interpersonal transgression on subjective well-being and feelings of hostility. Participants (N = 74) who reported experiencing a highly stressful interpersonal trouble within the past year were randomly assigned to one of four conditions that consisted of 20-minute writing tasks conducted over a three-day period in which they wrote about either (a) the perceived benefits resulting from the trouble, (b) the features of the trouble, (c) the features in the first 10 minutes and the perceived benefits of the trouble in the last 10 minutes, or (d) a control topic that was unrelated to the trouble. Results of analysis of covariance revealed that group A had significantly decreased hostility. Furthermore groups A and B showed a significant increase in subjective well-being compared to the control condition. Issues related to WPB are discussed.

  18. The Nutrition Attitude Survey: associations with dietary habits, psychological and physical well-being, and coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hollis, J F; Carmody, T P; Connor, S L; Fey, S G; Matarazzo, J D

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of a variety of health habits. In the present study, the Nutrition Attitude Survey (NAS) was developed to measure attitudes pertaining to the adoption of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Factor analysis identified four primary attitudinal factors: Helpless and Unhealthy, Food Exploration, Meat Preference, and Health Consciousness. For a community sample of 415 healthy men and women, relationships were examined among these attitudinal factors and dietary habits, family food patterns, medical and psychological symptoms, and traditional coronary risk factors. For both men and women, the Helpless and Unhealthy factor was associated with increased meat consumption, weight, emotional distress, reported medical and psychological symptoms, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Food Exploration factor was more characteristic of younger men and women and positively associated with men's reported involvement in family food preparation activities. For both sexes, Meat Preference scores were positively associated with meat consumption and inversely associated with consumption of meatless meals, beans, and fruit. Health Consciousness factor scores were associated with less meat consumption, more meatless meals, and better overall dietary adherence scores for both men and women. Overall, the findings provide initial support for the reliability and predictive validity of the NAS and underscore the importance of assessing and addressing the attitudes and preferences of participants in dietary intervention programs. PMID:3757988

  19. Do clown visits improve psychological and sense of physical well-being of hospitalized pediatric patients? A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M; Skolaude, D; Zaplinski, K; Maier, R F

    2011-03-01

    The study tested whether clown visits would be associated with an increase in psychological and perceived physical well-being of pediatric patients. Patients (6-14 years old) were randomized to a clown visit (n=50) or no-visit control (n=50). Patients and parents were administered a modified version of the KINDL-R questionnaire at pretest, immediately after the clown visit (posttest), and at a 4-h follow-up. The experimental group showed an increase in self-reported and parent-reported psychological well-being at posttest. However, these effects were not maintained at follow-up. There was no effect of the clown visit on perceived physical well-being. It is concluded that clown visits appear to improve psychological well-being of pediatric patients, but the effects may only be short lived. PMID:21086245

  20. Do clown visits improve psychological and sense of physical well-being of hospitalized pediatric patients? A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M; Skolaude, D; Zaplinski, K; Maier, R F

    2011-03-01

    The study tested whether clown visits would be associated with an increase in psychological and perceived physical well-being of pediatric patients. Patients (6-14 years old) were randomized to a clown visit (n=50) or no-visit control (n=50). Patients and parents were administered a modified version of the KINDL-R questionnaire at pretest, immediately after the clown visit (posttest), and at a 4-h follow-up. The experimental group showed an increase in self-reported and parent-reported psychological well-being at posttest. However, these effects were not maintained at follow-up. There was no effect of the clown visit on perceived physical well-being. It is concluded that clown visits appear to improve psychological well-being of pediatric patients, but the effects may only be short lived.

  1. Gender differences in self-concept and psychological well-being in old age: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M; Sörensen, S

    2001-07-01

    Because of women's higher risk of being widowed, having health problems, and needing care, one might expect them to have a more negative self-concept and lower subjective well-being (SWB). However, women may also have greater access to sources of SWB (e.g., relations to adult children) and may engage in processes to protect the self (e.g., lowered aspirations). Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from 300 empirical studies on gender differences in life satisfaction, happiness, self-esteem, loneliness, subjective health, and subjective age in late adulthood. Older women reported significantly lower SWB and less positive self-concept than men on all measures, except subjective age, although gender accounted for less than 1% of the variance in well-being and self-concept. Smaller gender differences in SWB were found in younger than in older groups. Statistically controlling for gender differences in widowhood, health, and socioeconomic status decreased gender differences in SWB. Cohort differences in SWB are reported as well.

  2. Disordered Eating and Psychological Well-Being in Overweight and Nonoverweight Adolescents: Secular Trends from 1999 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this research study, we examine how both overweight and nonoverweight adolescent girls and boys fared from 1999 to 2010 in terms of disordered eating behaviors and psychosocial well-being. Method A repeated cross-sectional design was used. Participants were recruited from public schools in 1999 (n = 3072, mean age = 14.6 ± 1.8) and 2010 (n = 2793, mean age = 14.4 ± 2.0). Secular trends were examined by weight status and gender using inverse probability weighting to control for changes in socio-demographics. Results In general, the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors and markers of psychosocial well-being among overweight girls and boys remained the same from 1999 to 2010. In contrast, among nonoverweight girls, chronic dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and extreme weight control behaviors decreased, and body satisfaction improved during this time period. Further, among non-overweight boys, the prevalence of unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors decreased, as did mean depression scores. Discussion Overall, findings indicate a strong need to ensure that messages about the dangers of disordered eating behaviors are reaching overweight youth. Obesity prevention interventions should not overlook the comorbid nature of obesity, disordered eating and poor psychosocial health; prevention programming should address shared risk factors, including dieting, media use, body dissatisfaction, and weight-related teasing. PMID:25641764

  3. Social and parasocial relationships on social network sites and their differential relationships with users' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Baek, Young Min; Bae, Young; Jang, Hyunmi

    2013-07-01

    With the advent of social network sites (SNSs), people can efficiently maintain preexisting social relationships and make online friendships without offline encounters. While such technological features of SNSs hold a variety of potential for individual and collective benefits, some scholars warn that use of SNSs might lead to socially negative consequences, such as social isolation, erosion of social cohesion, or SNS addiction. This study distinguishes types of SNS relationships, and investigates their relationships with social isolation, interpersonal trust, and SNS addiction. We classify SNS relationships into two types: (a) social relationships based on reciprocity between a user and his/her friends, and (b) parasocial relationships in which an ordinary user is aware of activities of a celebrity (e.g., famous actors, athletes, and others) but not vice versa. Based on achievements in studies of media effect and social psychology, we constructed a set of hypotheses, and tested them using a subsample of SNS users drawn from representative survey data in South Korea. We found that dependency on parasocial relationships is positively related with loneliness but negatively correlated with interpersonal distrust, while dependency on social relationship is negatively correlated with loneliness but positively related with trust. However, more dependency on both social and parasocial relationships are positively related with SNS addiction. Implications based on findings are also discussed.

