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Sample records for affect psychological well-being

  1. How Does the Economic Crisis Affect the Psychological Well-Being? Comparing College Students and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…

  2. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Does Employee Recognition Affect Positive Psychological Functioning and Well-Being?

    PubMed

    Merino, M Dolores; Privado, Jesús

    2015-09-14

    Employee recognition is one of the typical characteristics of healthy organizations. The majority of research on recognition has studied the consequences of this variable on workers. But few investigations have focused on understanding what mechanisms mediate between recognition and its consequences. This work aims to understand whether the relationship between employee recognition and well-being, psychological resources mediate. To answer this question a sample of 1831 workers was used. The variables measured were: employee recognition, subjective well-being and positive psychological functioning (PPF), which consists of 11 psychological resources. In the analysis of data, structural equation models were applied. The results confirmed our hypothesis and showed that PPF mediate the relationship between recognition and well-being. The effect of recognition over PPF is two times greater (.39) with peer-recognition than with supervisor-recognition (.20), and, the effect of PPF over well-being is .59. This study highlights the importance of promoting employee recognition policies in organizations for the impact it has, not only on well-being, but also on the positive psychological functioning of the workers.

  4. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles. PMID:26388814

  5. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.

  6. Teacher Satisfaction with School and Psychological Well-Being Affects Their Readiness to Help Children with Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Värnik, Airi; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Tubiana, Alexandra; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In support of a whole-school approach to mental health promotion, this study was conducted to find out whether and how significantly teachers' satisfaction with school and their subjective psychological well-being are related to the belief that they can help pupils with mental health problems. Design: Cross-sectional data were collected…

  7. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Al Nima, Ali; Kjell, Oscar N E

    2014-01-01

    Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans' ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling); high positive and high negative affect (high affective); low positive and low negative affect (low affective); and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive). The aims were to (1) investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2) how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles. Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females) were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version) and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles) moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables. Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was explained by the

  8. The affective profiles, psychological well-being, and harmony: environmental mastery and self-acceptance predict the sense of a harmonious life

    PubMed Central

    Al Nima, Ali; Kjell, Oscar N.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. An important outcome from the debate on whether wellness equals happiness, is the need of research focusing on how psychological well-being might influence humans’ ability to adapt to the changing environment and live in harmony. To get a detailed picture of the influence of positive and negative affect, the current study employed the affective profiles model in which individuals are categorised into groups based on either high positive and low negative affect (self-fulfilling); high positive and high negative affect (high affective); low positive and low negative affect (low affective); and high negative and low positive affect (self-destructive). The aims were to (1) investigate differences between affective profiles in psychological well-being and harmony and (2) how psychological well-being and its dimensions relate to harmony within the four affective profiles. Method. 500 participants (mean age = 34.14 years, SD. = ±12.75 years; 187 males and 313 females) were recruited online and required to answer three self-report measures: The Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule; The Scales of Psychological Well-Being (short version) and The Harmony in Life Scale. We conducted a Multivariate Analysis of Variance where the affective profiles and gender were the independent factors and psychological well-being composite score, its six dimensions as well as the harmony in life score were the dependent factors. In addition, we conducted four multi-group (i.e., the four affective profiles) moderation analyses with the psychological well-being dimensions as predictors and harmony in life as the dependent variables. Results. Individuals categorised as self-fulfilling, as compared to the other profiles, tended to score higher on the psychological well-being dimensions: positive relations, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life. In addition, 47% to 66% of the variance of the harmony in life was explained by

  9. Marine Biota and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Cracknell, Deborah; White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Nichols, Wallace J.; Depledge, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to natural environments can have calming and stress-reducing effects on humans. Moreover, previous studies suggest that these benefits may be greater in areas with higher species richness. Our study took advantage of a “natural experiment” to examine people’s behavioral, physiological, and psychological reactions to increases in levels of marine biota in a large aquarium exhibit during three stages of restocking: Unstocked, Partially stocked, and Fully stocked. We found that increased biota levels were associated with longer spontaneous viewing of the exhibit, greater reductions in heart rate, greater increases in self-reported mood, and higher interest. We suggest that higher biota levels, even in managed settings, may be associated with important well-being and health benefits, particularly for individuals not able to access the natural analogues of managed environments. PMID:27818525

  10. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  11. Sleep and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, N. A.; Nelson, C. A.; Stevens, N.; Kitzman, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies have linked sleep problems with symptoms of psychopathology, fewer studies have examined the relationship between sleep and dimensions of psychological health as well as depression. To fill this gap, 502 community residents were surveyed about sleep habits, symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as Ryff's six dimensions…

  12. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of

  13. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness.

  14. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion. PMID:27078886

  15. Self-Compassion Scale (SCS): Psychometric Properties of The French Translation and Its Relations with Psychological Well-Being, Affect and Depression.

    PubMed

    Kotsou, Ilios; Leys, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the topic of self-compassion has attracted increasing attention from both scientific and clinical fields. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) was created to specifically capture this way of being kind and understanding towards oneself in moments of turmoil. In this article, we present a French adaptation of the SCS. We first explore the psychometric properties of this adaptation and then investigate its relation to psychological well-being. As in the original version of the SCS, the French adaptation has a strong 6-factor structure but a weaker hierarchical second order structure. However the bi-factor model yields a good omega index suggesting the relevance of a single score accounting for self-compassion. Moreover, there was a relation between the SCS and classical outcomes such as a positive relation with psychological well-being and negative relation with depressive symptoms. We then hypothesized that self-compassion would have a moderating role on the relation between affect and depression. This hypothesis was confirmed: expressing negative affect is correlated with depressive symptoms; however, being kind with oneself lowers depressive symptoms even when expressing negative affect. In conclusion, this research presents a valid self-compassion measure for French-speaking researchers and clinicians and outlines the need for further research on the concept of self-compassion.

  16. Growth Following Adversity and Its Relation with Subjective Well-Being and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, John; Joseph, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that posttraumatic growth is associated with greater well-being. However, it is not clear whether posttraumatic growth is related to subjective well-being (SWB) or psychological well-being (PWB). Whereas SWB is derived from the hedonistic tradition, PWB is derived from the eudaimonic tradition. In a sample of 125 college…

  17. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  18. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  19. Effects of spiritual well-being on subsequent happiness, psychological well-being, and stress.

    PubMed

    Rowold, Jens

    2011-12-01

    Recently, Gomez and Fisher (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) proposed that four facets of spiritual well-being exist, namely, personal, communal, environmental, and transcendental spiritual well-being. Based on data from three independent studies, the present research effort tested the validity of a German version of (Gomez R and Fisher JW (2003) Pers Individ Dif 35: 1975-1991) of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ-G). It was found that the SWBQ-G was factorially valid and that each of the four SWBQ-G scales was discriminant to mental, physical, and emotional well-being. Also, it was found that the SWBQ-G predicted levels of subsequent happiness, psychological well-being (positive relationship), and stress (negative relationship). These results add to our knowledge about the validity of the construct of spiritual well-being.

  20. Aging, Religious Doubt, and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit; Ellison, Christopher G.; Wulff, Keith M.

    1999-01-01

    Study looks at whether religious doubt is related to psychological well-being, and tests for age differences in the relationship between these two constructs. Findings suggest that religious doubt tends to erode feelings of psychological well-being. The deleterious effects of doubt were found to be greater for younger than older people.…

  1. Psychological Well-Being and Internet Addiction among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…

  2. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Malaysian Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…

  3. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least p<0.05; most with p<0.001), (b) the two types of well-being were significantly positively correlated and regressions models were significant and (all correlations are at least p<0.01, and regression models are also significant), (c) the effect of internalized stigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning.

  4. Information technology (IT) use and children's psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Linda A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Zhao, Yong; Kolenic, Anthony; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between four types of information technology use and eight dimensions of psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 500 African American and Anglo-American girls and boys. Both parent and child ratings of well-being were considered. Findings indicated that greater IT use, but especially greater videogame use, was associated with lower psychological well-being, with one exception: greater Internet use for purposes other than communication was associated with greater psychological well-being. Greater Internet use for communication was associated with more social problems in real life. Gender and race differences in psychological well-being and IT use suggest that African American males may be at risk for the adverse effects of IT use because their videogame playing equals that of Anglo-American males, but their Internet use is the least of all groups.

  5. The Mediator Roles of Life Satisfaction and Self-Esteem between the Affective Components of Psychological Well-Being and the Cognitive Symptoms of Problematic Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with cognitions about problematic Internet use have been empirically tested in various studies. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediator roles of both life satisfaction and self-esteem between affective components of subjective well-being and cognitions about problematic Internet use. For this purpose, the…

  6. Androgyny and Psychological Well-Being: Some Ideological Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worell, Judith

    A conceptual model is presented to examine the hypothesis that androgyny is advantageous to the psychological well-being of both females and males in American society. A format for the multi-dimensional assessment of both sex-role components and indices of well-being is proposed, and possibilities for exploring the interface between these sets of…

  7. Psychological Well-Being Revisited: Advances in Science and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ryff, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning, such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from six thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life, (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being, (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life, (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities, (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, (6) and via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience – the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296

  8. Assessment of psychological well-being in psychosomatic medicine.

    PubMed

    Rafanelli, Chiara; Ruini, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The measures of disease status alone are insufficient to describe the burden of illness or one's attitudes toward illness and life. The subjective health status including psychological resources and well-being is as valid as that of the clinician when it comes to evaluating outcomes. The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretical framework for the assessment of psychological well-being and positive functioning and to review the literature supporting the influence of these positive dimensions on illness development and health protection. We selected the assessment tools such as Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire, Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence, Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales and Psychosocial Index that we found most helpful in clinical and psychosomatic practice and that displayed clinimetric properties of sensitivity in research.

  9. Emotional and Psychological Well-Being in Children: The Development and Validation of the Stirling Children's Well-Being Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…

  10. Poverty, Psychological Resources and Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Joaquina Palomar; Pinol, Nuria Lanzagorta; Uralde, Jorge Hernandez

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out for the purpose of explaining the mediating effects of a number of psychological variables (strategies for coping with stress, competitiveness, mastery, locus of control, depression and self-esteem) in the relationship between poverty and the well-being of individuals. To carry out the study, a non-probabilistic,…

  11. The Psychological Well-Being of Early Identified Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; van Hooijdonk, Mare; Van Viersen, Sietske; Middel-Lalleman, Marieke M. N.; Reijnders, Julièt J. W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychological well-being of gifted primary school children. From a screening sample of 233 children in Grades 1 and 2 across five schools in the Netherlands, 35 children achieving high scores on two out of three selection criteria (teacher nomination, creativity, and nonverbal reasoning ability) and 34 typically developing…

  12. Interpersonal Forgiveness and Psychological Well-Being in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Wal, Reine C.; Karremans, Johan C.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to forgive offending peers may be crucial for maintaining long-term friendships in childhood, little is actually known about forgiveness among peers in childhood. In the present research, we examined whether forgiveness among children is related to enhanced psychological well-being. Importantly, we hypothesized that this…

  13. Work Separation Demands and Spouse Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick

    2009-01-01

    Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…

  14. Computer-Mediated Communication Modality and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ess, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of Internet usage in American society has added new modes of communication, primarily through computer-mediated communication (CMC)on the Internet. Research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has been mixed and this study attempted to reconcile the discrepancies in results by exploring the…

  15. The College Experience: Protective Factors and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midili, Gina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…

  16. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M; Hensels, I S; Sherr, L

    2016-01-01

    Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12-15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p < .05). Interpersonal violence in the home predicted child depression (β = 0.17, p < .001), trauma symptoms (β = 0.17, p < .001), lower self-esteem (β = -0.17, p < .001), and internalising and externalising behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05), while exposure to community violence predicted trauma symptoms (β = 0.16, p < .001) and behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05). Harsh physical discipline predicted lower self-esteem (β = -0.18, p < .001) and behavioural problems for children (β = 0.24, p < .001). Exposure to home (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.23-2.85) and community violence predicted risk behaviour (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.57-3.62). Over time, there was a decrease in depressed mood and problem behaviours, and an increase in self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children.

  17. Multicultural personality dispositions and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Costa-Wofford, Catarina I; Brobst, Karen Elizabeth; Spelliscy, Dorota; Kacanski, Jaclyn Mendelsohn; Scheinholtz, Jennifer; Martines, Danielle

    2007-04-01

    The authors investigated the empirical relationship between K. I. van der Zee and J. P. van Oudenhoven's (2000, 2001) multicultural personality dispositions and C. D. Ryff's (1989b) dimensions of psychological well-being. The present sample included 270 students from one primarily graduate university and one primarily undergraduate university in the northeast region of the United States. Factor analysis indicated that a three-dimensional model of the multicultural personality was the best fit structure for the sample. Correlations between multicultural personality scores and psychological well-being scores were generally positive and in the predicted directions. However, the academic setting of the participants appeared to influence the pattern of relationships. The authors identified the multicultural personality as a promising construct for research across diverse psychology specialties.

  18. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Skeen, S.; Macedo, A.; Tomlinson, M.; Hensels, I. S.; Sherr, L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12–15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p < .05). Interpersonal violence in the home predicted child depression (β = 0.17, p < .001), trauma symptoms (β = 0.17, p < .001), lower self-esteem (β = −0.17, p < .001), and internalising and externalising behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05), while exposure to community violence predicted trauma symptoms (β = 0.16, p < .001) and behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05). Harsh physical discipline predicted lower self-esteem (β = −0.18, p < .001) and behavioural problems for children (β = 0.24, p < .001). Exposure to home (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.23–2.85) and community violence predicted risk behaviour (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.57–3.62). Over time, there was a decrease in depressed mood and problem behaviours, and an increase in self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children. PMID:27002770

  19. Gender nonconformity, sexual orientation, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2012-06-01

    Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.

  20. [Spanish adaptation of the Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWBS)].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Darío; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Gallardo, Ismael; Valle, Carmen; van Dierendonck, Dirk

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to adapt to Spanish the D. van Direndonck version of Carol Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, and to analyse its consistency and factorial validity. All the scales exhibited good internal reliabilities, with Cronbach alpha's ranging from 0.83 (Self-acceptance) to 0.68 (Personal growth). However, confirmatory factor analyses didn't corroborate the six-factor model (Self-acceptance, Positive relations, Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Purpose in life, and Personal growth) with a second order factor called Psychological Well-Being . To improve the psychometric properties, a new reduced version was proposed that indeed will facilitate the application. The scales of the new version maintain and raise its internal consistency (Cronbach alpha's 0.84 to 0.70). Furthermore, the scales shown an excellent fit to the theoretical model proposed by D. van Dierendonck.

  1. Personal construct theory and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Button, E

    1983-12-01

    The concept of 'psychological well-being' (as opposed to 'psychological disorder') is considered from the standpoint of George Kelly's personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955). It is argued that the origin of psychological disorder lies in a difficulty in 'person construing', with particular reference to 'self-construing'. For some (like schizophrenics) this may be a relatively permanent state of affairs, whereas for others it may reflect a temporary crisis or transition. It seems that the ability to maintain a relatively stable, yet flexible, self-construction may be crucial. Social relationships, however, although potentially validating, also carry the risk of invalidating our self-construction. An individual's particular response to 'invalidation' may be substantially determined by commonality of construing in his particular context, e.g. an adolescent female may turn to slimming whereas a young male may turn to alcohol. Although the theory has proved to be most useful at an explanatory level, it has been applied therapeutically only to a limited extent. It is argued that psychologists may make a greater contribution to the enhancement of psychological well-being by applying constructive alternativism within a learning or educational context rather than the clinical setting.

  2. Respiratory variability and psychological well-being in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    van den Wittenboer, Godfried; van der Wolf, Kees; van Dixhoorn, Jan

    2003-10-01

    Among the relations between respiration and psychological state, associations with respiratory variability have been contradictory. In this study, respiration was measured noninvasively in 162 children with a mean age of 11 years (from 9 to 13). They completed a battery of psychological tests. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM or LISREL) revealed a model that fit the data well (chi 2 = 88.201, df = 79, p = .224). In this model, respiratory variability was positively related to anger-in and negatively to negative fear of failure and neurotic complaints. Respiration rate was positively related to positive fear of failure, and duty cycle was positively related to the latent variable of negative affect. Variability in resting time components of respiration was higher among children with less fear of failure and fewer complaints. Therefore, respiratory variability need not necessarily be a sign of psychological dysfunctions, and interventions should not always impose a fixed breathing pattern.

  3. Childhood poverty and adult psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W

    2016-12-27

    Childhood disadvantage has repeatedly been linked to adult physical morbidity and mortality. We show in a prospective, longitudinal design that childhood poverty predicts multimethodological indices of adult (24 y of age) psychological well-being while holding constant similar childhood outcomes assessed at age 9. Adults from low-income families manifest more allostatic load, an index of chronic physiological stress, higher levels of externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression) but not internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression), and more helplessness behaviors. In addition, childhood poverty predicts deficits in adult short-term spatial memory.

  4. Vocational Psychology: Agency, Equity, and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.

  5. Relationships between work environments, psychological environments and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Briner, R B

    2000-07-01

    Work environments appear to have both positive and negative impacts on the psychological well-being of workers. This paper reviews a number of models and theories that have addressed this issue. First, those aspects of the psychological work environment, which are thought to be most relevant to well-being, are described. Second, a number of models and theories are considered. How then is it possible to best understand how the work environment creates a psychological environment, which in turn may affect psychological well-being? While some of the available approaches are general and offer descriptive frameworks, others do attempt to explain the relationships between a more narrow set of work characteristics and well-being. Further, recent approaches focus on explaining emotional reactions at work and the role of the psychological contract. A sound understanding of work and well-being is still some way away. However, focusing on more specific kinds of well-being, taking account of other contextual influences, and looking at both the salubrious and harmful effects of the work environment are likely to bring about greater understanding.

  6. The Relative Importance of Psychological Acceptance and Emotional Intelligence to Workplace Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.

    2004-01-01

    Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…

  7. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  8. The Role of Violated Caregiver Preferences in Psychological Well-Being when Older Mothers Need Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, J. Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Pillemer, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Theory and research suggest that congruence between individuals' preferences for future care and the patterns of care received will affect well-being. In this article, we explore whether older mothers' psychological well-being was affected by the children they preferred as future caregivers and provide assistance at a later point when the…

  9. Religious doubt, helping others, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2015-04-01

    A growing body of research reveals that religious doubt may have a deleterious effect on well-being. However, relatively less is known about how people try to cope with doubt. The purpose of this study is to see whether providing tangible help to others offsets the effects of religious doubt on well-being. Findings from a nationwide survey of middle-aged and older adults indicate that helping strangers reduces the negative relationship between religious doubt and three indicators of well-being: self-esteem, life satisfaction, and optimism. But in contrast, similar dissonance reduction benefits were not provided by helping family members and friends.

  10. Leisure Activities and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…

  11. Mediating effects of social and personal religiosity on the psychological well being of widowed elderly people.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Yahaya, Nurizan

    2010-01-01

    Spousal death is one the most stressful life events that seriously affects the psychological well being of widowed. This study examined the mediating effects of social and personal religiosity on the psychological well being of widowed elderly people. The sample for this study was comprised of 1367 widowed and married elderly Muslims from Malaysia. Psychological well being, religiosity, and physical health were measured using WHO-5 Well being Index, Intrinsic Extrinsic religiosity scale, and a checklist of 16 physical health problems, respectively. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (version-13). As expected, bivariate correlation analysis revealed that widowhood is statistically and negatively associated with psychological well being. Results of multiple hierarchical regression analyses and Sobel test showed that only the indirect effect of widowhood through personal religiosity was statistically significant (Sobel = -2.79, p < .01). Sobel test for social religiosity was not significant (Sobel = -1.54, p > .05). The results of this study confirmed earlier studies, which found that widowhood negatively affects psychological well being of elderly people. Overall, the findings show that the potential solace provided by religiosity can decrease the negative effects of widowhood on the psychological well being of widowed elderly people.

  12. Personality and Psychological Well-Being of Canadian Forces Officer Candidates: The Role of Coping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    significantly correlated with affect [e.g., 6] and life satisfaction [7]. Personality has been found to consistently predict variance in psychological well ...of variance in psychological well -being ( life satisfaction and psychological health symptoms) and perceptions of training (training satisfaction and...between neuroticism and humour as well as between neuroticism and problem-solving were the only unique predictors of life satisfaction . Specifically, for

  13. Perceived Social Support and Assertiveness as a Predictor of Candidates Psychological Counselors' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, to what extent the variables of perceived social support (family, friends and special people) and assertiveness predicted the psychological well-being levels of candidate psychological counselors. The research group of this study included totally randomly selected 308 candidate psychological counselors including 174 females…

  14. Latinas with Arthritis: Effects of Illness, Role Identity, and Competence on Psychological Well-Being1

    PubMed Central

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.

    2013-01-01

    Tested a theoretical model on the effects of social role identity, illness intrusion, and competence on psychological well-being among 109 low-income Latinas with arthritis. All six roles studied were rated as highly important identities. Sex-role nontraditionalism was associated with less importance of the homemaker, mother, and grandmother roles. Negative affect increased as a function of intrusions into valued identities. Having important role identities contributed to feelings of competence (i.e., self-esteem and self-efficacy), which in turn, contributed to psychological well-being. Competence also mediated the effects of pain, identity, and illness intrusions on psychological well-being. Results suggest competence processes play an important role in well-being. PMID:9485576

  15. Educational Psychology Working to Improve Psychological Well-Being: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joe; Singh-Dhesi, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    This article presents one English local authority's educational psychology service's approach to supporting children and young people's psychological well-being. Evidence for the effectiveness of the therapeutic approaches adopted by one intervention (the Child Behaviour Intervention Initiative [CBII]) is presented. The statistical analysis…

  16. Positive affect promotes well-being and alleviates depression: The mediating effect of attentional bias.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yongju; Xie, Yuanjun; Peng, Li; Liu, Botao; Xie, Junrun; Bian, Chen; Li, Min

    2015-08-30

    The present study tested whether the relationships among positive affect, psychological well-being, life satisfaction and depression could be explained by positive and negative attentional bias. Structural equation modeling and mediation analyses were conducted based on 565 medical freshmen in China. The model of attentional bias as a mediator between positive affect promoting well-being and decreasing depression fit the data. Finding showed positive affect significantly related to positive and negative attentional biases. People who had higher level of positive affect held more positive attentional bias and less negative attentional bias, and reported higher levels of psychological well-being, life satisfaction and lower levels of depression. The utility of the attentional bias as the mechanism through which positive affect enhances well-being and alleviates depression was supported. Applications in cultivating positive affect and regulating attentional bias in counseling and education are discussed.

  17. Beyond positive psychology? Toward a contextual view of psychological processes and well-being.

    PubMed

    McNulty, James K; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes-forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness-can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative.

  18. Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment and Psychological Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panaccio, Alexandra; Vandenberghe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data (N=220), we examined the contribution of perceived organizational support and four mindsets of organizational commitment (affective, normative, perceived sacrifice associated with leaving and perceived lack of alternatives) to employee psychological well-being. In order to assess the contribution of support and commitment…

  19. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  20. The relationship between right-wing ideological attitudes and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain; Dhont, Kristof

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between right-wing ideological attitudes and psychological well-being has been intensively studied. Although some studies supported the hypothesis that right-wing attitudes are negatively related with well-being, other research yielded positive or nonsignificant relationships. We conducted a meta-analysis (total samples = 97, total N = 69,221) of measures of well-being, including positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and intrinsic goal pursuit. The obtained effect sizes were generally weak and nonsignificant, except for a moderate relationship between intrinsic goal pursuit and social dominance orientation. Our results thus do not support previous theories that claim that right-wing attitudes yield substantial relationships with psychological well-being.

  1. The bright side of migration: hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bobowik, Magdalena; Basabe, Nekane; Páez, Darío

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the multi-dimensional structure of well-being in immigrant population, as well as to explore the complexity of well-being disparities between immigrants and host nationals. We analyzed hedonic, psychological, and social well-being in a sample of 1250 immigrants from Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco, Romania and Sub-Saharan Africa, together with that of 500 matched host nationals from Spain. Participants were selected by means of probability sampling with stratification by age and sex. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the re-specified tripartite model of well-being, including hedonic, psychological, and social components of the individual's functioning, was the best fitting model, as compared to alternative models. Importantly, after adjustment for perceived friendship and support, marital status, income, sex and age, immigrants presented higher levels of well-being than host nationals. Compared to host nationals, immigrants reported especially higher eudaimonic well-being: social contribution and actualization, personal growth, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, and lower levels of well-being only in terms of positive relations with others and negative affect. These results are discussed in the context of positive psychology.

  2. Changes in Psychological Health and Subjective Well-Being Among Incarcerated Individuals With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Leidenfrost, Corey M; Calabrese, William; Schoelerman, Ronald M; Coggins, Evelyn; Ranney, Michael; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    While improving the psychological health and well-being of individuals with serious mental illness can help reduce emotional distress and increase resilience, not enough is known about the well-being of incarcerated individuals with mental illness. Using the Schwartz Outcome Scale-10, the authors examined changes in subjective well-being and its association with other clinical symptoms and personality features in 43 mentally ill inmates in a large jail. All participants demonstrated significant improvement in general psychopathology and negative emotions. For well-being, however, different trajectories were associated with high versus low baseline ratings. Furthermore, those in the high well-being group were more likely to show features of aggression, dominance, hostility, mania, and more positive affect. These findings suggest that the level of well-being among inmates with serious mental illness may be an early indicator of personality features, clinical changes, and resilience, which is essential knowledge required when completing effective treatment planning.

  3. International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

    2015-05-01

    When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being

  4. Measuring, Monitoring and Managing the Psychological Well-Being of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Barkham, Michael; Bradley, Margaret; Audin, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    This paper profiles the psychological well-being of students in their initial year of university. There were three aims: to measure the impact of arrival at university on the psychological well-being of first year students, to monitor (i.e. profile) the shape of psychological well-being across the first year, and to investigate how students manage…

  5. Coping Strategies and Psychological Well-Being among Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    The coping strategies used by students play a key role in their psychological well-being. This study examines the relationship between coping strategies and psychological well-being in a sample of 98 undergraduates aged between 19 and 42 years. Coping strategies were evaluated by means of the CRI-A (Moos, 1993), while psychological well-being was…

  6. Mental balance and well-being: building bridges between Buddhism and Western psychology.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B Alan; Shapiro, Shauna L

    2006-10-01

    Clinical psychology has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease, and only recently has scientific attention turned to understanding and cultivating positive mental health. The Buddhist tradition, on the other hand, has focused for over 2,500 years on cultivating exceptional states of mental well-being as well as identifying and treating psychological problems. This article attempts to draw on centuries of Buddhist experiential and theoretical inquiry as well as current Western experimental research to highlight specific themes that are particularly relevant to exploring the nature of mental health. Specifically, the authors discuss the nature of mental well-being and then present an innovative model of how to attain such well-being through the cultivation of four types of mental balance: conative, attentional, cognitive, and affective.

  7. Education, Welfare Reform and Psychological Well-Being: A Critical Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laura Anne; Burman, Erica; Hanley, Terry; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Mccoy, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    There are established links between education and well-being, and between poverty and education. This article draws on interviews with parents of school-aged children impacted by a policy in the UK commonly referred to as the 'bedroom tax'. A critical psychology perspective to education is put forward, acknowledging the complex interrelationships…

  8. Robotic neurorehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke: psychological well-being beyond motor improvement.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco S; De Cola, Maria C; Leo, Antonino; Reitano, Simone; Balletta, Tina; Trombetta, Giovanni; Naro, Antonino; Russo, Margherita; Bertè, Francesco; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-09-01

    Although gait abnormality is one of the most disabling events following stroke, cognitive, and psychological impairments can be devastating. The Lokomat is a robotic that has been used widely for gait rehabilitation in several movement disorders, especially in the acute and subacute phases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gait robotic rehabilitation in patients affected by chronic stroke. Psychological impact was also taken into consideration. Thirty patients (13 women and 17 men) affected by chronic stroke entered the study. All participants underwent neurological examination with respect to ambulation, Ashworth, Functional Independence Measure, and Tinetti scales to assess their physical status, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Psychological General Well-being Index, and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced to evaluate the Lokomat-related psychological impact before and after either a conventional treatment or the robotic training. During each rehabilitation period (separated by a no-treatment period), patients underwent a total of 40 1 h training sessions (i.e. five times a week for 8 weeks). After the conventional treatment, the patients did not achieve a significant improvement in the functional status, except balance (P<0.001) and walking ability (P<0.01), as per the Tinetti scale. Indeed, after the robotic rehabilitation, significant improvements were detected in almost all the motor and psychological scales that we investigated, particularly for Psychological General Well-being Index and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced. Manual and robotic-assisted body weight-supported treadmill training optimizes the sensory inputs relevant to step training, repeated practice, as well as neuroplasticity. Several controlled trials have shown a superior effect of Lokomat treatment in stroke patients' walking ability and velocity in particular. Therefore, our preliminary results proved that active robotic training not only

  9. The Downsides of Extreme Conscientiousness for Psychological Well-being: The Role of Obsessive Compulsive Tendencies.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nathan T; Guan, Li; Maples, Jessica L; Williamson, Rachel L; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-08-01

    Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well-being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive-compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well-being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive-compulsive personality, and well-being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self-esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum-scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well-being, and demonstrated that differential facet-level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive-compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well-being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive-compulsive variants contributed to lower well-being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect.

  10. The home as a workplace: work-family interaction and psychological well-being in telework.

    PubMed

    Standen, P; Daniels, K; Lamond, D

    1999-10-01

    Home-based telework is a growing phenomenon with great potential to affect employees' psychological well-being. Although prior studies show both positive and negative effects on work-family interaction, conclusions are limited by the way telework, well-being, and work-family interaction have been modeled. The authors present a conceptual framework that describes telework as a multidimensional phenomenon and separates the effects of the home environment from those of distance from the organization. Propositions concerning work-family interaction are developed from P. Warr's (1987) model of the environmental antecedents of well-being, prior telework studies, and the work-family literature. Spillover between work and nonwork domains of well-being is discussed, and suggestions for future research on this complex issue are presented.

  11. Relationship between bicultural identity and psychological well-being among American and Japanese older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayano; Kim, Min-Sun; Oshio, Atsushi; Akutsu, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress). This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals) in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent). Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided. PMID:28070404

  12. Treatment of Neurosensory Disorders Improves Psychological Well-Being in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlander, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Psychological well-being is the ultimate "quality of life" measure. The presence of a neurosensory disorder (NSD) in a child, such as ADD, ADHD, Asperger's syndrome, or autism, can rob the child of psychological well-being, or hamper the growth of well-being as the child develops. Fortunately, treatment of NSDs can remove obstacles to the…

  13. Feeling good and doing great: the relationship between psychological capital and well-being.

    PubMed

    Culbertson, Satoris S; Fullagar, Clive J; Mills, Maura J

    2010-10-01

    This study seeks to determine the relationship between psychological capital and an employee's eudaimonic and hedonic well-being. Panel data were collected from 102 extension agents over a 2-week interval. In addition, daily surveys were collected from 67 of the participants. Results from the panel data indicated that the relation between psychological capital and hedonic well-being, measured two weeks later, is mediated by eudaimonic well-being. Results from the daily surveys found that daily eudaimonic work well-being was significantly associated with both daily positive mood and daily life satisfaction and that variance in eudaimonic work well-being was predicted by one's psychological capital.

  14. Role of Religiosity in Psychological Well-Being Among Medical and Non-medical Students.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen

    2016-12-27

    Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.

  15. The Complex Nature of Family Support across the Life Span: Implications for Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah J.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the complex role of family networks in shaping adult psychological well-being over time. We examine the unique and interactive longitudinal influences of family structure (i.e., composition and size) and negative family relationship quality on psychological well-being among young (ages 18-34), middle-aged (ages 35-49), and…

  16. The Role of Social Competence in the Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holopainen, Leena; Lappalainen, Kristiina; Junttila, Niina; Savolainen, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between social competence and psychological well-being of adolescents. The role of academic learning disabilities with social competence and psychological well-being was also studied. The sample (n = 412; 207 girls and 205 boys), one complete age group (mean age 15.5 years), was followed from last year of…

  17. The Estimated Effects of College Student Involvement on Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgo, Cindy A.; Mollet, Amanda L.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2016-01-01

    This brief examines student psychological well-being, an important issue of growing interest in U.S. higher education. Extensive research focused on student involvement in college suggested that quality involvement leads to higher levels of student learning and development. This study for psychological well-being was measured using the Ryff Scales…

  18. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  19. College Stress and Psychological Well-Being: Self-Transcendence Meaning of Life as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Li

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study is to examine the moderating effects of self-transcendence meaning on psychological well-being in respective of college students. The theoretical background of self-transcendence meaning is mainly oriental Buddhism and Taoism philosophy. Measures of stress and psychological well-being are College Stress Scale (CSS)…

  20. The Relationship of Factors of Academic Success and Psychological Well-Being for College Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study was concerned with perceptions of academic facilitators, academic obstacles, and psychological well-being of college honors students. Differences in the way factors of academic success are perceived, and the relationship these perceptions have with psychological well-being were examined. College honors…

  1. How Coaches' Motivations Mediate between Basic Psychological Needs and Well-Being/Ill-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz, Saul; Torregrosa, Miquel; Viladrich, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present research was to test how behavioral regulations are mediated between basic psychological needs and psychological well-being and ill-being in a sample of team-sport coaches. Based on self-determination theory, we hypothesized a model where satisfaction and thwarting of the basic psychological needs predicted…

  2. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    PubMed

    Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.

  3. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    PubMed Central

    Rae, James R.; Lonborg, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being. PMID:26124733

  4. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time

  5. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress. PMID:27790168

  6. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.

  7. Caregiver Burden, Spirituality, and Psychological Well-Being of Parents Having Children with Thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Anum, Jawaria; Dasti, Rabia

    2016-06-01

    The research determined the relationship of caregiving burden, spirituality and psychological well-being of parents of Pakistani thalassemic patients in a crosssectional research design. The sociodemographic form, Montgomery-Borgatta burden measure (Montgomery et al. in Who should care for the elderly? An east-west value divide. World Scientific, River Edge, pp 27-54, 2000), Multidimensional Measure of Islamic Spirituality (Dasti and Sitwat in J Muslim Ment Health 8(2):47-67, 2014. doi: 10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0008.204 ) and Ryff Scale of Psychological Well-being (Ryff in J Pers Soc Psychol 57(6):1069-1081, 1989. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069 ) were administered on a sample of 80 parents (32 fathers and 48 mothers) recruited from different Thalassemic Centers of Lahore city, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through correlation and mediational analyses. Results indicated that the caregiver burden was negatively correlated with the psychological well-being and the domains of spirituality, while the psychological well-being and spirituality were positively correlated. We identified that the caregiver burden has direct effect on the psychological well-being of the parents and it influences the psychological well-being through the pathway of the two domains of spirituality, i.e., self-discipline and meanness-generosity. These results highlighted the role of spirituality upon the psychological well-being of caregivers, which could be utilized to prevent pathological influences (such as hard feelings, hopelessness, depressed mood, anxiety, and relationship problems) of caregiver burden and enhance psychological well-being through spiritual counseling. Caregivers can work on their well-being and burden by disciplining their lives and forgoing hard feelings toward others.

  8. Deaf genetic testing and psychological well-being in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Christina G S; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E; Fox, Michelle; Deignan, Joshua L; Kobayashi, Yoko; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2013-08-01

    Limited data suggest that enhanced self-knowledge from genetic information related to non-medical traits can have a positive impact on psychological well-being. Deaf individuals undertake genetic testing for deaf genes to increase self-knowledge. Because deafness is considered a non-medical trait by many individuals, we hypothesized that deaf individuals receiving a genetic explanation for why they are deaf will experience increased psychological well-being. We report results from a prospective, longitudinal study to determine the impact of genetic testing (GJB2, Cx26; GJB6, Cx30) on perceived personal control (PPC), anxiety, and depression in deaf adults (N = 209) assessed following pre-test genetic counseling as well as 1-month and 6-months following test result disclosure. Participants were classified as Cx positive (n = 82) or Cx negative/inconclusive (n = 127). There was significant evidence for Cx group differences in PPC and anxiety over time (PPC: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.0007; anxiety: Cx group*time interaction p = 0.002), where PPC scores were significantly higher, and anxiety scores were significantly lower for the Cx positive group relative to the negative/inconclusive group following test result disclosure. Compared to pre-test, PPC scores increased at 1-month (p = 0.07) and anxiety scores decreased at 6-months (p = 0.03) for the Cx positive group. In contrast, PPC scores decreased (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001) and anxiety scores increased (p = 0.09, p = 0.02) for the Cx negative/inconclusive group at 1- and 6-months post test result disclosure. Genetic testing for deaf genes affects the psychological well-being of deaf individuals. Increasing deaf adults' access to genetic testing may potentially enhance self-knowledge and increase psychological well-being for those who receive a genetic explanation, which could offer downstream health benefits.

  9. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being.

  10. [Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment].

    PubMed

    Mañas, Miguel A; Salvador, Carmen; Boada, Joan; González, Esperanza; Agulló, Esteban

    2007-08-01

    Satisfaction and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. The role of organisational commitment in public administration and its repercussions on the institution are examined in this study. It reports part of a larger research project that studies job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being as antecedents of organisational commitment. Data were collected from 697 public-sector employees, using questionnaires. Results showed that job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were strong predictors of organisational commitment. Higher levels of job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being were associated with more favourable perceptions of organisational commitment. Furthermore, this study highlights the impact of dynamic work on the employee's commitment.

  11. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  12. An International Partnership Promoting Psychological Well-Being in Sri Lankan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka N. S.

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of psychological and educational consultation in an international setting. With the goal of promoting psychological well-being of the school-age population, a partnership was formed between an American school psychologist and a Sri Lankan educational sociologist and teacher educator. The partners, or…

  13. Predictors of Psychological Distress and Well-Being in a Sample of Australian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bore, Miles; Pittolo, Chris; Kirby, Dianne; Dluzewska, Teresa; Marlin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found university students report higher levels of psychological distress compared to the general population. Our aim was to investigate the degree to which personality and contextual factors predict psychological distress and well-being in students over the course of a semester. We also examined whether resilience-building…

  14. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  15. Contributions of Positive Psychology to Peace: Toward Global Well-Being and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…

  16. Weight Control Behavior as an Indicator of Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatts, Paul E.; Martin, Scott B.; Petrie, Trent A.; Greenleaf, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical time for the development of psychological well-being. Weight gain and the emergence of body image concerns during this period can lead to the development of negative psychological states. To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between weight control behavior (WCB; i.e., trying to lose, gain, stay…

  17. The Facebook Paradox: Effects of Facebooking on Individuals' Social Relationships and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users' psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users' online-offline social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online-offline social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users' psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users' psychological well-being through offline social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online-offline social contexts.