  4. Feeling right is feeling good: psychological well-being and emotional fit with culture in autonomy- versus relatedness-promoting situations

    PubMed Central

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Kim, Heejung; Mesquita, Batja

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with respect to their main cultural mandates: a European American (N = 30), a Korean (N = 80), and a Belgian sample (N = 266). Cultural fit was measured by comparing an individual’s patterns of emotions to the average cultural pattern for the same type of situation on the Emotional Patterns Questionnaire (De Leersnyder et al., 2011). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found evidence for “universality without uniformity”: in each sample, psychological well-being was associated with emotional fit in the domain that was key to the cultural mandate. However, cultures varied with regard to the particular domain involved. Psychological well-being was predicted by emotional fit (a) in autonomy-promoting situations at work in the U.S., (b) in relatedness-promoting situations at home in Korea, and (c) in both autonomy-promoting and relatedness-promoting situations in Belgium. These findings show that the experience of culturally appropriate patterns of emotions contributes to psychological well-being. One interpretation is that experiencing appropriate emotions is itself a realization of the cultural mandates. PMID:26042063

  5. The relationship of prejudicial attitudes to psychological, social, and physical well-being within a sample of college students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khanh T; Holmberg, Michelle D; Ho, Ivy K; Haynes, Michelle C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of prejudicial attitudes to psychological, social, and physical well-being among 495 college students in the Northeast region of the United States. Prejudicial attitudes included racism, sexism, homophobia, physical disability bias, weight/body-size bias, and anti-immigrant sentiment. As a secondary objective, we examined the associations among the various forms of prejudice and their relationship to key demographic and personal characteristics. We also examined the associations between psychological, social, and physical well-being. The results indicated that specific forms of prejudice, especially racism and sexism, were negative correlates of psychological, social, and/or physical well-being. The results also indicated that there may exist a prejudicial syndrome, linking diverse forms of prejudice. Furthermore, poor functioning in one area of well-being (e.g., psychological health) is related to poor functioning in other areas of well-being (social and physical health). Overall, this study provides important implications for future research and prevention programs in the area of prejudice and well-being.

  6. Meaning in life in chronic pain patients over time: associations with pain experience and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen; Wachholtz, Amy

    2015-04-01

    We explored the relationship between meaning in life and adjustment to chronic pain in a three-wave, 2 year, longitudinal study of 273 Belgian chronic pain patients. We examined the directionality of the relationships among the meaning in life dimensions (Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning) and indicators of adjustment (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, pain intensity, and pain medication use). We found that Presence of Meaning was an important predictor of well-being. Secondly, we used a typological methodology to distinguish meaning in life profiles, and the relationship of individual meaning in life profiles with indicators of adjustment. Five meaning in life profiles emerged: High Presence High Search, High Presence Low Search, Moderate Presence Moderate Search, Low Presence Low Search, and Low Presence High Search. Each meaning in life profile was associated with a unique adjustment outcome. Profiles that scored high on Presence of Meaning showed more optimal adjustment. The profiles showed little change over time and did not moderate the development of adjustment indicators, except for life satisfaction. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  7. Meaning in life in chronic pain patients over time: associations with pain experience and psychological well-being

    PubMed Central

    Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen; Wachholtz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relationship between meaning in life and adjustment to chronic pain in a three-wave, 2 year, longitudinal study of 273 Belgian chronic pain patients. We examined the directionality of the relationships among the meaning in life dimensions (Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning) and indicators of adjustment (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, pain intensity, and pain medication use). We found that Presence of Meaning was an important predictor of well-being. Secondly, we used a typological methodology to distinguish meaning in life profiles, and the relationship of individual meaning in life profiles with indicators of adjustment. Five meaning in life profiles emerged: High Presence High Search, High Presence Low Search, Moderate Presence Moderate Search, Low Presence Low Search, and Low Presence High Search. Each meaning in life profile was associated with a unique adjustment outcome. Profiles that scored high on Presence of Meaning showed more optimal adjustment. The profiles showed little change over time and did not moderate the development of adjustment indicators, except for life satisfaction. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25537924

  8. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities and psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families. PMID:17593768

  9. The relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder, illness cognitions, defence styles, fatigue severity and psychological well-being in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eglinton, Rebekah; Chung, Man Cheung

    2011-07-30

    This study investigated, firstly, the rate of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the level of psychological well-being amongst people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and secondly, the extent to which illness cognitions, defence styles and PTSD symptom severity related to fatigue severity and psychological well-being. Seventy-eight participants with a diagnosis of CFS completed the Chalder Fatigue Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the Illness Cognition Questionnaire and the Defence Style Questionnaire. Fifty-nine participants were recruited from the general public to form the non-fatigued control group. CFS participants had significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms, lower levels of psychological well-being and more traumatic life events compared to the non-fatigued controls. Trauma exposure and PTSD severity both predicted CFS status. However, regression analyses demonstrated no significant relationship between PTSD symptoms and fatigue severity or the degree of psychological well-being. 'Helplessness' predicted both physical and mental fatigue and psychological well-being, whilst the 'mature' defence styles predicted fatigue severity only. The results offer support to previous research showing that the rate of traumatic life events and PTSD are significantly higher amongst the CFS population. The lack of relationship between PTSD symptoms and fatigue severity or psychological well-being indicates that these processes may operate independently of one another, via different appraisal processes. This study focused on fatigue severity, but it may be that the role of pain in CFS is a key element in the previously reported association between PTSD and CFS.

  10. Developing Instruments to Capture Young People's Perceptions of How School as a Learning Environment Affects Their Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awartani, Marwan; Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Gordon, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Universal Education Foundation's (UEF) activities to create research tools and methodologies that capture the voices of children concerning their perceptions of the effect of the school learning environment on their well-being. UEF defines well-being as the realisation of one's physical, emotional, mental, social and…

  11. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  12. Chinese Migrant Adolescents’ Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being: The Moderating Roles of Group Identity and the Type of School

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination can be harmful to migrant adolescents in China. However, little is known about the processes through which discrimination may be linked to decreased well-being in Chinese migrant adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, collective self-esteem) in 798 Chinese migrant adolescents (49.4% from public schools). Group identity affirmation and belonging (GIAB) was examined as a protective factor that was expected to alleviate the negative effects of perceived discrimination on well-being, and the type of school was investigated as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. The results indicate that perceived discrimination was negatively linked to the three indices of psychological well-being and that the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being were particularly salient for migrant adolescents attending public schools. Additionally, GIAB emerged as a protective buffer against perceived discrimination’s negative effects on collective well-being. PMID:26731529

  13. Family Quality of Life and Psychological Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double ABCX Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, P.; Sarriá, E.; Brioso, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined family quality of life (FQOL) and psychological well-being from a multidimensional perspective. The proposed model was based on the double ABCX model, with severity of the disorder, behaviour problems, social support, sense of coherence (SOC) and coping strategies as components. Method: One hundred and eighteen…

  14. Experiences of School Bullying, Psychological Well-Being and Stress in Northern Ireland: Findings from the Young Life and Times Survey, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Guckin, Conor

    2010-01-01

    Comparatively little is known about the nature, incidence and correlates of bully/victim problems in the Northern Ireland school system. The study examined the prevalence of self-reported experiences of bully/victim problems and the relationship between such experiences and levels of stress and psychological well-being among a representative…

  15. Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Locus of Control Training on the Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eniola, M. S.; Ajobiewe, Abthonia Ifeoma

    2013-01-01

    This current study, investigated the relative effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Training (EIT) and Locus of Control Training (LCT) on the psychological well-being of adolescent with visual impairment. The pretest-posttest control group experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix was used. The participants were 120 adolescents with…

  16. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values, and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…

  17. The Psychological Well-Being of Unaccompanied Minors: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents Immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the psychological well-being of high school adolescents immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without parents. Data were collected in a 3-year longitudinal study that covered the premigration through postmigration periods. Immigrant adolescents were compared with nonemigrating adolescents in Russia and Ukraine.…

  18. The Mediating Role of Perceived Parental Warmth and Parental Punishment in the Psychological Well-Being of Children in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that parenting practices, such as parental warmth and parental punishment, play a mediating role in linking individual (e.g., age, gender) and familial characteristics (e.g., economic status, marital quality) to the psychological well-being of children. However, few studies have validated these connections with respect to…