  18. The Facebook Paradox: Effects of Facebooking on Individuals’ Social Relationships and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Andrew; Siwek, Nicholas; Wilder, David

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that Facebooking can be both beneficial and detrimental for users’ psychological well-being. The current study attempts to reconcile these seemingly mixed and inconsistent findings by unpacking the specific effects of Facebooking on users’ online–offline social relationship satisfaction and psychological well-being. Using structural equation modeling, pathways were examined between Facebook intensity, online–offline social relationship satisfaction, perceived social support, social interaction anxiety, and psychological well-being. Personality differences on each of those paths were also assessed. Employing a sample of 342 American university students, results indicated that intensive Facebooking was positively associated with users’ psychological well-being through online social relationship satisfaction, and simultaneously negatively linked to users’ psychological well-being through offline social relationship satisfaction. Multiple group analyses revealed that the linkage between perceived social support and psychological well-being was stronger for introverts than for extraverts. Our findings indicate that the benefits or detriments of Facebooking are contingent upon both personality characteristics and online–offline social contexts. PMID:28197114

  19. Contributions of positive psychology to peace: toward global well-being and resilience.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, J Christopher; Christie, Daniel J; White, Mathew P; Das, Chaitali

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an individual's positive experiences, personal well-being, and personal resilience, as defined in current positive psychology, may in fact contribute to personal and interpersonal peace but can also entail detrimental consequences for other individuals, communities, and nations. Second, we describe how peace psychology contains traces of positive psychology, especially with its focus on the pursuit of social justice. Third, reviewing and extending the concept of community resilience, we outline directions for further conceptual and empirical work in positive psychology inspired by peace psychology. Such work would do well to transcend positive psychology's current bias toward individualism and nationalism and to conceptualize well-being and resilience at the level of the "global community." This extended "positive peace psychology" perspective would have important implications for our understanding of how to overcome oppression and work toward global peace.

  20. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  1. A cross-cultural study of adolescents--BMI, body image and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Sujoldzić, Anita; De Lucia, Amelia

    2007-03-01

    Physical, psychological and social changes that occur during adolescence can markedly affect dietary habits and nutritional health. Physical changes including rapid growth place extra nutritional requirements on adolescents, while culture and society require adjustments in all of the aspects of daily living, including psychosocial well-being. Adolescents become focused on the physical appearance and any deviation from the ideal figure can result in negative dieting behavior, social withdrawal, poor self-esteem and increased health vulnerability. The paper presents some of the results of an international comparative study on risk and protective factors of adolescent health and well being, related to BMI, dieting behavior and body image and their relationship to psychosocial well-being (somatic stress, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Within an ecological cultural framework, it looks at group-specific differences of Albanian and Bosnian adolescents within different socio-cultural contexts across six European countries: two EU members (Italy and Austria) and four communities in the state of socioeconomic and political transition (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Kosovo). The survey collected data from 2000 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age. The study demonstrated a strong relationship between BMI and body dissatisfaction, between body image and dietary habits, and strong effects of body image on all indicators of psychosocial health. In addition to expected marked gender differences in all countries, the obtained results indicate significant intracultural variations related to socioeconomic status as well as considerable intercultural variations due to variable influence specific social and cultural contexts.

  2. Marriage and Psychological Well-Being: Some Evidence on Selection into Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastekaasa, Arne

    1992-01-01

    Higher psychological well-being among married persons may be because of social selection in marriage or of marriage effects. Findings from approximately 9,000 persons revealed that predictive power of well-being measures remained stable throughout 2- to 4-year period. Concluded that selection may play important part in producing association…

  3. The Influence of a Positive Psychology Course on Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybury, Karol K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of participation in a positive psychology course on undergraduates' well-being. Twenty-three students from a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States participated in this study. As hypothesized, students reported gains in hope, self-actualization, well-being, agency, and pathway hopefulness,…

  4. Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Assisted-Living Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the psychological well-being of elderly assisted-living residents and factors associated with well-being. Depression, life satisfaction, and demographic, health, and social support variables were measured through interviews. A sizeable minority of the residents reported high levels of depressive symptoms and low life satisfaction.…

  5. The role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work and well-being.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Verena C; Dormann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Building on boundary theory, we hypothesized that not only employees' own work-home segmentation preference but also their partners' work-home segmentation preference is associated with employees' psychological detachment. In addition, partners' psychological detachment should influence employees' psychological detachment. We hypothesized that the presence of children in the household moderates partners' influence on employees' psychological detachment. Further, we expected both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment to contribute to employees' well-being. Participants were 114 dual-earner couples who responded to Web-based questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed our hypotheses. Employees' and their partners' work-home segmentation preferences were associated with employees' psychological detachment. The presence of children moderated the relation between partners' work-home segmentation preference and employees' psychological detachment. The relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Moreover, employees' and their partners' psychological detachment were positively associated. Again, the relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Finally, both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment contributed to employees' well-being.

  6. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time.

    PubMed

    Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F

    2010-01-01

    The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.

  7. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

  8. Psychological well-being among religious and spiritual-identified young gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799

  9. Family, religious attendance, and trajectories of psychological well-being among youth.

    PubMed

    Petts, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on adolescent well-being, longitudinal research on the influence of religion on well-being is lacking, and limited studies have looked at how family and religion may work in conjunction with one another to influence adolescent well-being. This study addresses these limitations by using longitudinal data on 5,739 youth to explore whether family structure, changes in family structure, parent-child relationship quality, and religious attendance (overall and with parents) influence trajectories of psychological well-being independently and in conjunction with one another. Results support previous research in showing that parental interaction and attending religious services with parent(s) in late childhood are associated with higher psychological well-being, whereas conflict with parents and residing in a nontraditional family in late childhood are associated with lower well-being among youth. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that attending religious services with parent(s) amplifies the positive influence of parental interaction on psychological well-being, and overall levels of religious attendance over time are less likely to increase well-being among adolescents raised by single parents than for adolescents raised by married parents.

  10. The role of mindfulness and psychological capital on the well-being of leaders.

    PubMed

    Roche, Maree; Haar, Jarrod M; Luthans, Fred

    2014-10-01

    In today's highly competitive and extremely complex global economy, organizational leaders at all levels are facing unprecedented challenges. Yet, some seem to be handling the pressure better than others. Utilizing 4 samples of CEOs/presidents/top (n = 205), middle (n = 183), and junior (n = 202) managers, as well as 107 entrepreneurs, using Structural Equation Modeling we tested the direct effect that their level of mindfulness (heightened awareness) and the mediating effect of their psychological capital (i.e., hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism) may have on their mental well-being. In all 4 samples, mindfulness was found to be negatively related to various dysfunctional outcomes such as anxiety, depression, and negative affect of the managerial leaders and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism) of the entrepreneurs. For all 4 samples, the model with psychological capital mediating the effects of mindfulness on dysfunctional outcomes fit the data best. The study limitations, future research and practical implications of these findings conclude the article.

  11. Does psychological well-being change following treatment? An exploratory study on outpatients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tomba, Elena; Tecuta, Lucia; Schumann, Romana; Ballardini, Donatella

    2017-04-01

    Psychological well-being changes following cognitive-behavioral therapy-based treatment were investigated in outpatients with eating disorders (ED). While it is known that CBT reduces symptomatology in EDs, less is known about how changes in positive functioning may ensue. One-hundred and eighty five ED outpatients were analyzed for pre-treatment and post-treatment changes in psychological well-being (PWB) by last observation carried forward - Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Significant gains in all PWB dimensions were found, with moderate effect size correlations in environmental mastery (r=-.418), personal growth (r=-.351) and self-acceptance (r=-.341). A subsample of patients in remission (n=51) was selected and compared to healthy controls in PWB post-treatment scores through Mann-Whitney U tests. Remitted patients showed significantly lower psychological well-being in two dimensions compared to controls: PWB-positive relations (r=-.360) and PWB-self-acceptance (r=-.288). However, more than 50% of ED outpatients in remission had PWB scores that fell below the 50th percentile of healthy controls in all psychological well-being dimensions, despite significant treatment response. Several mechanisms of psychological well-being change following CBT-based treatment are discussed. The assessment of treatment outcome in EDs may benefit from considering changes in positive functioning such as psychological well-being, in addition to the standard measurement of BMI, symptomatology and behavioral parameters. CBT-based treatment outcomes may be strengthened by promoting the development of optimal domains particularly in the interpersonal realm, such as building of quality and warm relationships and focusing on enhancing self-acceptance.

  12. Effectiveness of stress management training on the psychological well-being of the nurses

    PubMed Central

    Pahlevani, M; Ebrahimi, M; Radmehr, S; Amini, F; Bahraminasab, M; Yazdani, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: an appropriate psychological intervention to promote the level of the public health and mental well-being of nurses has a great importance. This investigation was aimed to study the effectiveness of stress management training on the psychological welfare of nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Methodology: this study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest that used a control group. Hence, 40 of the nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital were selected by using a convenience sampling method and placed in the experimental group and the control group. Both groups were pretested by using psychological well-being 84-question scale. Afterwards, the experimental group was trained for ten sessions under stress management skill exercise, and the check group got no intervention. Next, both societies were post-tested, and the acquired data were analyzed by using inferential and descriptive statistical methods accompanied by SPSS 21 software. Findings: the results indicated that stress management training significantly led to the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses (p < 0.001). Conclusion: it was found from the research that due to the high level of effectiveness of stress management training, its low cost, and its high acceptability by the patients, especially when it was performed in a group, had a significant positive impact on the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses. PMID:28316750

  13. Effectiveness of stress management training on the psychological well-being of the nurses.

    PubMed

    Pahlevani, M; Ebrahimi, M; Radmehr, S; Amini, F; Bahraminasab, M; Yazdani, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: an appropriate psychological intervention to promote the level of the public health and mental well-being of nurses has a great importance. This investigation was aimed to study the effectiveness of stress management training on the psychological welfare of nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Methodology: this study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest that used a control group. Hence, 40 of the nurses in Imam Khomeini Hospital were selected by using a convenience sampling method and placed in the experimental group and the control group. Both groups were pretested by using psychological well-being 84-question scale. Afterwards, the experimental group was trained for ten sessions under stress management skill exercise, and the check group got no intervention. Next, both societies were post-tested, and the acquired data were analyzed by using inferential and descriptive statistical methods accompanied by SPSS 21 software. Findings: the results indicated that stress management training significantly led to the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses (p < 0.001). Conclusion: it was found from the research that due to the high level of effectiveness of stress management training, its low cost, and its high acceptability by the patients, especially when it was performed in a group, had a significant positive impact on the promotion of psychological well-being in nurses.

  14. Centrality of women's multiple roles: beneficial and detrimental consequences for psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Martire, L M; Stephens, M A; Townsend, A L

    2000-03-01

    Theorists have proposed that greater centrality (personal importance) of a social role is associated with better psychological well-being but that role centrality exacerbates the negative effects of stress in that same social role on well-being. The present study found evidence to support both hypotheses in a sample of 296 women who simultaneously occupied the roles of parent care provider, mother, wife, and employee. Greater centrality of all four roles was related to better psychological well-being. As predicted, wife centrality exacerbated the effects of wife stress on life satisfaction, and employee centrality exacerbated the effects of employee stress on depressive symptoms. Contrary to prediction, centrality of the mother role buffered women from the negative effects of mother stress on depressive symptoms. These findings point to an aspect of role identity that can benefit well-being but that has complex effects in the context of role stress.

  15. Anxiety, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in Spanish Families with Blind Children. A Change in Psychological Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesus; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, Maria Teresa; Sanchez-Alcoba, Manuel Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between levels of anxiety, self-esteem and subjective psychological well-being is analyzed in a Spanish sample of 28 fathers and 33 mothers of blind children. The results reveal a positive correlation between subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem, and a negative correlation between anxiety and subjective…

  16. Relationship between Religious Involvement and Psychological Well-Being: A Social Justice Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranda, Maria P.

    2008-01-01

    Although religion has not been a mainline topic of empirical inquiry in the gerontological social work literature, there has been growing recognition in the past two decades of the health protective effects of religious involvement on both physical and psychological well-being. Depression interferes with both individual and social functioning that…

  17. East Asian International Students and Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Xiao, Feiya

    2014-01-01

    The present article reports a systematic review of the studies related to psychological well-being among East Asian international students. A total of 18 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2011 were reviewed. Our review revealed three major results: (1) a majority of researchers (n = 13, 72.2%) tend to choose…

  18. Psychological Well-Being among Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, J. H.; Cullen-Powell, L. A.; Cheshire, A.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the proportion of mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who experience distress, particularly in terms of depressed and anxious moods. The present study aimed to address this issue by examining the level of maternal anxious and depressed moods. The associations between maternal psychological well-being and…

  19. Confronting Stigma: Community Involvement and Psychological Well-Being among HIV-Positive Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Fergus, Stevenson; Reisen, Carol A.; Poppen, Paul J.; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2005-01-01

    Theories of social integration and stress process posit that community involvement may buffer or may compensate the adverse effects of stigma on psychological well-being. In this article, the authors explore this thesis in a stigmatized and seldom studied group of HIV-positive Latino gay men. Specifically, they examine the effects of community…

  20. Psychological Well-Being among Mothers with School Age Children: Evolving Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines relationship between changing family living arrangements and psychological well-being of childrearing women. Finds long-term single parenting may be considered a chronic stressor. Reports death of a family member or close friend, unemployment, and residence change are associated with increased distress while friendship and church…

  1. Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: The Contribution of Interpersonal Relations and Experience of Being Alone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsano, Paola; Majorano, Marinella; Champretavy, Lorella

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of loneliness and relationships with parents and friends on the psychological well-being or adolescent malaise. Data were collected via two questionnaires (LLCA--Marcoen, Goossens & Caes, 1987; TRI--Bracken, 1996) from a sample of 330 Italian adolescents, males and females, aged between 11 and 19. As…

  2. What Leads to Wellness? The Role of Psychological Resources in Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An expanding literature reveals that personality traits and psychological resources (PRs) are important in human well-being. This article reviews the literature regarding four PRs (positive thoughts, hardiness, generalized self-efficacy, and optimism), discusses the relationships among PRs and between PRs and personality characteristics, and…

  3. Transitions to Caregiving, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being: A Prospective U.S. National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Nadine F.; Lambert, James David; Choi, Heejeong

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of transitioning into caregiving activity for a child, spouse, parent, other relative, or non-kin associate on nine dimensions of psychological well-being. Results from multivariate regression models confirmed that the transition to caregiving for primary kin was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. However, in…

  4. The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children's Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Anne C.

    This paper is a review of current research on the effects of children's exposure to domestic violence in the home in regard to their psychological well-being. Specific areas of focus include studies that examine general effects of witnessing domestic violence, the presence of trauma-like and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, potential…

  5. The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Ryan, Dermot; Hickey, Tina

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical study of the psychosocial adaptation of international students in Ireland. Using measures of social support, loneliness, stress, psychological well-being, and sociocultural adaptation, data were obtained from international students and a comparison sample of Irish students. The study found that, although…

  6. Daily Variation in Adolescents' Sleep, Activities, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Hardway, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The daily diary method was used to examine the daily dynamics of adolescent sleep time, activities, and psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of over 750 adolescents approximately 14-15 years of age. Studying and stressful demands during the day were modestly but consistently associated with less sleep that evening. Receiving…

  7. Ethnic Identity and Psychological Well-Being of International Transracial Adoptees: A Curvilinear Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Research in general has shown a beneficial effect of ethnic identity on adoptees' psychological well-being. However, studies also indicate that overemphasis on birth culture and racial/ethnic differences may negatively impact adoptees' overall adjustment. Using Rojewski's (2005) and Brodzinsky's (1987) propositions of a balanced approach to…

  8. Changes in Undergraduate Students' Psychological Well-Being as They Progress through University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bewick, Bridgette; Koutsopoulou, Gina; Miles, Jeremy; Slaa, Esther; Barkham, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the psychological well-being of students from all faculties across their undergraduate degree from pre-registration to semester two of year three at one UK university. Data were collected on seven occasions, with 66% of students who began their studies between 2000 and 2002 taking part in the project. Psychological…

  9. Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Grace K.

    A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

  10. Reminiscence, Psychological Well-Being, and Ego Integrity in Portuguese Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Rosa Maria; Bueno, Belen; Loureiro, Manuel Joachim; Pereira, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a reminiscence program on the psychological well-being and ego integrity of elderly people with depressive symptomatology. Ninety people aged 65 and over participated in a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest evaluations. They were assigned to one of three groups: (a) experimental group…

  11. Migrant Parents and the Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P.

    2011-01-01

    Several million children currently live in transnational families, yet little is known about impacts on their health. We investigated the psychological well-being of left-behind children in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were drawn from the CHAMPSEA study. Caregiver reports from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to…

  12. Student Physical Education Teachers' Well-Being: Contribution of Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciyin, Gülten; Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    This study adopted Self-Determination Theory tenets and aimed to explore whether student physical education (PE) teachers' satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs independently predicts well-being. 267 Turkish student PE teachers were recruited for the study. Two stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed in which each outcome…

  13. Adherence to a Wellness Model and Perceptions of Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermon, David A.; Hazler, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between college students' perceived psychological well-being and the quality of their lives on five variables associated with a five-factor holistic wellness model. Results revealed a significant relationship between five dimensions of wellness and both short-term state and long-term trait constructs of psychological…

  14. Pen and Paper: A Prescription for Adolescents' Emotional and Psychological Well Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jennie J.; Davis, James O.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an expressive writing intervention on male, juvenile offenders' (n=25) psychological and emotional well being. Using a quasi-experimental design, participants were assigned to one of three writing conditions and were instructed to write for 15 minutes for five consecutive days about one of the following topics:…

  15. Examining the Influence of Family Cohesion and Adaptability on Trauma Symptoms and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uruk, Ayse C.; Sayger, Thomas V.; Cogdal, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    This study specifically examined the influence of family cohesion and adaptability on college students' trauma symptoms and psychological well-being in a sample of 189 undergraduate students. The participants were administered the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III (FACES-III), L.A. Symptom Checklist, and Scales of…

  16. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem in the Context of Relationships at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The school environment has shown itself to be an important factor in explaining adolescent behaviour. The relationships and experiences that pupils have at school have been found to influence their development, psychological well-being, self-esteem and social adjustment. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore whether there is a…

  17. Refugee children and their families: supporting psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

    PubMed

    Measham, Toby; Guzder, Jaswant; Rousseau, Cécile; Pacione, Laura; Blais-McPherson, Morganne; Nadeau, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    The support of refugee children and their families is a worldwide concern. This article will highlight models of mental health care for refugee children and their families, focusing on collaborative care with primary care providers. Case vignettes are provided to illustrate how collaborative care can support refugee children׳s psychological well-being and positive adaptation following migration.

  18. Parent-Child Relations and Children's Psychological Well-Being: Do Dads Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Videon, Tami M.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the unique influence of fathers on adolescents' psychological well-being. Analyses are based on a nationally representative sample (Add Health) of students in Grades 7 through 12 living in intact homes. Results of multivariate analyses reveal that the father-adolescent relationship has an independent impact on adolescents'…

  19. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  20. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  1. Mental Balance and Well-Being: Building Bridges between Buddhism and Western Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, B. Alan; Shapiro, Shauna L.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical psychology has focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease, and only recently has scientific attention turned to understanding and cultivating positive mental health. The Buddhist tradition, on the other hand, has focused for over 2,500 years on cultivating exceptional states of mental well-being as well as…

  2. Acculturation, Internet Use, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jia Qi; Liu, Xun; Wei, Tianlan; Lan, William

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the relationships of acculturation as measured with two subscales of cultural maintenance and cultural assimilation, Internet use, and psychological well-being among Chinese international students. A total of 170 Chinese international students participated in this study. Bivariate correlation analyses revealed…

  3. Reliability and Validity of a Shorter Chinese Version for Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ren-Hau

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a new and shorter Chinese version of Ryff's psychological well-being scale. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: In recent years there have been several versions of this scale, including 84-item, 54-item and 18-item versions. Researchers in different countries have built on Ryff's version to…

  4. Stressful Life Events and Psychological Well-Being: A Causal Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, David H.