  19. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  20. The Importance of Distinguishing the Belief in a Just World for Self Versus for Others: Implication for Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipkus, Isaac M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined whether the relationship between the belief in a just world (BJW) and psychological well-being would benefit by distinguishing between the just world for self, for others, and in general. When various measures of the construct were examined jointly, only the BJW for self emerged as the most powerful and consistent predictor of…

  1. Childlessness and Psychological Well-Being in Midlife and Old Age: An Examination of Parental Status Effects across a Range of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt; Moum, Torbjorn

    2009-01-01

    The study explores and distinguishes links between parental status (childless persons, parents with residential children, and empty nest parents) and a range of psychological well-being outcomes in midlife and old age. Data are from the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG) study (n = 5,189). We separate outcomes…

  2. Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being among Hong Kong Chinese Older Adults: Exploring the Moderating Role of Self-Construal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Fung, Helene H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and psychological well-being--self-esteem and relatedness satisfaction--among 102 Hong Kong Chinese older adults. It also tested whether independent-interdependent self-construal moderated the association. Physical activity, self esteem, relatedness satisfaction, and self-construal…

  3. Focus on Positive and Negative Information as the Mediator of the Relationship between Empathy Tendency Guilty and Psychological Well-Being in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acun-Kapikiran, Necla

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the mediator effects of focus on positive and negative information on the relationship between empathic tendency, and guilty and psychological well-being in university students were investigated. The participants were 314 student, between age range of 17-32 (M.20.93,SD:1.80) attending different departments Faculty of Education, at…

  4. Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80 years and older living in residential homes: using a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Martinent, Guillaume; Durmaz, Neriman

    2014-08-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to examine the psychological needs satisfaction of the elderly living in residential homes and their relationship with indicators of well-being, and then to test the contribution of each need on these indicators. Participants (N=100; Mage=86.7 years, SD=3.78) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, purpose in life, personal growth and geriatric depression. Cluster analyses showed two distinct profiles: one profile with a high satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and another profile with a low satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. These profiles did not differ in terms of residents' characteristics, health problems and functional limitations. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the participants with the profile of a high satisfaction of psychological needs have significantly higher levels of purpose in life and personal growth than participants with the profile of a low satisfaction of psychological needs, and no effect of cluster membership on depressive feelings was reported. Moreover, for all participants, relatedness need satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal growth, and autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction was related to purpose of life. In conclusion, our results offer evidence that old age can be fruitful and, in consistent with SDT, show that autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction is positively associated with indicators of well-being such as purpose in life and personal growth, considered as essential components of optimal functioning.

  5. Feeling the blues of infertility in a South Asian context: psychological well-being and associated factors among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility.

    PubMed

    Lansakara, Nirosha; Wickramasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Seneviratne, Harshalal Rukka

    2011-06-21

    Primary infertility may have a considerable impact on the psychological well-being of women. In the present study, the authors investigated the psychological well-being and its correlates among Sri Lankan women with primary infertility. A total of 177 women with primary infertility were compared with 177 fertile women matched for age and duration of marriage to identify differences in the psychological well-being between the two groups. They were recruited from a prevalence survey conducted in the district of Colombo, Sri Lanka from August 2005 to February 2006. The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30) and Mental Health sub-components of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used to measure psychological well-being. In addition, infertile women with and without psychological distress were compared to identify the social, marital, treatment, and demographic factors independently associated with psychological distress. A significantly higher proportion of women with primary infertility (66.1%; 95% CI 58.6-73.0%) had psychological distress as compared to fertile women (18.6 %; 95% CI 13.2-25.2%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors, infertile women who were psychologically distressed were significantly less educated (OR = 55.3; 95% CI 15.2-201.0), had poor marital communication (OR = 3.5; 95% CI 1.3-9.8), had a higher priority for having children (OR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.3-13.8), and had been previously (OR = 39.1; 95% CI 8.3-185.4) or currently (OR = 11.0; 95% CI 3.0-40.6) investigated/treated for infertility when compared with infertile women without distress. Women with primary infertility reported more distress as compared to fertile women. Psychological distress among infertile women was associated with poorer education, being previously/currently investigated/treated, placing higher importance on having children, and having poor marital communication. The need for psychological intervention targeting infertile women in clinics and community settings is

  6. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    PubMed

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  7. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  8. Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program.

    PubMed

    Carmody, James; Baer, Ruth A

    2008-02-01

    Relationships were investigated between home practice of mindfulness meditation exercises and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and psychological well-being in a sample of 174 adults in a clinical Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. This is an 8- session group program for individuals dealing with stress-related problems, illness, anxiety, and chronic pain. Participants completed measures of mindfulness, perceived stress, symptoms, and well-being at pre- and post-MBSR, and monitored their home practice time throughout the intervention. Results showed increases in mindfulness and well-being, and decreases in stress and symptoms, from pre- to post-MBSR. Time spent engaging in home practice of formal meditation exercises (body scan, yoga, sitting meditation) was significantly related to extent of improvement in most facets of mindfulness and several measures of symptoms and well-being. Increases in mindfulness were found to mediate the relationships between formal mindfulness practice and improvements in psychological functioning, suggesting that the practice of mindfulness meditation leads to increases in mindfulness, which in turn leads to symptom reduction and improved well-being.

  9. The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, asian values and race-related stress on Asian Americans and Asian international college students' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  10. The impact of racial identity, ethnic identity, asian values and race-related stress on Asian Americans and Asian international college students' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  11. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  12. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage. PMID:15906930

  13. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  14. Rapid Screening of Psychological Well-Being of Patients with Chronic Illness: Reliability and Validity Test on WHO-5 and PHQ-9 Scales.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to test the reliability and validity of two simple psychological screening scales, the World Health Organization Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), in patients with chronic illness in Taiwan and to understand the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness (e.g., metabolic syndrome) in Taiwan and the incidences of psychological problems that follow. The research design of this study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 310 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS), aged 20 years or more, from the outpatient clinic of a municipal hospital in Taiwan. This study used questionnaires to collect basic information, including physiological indices, WHO-5 and PHQ-9 that were used. "Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS)," and "World Health Organization Quality of Life-Short-form Version for Taiwan (WHOQOL)". Results are as follows: (1) compared to PHQ-9, the reliability and validity of WHO-5 are better for screening the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness. (2) The features of WHO-5 are high sensitivity, briefness, and ease-of-use. The incidence of depression in patients with metabolic syndrome was approximately 1.0-6.5%, which is significantly lower than that of western countries.

  15. Rapid Screening of Psychological Well-Being of Patients with Chronic Illness: Reliability and Validity Test on WHO-5 and PHQ-9 Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to test the reliability and validity of two simple psychological screening scales, the World Health Organization Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), in patients with chronic illness in Taiwan and to understand the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness (e.g., metabolic syndrome) in Taiwan and the incidences of psychological problems that follow. The research design of this study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 310 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS), aged 20 years or more, from the outpatient clinic of a municipal hospital in Taiwan. This study used questionnaires to collect basic information, including physiological indices, WHO-5 and PHQ-9 that were used. “Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS),” and “World Health Organization Quality of Life—Short-form Version for Taiwan (WHOQOL)”. Results are as follows: (1) compared to PHQ-9, the reliability and validity of WHO-5 are better for screening the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness. (2) The features of WHO-5 are high sensitivity, briefness, and ease-of-use. The incidence of depression in patients with metabolic syndrome was approximately 1.0–6.5%, which is significantly lower than that of western countries. PMID:25505984

  16. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being - A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19-72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father-child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes. PMID:27679796

  17. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being – A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19–72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father–child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes. PMID:27679796

  18. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being – A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19–72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father–child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes.