    Previous research linking life events and psychological well being may have been biased by traditional retrospective designs. To eliminate retrospective bias, a prospective design was used in which events were measured before the criterion had occurred. Subjects were 209 male and 159 female participants in the Augmented Baltimore Longitudinal…

  5. Investigating the Psychological Well-Being and Job Satisfaction Levels in Different Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isgör, Isa Yücel; Haspolat, Namik Kemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and psychological well-being levels of different occupational employees (education, security, health, justice, worker, engineer, and religious official) carrying on their duties in different institutions and organizations in a mid-scale provincial center of…

  6. A Multidimensional Look at Religious Involvement and Psychological Well Being among Urban Elderly African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Charlotte; Mintz, Laurie B.; Mobley, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Although the importance of religion in the lives of older African Americans is well documented, this is the 1st study to examine the relations between religious involvement and psychological well-being among a sample comprised exclusively of older African Americans. Eighty six participants completed multidimensional measures of religious…

  7. Creativity, Bipolar Disorder Vulnerability and Psychological Well-Being: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gostoli, Sara; Cerini, Veronica; Piolanti, Antonio; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between creativity, subclinical bipolar disorder symptomatology, and psychological well-being. The study method was of descriptive, correlational type. Significant tests were performed using multivariate regression analysis. Students of the 4th grade of 6 different Italian colleges…

  8. Metacognitive Skills, Academic Success and Exam Anxiety as the Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isgör, Isa Yücel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the predicting effect of high school students' metacognitive skills, exam anxiety and academic success levels upon their psychological well-being in a provincial center with a medium-scale population in Eastern Anatolian Region. The research group included totally 251 high school students including…

  9. Relationship between Psychological Well-Being and Smartphone Addiction of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumcagiz, Hatice; Gündüz, Yüksel

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the relationship between university students' levels of psychological well-being and smartphone addiction. The study group consists of a total of 408 students (303 female and 105 male) selected by random sampling method and studying at the departments of Primary Education, Science Teaching, Art and Crafts…

  10. Multiple Health Behaviors and Psychological Well-Being of Chinese Female Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bian, Hui; Wu, Jingjin; Li, Yan; Largo-Wight, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese female college students' multiple health behaviors, their quality of life, and mental and psychological well-being and compared that with American counterparts. A convenience sample of 293 female undergraduates participated in the study during spring 2010, in Eastern China. A traditional self-report paper-pencil…

  11. Quality of Life after Total Laryngectomy: Functioning, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Alison; Casey, Erica; Cotton, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important construct when assessing treatment outcomes. Aims: To examine the relative contributions of functioning, psychological well-being and self-efficacy on self-perceived QoL with a sample of total laryngectomy patients in Australia who had surgery for advanced laryngeal cancer. Methods &…

  12. The Scales of Psychological Well-Being: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Scales of Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989a). The sample of the study consists of 1214 university students. Results of language equivalency showed that correlations between the Turkish and English forms were 0.94 for autonomy, 0.97 for environmental mastery,…

  13. Forgiveness by God, Forgiveness of Others, and Psychological Well-Being in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among forgiveness by God, forgiveness of others, and psychological well-being with data provided by a nationwide survey of older adults. Three main findings emerge from the analyses. First, the data suggest that forgiving others tends to enhance psychological well-being, and these salubrious effects are greater than those associated with forgiveness by God. Second, the findings indicate that how older people go about forgiving others is important: older adults who require transgressors to perform acts of contrition experience more psychological distress than those who forgive unconditionally. Third, the results reveal that forgiveness by God may be involved in this process because older people who feel they are forgiven by God are less likely to expect transgressors to perform acts of contrition. PMID:21373377

  14. Does self-regulation capacity predict psychological well-being in physicians?

    PubMed

    Simon, Christopher R; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing research on physician well-being, factors appearing to account for individual variation in levels of optimal functioning are largely unclear. One such factor could be self-regulation, which reflects how individuals effectively manage their thoughts, emotions and behaviours, and cope with adversity in their environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-regulation capacity could significantly predict psychological well-being in a sample of Canadian physicians. A total of 132 physicians completed the Scales of Psychological Well-Being and the short form of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire. Regression analyses confirmed the hypothesis that a significant amount of variance in levels of psychological well-being would be explained by self-regulation capacity. There was a particularly strong relationship between self-regulation capacity and the dimensions of purpose in life and environmental mastery, which suggests that physicians who effectively self-manage may be better able to preserve a sense of purpose and an adequate work-life balance in their daily life. Physicians today face consistently growing demands stemming from increasingly challenging work environments. Results of this study mark an important step in increasing our understanding of a potentially valuable skill that may help physicians to achieve well-being.

  15. The role of self-compassion in physical and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Hall, Cathy W; Row, Kathleen A; Wuensch, Karl L; Godley, Katelyn R

    2013-01-01

    The relation of self-compassion to physical and psychological well-being was investigated among 182 college students. The self-compassion scale was delineated into three composites, following the proposition by Neff that self-compassion consists of three main components: self-judgment versus self-kindness (SJ-SK), a sense of isolation versus common humanity (I-CH), and over-identification versus mindfulness (OI-M). Findings support the association between self-compassion and psychological and physical well-being, but the composites demonstrate different influences. SJ-SK and I-CH were predictive of both depressive symptomatology and physical well-being, and SJ-SK and OI-M were predictive of managing life stressors. The results of this study support and expand prior research on self-compassion.

  16. Academic Attitudes and Psychological Well-Being of Black American Psychology Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…

  17. Relations Between Narrative Coherence, Identity, and Psychological Well-being in Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Fivush, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective The hypothesis that the ability to construct a coherent account of personal experience is reflective, or predictive, of psychological adjustment cuts across numerous domains of psychological science. It has been argued that coherent accounts of identity are especially adaptive. We tested these hypotheses by examining relations between narrative coherence of personally significant autobiographical memories and three psychological well-being components (Purpose and Meaning; Positive Self View; Positive Relationships). We also examined the potential moderation of the relations between coherence and well-being by assessing the identity content of each narrative. Method We collected two autobiographical narratives of personally significant events from 103 undergraduate students and coded them for coherence and identity content. Two additional narratives about generic/recurring events were also collected and coded for coherence. Results We confirmed the prediction that constructing coherent autobiographical narratives is related to psychological well-being. Further, we found that this relation was moderated by the narratives’ relevance to identity and that this moderation held after controlling for narrative ability more generally (i.e. coherence of generic/recurring events). Conclusion These data lend strong support to the coherent narrative identity hypothesis and the prediction that unique events are a critical feature of identity construction in emerging adulthood. PMID:25110125

  18. Relations Between Narrative Coherence, Identity, and Psychological Well-Being in Emerging Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-08-01

    The hypothesis that the ability to construct a coherent account of personal experience is reflective, or predictive, of psychological adjustment cuts across numerous domains of psychological science. It has been argued that coherent accounts of identity are especially adaptive. We tested these hypotheses by examining relations between narrative coherence of personally significant autobiographical memories and three psychological well-being components (i.e., purpose and meaning, positive self-view, positive relationships). We also examined the potential moderation of the relations between coherence and well-being by assessing the identity content of each narrative. We collected two autobiographical narratives of personally significant events from 103 undergraduate students and coded them for coherence and identity content. Two additional narratives about generic/recurring events were also collected and coded for coherence. We confirmed the prediction that constructing coherent autobiographical narratives is related to psychological well-being. Further, we found that this relation was moderated by the narratives' relevance to identity and that this moderation held after controlling for narrative ability more generally (i.e., coherence of generic/recurring events). These data lend strong support to the coherent narrative identity hypothesis and the prediction that unique events are a critical feature of identity construction in emerging adulthood.

  19. Cultural consonance and psychological well-being. Estimates using longitudinal data from an Amazonian society.

    PubMed

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Gravlee, Clarence C; McDade, Thomas W; Huanca, Tomás; Leonard, William R; Tanner, Susan

    2010-03-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that the degree to which an individual's actual behavior approximates the culturally valued lifestyle encoded in the dominant cultural model has consequences for physical and mental health. We contribute to this line of research by analyzing data from a longitudinal study composed of five annual surveys (2002-2006 inclusive) of 791 adults in one society of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon, the Tsimane'. We estimate the association between a standard measure of individual achievement of the cultural model and (a) four indicators of psychological well-being (sadness, anger, fear and happiness) and (b) consumption of four potentially addictive substances (alcohol, cigarette, coca leaves and home-brewed beer) as indicators of stress behavior. After controlling for individual fixed effects, we found a negative association between individual achievement of the cultural model and psychological distress and a positive association between individual achievement of the cultural model and psychological well-being. Only the consumption of commercial alcohol bears the expected negative association with cultural consonance in material lifestyle, probably because the other substances analyzed have cultural values attached. Our work contributes to research on psychological health disparities by showing that a locally defined and culturally specific measure of lifestyle success is associated with psychological health.

  20. Music, Neuroscience, and the Psychology of Well-Being: A Précis

    PubMed Central

    Croom, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    In Flourish, the positive psychologist Seligman (2011) identifies five commonly recognized factors that are characteristic of human flourishing or well-being: (1) “positive emotion,” (2) “relationships,” (3) “engagement,” (4) “achievement,” and (5) “meaning” (p. 24). Although there is no settled set of necessary and sufficient conditions neatly circumscribing the bounds of human flourishing (Seligman, 2011), we would mostly likely consider a person that possessed high levels of these five factors as paradigmatic or prototypical of human flourishing. Accordingly, if we wanted to go about the practical task of actually increasing our level of well-being, we ought to do so by focusing on practically increasing the levels of the five factors that are characteristic of well-being. If, for instance, an activity such as musical engagement can be shown to positively influence each or all of these five factors, this would be compelling evidence that an activity such as musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. I am of the belief that psychological research can and should be used, not only to identify and diagnose maladaptive psychological states, but identify and promote adaptive psychological states as well. In this article I advance the hypothesis and provide supporting evidence for the claim that musical engagement can positively contribute to one’s living a flourishing life. Since there has not yet been a substantive and up-to-date investigation of the possible role of music in contributing to one’s living a flourishing life, the purpose of this article is to conduct this investigation, thereby bridging the gap and stimulating discussion between the psychology of music and the psychology of well-being. PMID:22232614

  1. Environmental Psychology Effects on Mental Health Job Satisfaction and Personal Well Being of Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Sodeh; Asaadi, Mohammad Mahdy; Pakpour, Amir H; Hajiaghababaei, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Environmental psychology as a science could be useful in understanding the dissociation between the man and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare mental health, job satisfaction and well-being of nurses who work in hospital environments with different designs. Material: This was a quasi-experimental study, in which 250 nurses filled out the mental health, well-being and job satisfaction questionnaires. They were categorized into 3 groups randomly. Group1 included 63 nurses who worked in an environment without any natural elements; group 2 included 100 nurses who worked in an environment with natural elements and group 3 included 87 nurses who worked in an environment without any psychological and ergonomic design. The last group was only stimulated by demonstrating visual stimulus. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey’s pursuit statistical method. Results: The nurses who were working in an environment without any natural elements reported significantly lower scores on mental health, well-being and job satisfaction compared to those who were working in other groups, with the exception of social functioning. Moreover, depression and anxiety were more common in nurses who were working in environments without any natural elements compared to those in the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: We can increase job satisfaction, and mental health and well-being of the nurses through the use of natural design and environmental psychology indexes in hospital buildings. PMID:26877749

  2. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  3. Taking the Tension Out of Hypertension: A Prospective Study of Psychological Well-Being and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    TRUDEL-FITZGERALD, Claudia; BOEHM, Julia K.; KIVIMAKI, Mika; KUBZANSKY, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that psychological well-being is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether well-being might be specifically associated with reduced risk of hypertension has not been rigorously investigated in prospective studies. Objective This study examined the prospective association between two measures of psychological well-being and incident hypertension. Methods Participants were 6,384 healthy British civil servants age 39 to 63 from the Whitehall II cohort. Psychological well-being (emotional vitality and optimism) and cardiovascular risk factors (demographic characteristics, health status, health behaviors, psychological ill-being) were assessed during the 1991-1994 baseline. Incident hypertension was defined by clinical measures of systolic or diastolic blood pressure >140/90 mmHg, self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, or treatment for hypertension. Follow-up assessments of hypertension took place approximately every three years through 2002-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios. Results There were 2,304 cases of incident hypertension during the follow-up period. High versus low emotional vitality was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hypertension in an age-adjusted model (hazard ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.98). This association was maintained after controlling for demographic characteristics and health status, but was slightly attenuated after adjusting for health behaviors and ill-being. Optimism was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusions High emotional vitality was associated with reduced hypertension risk; favorable health behaviors explained only part of the relationship. Associations did not differ by age, were similar for men and women and were maintained after accounting for ill-being. PMID:24786293

  4. Identity development and psychological well-being in Korean-born adoptees in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Basow, Susan A; Lilley, Elizabeth; Bookwala, Jamila; McGillicuddy-DeLisi, Ann

    2008-10-01

    Because adult Korean-born adoptees have unique experiences, the factors that contribute to their psychological well-being need to be studied separately from both Caucasian and Korean Americans. In this Internet-based study with 83 adult Korean-born adoptees in the United States, both ethnic identity and adjustment to adoption (considered a component of adoptive identity) were expected to predict psychological well-being. Results supported predictions: Each measure of psychological well-being (personal growth, self-acceptance, and positive relationships with others) was affected by the predictive variables in unique ways. Cultural socialization experiences also were related to personal growth, but this association was fully mediated by strength of ethnic identity. Implications for adoptive parents and counselors are discussed.

  5. Validation of the Narrative Emplotment Scale and its correlations with well-being and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Eric D; Terrell, Heather K; Hladkyj, Steven; Nagoshi, Craig T

    2009-11-01

    Two studies examined correlates of the Narrative Emplotment Scale (NES), which measures the extent to which individuals perceive chance events and unchosen experiences as meaningfully connected. In Study 1 (N=99), the NES demonstrated adequate test-retest stability and good internal reliability. The scale was positively related to paranormal beliefs, mystical experiences, and absorption. In Study 2 (N=342), personality measures indicative of external locus of control, intrinsic religiosity, well-being, satisfaction with life, and a measure of frequency of coincidence experience were all positively correlated with narrative emplotment, providing further support for the construct validity of the scale. In terms of the question of whether meaning making is predictive of better or worse psychological adjustment, analyses indicated that the relationship between narrative emplotment and psychological adjustment was moderated by individual differences in coping strategies. Path analysis indicated that emplotment was a mediator of the pathway between religiosity and well-being. Emplotment had a negative effect on well-being through chance locus of control. These analyses suggest that this type of meaning-making is an important variable for understanding religious/spiritual beliefs and their influence on psychological adjustment.

  6. Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on the psychological well-being of evacuees.

    PubMed

    LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul

    2010-10-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 forced more than one million people to evacuate the Gulf Coast of the United States. This study examines the psychological health and well-being of a subset of evacuees to determine the prevalence of ongoing mental health problems. Interviews were conducted with 101 adults who evacuated to Louisville, Kentucky, and were living in the state at the one-year anniversary of the event or had recently returned to the Gulf Coast. The psychological health and well-being of respondents was evaluated using several well-validated measures. More than one-half met the criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder and a majority were suffering from depression and anxiety. The mean quality of life score was 0.6 on a scale from 0-1, suggesting that adaptation and return to pre-hurricane well-being had not occurred 12 months after the storm. The potential for long-term psychological damage exists in this sample of Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Results suggest other evacuees may also be at heightened risk.

  7. Psychological well-being, health, and stress sources in Turkish dental students.

    PubMed

    Uraz, Ahu; Tocak, Yasemin Sezgin; Yozgatligil, Ceylan; Cetiner, Sedat; Bal, Belgin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the psychological well-being and overall health of a group of Turkish dental students and their sources of stress. Two hundred and seventy-seven students (57 percent female) from Gazi University Dental Faculty completed the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire, the Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB) index, and the SF-36 Health Survey. The results showed that the DES scores increased over the five-year period. Pressure to perform, faculty and administration, workload, and students' perceptions of their self-efficacy were the most stress-provoking factors. Students whose first choice was dentistry experienced less stress and fewer health problems (p<0.05) than students whose first choice had not been dentistry. Psychological well-being and overall health were significantly associated with year of study. Statistically significant gender differences were observed on depressed mood and anxiety dimension scores of PGWB. Female students experienced greater stress than males, while male students had better overall health than females (p<0.01). Students who lived with their parents had lower PGWB scores (p<0.05). Age was significantly related with the DES and PGWB scores. These results found that stress among these Turkish dental students was influenced by gender, year of study, social background, and lifestyle. Based on the results of this study, recommendations can be made for changes in the dental education system in order to reduce stress among dental students especially during the last two years of study.

  8. Physical and Psychological Well-being of University Students: Survey of Eleven Faculties in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El Ansari, Walid; Labeeb, Shokria; Moseley, Lawrence; Kotb, Safaa; El-Houfy, Amira

    2013-01-01

    Background: We examined perceived health status and physical and psychological well-being of 3,271 undergraduate students attending eleven faculties in a university in Egypt. Methods: During 2009-2010, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic, physical and psychological health data. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from students’ measured height and weight. Differences across these variables were computed by gender and participating faculties. Results: Whilst more females watched and rated their health favorably, they were more likely to feel psychosomatic/physical health problems, to have seen a medical practitioner or been ill that they had to stay in bed. Females were consistently more likely to feel burdened overall, and across several aspects apart from financial problems. Less females had ‘normal’ BMI, were satisfied with current weight, perceived their body image as ‘just right’, or were not worried about their shape. More males rated their quality of life favorably. About 25% of males and 32% of females were either overweight/obese. Exams, presentations, and the lack of time for studies were the frequently-reported burdens. Comparisons of health/well-being indicators across the participating faculties suggested some evidence of ‘clustering’: Favorable indicators would cluster at some faculties; and conversely, less favorable variables would cluster at other faculties. Conclusions: Generally, the levels of some health complaints and psychological problems/burdens are higher than in other countries. Increased vigilance of university administrators and leaders to monitoring the health and well-being of their students, as well as their health needs is required if policy makers are to operate from a valid evidence base platform. Given cultural factors prevalent in the Eastern Mediterranean region generally, female students might require particular attention. The clustering effects suggest the need

  9. Subjective Psychological Well-Being in Families with Blind Children: How Can We Improve It?

    PubMed

    Sola-Carmona, Juan J; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, María T; Aguilar-Parra, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = - 0.62, p = 0.001) and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = - 0.57, p = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction. Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety, and increasing their satisfaction with life.

  10. Subjective Psychological Well-Being in Families with Blind Children: How Can We Improve It?

    PubMed Central

    Sola-Carmona, Juan J.; Lopez-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Gongora, David; Daza, María T.; Aguilar-Parra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine family well-being in a sample of Spanish families with blind children. Sixty-one participants reported their perceived economic status, the level of job satisfaction, and state-anxiety symptoms. The participants of our study scored higher on state-anxiety and lower on material well-being than the normative sample, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. They also scored higher on job satisfaction and family satisfaction than the general population. A negative correlation was found between state-anxiety and material well-being (r = - 0.62, p = 0.001) and between state-anxiety and family satisfaction (r = - 0.57, p = 0.001). A positive correlation was found between material well-being and job satisfaction (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and between material well-being and family satisfaction (r = 0.41, p = 0.001). Higher levels of material well-being, job satisfaction, and family satisfaction were associated with lower levels of anxiety in these families. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between family satisfaction and job satisfaction. Our results suggest that the family experience of having a disabled child is evolving, and this implies achieving greater job and family satisfaction than the normative samples, although anxiety scores continue to be higher and material well-being scores remain lower. On the whole, our results confirm that it is necessary to provide these families with more economic resources, which would have a positive impact on their subjective psychological well-being, decreasing their state-anxiety, and increasing their satisfaction with life. PMID:27092095

  11. Educational preferences, psychological well-being and self-efficacy among people with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J H; Cullen, L A; Rowe, I F

    2002-01-01

    As a basis for developing interventions to meet the psycho-educational needs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outpatients attending a regional hospital have been investigated. Specifically, patients' preferences for interventions addressing education (e.g. the disease and its treatment), self-management (e.g. pain-management, exercise) and the consequences (e.g. emotions, impact on work, family relationships) of RA were examined. In addition, psychological well-being and self-efficacy were examined. Results showed that patients preferred education about the disease and its treatment to be delivered on a one-to-one basis by health professionals. Similarly, emotional issues were believed to be best dealt with one-to-one although this could be with a similar other (i.e. a patient). Group interventions were the preferred format for self-management, exercise and relationship issues, whereas videos were thought to be useful for demonstrating use of aids and how other families cope. None of the participants would welcome computer-based interventions. Psychological well-being (e.g. depression, anxiety) remained stable over a 12-month period. Both physical and psychological health status were correlated with arthritis self-efficacy. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to development of interventions to better meet the psycho-educational needs of outpatients with RA.

  12. Do Formal Religious Participation and Spiritual Perceptions Have Independent Linkages with Diverse Dimensions of Psychological Well-Being?

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Vaillant, George E.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing religiosity and spirituality as related-yet-distinct phenomena, and conceptualizing psychological well-being as a multi-dimensional construct, this study examines whether individuals’ frequency of formal religious participation and spiritual perceptions are independently associated with diverse dimensions of psychological well-being (negative affect, positive affect, purpose in life, positive relations with others, personal growth, self-acceptance, environmental mastery, and autonomy). Data came from 1,564 respondents in the 2005 National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS). Higher levels of spiritual perceptions were independently associated with better psychological well-being across all dimensions, and three of these salutary associations were stronger among women than men. Greater formal religious participation was independently associated only with more purpose in life and (among older adults) personal growth; greater formal religious participation was also associated with less autonomy. Overall, results suggest a different pattern of independent linkages between formal religious participation and spiritual perceptions across diverse dimensions of psychological well-being. PMID:19537460

  13. Impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being: a systematic review of global literature.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming

    2013-09-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being. Fifty one articles reporting quantitative data from a total of 30 studies were retrieved and reviewed. Findings were mixed but tended to show that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had poorer psychological well-being in comparison with children from HIV-free families or children orphaned by other causes. Limited longitudinal studies suggested a negative effect of parental HIV on children's psychological well-being in an early stage of parental HIV-related illness and such effects persisted through the course of parental illness and after parental death. HIV-related stressful life events, stigma, and poverty were risk factors that might aggravate the negative impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children. Individual coping skills, trusting relationship with caregivers and social support were suggested to protect children against the negative effects of parental HIV/AIDS. This review underlines the vulnerability of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Culturally and developmentally appropriate evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to promote the psychological well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS.

  14. Ethnic Identity, Bicultural Identity Integration, and Psychological Well-Being Among Transracial Adoptees: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica

    2015-12-01

    The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently research carried out on ethnic minorities has highlighted that the relation between ethnic identity and well-being could be influenced by Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) (Benet-Martínez et al., 2002): It reflects how individuals who experience more than one culture organize and combine their dual cultural backgrounds. These results are consistent also among adoptees (Manzi, Ferrari, Rosnati, & Benet-Martínez, 2013) but need to be further explored. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate whether and the extent to which ethnic identity, national identity, and BII are protective factors for adoptees' psychological well-being. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 79 Italian transracial adoptees, aged between 15 and 25, at two time points, one year apart. In line with predictions, longitudinal analyses showed the crucial role of BII that turned out to increase higher levels of well-being one year later. Results are discussed in relation to implications for intervention with adoptive parents and children.

  15. Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Delphine; Kotsou, Ilios; Quoidbach, Jordi; Hansenne, Michel; Weytens, Fanny; Dupuis, Pauline; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2011-04-01

    This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that 18 hr of training with e-mail follow-up was sufficient to significantly improve emotion regulation, emotion understanding, and overall EC. These changes led in turn to long-term significant increases in extraversion and agreeableness as well as a decrease in neuroticism. Results of Study 2 showed that the development of EC brought about positive changes in psychological well-being, subjective health, quality of social relationships, and employability. The effect sizes were sufficiently large for the changes to be considered as meaningful in people's lives.

  16. Mantras Help the General Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lolla, Aruna

    2017-03-07

    The mind receives deep effect of harmonizing from incantatory spiritual verse known as "mantra." This ancient Indian spiritual science of sound vibrations had been used to help the mind, body and life. Students in top-ranking colleges often feel pressurized and complain of depression. Mantras could help ease their stress. This work attempts to study the impact of mantra on the psychological well-being of college students. Volunteers selected and listened to the mantra of their choice in the test period. Psychological tests were conducted before and after the test period. Data collected were analyzed by psychologists. The findings reveal a clear improvement in the general cheerfulness and clarity of mind of the subjects.

  17. The effects of economic deprivation on psychological well-being among the working population of Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Stefan; Endrass, Jerome; Schweizer, Ivo; Teng, Hsun-Mei; Rossler, Wulf; Gallo, William T

    2006-01-01

    Background The association between poverty and mental health has been widely investigated. There is, however, limited evidence of mental health implications of working poverty, despite its representing a rapidly expanding segment of impoverished populations in many developed nations. In this study, we examined whether working poverty in Switzerland, a country with substantial recent growth among the working poor, was correlated with two dependent variables of interest: psychological health and unmet mental health need. Methods This cross-sectional study used data drawn from the first 3 waves (1999–2001) of the Swiss Household Panel, a nationally representative sample of the permanent resident population of Switzerland. The study sample comprised 5453 subjects aged 20–59 years. We used Generalized Estimating Equation models to investigate the association between working poverty and psychological well-being; we applied logistic regression models to analyze the link between working poverty and unmet mental health need. Working poverty was represented by dummy variables indicating financial deficiency, restricted standard of living, or both conditions. Results After controlling other factors, restricted standard of living was significantly (p < .001) negatively correlated with psychological well-being; it was also associated with approximately 50% increased risk of unmet mental health need (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.17 – 2.06). Conclusion The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the potential psychological impact of material deprivation on working Swiss citizens. Such knowledge may aid in the design of community intervention programs to help reduce the individual and societal burdens of poverty in Switzerland. PMID:16952322

  18. Leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in university students.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, J; Castillo, I; Queralt, A

    2011-10-01

    An analysis of psychological well-being (self-esteem and subjective vitality) of 639 Spanish university students was performed, while accounting for the amount of leisure-time physical activity. The Spanish versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Subjective Vitality Scale were employed. Participants were divided into four groups (Low, Moderate, High, and Very high) depending on estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Men and women having higher physical activity rated higher mean subjective vitality; however, differences in self-esteem were observed only in men, specifically between Very high and the other physical activity groups.

  19. Predicting Personality Resiliency by Psychological Well-Being and Its Components in Girl Students of Islamic Azad University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajbafnezhad, Hadi; Khaneh Keshi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict psychological resilience by psychological well-being and its components. The research sample consisted of 216 girl students who were selected through multistage random sampling. The data were collected by implementing psychological resilience and psychological well-being questionnaire and analyzed by using…

  20. Continuity and Change in Relationships with Neighbors: Implications for Psychological Well-being in Middle and Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. There is growing enthusiasm for community initiatives that aim to strengthen neighbor relationships to promote well-being in later life. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the extent to which relationships with neighbors are associated with better psychological well-being among midlife and older adults. Methods. We used data from 1,071 noninstitutionalized, English-speaking adults, aged 40–70 years, who participated in both waves of the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Lagged dependent regression models were estimated to examine associations between changes in two dimensions of neighbor relationships (contact and perceived support) and psychological well-being. Results. Few associations were found between relationships with neighbors and negative or positive affect. In contrast, having continuously low levels of contact with neighbors, or losing contact with neighbors over the 10-year study period, was associated with declining levels of eudaimonic well-being. Associations between contact and this aspect of well-being were explained, in part, by less perceived support from neighbors. Discussion. Results suggest that continuity and change in relationships with neighbors is especially important for more developmental aspects of psychological well-being. Implications for future research on the meaning of neighbor relationships and aging in community are discussed. PMID:25106785

  1. Happiness and its relation to psychological well-being of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heizomi, Haleh; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Safaian, Abdolrasul

    2015-08-01

    In the present decade, adolescents' mental problems are known as critical problems which have many destructive consequences. This study aimed to measure students' happiness and psychological well-being status in a sample of high school students. The cross sectional study consisted of 403 randomly selected high school students in Tabriz, Iran. Numerous variables including general health status, happiness, self-efficacy, perceived stress, hopefulness and life satisfaction were measured by using self-reported written questionnaires. Significant relation observed between happiness and psychological well-being (r=0.48). Those students with good relationship and those who had reported to enjoy attending social events indicated better mental health status. No causal inferences were investigated due to the non-experimental nature of the study. The findings also revealed that students with higher happiness score have a better school performance. Integration of happiness promotion initiatives into the comprehensive school health programs is recommended to have pleasant environments for a healthy population of adolescents.

  2. Sleep disturbances predict prospective declines in resident physicians' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Min, Alice A; Sbarra, David A; Keim, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods Sixty-nine (N=69) resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0-17) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12-25) at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents' self-reported wellness. Results Accounting for residents' overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person) within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=-0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.33, -0.07) and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=-0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: -0.29, -0.009) were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being.

  3. Sleep disturbances predict prospective declines in resident physicians’ psychological well-being

    PubMed Central

    Min, Alice A.; Sbarra, David A.; Keim, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical residency can be a time of increased psychological stress and sleep disturbance. We examine the prospective associations between self-reported sleep quality and resident wellness across a single training year. Methods Sixty-nine (N=69) resident physicians completed the Brief Resident Wellness Profile (M=17.66, standard deviation [SD]=3.45, range: 0–17) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (M=6.22, SD=2.86, range: 12–25) at multiple occasions in a single training year. We examined the 1-month lagged effect of sleep disturbances on residents’ self-reported wellness. Results Accounting for residents’ overall level of sleep disturbance across the entire study period, both the concurrent (within-person) within-occasion effect of sleep disturbance (B=−0.20, standard error [SE]=0.06, p=0.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, −0.07) and the lagged within-person effect of resident sleep disturbance (B=−0.15, SE=0.07, p=0.037, 95% CI: −0.29, −0.009) were significant predictors of decreased resident wellness. Increases in sleep disturbances are a leading indicator of resident wellness, predicting decreased well-being 1 month later. Conclusions Sleep quality exerts a significant effect on self-reported resident wellness. Periodic evaluation of sleep quality may alert program leadership and the residents themselves to impending decreases in psychological well-being. PMID:26202848

  4. On the Psychological Well-Being of Women in the Mid Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Rosalind C.; Baruch, Grace K.

    Conceptualization of the lives of adult women and the forces affecting their well-being have concentrated on five constructs: (1) chronological age; (2) menopause and the empty nest; (3) marital status; (4) parity; and (5) multiple role involvement as a source of stress. A re-examination of these variables focused on the concerns and…

  5. The political is personal: narrating 9/11 and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Adler, Jonathan M; Poulin, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Making meaning out of negative experiences is one of the primary psychological challenges in the wake of adversity. Much of the empirical attention that psychologists have paid to meaning making has focused on personal hardships, but national tragedies similarly pose a challenge to meaning making. In the present study, which is grounded in the theoretical tradition of the narrative study of lives, a nationally representative sample of 395 adults wrote accounts about the 9/11 terrorist attacks approximately 2 months after 9/11. Accounts were coded for 3 narrative themes: closure, redemption, and contamination. Psychological well-being was significantly related to accounts that were high in closure and national redemption and, among those more directly exposed to the attacks, accounts high in redemptive imagery. Psychological distress was significantly related to accounts that were low in closure and high in themes of personal contamination. Understanding the narrative styles that characterize personal accounts of political events has important ramifications for the study of the socially embedded individual.

  6. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. Methods A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. Results A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = −5) and career goals (median IR = −6) were observed; both ratings were worse (P<0.001) for depressed versus nondepressed subjects. Older age at diagnosis corresponded to higher depression prevalence and increased incidence of negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids (P=0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist

  7. Passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Verduyn, Philippe; Lee, David Seungjae; Park, Jiyoung; Shablack, Holly; Orvell, Ariana; Bayer, Joseph; Ybarra, Oscar; Jonides, John; Kross, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Prior research indicates that Facebook usage predicts declines in subjective well-being over time. How does this come about? We examined this issue in 2 studies using experimental and field methods. In Study 1, cueing people in the laboratory to use Facebook passively (rather than actively) led to declines in affective well-being over time. Study 2 replicated these findings in the field using experience-sampling techniques. It also demonstrated how passive Facebook usage leads to declines in affective well-being: by increasing envy. Critically, the relationship between passive Facebook usage and changes in affective well-being remained significant when controlling for active Facebook use, non-Facebook online social network usage, and direct social interactions, highlighting the specificity of this result. These findings demonstrate that passive Facebook usage undermines affective well-being.

  8. Obstetric complications and psychological well-being: experiences of Bangladeshi women during pregnancy and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Gausia, K; Ryder, D; Ali, M; Fisher, C; Moran, A; Koblinsky, M

    2012-06-01

    Women in developing countries experience postnatal depression at rates that are comparable with or higher than those in developed countries. However, their personal experiences during pregnancy and childbirth have received little attention in relation to postnatal depression. In particular, the contribution of obstetric complications to their emotional well-being during the postpartum period is still not clearly understood. This study aimed to (a) describe the pregnancy and childbirth experiences among women in Bangladesh during normal childbirth or obstetric complications and (b) examine the relationship between these experiences and their psychological well-being during the postpartum period. Two groups of women--one group with obstetric complications (n=173) and the other with no obstetric complications (n=373)--were selected from a sample of women enrolled in a community-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh. The experiences during pregnancy and childbirth were assessed in terms of a five-point rating scale from 'severely uncomfortable=1' to 'not uncomfortable at all=5'. The psychological status of the women was assessed using a validated local version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum. Categorical data were analyzed using the chi-square test and continuous data by analysis of variance. Women with obstetric complications reported significantly more negative experiences during their recent childbirth [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.61, p<0.001] compared to those with normal childbirth. There was a significant main effect on emotional well-being due to experiences of pregnancy [F (4,536)=4.96, p=0.001] and experiences of childbirth [F (4,536)=3.29, p=0.01]. The EPDS mean scores for women reporting severe uncomfortable pregnancy and childbirth experiences were significantly higher than those reporting no such problems. After controlling for the background characteristics, postpartum depression was significantly associated

  9. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    PubMed

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.

  10. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children

    PubMed Central

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child’s visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child’s disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact. PMID:27603670

  11. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  12. Role of self-compassion in psychological well-being among perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Felder, Jennifer N; Lemon, Elizabeth; Shea, Kerry; Kripke, Kate; Dimidjian, Sona

    2016-08-01

    Self-compassion is associated with depression and anxiety in general samples. Although recent research indicates that dysfunctional maternal attitudes predict the development of perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms, no research to date has examined the construct of self-compassion and its relationship with psychological well-being in perinatal women. Pregnant and postpartum women (N = 189) completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety history, current depression and anxiety symptom severity, and self-compassion. Women with higher depression and anxiety symptom severity had significantly lower self-compassion. Additionally, women with self-reported prior history of depression or anxiety had significantly lower self-compassion even while controlling for current depression or anxiety symptom severity, respectively. Our results suggest that self-compassion warrants further attention in the study of the development, maintenance, and treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders.

  13. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  14. Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation for Primary School Children: Effects on Attention and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana; Furlan, Samantha; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7–8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children’s self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher’s reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children’s internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children’s psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children’s reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children. PMID:27375510

  15. Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation for Primary School Children: Effects on Attention and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana; Furlan, Samantha; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly being used as methods to promote psychological well-being of clinical and non-clinical adult populations. Much less is known, however, on the feasibility of these forms of mental training on healthy primary school students. Here, we tested the effects of a mindfulness-meditation training on a group of 16 healthy children within 7-8 years of age from an Italian primary school. An active control condition focused on emotion awareness was employed on a group of 15 age-matched healthy children from the same school. Both programs were delivered by the same instructors three times per week, for 8 total weeks. The same main teacher of the two classes did not participate in the trainings but she completed questionnaires aimed at giving comprehensive pre-post training evaluations of behavior, social, emotion, and attention regulation skills in the children. A children's self-report measure of mood and depressive symptoms was also used. From the teacher's reports we found a specific positive effect of the mindfulness-meditation training in reducing attention problems and also positive effects of both trainings in reducing children's internalizing problems. However, subjectively, no child in either group reported less depressive symptoms after the trainings. The findings were interpreted as suggestive of a positive effect of mindfulness-meditation on several children's psychological well-being dimensions and were also discussed in light of the discrepancy between teacher and children's reports. More generally, the results were held to speak in favor of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for healthy primary school children.

  16. Does regulating others' feelings influence people's own affective well-being?

    PubMed

    Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David; Headley, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a variety of social contexts try to regulate other people's feelings, but how does this process affect the regulators themselves? This research aimed to establish a relationship between people's use of interpersonal affect regulation and their own affective well-being. In a field study, self- and other-reported data were collected from prisoners and staff members in a therapeutic prison using two surveys separated in time. In a laboratory study, a student sample reported their affect before and after attempting to influence the feelings of talent show contestants in a role-play task. The results of both studies indicated congruent associations between the use of affect-improving and affect-worsening interpersonal affect regulation and strategy agents' affective well-being. Our findings highlight that, when performing interpersonal affect regulation, people may not be immune from the effects of their own actions.

  17. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration.

    PubMed

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T C; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-12

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare.