  19. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  20. Social media use, body image, and psychological well-being: a cross-cultural comparison of Korea and the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Lee, Hye Eun; Choi, Jounghwa; Kim, Jang Hyun; Han, Hae Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships among social media use for information, self-status seeking and socializing, body image, self-esteem, and psychological well-being, and some cultural effects moderating these relationships. Americans (n = 502) and Koreans (n = 518) completed an online survey. The main findings showed that (a) social media use for information about body image is negatively related to body satisfaction in the United States and Korea, while social media use for self-status seeking regarding body image is positively related to body satisfaction only in Korea; and (b) body satisfaction has direct and indirect positive effects on psychological well-being manifested in similar ways in the United States and Korea. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  1. The psychological well-being of disability caregivers: examining the roles of family strain, family-to-work conflict, and perceived supervisor support.

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bagger, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We draw on the cross-domain model of work-family conflict and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between disability caregiving demands and the psychological well-being of employed caregivers. Using a sample of employed disability caregivers from a national survey, we found that the relationship between caregiving demands and family-to-work conflict was stronger when employees experienced high levels of strain from family. Additionally, we found high levels of family to-work conflict were subsequently associated with decreases in life satisfaction and increases in depression, but only when perceived supervisor support was low. Overall, our findings suggest an indirect relationship between caregiving demands and psychological well-being that is mediated by family-to-work conflict and is conditional on family strain and perceived supervisor support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. The psychological well-being of disability caregivers: examining the roles of family strain, family-to-work conflict, and perceived supervisor support.

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bagger, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We draw on the cross-domain model of work-family conflict and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between disability caregiving demands and the psychological well-being of employed caregivers. Using a sample of employed disability caregivers from a national survey, we found that the relationship between caregiving demands and family-to-work conflict was stronger when employees experienced high levels of strain from family. Additionally, we found high levels of family to-work conflict were subsequently associated with decreases in life satisfaction and increases in depression, but only when perceived supervisor support was low. Overall, our findings suggest an indirect relationship between caregiving demands and psychological well-being that is mediated by family-to-work conflict and is conditional on family strain and perceived supervisor support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25181282

  3. Workplace Bullying in a Sample of Italian and Spanish Employees and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction, and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Montani, Francesco; Mancuso, Serena; Perez, Javier Fiz; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence rate of workplace bullying in a sample of Italian and Spanish employees, and its differential consequences on employees' job satisfaction and psychological well-being. The effects of workplace bullying on job satisfaction and psychological well-being were explored taking into account a contextualized approach. Design/Methodology/approach - Cross-sectional study was adopted, in which a sample of 1,151 employees in Italy and 705 in Spain completed a questionnaire. We hypothesized that the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and psychological well-being is mediated by job satisfaction, and that this simple mediation model is moderated by the country (moderated mediation). Findings - Results suggest that no particular differences exist in bullying prevalence among Spanish and Italian employees. However, we found scientific confirmation of our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Research limitations/implications - Despite the limitations of the sample studied, findings capture contextual differences in the bullying phenomenon, which may have several implications for further research in this domain, as well as for designing interventions to deal with workplace bullying. Originality/value - Although this study explores bullying in different cultural contexts without investigating specific cultural values, it establishes the roots to assess workplace bullying from a contextualized perspective. PMID:26696948

  4. Workplace Bullying in a Sample of Italian and Spanish Employees and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction, and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Montani, Francesco; Mancuso, Serena; Perez, Javier Fiz; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence rate of workplace bullying in a sample of Italian and Spanish employees, and its differential consequences on employees’ job satisfaction and psychological well-being. The effects of workplace bullying on job satisfaction and psychological well-being were explored taking into account a contextualized approach. Design/Methodology/approach – Cross-sectional study was adopted, in which a sample of 1,151 employees in Italy and 705 in Spain completed a questionnaire. We hypothesized that the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and psychological well-being is mediated by job satisfaction, and that this simple mediation model is moderated by the country (moderated mediation). Findings – Results suggest that no particular differences exist in bullying prevalence among Spanish and Italian employees. However, we found scientific confirmation of our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Research limitations/implications – Despite the limitations of the sample studied, findings capture contextual differences in the bullying phenomenon, which may have several implications for further research in this domain, as well as for designing interventions to deal with workplace bullying. Originality/value – Although this study explores bullying in different cultural contexts without investigating specific cultural values, it establishes the roots to assess workplace bullying from a contextualized perspective. PMID:26696948

  5. Psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being in relation to employment status: the influence of social capital in a large cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unemployment is associated with adverse effects on health. Social capital has been suggested as a promoter of health via several causal pathways that are associated with the known health risk factors of being unemployed. This cross-sectional study investigated possible additive- and interaction effects of unemployment and five different measures of social capital in relation to psychosomatic symptoms and low psychological well-being. Methods A random population sample of 20,538 individuals aged 18–85 years from five counties in Sweden completed a postal survey questionnaire including questions of employment status, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological well-being (General Health Questionnaire-12) and social capital. Results Psychosomatic symptoms and reduced psychological well-being were more frequent among unemployed individuals compared with individuals who were employed. Moreover, low social capital and unemployment had additive effects on ill-health. Unemployed individuals with low social capital—specifically with low tangible social support—had increased ill-health compared with unemployed individuals with high social capital. Moreover, to have low social capital within several different areas magnified the negative effects on health. However, no significant interaction effects were found suggesting no moderating effect of social capital in this regard. Conclusions Elements of social capital, particularly social support, might be important health-protective factors among individuals who are unemployed. PMID:24593256

  6. Exploring the predicted effect of social networking site use on perceived social capital and psychological well-being of Chinese international students in Japan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being. PMID:23971431

  7. Social class, employment status and inequality in psychological well-being in the UK: Cross-sectional and fixed effects analyses over two decades.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii

    2016-10-01

    A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening.

  8. Social class, employment status and inequality in psychological well-being in the UK: Cross-sectional and fixed effects analyses over two decades.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lindsay; Paskov, Marii

    2016-10-01

    A body of academic research has shown a social class gradient in psychological well-being. Some recent work has also suggested that the gradient is worsening over time, though the evidence is mixed. We focus on two straightforward research questions: Is there a class gradient in mental health? Has this gradient changed over time? We answer these questions with attention to two specific causal pathways: employment status and unobserved heterogeneity. We use two data sources: repeated cross-sections from the Health Survey of England (HSE) and longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The combination of pooled OLS regression (with HSE) and fixed effects analysis (with BHPS) allows for a robust analysis of the relationship between class and psychological well-being. We argue that employment status is a confounder in the analysis of class inequalities and show that, along with unobserved heterogeneity, these two pathways go a long way to explain the class gradient. The effects of employment status are substantive and, unlike social class, cannot be explained away by unobserved heterogeneity. We conclude that employment status deserves greater prominence in the debate as both a pathway by which the class gradient transpires, and as another 'dimension' of inequality in its own right. Our overtime analysis suggests that skilled and unskilled manual workers had higher psychological well-being in the 1990s but by 2008 were closer to the average. Class inequalities do not appear to be widening. PMID:27598549

  9. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alyssa S; McInnes, Rhona J; Hughes, Adrienne R; Guthrie, Wendy; Jepson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS) was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue) which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women.

  10. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS) was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue) which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women. PMID:27610245

  11. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alyssa S; McInnes, Rhona J; Hughes, Adrienne R; Guthrie, Wendy; Jepson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS) was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue) which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women. PMID:27610245

  12. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS) was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue) which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women.