  18. Health Benefits of Urban Allotment Gardening: Improved Physical and Psychological Well-Being and Social Integration

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Masashi; Cox, Daniel T. C.; Yamaura, Yuichi; Gaston, Kevin J.; Kurisu, Kiyo; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    With an ever-increasing urban population, promoting public health and well-being in towns and cities is a major challenge. Previous research has suggested that participating in allotment gardening delivers a wide range of health benefits. However, evidence from quantitative analyses is still scarce. Here, we quantify the effects, if any, of participating in allotment gardening on physical, psychological and social health. A questionnaire survey of 332 people was performed in Tokyo, Japan. We compared five self-reported health outcomes between allotment gardeners and non-gardener controls: perceived general health, subjective health complaints, body mass index (BMI), mental health and social cohesion. Accounting for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, regression models revealed that allotment gardeners, compared to non-gardeners, reported better perceived general health, subjective health complaints, mental health and social cohesion. BMI did not differ between gardeners and non-gardeners. Neither frequency nor duration of gardening significantly influenced reported health outcomes. Our results highlight that regular gardening on allotment sites is associated with improved physical, psychological and social health. With the recent escalation in the prevalence of chronic diseases, and associated healthcare costs, this study has a major implication for policy, as it suggests that urban allotments have great potential for preventative healthcare. PMID:28085098

  19. Effects of Participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program on College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Michelle Judith

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a pre-test, post-test comparison group design to examine effects of participation in a twelve-week Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course on college students' psychological well-being (Ryff Psychological Well-Being Scale, Medium Form; Ryff, 1989, 1995, 1996), psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom…

  20. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child. PMID:21496337

  1. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention.

  2. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Guoxiang, Zhao; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116

  3. Culture and Well-Being: A New Inquiry Into the Psychological Wealth of Nations.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    What is a good society? Philosophers from Plato to Bentham have argued that a good society is a happy society-namely, a society in which most citizens are happy and free from fear. Since the publication of The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith in 1776, most economists have implicitly assumed that a happy society is a materially wealthy society. Thus, gross national product and related indices became the most popular indicators of the well-being of nations from the 1950s to date. Recently, however, prominent economists as well as political scientists, sociologists, and psychologists have shown that a happy society is not only a materially wealthy society but also a society in which citizens can trust one another, have a sense of freedom, and have close social relationships. The inquiry into the psychological wealth of nations, or the subjective well-being of nations, helps answer a fundamental question in philosophy and social sciences for millennia: "What is a good society?"

  4. Spirituality and psychological well-being: testing a theory of family interdependence among family caregivers and their elders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Reed, Pamela G; Hayward, R David; Kang, Youngmi; Koenig, Harold G

    2011-04-01

    The family spirituality-psychological well-being model was developed and tested to explore how spirituality influences psychological well-being among elders and caregivers in the context of Korean family caregiving. The sample consisted of 157 Korean elder-family caregiver dyads in Seoul, Korea. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the actor-partner interdependence statistical model were used to analyze the data. There were significant correlations between elders' and caregivers' spirituality and between elders' and caregivers' psychological well-being. Elders' and caregivers' spirituality significantly influenced their own psychological well-being. The caregiver's spirituality significantly influenced the elder's psychological well-being, but the elder's spirituality did not significantly influence the caregiver's psychological well-being. Findings suggest that elders' and caregivers' spirituality should be assessed within the family to provide holistic nursing interventions.

  5. Materialism and well-being among Chinese college students: the mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjie; Yao, Meilin; Yan, Wenfan

    2014-10-01

    Based on self-determination theory, this study explored the potential mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction in the relationship between materialism and well-being among Chinese college students. The results showed that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between materialism and life satisfaction and fully mediated the relationships among materialism and emotional well-being, subjective vitality, and self-actualization. The findings indicated the importance of considering both subjective and psychological well-being and the interpretative power of basic psychological need satisfaction and Chinese culture in the flow from materialism to well-being.

  6. Relationship trajectories and psychological well-being among sexual minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536

  7. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review

    PubMed Central

    Van Hal, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises. PMID:25657601

  8. The true cost of the economic crisis on psychological well-being: a review.

    PubMed

    Van Hal, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has led to many negative consequences, not the least having to do with the mental health and well-being of the populations involved. Although some researchers say it is still too early to speak about a relationship between the economic crisis and a rise in mental health problems resulting in suicides, there is solid evidence for the existence of such a relationship. However, several moderating or mediating mechanisms can also play a role. The main reactions of most policy makers to the economic crisis are (severe) austerity measures. These measures seem to have, however, a detrimental effect on the mental health of the population: Just when people have the highest need for mental help, cost-cutting measures in the health care sector lead to a (substantial) drop in the supply of services for the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental health problems. Policy makers should support moderating mechanisms such as financial and psychological coping and acculturation and the role of primary health care workers in the early detection of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and suicide in times of economic recession. Several examples show that the countries best off regarding the mental health of their populations during the economic crisis are those countries with the strongest social safety net. Therefore, instead of cutting back on health care and social welfare measures, policy makers should in the future invest even more in social protection measures during economic crises.

  9. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  10. Religious Social Identity as an Explanatory Factor for Associations between More Frequent Formal Religious Participation and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by social identity theory, this study investigated having a closer identification as a member of one’s religious group as an explanatory mechanism for linkages between more frequent formal religious participation and better subjective psychological well-being (more positive affect, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction). Multivariate regression models were estimated based on data from 3,032 participants, ages 25 to 74, in the 1995 National Survey of Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS). Results provided support for the mediating effect of religious social identity on the associations between more frequent religious service attendance and all three dimensions of psychological well-being examined. Given the lack of previous empirical attention to social identity within the literature on religiosity and mental health, these findings contribute to our understanding of self, religion, and health, while also pointing to the importance of continuing to draw on well developed social psychological theory in investigations of linkages between religion and health. PMID:18698380

  11. Effects of Workplace Intervention on Affective Well-Being in Employees' Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.; Kelly, Erin L.; King, Rosalind B.

    2016-01-01

    Using a group-randomized field experimental design, this study tested whether a workplace intervention--designed to reduce work-family conflict--buffered against potential age-related decreases in the affective well-being of employees' children. Daily diary data were collected from 9- to 17-year-old children of parents working in an information…

  12. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  13. Relationships between Psychological Well-Being, Happiness, and Educational Satisfaction in a Group of University Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbatir, Rasim Erol

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on music students' psychological well-being and happiness. The purpose was to assess the psychological well-being, happiness and educational satisfaction among a group of university music students. Students participated voluntarily and filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale…

  14. Facilitating College Students' Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being through the Use of Mandalas: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Larson, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the relationship between authenticity and psychological well-being, and to examine the effects of creating and interpreting mandalas on the levels of authenticity and psychological well-being of college students. The results and their implications for practice and future research are discussed.…

  15. The Relations among Feminist Identity Development, Gender-Role Orientation, and Psychological Well-Being in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Kendra J.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relations between feminist identity development, gender-role orientation, and psychological well-being in 244 women of varying ages and backgrounds. As hypothesized, both feminist identity development and gender-role orientation contributed independently to the explanation of variance in psychological well-being.…

  16. Socio-Demographic Variables, General Psychological Well-Being and the Mental Health Continuum in an African Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khumalo, I. P.; Temane, Q. M.; Wissing, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and environmental setting explain different amounts of variance in psychological well-being and mental health. Inconsistent findings are reported for the socio-demographic variables in psychological well-being depending amongst others on the definition and measurement of…

  17. Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being in the U.S. and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Haile, Rahwa; Mohammed, Selina A.; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J.; Sonnega, John; Jackson, James S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses two national probability samples of adults, the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Stress and Health Study (SASH) to systematically assess how the levels of perceived racial and non-racial discrimination and their effects on self-esteem and mastery in the U.S. compares to those in South Africa. Levels of perceived racial discrimination are higher in the U.S. than South Africa. In the U.S. both African Americans and Caribbean blacks have comparable or higher levels of self-esteem and mastery than whites. In contrast, South African Whites have higher levels of both self-esteem and mastery than blacks, Coloureds and Indians. Perceived discrimination, especially chronic everyday discrimination, is inversely related to self-esteem and mastery in both societies. In South Africa, stress and socioeconomic status (SES) but not discrimination are important determinants of racial differences in self-esteem and mastery. Our main findings indicate that in two racialized societies, perceived discrimination acts independent of demographic factors, other stressors, social desirability, racial identity and SES to negatively affect psychological functioning. PMID:22339224

  18. Gratitude and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.

  19. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601

  20. Subjective Well-Being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-Analysis on Differences Between Cognitive and Affective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843

  1. "Social jetlag" in morning-type college students living on campus: implications for physical and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Wong, Mark Lawrence; Ng, Eddie Chi Wai; Hui, Chi-chiu Harry; Cheung, Shu Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2013-08-01

    Although on-campus residence allows easier access to campus facilities, existing studies showed mixed results regarding the relationship between college residence and students' well-being indicators, such as sleep behaviors and mood. There was also a lack of studies investigating the role of chronotype in the relationship between on-campus residence and well-being. In particular, the temporal relationships among these factors were unclear. Hence, this longitudinal study aims to fill in these gaps by first reporting the well-being (measured in terms of mood, sleep, and quality of life) among students living on and off campus across two academic semesters. We explored factors predicting students' dropout in university residences. Although students living on campus differ in their chronotypes, activities in campus residence (if any) are mostly scheduled in the nighttime. We therefore tested if individual differences in chronotype interact with campus residence in affecting well-being. Our final sample consisted of 215 campus residents and 924 off-campus-living students from 10 different universities or colleges in Hong Kong or Macau. Their mean age was 20.2 years (SD=2.3); 6.5% of the participants are female. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires online on their sleep duration, sleep quality, chronotype, mood, and physical and psychological quality of life. Across two academic semesters, we assessed if students living on and off campus differed in our well-being measures after we partialed out the effects of demographic information (including age, sex, family income, and parents' education) and the well-being measures at baseline (T1). The results showed that, campus residents exhibited longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, better sleep quality, and less feeling of stress than off-campus-living students. From one semester to the next, around 10% of campus residents did not continue to live on campus. Logistic regression showed that a morning

  2. Health Care Psychology: Prospects for the Well-Being of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1979-01-01

    Health care psychology is distinguished from traditional child psychology in that it emphasizes clinical application and is concerned with primary mental health care. Diagnosis, classification, prediction, and treatment and control strategies in the field offer definite solutions to problems such as tracheotomy addiction, encopresis, psychogenic…

  3. Emotional Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Colin; Bore, Miles; Zito, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have reported elevated rates of psychological distress (e.g., depression) in practicing lawyers yet little research has examined predictors of such problems in law students. Specific personality traits have been shown to be predictors of a range of psychological problems. We administered a battery of tests to a cohort of 1st-year…

  4. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  5. Perceived occupational stress, affective, and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Matsiggos, Georgios; Stamatoulakis, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined four potential roles of work-related negative affectivity on the associations between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece. Participants (764, predominantly male) completed a battery of self-report measures on perceived occupational stress, negative affectivity, and illness symptoms. In line with previous research, negative affectivity exerted a nuisance effect, by inflating the association between reported stressors and illness symptoms, and significantly predicted illness symptoms, over and above the effects of stressors. In addition, negative affectivity influenced reported illness symptom indirectly, through the effects of stressors, and moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and illness symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affectivity can largely explain and influence in different ways the associations between self-reported stress and physical strain. It is recommended that future studies of occupational stress should control for the effects of negative affectivity, and that health professionals should be cautious of its effects when interpreting relationships between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being.

  6. Spouse Psychological Well-Being: A Keystone to Military Family Health

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sara; Nurius, Paula S.; Lester, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Understanding predictors of military spouse psychosocial vulnerability informs efforts to assess, identify, and support at-risk spouses and families. In this analysis we test the effects of family stress and strain on military spouse psychological health, using a sample of female civilian spouses (n=161). Regression findings confirm expectations of the significant contribution of family stressors, strain, and resources in explaining variation in spouses' psychological health, controlling for deployment and socioeconomic factors. Identifying the effects of family stress on military spouse psychological health supports the need for family-centered interventions and prevention programs. PMID:24415897

  7. How should the psychological well-being of zoo elephants be objectively investigated?

    PubMed

    Mason, Georgia J; Veasey, Jake S

    2010-01-01

    Animal welfare (sometimes termed "well-being") is about feelings - states such as "suffering" or "contentment" that we can infer but cannot measure directly. Welfare indices have been developed from two main sources: studies of suffering humans, and of research animals deliberately subjected to challenges known to affect emotional state. We briefly review the resulting indices here, and discuss how well they are understood for elephants, since objective welfare assessment should play a central role in evidence-based elephant management. We cover behavioral and cognitive responses (approach/avoidance; intention, redirected and displacement activities; vigilance/startle; warning signals; cognitive biases, apathy and depression-like changes; stereotypic behavior); physiological responses (sympathetic responses; corticosteroid output - often assayed non-invasively via urine, feces or even hair; other aspects of HPA function, e.g. adrenal hypertrophy); and the potential negative effects of prolonged stress on reproduction (e.g. reduced gametogenesis; low libido; elevated still-birth rates; poor maternal care) and health (e.g. poor wound-healing; enhanced disease rates; shortened lifespans). The best validated, most used welfare indices for elephants are corticosteroid outputs and stereotypic behavior. Indices suggested as valid, partially validated, and/or validated but not yet applied within zoos include: measures of preference/avoidance; displacement movements; vocal/postural signals of affective (emotional) state; startle/vigilance; apathy; salivary and urinary epinephrine; female acyclity; infant mortality rates; skin/foot infections; cardio-vascular disease; and premature adult death. Potentially useful indices that have not yet attracted any validation work in elephants include: operant responding and place preference tests; intention and vacuum movements; fear/stress pheromone release; cognitive biases; heart rate, pupil dilation and blood pressure

  8. Divorce and Adult Psychological Well-Being: Clarifying the Role of Gender and Child Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristi; Dunne-Bryant, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that marital dissolution has negative consequences for adult well-being. Because most research focuses on the average consequences of divorce, we know very little about factors that moderate this association. The present study tests the hypothesis that the effects of marital dissolution on adult well-being are…

  9. New Horizon of Spiritual Well-Being and Hope among Cancer Patients: A Psychological Aspect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaquat, Sidra; Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the importance of spiritual well-being and hope among cancer patients diagnosed with its different stages. Through stratified sampling techniques, 120 cancer patients from four stages evenly divided into male and female participated in this study. Spiritual Well-being Scale (Paloutzian & Ellison, 1982)…

  10. Are Psychological and Ecological Well-Being Compatible? The Role of Values, Mindfulness, and Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Happiness and ecological well-being are often portrayed as conflictual pursuits, but they may actually be complementary. In samples of adolescents (Study 1) and adults (Study 2), we tested this proposition and examined the role of three factors in promoting both subjective well-being (SWB) and ecologically responsible behavior (ERB). In both…

  11. Well-being and affective style: neural substrates and biobehavioural correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    One of the most salient features of emotion is the pronounced variability among individuals in their reactions to emotional incentives and in their dispositional mood. Collectively, these individual differences have been described as affective style. Recent research has begun to dissect the constituents of affective style. The search for these components is guided by the neural systems that instantiate emotion and emotion regulation. In this article, this body of research and theory is applied specifically to positive affect and well-being. The central substrates and peripheral biological correlates of well-being are described. A resilient affective style is associated with high levels of left prefrontal activation, effective modulation of activation in the amygdala and fast recovery in response to negative and stressful events. In peripheral biology, these central patterns are associated with lower levels of basal cortisol and with higher levels of antibody titres to influenza vaccine. The article concludes with a consideration of whether these patterns of central and peripheral biology can be modified by training and shifted toward a more salubrious direction. PMID:15347531

  12. What constitutes a good life? Cultural differences in the role of positive and negative affect in subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-08-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life.

  13. Taking the long view: Implications of individual differences in temporal distancing for affect, stress reactivity, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Ayduk, Özlem; John, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental work demonstrates that temporal distancing from negative experiences reduces distress. Yet two central questions remain: (a) do people differ in the habitual tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences, and if so (b) what implications does this tendency have for well-being? Seven studies explored these questions. Study 1 describes the construction and reliability of the Temporal Distancing Questionnaire, a new measure of individual differences in the tendency to place negative experiences into a broader future time perspective. Study 2 establishes a nomological network around this construct, examining the relationship of temporal distancing to other theoretically related constructs. Study 3 tests whether people high in temporal distancing (i.e., "high temporal distancers") experience greater concurrent well-being, including greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lesser negative affect, worry, and depressive symptoms. Study 4 examines whether temporal distancing predicts well-being measured at the daily level, and across time. Finally, Studies 5a-5c explore a key way in which temporal distancing may support psychological well-being-by facilitating more adaptive responses to negative experiences. Our results demonstrate that the tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences predicts a more positive profile of affective experiences and stress-reactivity that may support immediate and longer-term well-being. Moreover, many of these findings remained significant when controlling for general reappraisal tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Autonomy, Belongingness, and Engagement in School as Contributors to Adolescent Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Gravely, Amy A.; Roseth, Cary J.

    2009-01-01

    "Self-determination theory" emphasizes the importance of school-based autonomy and belongingness to academic achievement and psychological adjustment, and the theory posits a model in which engagement in school mediates the influence of autonomy and belongingness on these outcomes. To date, this model has only been evaluated on academic outcomes.…

  15. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Psychological Well-Being among US Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Fan, Daisy

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on one of the most significant recent innovations in the conceptualization and measurement of religiousness and spirituality, the Daily Spiritual Experience scale (DSES; Underwood (2006) "Archive for the Psychology of Religion/Archiv fur Religion Psychologie," 28, 181-218). Using data from 1998 and 2004 NORC General…

  16. Ethnic Identity, Bicultural Identity Integration, and Psychological Well-Being among Transracial Adoptees: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica

    2015-01-01

    The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently…

  17. Employment Status, Psychological Well-Being, Social Support, and Physical Discipline Practices of Single Black Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Gyamfi, Phyllis; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Blake, Mandy

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of depressive symptomatology, parental stress, and instrumental support on maternal spanking. Results show that employment has a moderating effect on the relationship between mothers' psychological functioning and their decision to use spanking. The availability of instrumental support seems to increase the frequency of…

  18. Family and Work Predictors of Psychological Well-Being among Hispanic Women Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined contributions of job- and gender-related variables to Hispanic women professionals' mental health. Income, Hispanic group, discrimination, job stress, and peer support related to mental health. Spouse support and spouse ethnicity were associated with stress in balancing roles and psychological distress. Married women reported greater…

  19. Is Obesity Stigmatizing? Body Weight, Perceived Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared…

  20. Positive Psychology and Mexican American College Students' Subjective Well-Being and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Savage, Miranda C.; Guardiola, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American college students' complete mental health. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, mindfulness, and grit influenced 130 Mexican American college students' life satisfaction and depression. Within the first regression…

  1. Ryff's Six-Factor Model of Psychological Well-Being, a Spanish Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Diaz, Dario; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Blanco, Amalio; Moreno-Jimenez, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to provide researchers interested in using Ryff's Scales of Psychological Wellbeing with additional information to make an informed decision on the scales and items to use. It builds on the discussion in the literature on the six factor structure of this measure. An alternative shortened version of this wellbeing measure (Van…

  2. Psychological Well-Being and Motivation in a Turkish Physical Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    Using Self Determination as a framework, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between basic psychological needs, motivational regulations, self-esteem, subjective vitality, and social physique anxiety in physical education. One thousand and eighty two high school students aged between 14 and 19 [mean (M) = 15.89 ± 0.95 years]…

  3. Factors Associated with the Psychological Well-Being and Distress of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Jessica L.; Brechting, Emily H.; Salsman, John; Carlson, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Because of the serious nature of psychiatric illness and related problems, the authors attempted to identify demographic, individual, and behavioral factors linked to university students' psychological health. Participants: They surveyed 353 (60.9% female) predominately Caucasian (88.7%) university students attending a large public…

  4. Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity on Mexican American College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…

  5. The role of work in psychological health and well-being: a conceptual, historical, and public policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Blustein, David L

    2008-01-01

    The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the American Psychologist, is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a historical review of vocational psychology and industrial/organizational psychology. The article follows with an overview of contemporary vocational psychology and a presentation of the psychology-of-working perspective, which has emerged from critiques of vocational psychology and from multicultural, feminist, and expanded epistemological analyses of psychological explorations of working. Three illustrative lines of inquiry in which research has affected the potential for informing public policy are presented. These three lines of scholarship (role of work in recovery from mental illness; occupational health psychology; and working, racism, and psychological health) are reviewed briefly to furnish exemplars of how the psychological study of working can inform public policy.