  13. Caregiver Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Dujela, Carren; Smith, André

    2015-01-01

    We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem. PMID:25651586

  14. Communication competence, psychological well-being, and the mediating role of coping efforts among women with breast cancer: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Mercer Kollar, Laura M; Roberts, Linda J; Gustafson, David H

    2015-01-01

    Despite existing research identifying psychological benefits of patients' interpersonal competence in various contexts, little longitudinal research has addressed underlying mechanism(s). To address this limitation, we examined both the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cancer patients' communication competence in close relationships and psychological well-being, as well as the mediating role of coping efforts. Data came from a larger project with women with breast cancer (N = 661), recruited from April 2005 to May 2007 at three large university-affiliated cancer centers in the U.S. to study the effects of an Internet-based system providing patients and families with a range of services. The present study focused on survey data at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after the intervention (controlling for the possible effects of the intervention). Results from both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicated that competence in open communication between patients and their close support persons had a positive association with patients' psychological well-being and that approach coping efforts partially mediated this association. We discussed the implications and limitations of the study.

  15. Development of a new instrument for the assessment of psychological predictors of well-being and quality of life in people with HIV or AIDS.

    PubMed

    Remor, Eduardo; Fuster, Maria José; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Fumaz, Carmina R; González-Garcia, Marian; Ubillos-Landa, Silvia; Aguirrezabal-Prado, Arrate; Molero, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to develop an instrument for the assessment of psychological predictors of well-being and quality of life (QoL) in people living with HIV. A four-step procedure was followed to achieve this objective. A literature review, focus group in different regions of Spain and content analysis generated a preliminary pool of 96 items. Interjudgement ratings over the items and a cognitive debriefing interview were performed to delete or review items (one omitted and 15 reviewed). The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed in a sample of 84 HIV+. Pilot testing allowed a new wave of depuration process by empirical criteria (30 items omitted). A final pool of 63 items covering 23 facets (α from 0.53 to 0.95) of psychological predictors remained. Exploratory factorial analysis (GLS) assessing the underlying structure of the questionnaire showed a six-factor model explaining 56.5 of variance. Empirical exploratory structure revealed evidence of goodness of fit (χ(2) = 113.110, gl = 130, p > 0.05; RMSEA = 0.017; RMSEA IC90 % 0.000-0.057). This study presents the first instrument able to screen key psychological variables expected to be related to adjustment, well-being and QoL in people with HIV. PMID:22692820

  16. Association of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Psychological Well-Being Among Japanese Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Oka, Koichiro

    2016-10-01

    Data on the effect of increased or decreased physical activity on children's psychological status are scarce, and effect sizes are small. This study conducted two-year longitudinal research to identify associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and psychological well-being in Japanese school children through a mail survey completed by 292 children aged 6-12 years. Data on sociodemographics, physical activity, sedentary behavior on weekdays and the weekend, and psychometrics (self-efficacy, anxiety, and behavioral/emotional problems) were collected using a self-reported questionnaire. A logistic regression analysis was performed, calculating odds ratios for physical activity, psychometrics, and baseline age and physical activity and sedentary behavior changes. For boys, a negative association was found between increased physical activity outside school and maintained or improved self-efficacy as opposed to a positive association in girls. Increased sedentary behavior on weekdays and long periods of sedentary behavior on weekends were associated with maintained or improved behavioral/emotional problems in girls only. This two-year longitudinal study is the first of its kind conducted in Japan. Although effect sizes were small, these results may nevertheless assist in intervention development to promote psychological well-being. PMID:27516410

  17. Nursing a case of the blues: an examination of the role of depression in predicting job-related affective well-being in nurses.

    PubMed

    Morrissy, Laura; Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda

    2013-03-01

    The current study explored the effect of depression, optimism, and anxiety on job-related affective well-being in 70 graduate nurses. It was predicted that depression and anxiety would have a significant negative effect on job-related affective well-being, whereas optimism would have a significant positive effect on job-related affective well-being. Questionnaires were completed online or in hard-copy forms. Results revealed that depression, optimism, and anxiety were all significantly correlated to job-related affective well-being in the expected direction, however, depression was found to be the only variable that made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of job-related affective well-being. Possible explanations for these findings are explored.

  18. Felt Obligation to Help Others as a Protective Factor Against Losses in Psychological Well-being Following Functional Decline in Middle and Later Life

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study examined felt obligation to help others in two domains (close others and society) as protective factors against losses in psychological well-being following functional decline. Lagged-dependent regression models were estimated using data from 849 respondents aged 35–74 years and without any functional limitations at baseline in the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife in the United States. Greater felt obligation to help close others protected against declining self-acceptance in the face of more severe functional decline, and greater felt obligation to help society protected against declining personal growth and self-acceptance. Greater felt obligation to help close others and society protected against increasing depressive symptoms at younger ages in adulthood. Findings suggest the importance for additional research on how aspects of altruism can promote psychological adaptation to declining functional health in middle and later life. PMID:19825942

  19. Psychological well-being and job stress predict marital support interactions: A naturalistic observational study of dual-earner couples in their homes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-wen; Repetti, Rena L

    2014-11-01

    Video recordings of couples in their everyday lives at home were used to study how supportive interactions relate to psychological well-being and experiences of job stress. Thirty dual-earner, middle-class, heterosexual couples with school-age children were videotaped in their homes over 4 days and completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, trait neuroticism, and job stress. After isolating the specific instances of marital support in the video recordings, the support role assumed by each partner (recipient vs. provider) and the method of support initiation (solicitations vs. offers) in each interaction were coded. Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs), which accounted for interdependence within couples, tested linkages between husbands' and wives' scores on the psychological well-being and job stress variables, and husbands' and wives' supportive behavior. Analyses suggested sex differences in the way that psychological well-being and job stress influence support transactions. Wives' depressive symptoms predicted more support received from husbands, due both to more support solicitations by wives as well as more support offers by husbands. However, for husbands, it was neuroticism that predicted support receipt-both more solicitations (by husbands) and more offers (by wives). In addition, men married to women under greater job stress appeared to increase their unprompted offers of support to their wives, whereas wives did not appear to be similarly responsive to husbands' job stress. This study provides unique insights into couple support processes as they spontaneously unfold in everyday settings, and highlights the utility of naturalistic observation for better understanding social behavior in close relationships.

  20. Psychological well-being and job stress predict marital support interactions: A naturalistic observational study of dual-earner couples in their homes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-wen; Repetti, Rena L

    2014-11-01

    Video recordings of couples in their everyday lives at home were used to study how supportive interactions relate to psychological well-being and experiences of job stress. Thirty dual-earner, middle-class, heterosexual couples with school-age children were videotaped in their homes over 4 days and completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms, trait neuroticism, and job stress. After isolating the specific instances of marital support in the video recordings, the support role assumed by each partner (recipient vs. provider) and the method of support initiation (solicitations vs. offers) in each interaction were coded. Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs), which accounted for interdependence within couples, tested linkages between husbands' and wives' scores on the psychological well-being and job stress variables, and husbands' and wives' supportive behavior. Analyses suggested sex differences in the way that psychological well-being and job stress influence support transactions. Wives' depressive symptoms predicted more support received from husbands, due both to more support solicitations by wives as well as more support offers by husbands. However, for husbands, it was neuroticism that predicted support receipt-both more solicitations (by husbands) and more offers (by wives). In addition, men married to women under greater job stress appeared to increase their unprompted offers of support to their wives, whereas wives did not appear to be similarly responsive to husbands' job stress. This study provides unique insights into couple support processes as they spontaneously unfold in everyday settings, and highlights the utility of naturalistic observation for better understanding social behavior in close relationships. PMID:25347130

  1. Ethnic differences in the effects of spiritual well-being on long-term psychological and behavioral outcomes within a sample of homeless women.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Amber N; Jimenez, Sherlyn; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Frisman, Linda K

    2008-10-01

    The present study examines ethnicity as a moderator variable between spiritual well-being (SWB) and psychological and behavioral outcomes. Participants included in this analysis were 88 African American (46.6%) and 101 non-African American (total N = 189) homeless mothers. Through structured interviews conducted at 3-month intervals over a period of 15 months, data were collected on spiritual well-being, mental health, trauma symptoms, substance use, parenting, and child behavior. Hierarchical linear model and general estimating equation results indicated that ethnicity moderates the relationship between SWB and anxiety, trauma symptoms, child behavior, and parenting outcomes. On average, African Americans reported significantly higher SWB than non-African Americans, indicating the relative importance of spirituality in their lives. These findings support previous research indicating a difference in the role that SWB plays in the lives of African Americans compared to non-African Americans.