  6. Psychological well-being and the body dissatisfaction-bulimic symptomatology relationship: an examination of moderators.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Megan E; Petrie, Trent A

    2011-12-01

    Research has examined psychological moderators of the body dissatisfaction-bulimic symptomatology relationship, but the focus has been on variables thought to worsen the relationship. In this study, we examined self-esteem, optimism, satisfaction with life, and self-determination as potential buffers. Participants were 847 female undergraduates. Using hierarchical multiple regression (HMR), we controlled for the influences of social desirability and body mass index on bulimic symptomomatology and then determined the main and interactive effects of body dissatisfaction and each moderator. Self-determination, optimism, self-esteem, and satisfaction with life all buffered the deleterious effects of body dissatisfaction, such that when levels of the moderators were high, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptomatology was weakest. Knowing what psychological variables moderate women's body dissatisfaction can assist psychologists and other health professionals in developing effective treatments for lessening disordered eating among women.

  7. Does fiscal discipline towards subnational governments affect citizens' well-being? Evidence on health.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Massimiliano; Turati, Gilberto

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to assess the impact on citizens' well-being of fiscal discipline imposed by the central government on subnational governments. Because healthcare policies involve strategic interactions between different layers of governments in many different countries, we focus on a particular dimension of well-being, namely citizens' health. We model fiscal discipline by considering government expectations of future deficit bailouts from the central government. We then study how these bailout expectations affect the expenditure for healthcare policies carried out by decentralized governments. To investigate this issue, we separate efficient health spending from inefficiencies by estimating an input requirement frontier. This allows us to assess the effects of bailout expectations on both the structural component of health expenditure and its deviations from the 'best practice'. The evidence from the 15 Italian ordinary statute regions (observed from 1993 to 2006) points out that bailout expectations do not significantly influence the position of the frontier, thus not affecting citizens' health. However, they do appear to exert a remarkable impact on excess spending.

  8. Children's Daily Well-Being: The Role of Mothers', Teachers', and Siblings' Autonomy Support and Psychological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart; Mabbe, Elien

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique relations between multiple sources (i.e., mothers, teachers, and siblings) of perceived daily autonomy support and psychological control and children's basic psychological needs and well-being. During 5 consecutive days, 2 children from 154 families (M[subscript age] youngest child = 8.54 years; SD = 0.89 and…

  9. Social Emotional Needs: The Effects of Educational Malnourishment on the Psychological Well-Being of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    After 30 years in the field of gifted education, and, more specifically, 30 years of studying the psychology of gifted students, author Tracy Cross has come to believe that the single greatest threat to the psychological well-being of gifted students is the mismatch between the school's curriculum and the student's needs. Cross argues in…

  10. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  11. Psychological Well-Being and Social Participation Assessment in Visually Impaired Subjects Playing Torball: A Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Cagno, A.; Iuliano, E.; Aquino, G.; Fiorilli, G.; Battaglia, C.; Giombini, A.; Calcagno, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27 plus or minus 3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80 plus or minus 2.53), and…

  12. Do Formal Religious Participation and Spiritual Perceptions Have Independent Linkages with Diverse Dimensions of Psychological Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Vaillant, George E.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing religiosity and spirituality as related yet distinct phenomena, and conceptualizing psychological well-being as a multidimensional construct, this study examines whether individuals' frequency of formal religious participation and spiritual perceptions are independently associated with diverse dimensions of psychological well-being…

  13. College Student Psychological Well-Being during the Transition to College: Examining Individuation from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2009-01-01

    Problem: The present study examined whether incoming college student individuation from parents was associated with later well-being and adjustment to college. Method: Data were collected via online surveys with incoming college freshmen (during the summer or first week of class, follow-up three months later). Results: Analyses revealed that…

  14. Perceived Educational Barriers, Cultural Fit, Coping Responses, and Psychological Well-Being of Latina Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Orozco, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Given the unique educational experiences and disproportional representation of Latinas in higher education, this study examined how Latinas' perception of educational barriers and cultural fit influenced their coping responses and subsequent well-being in college. Participants (N = 98) were primarily second-generation Mexican heritage women who…

  15. Individual Quality of Life: Can It Be Accounted for by Psychological or Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, L.; Hofer, S.; McGee, H.; Hickey, A.; O'Boyle, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    There is ongoing discussion in the scientific literature about the need for a more theoretical foundation to underpin quality of life (QoL) measurement. This paper applied Keyes et al.'s ["J. Pers. Soc. Psychol." 82 (2002) 1007] model of well-being as a framework to assess whether respondents (n = 136 students) focus on elements of subjective…

  16. Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…

  17. Psychological Coping and Well-Being of Male Latino Undergraduates: "Sobreviviendo la Universidad"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Scull, Nicholas C.; Villegas, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 100 male Latino undergraduates' cultural self-esteem, perceived educational barriers, cultural fit, coping responses (CRs), and subsequent well-being within higher education. The most commonly reported CR for Latino males was to actively find out more about the situation and take a positive planned action. Assessing group mean…

  18. Transformational Leadership and Employee Psychological Well-Being: A Review and Directions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kara A

    2017-02-02

    This review paper focuses on answering 2 research questions: (a) Does transformational leadership predict employee well-being? (b) If so, how and when does this prediction occur? A systematic computerized search and review of empirical papers published between January 1980 and December 2015 was conducted. Forty papers were found that met the criteria of reporting empirical results, being published in English, and focused on answering the above research questions. Based on these papers it appears that, in general, transformational leadership positively predicts positive measures of well-being, and negatively predicts negative measures of well-being (i.e., ill-being). However, recent findings suggest that this is not always such a simple relationship. In addition, several mediating variables have been established, demonstrating that in many cases there is an indirect effect of transformational leadership on employee well-being. Although some boundary conditions have been examined, more research is needed on moderators. The review demonstrated the importance of moving forward in this area with stronger research designs to determine causality, specifying the outcome variable of interest, investigating the dimensions of transformational leadership separately, and testing more complicated relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Covitality Constructs as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being and Depression for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Claire; Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This study was an examination of the strength of relations among covitality, and its underlying constructs of belief in self, emotional competence, belief in others, and engaged living, and two outcome variables: subjective well-being and depression. Participants included 361 Australian secondary school students (75 males and 286 females) who…

  20. The Impact of Resource Constraints on the Psychological Well-Being of Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeble, Marisa L.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of resource constraints on the psychological well-being of survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), testing whether resource constraints is one mechanism that partially mediates the relationship between IPV and women's well-being. Although within-woman changes in resource constraints did not mediate the…

  1. The Efficacy of Positive Psychology Interventions to Increase Well-Being and the Role of Mental Imagery Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odou, Natasha; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mental imagery ability (MIA) on the efficacy of two positive psychology interventions (PPIs) to enhance well-being. Participants (N = 210) were randomly assigned to either: Three Good Things (TGT), Best Possible Selves (BPS), or a control group and completed well-being questionnaires pre and post intervention.…

  2. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers and Siblings in Families of Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cianfaglione, Rina; Hastings, Richard P.; Felce, David; Clarke, Angus; Kerr, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Few published studies have reported on the psychological well-being of family members of individuals with Rett syndrome (RTT). Eighty-seven mothers of girls and women with RTT completed a questionnaire survey about their daughters' behavioral phenotype, current health, and behavior problems, and their own and a sibling's well-being. Mothers…

  3. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  4. Racial identity, academic achievement, and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, C G; Zigler, E

    1995-11-01

    The relation between racial identity and personal psychological functioning was examined within the framework of the "racelessness" construct proposed by Fordham and Ogbu (S. Fordham, 1988; S. Fordham & J. U. Ogbu, 1986). These researchers have proposed that academically successful African American students achieve their success by adopting behaviors and attitudes that distance them from their culture of origin, resulting in increased feelings of depression, anxiety, and identity confusion. Studies 1 and 2 describe the development of the Racelessness Scale (RS) designed to test these assumptions. Study 2 also investigated Race X Achievement level differences in students' responses to the RS. In Study 3, correlations between the RS and measures of depression, self-efficacy, anxiety, alienation, and collective self-esteem were assessed. The pattern of results in Study 2 suggest that the behaviors and attitudes described by Fordham and Ogbu are common to high-achieving adolescents and not specific to African Americans. However, racial differences in the pattern of associations between the RS and measures of depression suggest that racelessness may have important psychological consequences for African American adolescents.

  5. Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Madhav; Singh, Sonal; Sibinga, Erica M. S.; Gould, Neda F.; Rowland-Seymour, Anastasia; Sharma, Ritu; Berger, Zackary; Sleicher, Dana; Maron, David D.; Shihab, Hasan M.; Ranasinghe, Padmini D; Linn, Shauna; Saha, Shonali; Bass, Eric B.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Many people meditate to reduce psychological stress and stress-related health problems. To counsel people appropriately, clinicians need to know what the evidence says about the health benefits of meditation. Objective To determine the efficacy of meditation programs in improving stress-related outcomes (anxiety, depression, stress/distress, positive mood, mental health quality of life, attention, substance use, eating, sleep, pain, and weight) in diverse adult clinical populations. Evidence Review We included randomized trials with active controls that controlled for placebo effects, identified through November 2012 from MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, EMBASE®, PsycArticles, SCOPUS, CINAHL, AMED, Cochrane Library, and hand searches. Independent reviewers screened citations and extracted data. We graded the strength of evidence using four domains (risk of bias, precision, directness, and consistency) and determined the magnitude and direction of effect by calculating the relative difference between groups in change from baseline. When possible, we conducted meta-analyses using standardized mean differences to obtain aggregate estimates of effect size (ES) with 95 percent confidence intervals (CI). Findings After reviewing 17,801 citations, we included 47 trials with 3,320 participants. Mindfulness meditation programs had moderate evidence to improve anxiety [ ES 0.38 (CI 0.12 to 0.64) at 8 weeks; ES 0.22 (0.02 to 0.43) at 3–6 months], depression [ES 0.30 (0.00 to 0.59) at 8 weeks; ES 0.23 (0.05 to 0.42) at 3–6 months] and pain [ES 0.33 (0.03 to 0.62)], and low evidence to improve stress/distress and mental health-related quality of life. We found either low evidence of no effect or insufficient evidence of any effect of meditation programs on positive mood, attention, substance use, eating, sleep, and weight. We found no evidence that meditation programs were better than any active treatment (drugs, exercise, other behavioral therapies). Conclusions and

  6. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    We investigate the frequency and psychological correlates of institutional and interpersonal discrimination reported by underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese I, and obese II/III Americans. Analyses use data from the Midlife Development in the United States study, a national survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. Compared to normal weight persons, obese II/III persons (body mass index of 35 or higher) are more likely to report institutional and day-to-day interpersonal discrimination. Among obese II/III persons, professional workers are more likely than nonprofessionals to report employment discrimination and interpersonal mistreatment. Obese II/III persons report lower levels of self-acceptance than normal weight persons, yet this relationship is fully mediated by the perception that one has been discriminated against due to body weight or physical appearance. Our findings offer further support for the pervasive stigma of obesity and the negative implications of stigmatized identities for life chances.

  7. Comparing Neighborhood-Focused Activism and Volunteerism: Psychological Well-Being and Social Connectedness

    PubMed Central

    Gilster, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as participation in neighborhood activism. A diverse set of research suggests that there are psychological and social benefits to community engagement, but also suggests that there are differences between forms of participation. In order to understand these differences, I examine the relationship of both volunteerism and neighborhood activism to psychosocial outcomes using survey data from a neighborhood-based sample of Chicago residents (n=3105). Findings suggest that activism is different—activists have higher neighborhood and personal mastery than those who only volunteer. Participation in neighborhood activism is also associated with an increased likelihood of contact with local officials and social ties in the neighborhood. PMID:27087709

  8. Comparing Neighborhood-Focused Activism and Volunteerism: Psychological Well-Being and Social Connectedness.

    PubMed

    Gilster, Megan E

    2012-09-01

    Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as participation in neighborhood activism. A diverse set of research suggests that there are psychological and social benefits to community engagement, but also suggests that there are differences between forms of participation. In order to understand these differences, I examine the relationship of both volunteerism and neighborhood activism to psychosocial outcomes using survey data from a neighborhood-based sample of Chicago residents (n=3105). Findings suggest that activism is different-activists have higher neighborhood and personal mastery than those who only volunteer. Participation in neighborhood activism is also associated with an increased likelihood of contact with local officials and social ties in the neighborhood.

  9. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population.

  10. Psychological well-being and social support among elders employed as lay helpers.

    PubMed

    Gammonley, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Impacts on lay helpers of participation in part-time work supporting rural elders with severe mental illness were explored in a group of 17 older adults employed in a demonstration project. Self-rated well-being and social support were assessed over 1 year. Ratings of autonomy and positive relations with others varied over 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of social support provided showed a trend toward improvement at 1 year. Results are considered in the context of role theory and illustrated with an ethnographic case study of the service environment. The lay helper role is a form of productive engagement through paid caregiving, with potential to supplement rural mental health service systems while supporting elders' needs for meaningful civic engagement.

  11. Specific Learning Disorders: A Look Inside Children's and Parents' Psychological Well-Being and Relationships.

    PubMed

    Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. Effects of dance on physical and psychological well-being in older persons.

    PubMed

    Hui, Elsie; Chui, Bo Tsan-keung; Woo, Jean

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effects of dancing on the health status of older persons. A pool of 111 community-dwelling subjects were allocated to either an intervention group (IG), which included 23 sessions of dance over 12 weeks, or a control group (CG). All participants were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Physical outcome measures included the 6-min timed walking test (6MWT), trunk flexibility, body composition, lower limb endurance and strength, balance, the timed up-and-go test (TUG), resting heart rate and blood pressure. Quality of life was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form (SF-36) questionnaire. The IG's views toward dancing were also evaluated at 12 weeks. Significant difference was observed between the groups in six outcome measures: mean change in resting heart rate, 6MWT, TUG, lower limb endurance and the 'general health' and 'bodily pain' domains of SF-36. The majority of the dance group felt the intervention improved their health status. These findings demonstrate that dancing has physical and psychological benefits, and should be promoted as a form of leisure activity for senior citizens.

  13. The association between psychological well-being and problematic use of Internet communicative services among young people.

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Lecchi, Stefano; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on problematic Internet use have focused almost exclusively on the fact that presence of negative functioning, such as social anxiety, depressive symptoms, or loneliness, represents a risk factor for unhealthy use of the web. For this reason the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between psychological well-being dimensions and problematic use of Internet communicative services. In the current study 495 undergraduate students were recruited. The Italian adaptations of the Psychological Well-being Scales and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) were used to assess psychological well-being dimensions and generalized problematic Internet use, respectively. Psychological well-being dimensions explained a significant portion of variance for the GPIUS2 total score levels, after controlling for sex, age, and occupational status. The levels of Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, and Positive Relations with Others acted as significant negative predictors of the tendency to use the web for regulating negative feelings, compulsive use of the web, and the negative outcomes that can arise as a result. The overall findings of the present study provide preliminary evidence that low psychological well-being is associated with problematic use of Internet communicative services.

  14. Psychological well-being and posttraumatic growth in caregivers of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cormio, Claudia; Romito, Francesca; Viscanti, Giovanna; Turaccio, Marina; Lorusso, Vito; Mattioli, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although research has shown that many cancer patients report positive life changes following cancer diagnosis, there are few data in the literature related to PTG in caregivers of cancer patients. However, the few studies available have shown that this kind of positive changes can also be experienced by family members. The aims of this study were to explore PTG in caregivers of cancer patients and to investigate correlations between the Posttraumatic growth, psychological status and QoL of caregivers and those of patients, taking into account also clinical and socio-demographic aspects. Methods: We enrolled 60 patient/caregiver pairs in the Department of Medical Oncology of the National Research Center “Giovanni Paolo II” in Bari. Both patients and caregivers were assessed using the following scales: Posttraumatic growth Inventory (PTGI); Hospital anxiety and depression scale; Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36); ECOG Performance Status. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected. Results: Caregivers showed significantly higher scores than patients in the dimension of “personal strength.” Furthermore, we found a significantly close association between anxiety and depression of caregivers with those of patients. Younger caregivers were better than older ones in terms of physical activity, vitality, mental health, and social activities. Although the degree of relationship with the patient has no significant effect on the dependent variables of the study, it was found that caregivers with a degree of kinship more distant to the patient have less physical pain than the closest relatives. Conclusion: Results of the present study show that caregivers of cancer patients may experience post-traumatic growth as the result of their caregiver role. It would be interesting to investigate in future research which factor may mediate the presence of post-traumatic growth. PMID:25477853

  15. Increasing Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention in Comparison to the Effects of Therapeutic Alliance, Youth Factors, and Expectancy for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jessica Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the variance in subjective well-being (SWB) of early adolescents ( n = 54) exposed to a positive psychology intervention aimed at increasing positive affect and life satisfaction as well as decreasing negative affect through intentional activities (e.g., gratitude journals, acts of kindness, use of character strengths,…

  16. The relation between short-term emotion dynamics and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Marlies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Not only how good or bad people feel on average, but also how their feelings fluctuate across time is crucial for psychological health. The last 2 decades have witnessed a surge in research linking various patterns of short-term emotional change to adaptive or maladaptive psychological functioning, often with conflicting results. A meta-analysis was performed to identify consistent relationships between patterns of short-term emotion dynamics-including patterns reflecting emotional variability (measured in terms of within-person standard deviation of emotions across time), emotional instability (measured in terms of the magnitude of consecutive emotional changes), and emotional inertia of emotions over time (measured in terms of autocorrelation)-and relatively stable indicators of psychological well-being or psychopathology. We determined how such relationships are moderated by the type of emotional change, type of psychological well-being or psychopathology involved, valence of the emotion, and methodological factors. A total of 793 effect sizes were identified from 79 articles (N = 11,381) and were subjected to a 3-level meta-analysis. The results confirmed that overall, low psychological well-being co-occurs with more variable (overall ρ̂ = -.178), unstable (overall ρ̂ = -.205), but also more inert (overall ρ̂ = -.151) emotions. These effect sizes were stronger when involving negative compared with positive emotions. Moreover, the results provided evidence for consistency across different types of psychological well-being and psychopathology in their relation with these dynamical patterns, although specificity was also observed. The findings demonstrate that psychological flourishing is characterized by specific patterns of emotional fluctuations across time, and provide insight into what constitutes optimal and suboptimal emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. The Importance of Social Learning Environment Factors for Affective Well-Being among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Ella Maria Cosmovici

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether perceived inclusion and exclusion with peers at school, as well as self-reported bullying exposure, affected positive and negative affect among 1161 students from grades five through seven. Positive affect was significantly, but only weakly, affected by perceived exclusion and inclusion. Negative affect was not related to…

  18. Is Bradburn's measure of psychological well-being fair to introverts? A study among 16- to 18-yr.-old students.

    PubMed

    Francis, L J; Wilcox, C; Jones, S H

    1999-10-01

    A sample of 242 students between the ages of 16 and 18 years, attending schools in the North East of England, completed the Bradburn Balanced Affect Scale together with the abbreviated form of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The findings show that scores on the Bradburn scale (indicating psychological well-being as assessed by balanced affect) are correlated significantly and positively with scores for Extraversion (.25), negatively with Neuroticism (.52) and nonsignificantly with Psychoticism. The implications of these findings are discussed for the assessment of psychological well-being among introverts.