  2. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression, Psychological Well-Being and Feeling of Guilt in 7 - 15 Years Old Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702

  3. Effects of computer-based stress management training on psychological well-being and work performance in japanese employees: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Umanodan, Rino; Shimazu, Akihito; Minami, Masahide; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management training (SMT) program in improving employees' psychological well-being and work performance. A total of 12 work units (N=263) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (8 work units, n=142) or to a wait-list control group (4 work units, n=121). All participants were requested to answer online questionnaires assessing psychological well-being as a primary outcome, and coping style, social support, and knowledge about stress management as secondary outcomes at baseline (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1), and 2 months after the intervention (T2). The group × time interaction was tested using a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. Results showed a group × time interaction for "knowledge about stress management" in the entire sample. Among participants who had more than 3 d of training, a significant group × time interaction was observed for "problem-solving" and "avoidance and suppression" as well as "knowledge about stress management." Our computer-based stress management program was effective for improving knowledge about stress management. It was also effective for improving coping skills in instances where participants had enough time (at least 3 d) to complete all sessions.

  4. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  5. Feeling good when sleeping in? Day-to-day associations between sleep duration and affective well-being differ from youth to old age.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated how night-to-night variations in sleep duration relate to affective well-being the next morning as well as how the relationship varies for people of different ages. Using an Experience Sampling approach, 397 participants aged 12 to 88 years reported their sleep duration and their momentary affect on 9 mornings, on average. Associations between sleep duration during the previous night and morning affect differed depending on the participants' age. For adolescents, for example, affective well-being in the morning was worse the shorter participants had slept the previous night. For adults aged over 20 years, however, affective well-being was worse following nights with shorter or longer than average sleep duration. This effect was more pronounced the older the participants were. The findings demonstrate that the importance of sleep duration for daily affective well-being is better understood when considering the age of the sleeper. In adults, but not adolescents, not only sleeping less but also sleeping more than one's average can be associated with lower affective well-being.

  6. The effects of office ergonomic training on musculoskeletal complaints, sickness absence, and psychological well-being: a cluster randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Norashikin; Kenny, Dianna T; Md Zein, Raemy; Hassan, Siti Nurani

    2015-03-01

    This study explored whether musculoskeletal complaints can be reduced by the provision of ergonomics education. A cluster randomized controlled trial study was conducted in which 3 units were randomized to intervention and received training and 3 units were given a leaflet. The effect of intervention on knowledge, workstation practices, musculoskeletal complaints, sickness absence, and psychological well-being were assessed at 6 and 12 months. Although there was no increment of knowledge among workers, significant improvements in workstation practices in the use of monitor, keyboard, and chair were observed. There were significant reductions in neck and upper and lower back complaints among workers but these did not translate into fewer days lost from work. Workers' stress was found to be significantly reduced across the studies. In conclusion, office ergonomics training can be beneficial in reducing musculoskeletal risks and stress among workers. PMID:21878465

  7. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.

  8. Facing social identity change: interactive effects of current and projected collective identification on expectations regarding future self-esteem and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Packer, Dominic J; Chasteen, Alison L; Kang, Sonia K

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that prospective changes in social identity that involve transitioning out of a currently valued group would be associated with negative expectations regarding future states, but that this effect would be mitigated among individuals who expect to belong to a future in-group of similar importance. Consistent with predictions, strongly identified young adults in two studies projected significantly lower self-esteem/psychological well-being in old age than weakly identified young adults. Critically, however, this effect was fully attenuated if they expected to identify with their future aged in-group when they were old. Study 2 showed that the capacity for projected identification to buffer projected well-being among strongly identified young adults was contingent on their membership in the future in-group being highly salient. Analyses of participants' written descriptions of old age (Study 1) and a valence manipulation (Study 2) indicated that these effects were not attributable to the anticipated valence of future selves/states, but rather to the value placed on current and future group memberships.

  9. Family routines within the ecological niche: an analysis of the psychological well-being of U.S. caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elizabeth; Miller-Bishoff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using mixed methods, this study examined the relationship of caregivers of children with disabilities’ psychological well-being (PWB) and their orchestration of daily routines within their ecological niche. Thirty-nine U.S. caregivers completed in-depth interviews, PWB Scales, and Family Time and Routines Index (FTRI). We used a multi-step analysis. Interview data was coded and vignettes created without knowledge of PWB and FTRI ratings. Next, the relationship of quantitative measures was analyzed. Four groups were created using FTRI-extent and PWB means: (1) low routine-low PWB, (2) low routine-high PWB, (3) high routine-low PWB, and (4) high routine-high PWB. We examined qualitative differences in key features between groups. Findings: Total PWB and FTRI scores were not significantly correlated, PWB Purpose in Life and FTRI-extent scores were moderately positively correlated, and PWB Environmental Mastery and FTRI-extent correlation approached significance. Qualitative findings describe caregivers’ structuring of routines, intensity of oversight, support in routines, management of dinner, paid work, and needs for respite. The four groups differed in paid work, household support, degree the child could self-occupy, Environmental Mastery, and opportunities to recuperate. Caregivers with higher levels of well-being and more regular routines did paid work, had supportive spouses, had children who more often could follow routines, had higher Environmental Mastery, could orchestrate a family meal, and had breaks from care in either work or leisure. All Native American caregivers and Mexican American caregivers with spouses were in the high routine-high PWB group. Insight into this complex negotiation between family members within daily routines may provide practitioners a better understanding of how to work within family circles to foster therapeutic alliances, identify focused intervention targets, and promote positive family wide outcomes. PMID:24910625

  10. Life Span Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    This chapter, rooted in life span developmental research and theory, examines domains of subjective well-being: emotional, social, and psychological. What is the impact of these domains on the learner's experience of education? It invites the reader to consider implications for learning through the use of learners' narratives.

  11. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  12. Usage of Social Media and Smartphone Application in Assessment of Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Individuals in Times of a Major Air Pollution Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cyrus SH; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger CM

    2014-01-01

    Background Crisis situations bring about many challenges to researchers, public institutions, and governments in collecting data and conducting research in affected individuals. Recent developments in Web-based and smartphone technologies have offered government and nongovernment organizations a new system to disseminate and acquire information. However, research into this area is still lacking. The current study focuses largely on how new social networking websites and, in particular, smartphone technologies could have helped in the acquisition of crucial research data from the general population during the recent 2013 Southeast Asian Haze. This crisis lasted only for 1 week, and is unlike other crisis where there are large-scale consequential after-effects. Objective To determine whether respondents will make use of Internet, social media, and smartphone technologies to provide feedback regarding their physical and psychological wellbeing during a crisis, and if so, will these new mechanisms be as effective as conventional, technological, Internet-based website technologies. Methods A Web-based database and a smartphone application were developed. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. The participants were recruited either via a self-sponsored Facebook post featuring a direct link to the questionnaire on physical and psychological wellbeing and also a smartphone Web-based application; or via dissemination of the questionnaire link by emails, directed to the same group of participants. Information pertaining to physical and psychological wellbeing was collated. Results A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey. Most of them were between the ages of 20 to 29 years and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis showed that demographic variables like age, gender, and

  13. Gratitude and Well Being

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529

  14. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering and Other Speech Problems on Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…

  15. A Qualitative Examination of the Impact of Culturally Responsive Educational Practices on the Psychological Well-Being of Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Blaire; Goodman, Rachael D.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Amatea, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have shown that educational experiences within the classroom may marginalize students of color which may result in psychological distress. However, the utilization of culturally responsive educational practices (CRE) can create environments in which marginalized students can thrive not only academically, but psychologically. The authors…

  16. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the be the best you can be intervention: effects on the psychological and physical well-being of school children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ‘Be the Best You Can Be’ (BtBYCB) program is a school-based intervention designed to foster positive physical, psychological, and social development via empowering young people to take ownership over their own personal development. The aim of this work is to determine the effectiveness of the BtBYCB program on (i) pupils’ well-being, self-perceptions, self-esteem, aspirations, and learning strategies; and (ii) changes in modifiable health-risk behaviors (i.e., physical activity, diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Methods/design A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial employing a wait-list control plus qualitative and mixed-method evaluations was used. Participants were school pupils from Years 7 and 8 (aged 11–13 years). Ten schools located in southwest England were randomly allocated to receive the BtBYCB intervention (n = 5 schools; 711 pupils) or a control condition (i.e., usual Personal, Social, and Health Education classes) (n = 5 schools; 622 pupils). Participants in the intervention condition received a program consisting of (i) a talk from an Olympian/Paralympian; (ii) 11 one-hour teacher-led PSHE classroom sessions in which pupils identified their aspirations, values, and interests and explored and acted on these via activities such as personal development planning, goal-setting, and peer-mentoring; and (iii) participated in a celebration event (e.g., second visit from Olympian/Paralympian and short individual presentations). Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Focus groups (pupils and teachers) and individual interviews (headteachers) were conducted in the 5 intervention schools to (i) gain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of change; (ii) explore ways in which the participants’ motivation and engagement could be enhanced, and (iii) elicit user-feedback pertaining to how the program, content, and appeal could be improved. A mixed-method approach was used to

  17. Negative Health Comparisons Decrease Affective and Cognitive Well-Being in Older Adults. Evidence from a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of health comparisons on affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in older adults longitudinally. Methods: Data were derived from the third and fourth wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) which is a population-based prospective cohort study of community-dwelling subjects in Germany aged 40 and above (with 8,277 observations in fixed effects regressions). Health comparisons were assessed by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). While AWB was quantified by using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), CWB was assessed by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Fixed effects regressions were used to analyze the effect of health comparisons on AWB and CWB. Results: While positive health comparisons only slightly increased CWB (total sample), negative health comparisons markedly decreased CWB (total sample and women), and negative affects (women). Neither positive nor negative health comparisons affected positive affects. Conclusions: Our findings stress the importance of negative health comparisons for CWB and negative affects in women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and in most cases upwards. Consequently, designing interventions to avoid upwards health comparisons might be a fruitful approach in order to maintain AWB and CWB. PMID:27445953

  18. The Moderating Roles of Race and Gender-Role Attitudes in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.

    2007-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…

  19. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  20. Influencing the Psychological Well-Being of Beginning Teachers across Three Years of Teaching: Self-Efficacy, Stress Causes, Job Tension and Job Discontent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the path of influence of support programmes for beginning teachers (BTs) is examined. Longitudinal relationships between self-efficacy and stress causes experienced by BTs and their job tension and discontent are investigated. Differential effects are explored in the relationships between the perceived psychological variables for…

  1. Psychological Maltreatment--Maltreatment of the Mind: A Catalyst for Advancing Child Protection toward Proactive Primary Prevention and Promotion of Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child protection, as primarily applied toward narrow corrective intervention, has been judged to be inadequate in dealing with the wide variety of forms and levels of physical, psychological and sexual violence to which children are subjected throughout the world. Concern about this state of affairs has grown as a part of a global…

  2. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  3. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  4. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men.

  5. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim; Katz, Noomi

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the "Roim Rachok Program" (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  6. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Bar-Haim Erez, Asnat; Katz, Noomi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the “Roim Rachok Program” (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD. PMID:26404341

  7. Integration in the Vocational World: How Does It Affect Quality of Life and Subjective Well-Being of Young Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Gal, Eynat; Selanikyo, Efrat; Erez, Asnat Bar-Haim; Katz, Noomi

    2015-09-02

    This study aimed to assess whether the perception of quality of life (QOL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is affected by participation in a comprehensive program. Participants included 25 young adults with ASD who participated in the "Roim Rachok Program" (RRP), where they were trained to become aerial photography interpreters. Following the training period, they served in a designated army unit where they practiced their newly acquired profession. The participants filled out two questionnaires, (a) Quality of Life (QOL-Q) and (b) Personal Well-being Index (PWI), at three points of the intervention: (a) before the course, (b) at the end of the course, and (c) six months after integrating in the designated army unit. Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were used to assess the differences between the reported QOL and SWB at the three points of time. The results suggest that there were no significant differences at the end of the course, compared to its beginning. However, there were significantly improved perception of QOL and SWB during the period between the end of the course and six months after starting work. The results of this study highlight the importance of tailored vocational programs that are adapted to the unique needs and strengths of individuals with ASD.

  8. The effectiveness of Tai Chi on the physical and psychological well-being of college students: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college-age youths tends to continuously decline around the world. It is therefore important to promote health during this period. As a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise, Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) may be an available selection. However for the college student population, the evidence is unclear as to whether TCC can be recommended as an effective exercise for promoting their physical and psychological wellbeing. Therefore high quality, rigorous, prospective, and well-controlled randomized trials are needed to further understand TCC serving as a psychological and physical intervention in college age populations. Method/Design We designed a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial with a sample size of 206 participants. All the participants who meet the inclusion criteria come from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (FJTCM). Participants of the TCC training group will receive TCC training at a frequency of five days per week for one hour per day for 12 weeks. No specific exercise will be administered on the participants in the control group. Both physical and mental health outcomes, including balance ability, lower limb proprioception, flexibility, physical fitness, self-efficacy, psychological symptoms, attention span, stress, self-esteem, mood and mindfulness, quality of life, and quality of sleep. Safety outcomes will be evaluated by blinded operators at baseline, 12 and 24-weeks post-intervention. Discussion This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that will test the effectiveness and safety of TCC on the physical and psychological wellbeing of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher quality evidence of TCC on the physical and mental health of college age populations. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003328. PMID:24742146

  9. The association of exposure to the 2009 south war with the physical, psychological, and family well-being of Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Hatw, Mohamed M. El; Taher, Aly A. El; Hamidi, Ahmed El; Alturkait, Fawziyah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the nutritional, psychological, behavioral, family adjustment, and psychiatric assessment of Saudi children exposed to the 2009-2010 Jazan war. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Saudi Arabia in July 2010. One hundred and eighty-six children exposed to the South war in Jazan, and 157 unexposed children in King Khaled Military City, Hafr Al Batin were studied for evidence of malnutrition using physical measures, evaluating psychological problems using the Child Behavior Inventory, behavioral problems using the Rutter Scale A2, family adjustment using the McMaster Family adjustment device, and for psychiatric disorders. The association of different socioeconomic variables with the psychological outcome of the exposed group was also studied. Results: The exposed children were well nourished, had more anxiety (p=0.044), better adaptation (p<0.001), less aggression (p=0.025), less deviant behavior (p=0.007), better family adjustment and had more post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety, nightmares, and grief reaction. In the exposed children, females had more anxiety (p=0.006), and males had more antisocial behavior (p=0.02). Older children had less deviant behavior (p=0.005), better adaptation (p=0.007) and better planful behavior (p<0.001). Children of elder mothers had better planful behavior (p=0.039). Children from bigger families were less aggressive (p=0.049), and had less antisocial behavior (p=0.04). Conclusion: This study found that children exposed to the Jazan war had more anxiety. Unexpectedly they were well nourished and had higher adaptation, lower antisocial behavior, and better family adjustment. The socioeconomic status was associated with the psychological outcome. PMID:25630008

  10. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  11. Positive Psychology in the Class: The Effectiveness of a Teaching Method Based on Subjective Well-Being and Engagement Increasing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is investigate that the effectiveness of a teaching method which is based on subjective well-being increasing activities and engagement increasing activities, has been developed for university students in the present study. The method of the present study is a mixed method. Thus, the most important feature of it has…

  12. Socioeconomic and Psychological Variables as Risk and Protective Factors for Parental Well-Being in Families of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, M. B.; Hwang, C. P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The first aim of the present study was to estimate the extent to which differences in well-being in parents of children with and without intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden can be accounted for by differences in the presence of the risk factors: (1) child disability; (2) socioeconomic disadvantage; (3) household composition; and (4)…

  13. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  14. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development. PMID:23512648

  15. Improving clinical skills to support the emotional and psychological well-being of patients with end-stage renal disease: a qualitative evaluation of two interventions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Francesca; Combes, Gill; Hare, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) need and want improved emotional and psychological support. Explicit attention to patients' emotional issues during consultations can help, yet renal consultants rarely address emotional problems. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate whether two different low-cost interventions could individually enable consultants to talk with patients about their emotional concerns during routine outpatient consultations. Method One intervention involved patients using a Patient Issues Sheet to identify two to three issues they would like to talk about in their consultation and the second involved consultants asking patients a direct question about their emotional feelings. Consultants were trained to handle any emotional issues raised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five consultants and 36 ESRD patients from two UK renal units. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Although consultants and patients tended to use the two interventions in different ways, they expressed generally positive views about how helpful the interventions were in promoting discussion of emotional issues. Consultants appreciated the training for facilitating empathetic handling of patients' emotional disclosures and containment of discussion. Most patients who raised emotional concerns were satisfied with their consultant's responses, while others were dissuaded from more explicit discussion by their consultant's concentration on physical considerations. Conclusions These qualitative study findings suggest that both interventions are feasible and acceptable and have the potential to help consultants improve emotional and psychological patient care, providing cognitive and behavioural tools to enable discussion of emotional issues during routine outpatient consultations. PMID:27274842

  16. A Chinese Chan-based mind–body intervention improves psychological well-being and physical health of community-dwelling elderly: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean; Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the potential benefits of the Dejian mind–body intervention (DMBI) for psychological and physical health in older Chinese adults. Methods After confirmation of eligibility, the subjects were invited to receive DMBI once a week for 12 weeks. The intervention involved components of learning self-awareness and self-control, practicing mind–body exercises, and adopting a special vegetarian diet. Intervention-related changes were measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, and self-report ratings of health. Indicators of metabolic syndrome and walking speed were also measured. Results Of the 44 subjects recruited, 42 (54.8% men) completed the study, giving an adherence rate of 95%. There was a significant reduction in perceived stress (P<0.05). A significant improvement was also found in systolic blood pressure among those who had abnormally high blood pressure at baseline (P<0.05). Physical fitness as reflected by walking speed was also significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.05). Sleep disturbances were reduced (P<0.01). Self-rated health was significantly enhanced, with the percentage rating very good health increasing from 14.3% at baseline to 42.8% after the intervention (P<0.001). No intervention effect was found for waist circumference, lipids and fasting blood glucose levels, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score, and constipation measures. Conclusion The DMBI was feasible and acceptable, and subjects showed some improvements in psychological and physical health. A larger controlled trial is needed to confirm these promising preliminary results. PMID:24790425

  17. Field Psychometric Testing of the Instrument for Assessment of Psychological Predictors of Well-Being and Quality of Life in People with HIV or AIDS.

    PubMed

    Remor, Eduardo; Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria José; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Fumaz, Carmina R; González-Garcia, Marian; Ubillos-Landa, Silvia; Aguirrezabal-Prado, Arrate; Molero, Fernando; Ruzafa-Martínez, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The Screenphiv, a screening measure for psychological issues related to HIV, was psychometrically tested in a study involving 744 HIV-infected people in Spain. Participants ages 18-82 (M = 43.04, 72 % men, 28 % women) completed an assessment protocol that included the Screenphiv and the MOS-HIV. A trained interviewer also collected relevant illness-related clinical data and socio-demographics from the participants. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the Screenphiv's theoretical model and confirmed six first-order factors and two second-order factors [RMSEA (IC 90 %) = 0.07 (0.07-0.08)]. No floor or ceiling effects were observed for the scores. Cronbach's alphas were acceptable for all of the factors (from 0.65 to 0.92). Criterion-related validity also achieved; Screenphiv scores were related to socio-demographic and clinical variables and MOS-HIV summary scores. The Screenphiv is a reliable and valid measure, ready to use in research and clinical settings in Spain. PMID:26584813

  18. Computer-Delivered and Web-Based Interventions to Improve Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Well-Being of University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morriss, Richard; Glazebrook, Cris

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common mental health difficulties experienced by university students and can impair academic and social functioning. Students are limited in seeking help from professionals. As university students are highly connected to digital technologies, Web-based and computer-delivered interventions could be used to improve students’ mental health. The effectiveness of these intervention types requires investigation to identify whether these are viable prevention strategies for university students. Objective The intent of the study was to systematically review and analyze trials of Web-based and computer-delivered interventions to improve depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and stress in university students. Methods Several databases were searched using keywords relating to higher education students, mental health, and eHealth interventions. The eligibility criteria for studies included in the review were: (1) the study aimed to improve symptoms relating to depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and stress, (2) the study involved computer-delivered or Web-based interventions accessed via computer, laptop, or tablet, (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial, and (4) the study was trialed on higher education students. Trials were reviewed and outcome data analyzed through random effects meta-analyses for each outcome and each type of trial arm comparison. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was used to assess study quality. Results A total of 17 trials were identified, in which seven were the same three interventions on separate samples; 14 reported sufficient information for meta-analysis. The majority (n=13) were website-delivered and nine interventions were based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A total of 1795 participants were randomized and 1480 analyzed. Risk of bias was considered moderate, as many publications did not sufficiently report their methods and seven explicitly conducted completers

  19. The Effect of Chinese Traditional Exercise-Baduanjin on Physical and Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Moyi; Fang, Qianying; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Tao, Jing; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Lan, Xiulu; Chen, Bai; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world, therefore, it is important to improve their health during college period. Baduanjin, a traditional Chinese exercise which combines movements with breath and mind, may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, the effect of Baduanjin exercise on college students has not been established. In this study, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise on physical and mental health of college students by a rigorous randomized, parallel-controlled design. Methods A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited and randomly allocated at an equal ratio into control or Baduanjin training. Participants in control group were informed to maintain their original activity habit, and those in Baduanjin exercise group received a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of 1 hour per day and 5 days per week on the basis of their original activity habit. The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lower limb proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of 12-week intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Results Compared with controls, significant improvements in Baduanjin exercise group at the end of 12-week intervention period were found on lower limb proprioception function (the rate of average trace error on right lower limb (%): control 23.50±5.50, Baduanjin 21.92±6.54, P=0.004; the rate of average trace error on left lower limb (%): control 22.32±6.62, Baduanjin 20.63±4.62, P=0.046), cardiorespiratory endurance (step test index: control 47.66±5.94, Baduanjin 50.07±9

  20. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.