  19. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. An Intersectional Approach for Understanding Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being among African American and Caribbean Black Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…

  1. Physical Activity Is Associated with Better Health and Psychological Well-Being during Transition to University Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Steven R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated vigorous physical activity, psychological well-being, and self-reported illness during transition to first-year university life in a sample of 175 Canadian under-graduates. At the completion of their first year of university study, participants completed retrospective measures assessing vigorous physical activity, upper…

  2. The Moderating Capacity of Racial Identity between Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being over Time among African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W.; Upton, Rachel D.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Sellers, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the influence of racial identity in the longitudinal relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and psychological well-being for approximately 560 African American youth. Latent curve modeling (LCM) and parallel process multiple-indicator LCMs with latent moderators were used to assess whether perceptions of racial…

  3. The Relationship of Victimization Experiences to Psychological Well-Being among Homeless Women and Low-Income Housed Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The effects of stressful experiences on the psychological well-being of 113 homeless women and 116 low-income housed women were investigated. Measures of victimization assessed multiple dimensions of this construct, including criminal victimization, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Measures of daily environmental hassles and quality of family…

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Divorce on the Quality of the Father-Child Relationship and on Fathers' Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Adam; Lambert, James David

    1999-01-01

    States that the effect of divorce on the quality of the father-child relationship and fathers' psychological well being is moderated by the residence of children. Divorce is associated with lower relationship quality only for nonresident fathers and is associated with a decline in happiness for nonresident fathers. Divorced fathers are more…

  5. Death of Parents and Adult Psychological and Physical Well-Being: A Prospective U.S. National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Nadine F.; Jun, Heyjung; Song, Jieun

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective, attachment theory, and gender theory, this study aims to examine the impact of death of a father, a mother, or both parents, as well as continuously living with one or both parents dead (in contrast to having two parents alive) on multiple dimensions of psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, happiness,…

  6. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  7. Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W

    2013-07-01

    Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members.

  8. Supported Employment for People with Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Job Breakdown on Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Pauline; Jahoda, Andrew; Dagnan, Dave; Kemp, John; Williams, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper focuses on the transition to supported employment for people with intellectual disabilities paying particular attention to the impact of job breakdown on psychological well-being; an issue often omitted from studies. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine people with intellectual disabilities were interviewed within 3 months of…

  9. Self-Concepts and Psychological Well-Being Assessed by Beck Youth Inventory among Pupils with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeblad, Emma; Svensson, Idor; Gustafson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the self-image and psychological well-being in 67 children and adolescents age 10-16 years with severe reading difficulties and/or dyslexia. The participants were assessed with Beck Youth Inventory regarding symptoms of depression, anxiety, and negative self-image. The results showed that the participants do not depict…

  10. From Emotional and Psychological Well-Being to Character Education: Challenging Policy Discourses of Behavioural Science and "Vulnerability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to challenge a strong consensus that governments must intervene in a worsening crisis of emotional and psychological well-being. The article relates rising estimates of problems and corresponding calls for intervention in educational settings to the increasingly blurred boundaries between a cultural therapeutic ethos, academic…

  11. An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rosemary A.; Ploubidis, George B.; Huppert, Felicia A.; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effective measurement range of Ryff's Psychological Well-being scales (PWB). It applies normal ogive item response theory (IRT) methodology using factor analysis procedures for ordinal data based on a limited information estimation approach. The data come from a sample of 1,179 women participating in a…

  12. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  13. Being Labeled as Gifted, Self-Appraisal, and Psychological Well-Being: A Life Span Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Holahan, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relation of being labeled as intellectually gifted to a mid-life appraisal of having lived up to one's abilities and to psychological well-being at age 80. Learning at a younger age of membership in a study of intellectual giftedness was related to less likelihood of believing that one has lived up to one's intellectual abilities at…

  14. Psychological Well-Being in Fathers of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Head, Lara; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The psychological well-being of fathers of children with developmental disabilities remains poorly understood. The present study examined depressive symptoms, pessimism, and coping in fathers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS;n = 59), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs;n = 135), and Fragile X syndrome (n = 46). Fathers of sons or…

  15. Psychological Well-Being in the Early Life Course: Variations by Socioeconomic Status, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Owens, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    Our analysis focuses on the implications of social status characteristics for children's psychological well-being. Drawing on social evaluation theories and stress-based explanations, we hypothesized that disadvantage cumulates across statuses (the double jeopardy hypothesis) and over time as children move into the adolescent years. To test this…

  16. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Results Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. PMID:27042156

  17. The associations of illness perceptions and self-efficacy with psychological well-being of patients in preparation for joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Magklara, Eleni; Morrison, Val

    2016-09-01

    Patient well-being on referral to surgery likely affects their surgical experience yet few studies examine pre-surgical correlates of well-being. Guided by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation and Social Cognitive theory, this study examined whether illness and emotional representations, general and domain self-efficacy were associated with pre-surgical well-being. The pre-surgical assessment of a three-wave prospective study is reported. Fifty-four hip and knee replacements patients (mean age = 69.33; SD = 8.57) were recruited in the pre-surgery educational clinic at a UK general hospital. Patients completed a questionnaire-pack including the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale, the Falls-Efficacy Scale, and the Short Form of Psychological Well-Being Index. Multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that above and beyond demographic and clinical characteristics, negative emotional representations were associated with lower psychological well-being while strong general self-efficacy beliefs were positively related to psychological well-being. Independent of demographic and clinical characteristics, joint replacement patients' psychological well-being was associated with their cognitions and emotional reactions to their condition before surgery. Early interventions could potentially target these modifiable factors to improve pre-surgical well-being in this group of patients, with potential for additional post-surgical benefit.

  18. Associations between genetics, medical status, physical exercise and psychological well-being in adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Backström-Eriksson, Lena; Bergsten-Brucefors, Agneta; Hjelte, Lena; Melin, Bo; Sorjonen, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive, life-shortening disease among people of European origin. Type of genetic mutation and regular physical exercise has an impact on clinical outcome. This cross-sectional study explores the associations between genetics, medical status, physical exercise and psychological well-being in adult patients with CF. Methods Adult patients with CF (N=68; mean age: 32.2; range 18–67 years; 46% women) completed the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. Measures about lung function/forced expiratory volume in 1 s per cent predicted, body mass index, physical working capacity, immunoglobulin G, CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutations, and physical exercise were obtained. structural equation modelling was used to fit models to data. Results A cftr gene mutation×age interaction effect indicates a psychological disadvantage increasing with age of having more severe CFTR mutations; >65% of the effect is mediated by medical status. Physical exercise has a positive effect on psychological well-being, but >75% of the effect is mediated by medical status. Conclusions Psychological well-being decreases with age in patients with more severe cftr mutations, to a large extent due to a parallel deterioration of medical status. Physical exercise has a positive effect on psychological well-being if resulting in better health only. To manage the complexity of these patients' needs, the CF-care should emphasise a holistic approach and offer individualised exercise/treatment programmes and psychological competence. PMID:27933179

  19. Effects of customer entitlement on service workers' physical and psychological well-being: a study of waitstaff employees.

    PubMed

    Fisk, Glenda M; Neville, Lukas B

    2011-10-01

    This exploratory study examines the nature of customer entitlement and its impact on front-line service employees. In an open-ended qualitative inquiry, 56 individuals with waitstaff experience described the types of behaviors entitled customers engage in and the kinds of service-related "perks" these individuals feel deserving of. Participants explained how they responded to entitled customers, how and when managers became involved, and how their dealings with these patrons influenced their subjective physical and psychological well-being. We found that the behaviors of entitled customers negatively impacted waitstaff employees. Participants reported physiological arousal, negative affect, burnout, and feelings of dehumanization as a result of dealing with these patrons. While respondents drew on a variety of strategies to manage their encounters with entitled customers, they indicated workplace support was often informal and described feeling abandoned by management in dealing with this workplace stressor. Approaching customer entitlement as a form of microaggression, we offer recommendations for practice and suggest new directions for future research.

  20. Change in body image and psychological well-being during behavioral obesity treatment: Associations with weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, António L; Branco, Teresa L; Martins, Sandra C; Minderico, Cláudia S; Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Barata, José T; Serpa, Sidónio O; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2010-06-01

    This study reports on outcomes from a behavioral obesity treatment program, evaluating if treatment-related changes in body image and psychological well-being are predictors of weight change during treatment and after follow-up. Participants were 142 overweight/obese women (BMI=30.2+/-3.7kg/m(2); age=38.3+/-5.8 years) participants in a behavioral treatment program consisting of a 4-month treatment period and a 12-month follow-up. Psychosocial variables improved during treatment and these changes were correlated with 4-month weight reduction. Short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction (p=.002) and mood (p=.003) predicted long-term weight loss. Additional results suggest that there might be a predictive role of short-term changes in body size dissatisfaction and self-esteem on long-term weight loss after accounting for initial weight change (p<.028). We conclude that, along with weight changes, cognitive and affect-related processes influenced during obesity treatment may be related long-term success, in some cases independently of initial weight loss.

  1. “Effects of cumulative risk on behavioral and psychological well-being in first grade: Moderation by neighborhood context”

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Julie; Caughy, Margaret O; Nettles, Saundra M; O'Campo, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    This study builds upon existing research by examining whether risk indices for child psychological well-being behave in the same way in different types of neighborhoods. Specifically, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics acted to exacerbate or, alternatively, to buffer risk factors at the family and/or child level. Families with a child entering first grade in Fall 2002 were recruited from Baltimore City neighborhoods, defined as census block groups. This study included 405 children, and data came from an interview with the primary caregiver and an assessment of the first grader. The dependent variables were externalizing behavior and internalizing problems. A family risk index consisting of 13 measures, and a child risk index consisting of three measures were the main independent variables of interest. We examined the effects of these indices on child psychological well-being and behavior across two neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood potential for community involvement with children and neighborhood negative social climate. Results of multivariate analyses indicated that cumulative family risk was associated with an increase in both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Perceived negative social climate moderated the effect of family risks on behavior problems such that more risk was associated with a larger increment in both externalizing behavior problems and psychological problems for children living in high versus low risk neighborhoods. These findings further emphasize the importance of considering neighborhood context in the study of child psychological well-being. PMID:20732735

  2. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: a practice-friendly meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sin, Nancy L; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2009-05-01

    Do positive psychology interventions-that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions-enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.29) and decrease depressive symptoms (mean r=.31). In addition, several factors were found to impact the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions, including the depression status, self-selection, and age of participants, as well as the format and duration of the interventions. Accordingly, clinicians should be encouraged to incorporate positive psychology techniques into their clinical work, particularly for treating clients who are depressed, relatively older, or highly motivated to improve. Our findings also suggest that clinicians would do well to deliver positive psychology interventions as individual (versus group) therapy and for relatively longer periods of time.

  3. Psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Delva, Wim; Vercoutere, An; Loua, Catherine; Lamah, Jonas; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Koker, Petra; Claeys, Patricia; Temmerman, Marleen; Annemans, Lieven

    2009-12-01

    Over the past decade, the effects of AIDS-related parental death on children's socio-economic, educational and psychological well-being have become apparent. Most studies, however, have compared the plight of so-called AIDS orphans with non-orphaned children only. Consequently, such study designs are unable to establish if the AIDS-related cause of death of the parents confers effects additional to those of parent-bereavement. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among 140 non-orphaned children, 133 children orphaned by causes other than AIDS (O) and 124 children orphaned by AIDS (O-A) in Conakry, N'Zerekore and the villages around N'Zerekore, Guinea. Multi-way analysis of variance and multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between the orphan status and psychological well-being, school attendance, economic activities, frequency of going to bed hungry and sleeping commodity. After adjustment for confounding factors, the psychological well-being score (PWS) was significantly lower among AIDS-orphaned children than among O (P<0.001). Additionally, AIDS-orphaned children were more likely to be engaged in economic activities (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.45-6.36) and to go to bed hungry on a daily basis (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.24-6.02) than other orphans. The differences in school attendance and the proportion of children with a bed or couch to sleep between AIDS-orphaned children and O were not statistically significant. This situation calls for sustainable and holistic approaches to ensure the psychological and socio-economic stability of AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children.

  4. Parents' psychological well-being and parental self-efficacy in relation to the family's triadic interaction.

    PubMed

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy Scaiola, Chloé; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Junttila, Niina; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether a parent's psychological well-being and/or self-efficacy relate to interaction within the family. This study is part of a Finnish follow-up study called Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-Being of Children (STEPS;). The study group included 120 families. Mother's and father's social anxiety and depression were assessed during pregnancy and at 18 months of the child's age using self-report questionnaires; the mother's and father's self-efficacy were assessed at 18 months using a parental self-efficacy scale validated within the STEPS study. Mother-father-child triadic interaction was studied at 18 months within a Lausanne Triadic Play setting. Results showed that maternal symptoms of depression during pregnancy and maternal social anxiety at 18 months were related to triadic interaction within the family. There was no relation between father's psychological well-being and triadic interaction within the family. Father's self-efficacy in teaching tasks and the Mother's self-efficacy in emotional support were associated with family interaction. The findings suggest that maternal psychological well-being and self-efficacy in emotional support may be important components of family triadic interaction whereas paternal self-efficacy in teaching tasks seems to support family coordination in triadic interaction.

  5. Linking religion and spirituality with psychological well-being: examining self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative.

    PubMed

    Ivtzan, Itai; Chan, Christine P L; Gardner, Hannah E; Prashar, Kiran

    2013-09-01

    Research largely shows that religion and spirituality have a positive correlation to psychological well-being. However, there has been a great deal of confusion and debate over their operational definitions. This study attempted to delineate the two constructs and categorise participants into different groups based on measured levels of religious involvement and spirituality. The groups were then scored against specific measures of well-being. A total of 205 participants from a wide range of religious affiliations and faith groups were recruited from various religious institutions and spiritual meetings. They were assigned to one of four groups with the following characteristics: (1) a high level of religious involvement and spirituality, (2) a low level of religious involvement with a high level of spirituality, (3) a high level of religious involvement with a low level of spirituality, and (4) a low level of religious involvement and spirituality. Multiple comparisons were made between the groups on three measures of psychological well-being: levels of self-actualisation, meaning in life, and personal growth initiative. As predicted, it was discovered that, aside from a few exceptions, groups (1) and (2) obtained higher scores on all three measures. As such, these results confirm the importance of spirituality on psychological well-being, regardless of whether it is experienced through religious participation.

  6. How Enrichment Affects Exploration Trade-Offs in Rats: Implications for Welfare and Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Becca; Champagne, Frances A.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2013-01-01

    We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding ‘the good life.’ Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60) were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance) while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal). Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P<.0001), the enrichment-maintenance group showed a significantly greater exploratory tendency (P<.01) despite having equivalent levels of activity (P>.3). Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without) enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed. PMID:24376721

  7. The Impact of Infertility on the Psychological Well-Being, Marital Relationships, Sexual Relationships, and Quality of Life of Couples: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Luk, Bronya Hi-Kwan; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to identify, with supporting evidence, the effect of infertility on couples. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINHAL Plus articles were searched for relevant studies (2000-2014) published in English. Twenty articles were included in this review. The results showed that infertility affected couples in the following four aspects of their life: psychological well-being, marital relationships, sexual relationships, and quality of life. There is evidence that infertility has a negative effect on the psychological well-being and sexual relationships of couples, but the evidence is inconclusive for the effect on marital relationships and quality of life.

  8. Daily family assistance and the psychological well-being of adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    The daily diary method was used to examine the implications of adolescents' daily assistance behaviors for both positive and negative aspects of psychological well-being among an ethnically diverse sample of 752 adolescents of ages 14 to 15 years. Results indicated that, contrary to the expectations of some observers, providing daily assistance to the family generally was not stressful for adolescents. Rather, assisting the family was associated with higher levels of happiness due, in large part, to the sense of role fulfillment it provided the adolescents. Few individual or group differences were observed in the association between family assistance and psychological well-being. These results suggest that family assistance serves as a meaningful activity in adolescents' lives by creating a sense of connection to the family.

  9. A prospective investigation of the relationship between child maltreatment and indicators of adult psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean; Dee, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study of psychological well-being will advance understanding of child maltreatment effects and resilience processes. In this study, the mean level of anger in adulthood was significantly higher for those identified three decades earlier as having been maltreated. Mean levels of self-esteem, autonomy, purpose in life, perceived (fewer) constraints, and happiness and satisfaction were lower for those who were maltreated according to child welfare reports. Officially recorded child maltreatment was moderately (r < .30) correlated with several psychological well-being indicators and predictive of adult anger, self-esteem, autonomy, and happiness/life satisfaction after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and other sources of data on child abuse and neglect. Parent-reported abusive disciplining also uniquely predicted several outcomes, as did a measure of observed child neglect to a lesser extent.

  10. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    PubMed

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.

  11. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  12. Leaving high school: the influence and consequences for psychological well-being and career-related confidence.

    PubMed

    Creed, Peter A; Muller, Juanita; Patton, Wendy

    2003-06-01

    This paper examines the well-being and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) of adolescents before and after leaving school, and tests for the changes in these variables as a result of leaving school. While at high school, 309 students were assessed on levels of school achievement, well-being (psychological distress, self-esteem, life satisfaction) and CDMSE. Nine months after leaving school, 168 of these students completed the above surveys and measures of their access to the latent (e.g. social contact, time structure) and manifest (i.e. financial) benefits of employment, and work commitment. At T2, 21% were full-time students, 35% were full-time students who were also working part-time, 22% were employed in full-time jobs, and 21% were in the labour market but not employed full-time. These groupings were differentiated at T2 on aspects of well-being, self-efficacy, and access to the latent and manifest benefits of work, and at T1 on aspects of well-being and confidence. Leaving school improved well-being and confidence for some. One group was disadvantaged by having poorer well-being while at school, which predisposed them to disadvantage in the labour market. Results are discussed in relation to models of well-being and drift/social causation.

  13. Mistreatment and Psychological Well-being Among Older Adults: Exploring the Role of Psychosocial Resources and Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationships between psychosocial resources and deficits, elder mistreatment, and psychological well-being. Methods. We used a representative sample of 2,744 older adults aged 57–85 years in the United States from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project. We examined reports of any mistreatment (verbal, financial, or physical) and multiple types of mistreatment. Results. Lower levels of positive support, higher levels of criticism from close relationships, and feelings of social isolation are positively associated with self-reported mistreatment experience. As suggested by the stress process theory, those who reported mistreatment experience also reported lower levels of global happiness and higher levels of psychological distress. There is also some evidence for the buffering hypothesis—levels of global happiness are higher and levels of psychological distress are lower for older adults who reported any mistreatment if they also reported more positive social support, social participation, and feelings of social connection. Discussion. Older adults with fewer psychosocial resources or more psychosocial deficits seem to be more vulnerable to mistreatment, and mistreatment seems particularly detrimental to psychological well-being for these people. PMID:21239415

  14. Cultivating multiple aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation accounts for psychological well-being through decreased rumination

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, mindfulness meditation has gained prominence as an adjunctive psychotherapeutic technique. In fact, a vast literature of controlled studies has found that mindfulness meditation is related to improved mental health across a variety of disorders. Elucidating the components involved in mindfulness meditation’s positive impact on psychological well-being is an important step in more precisely identifying the populations that would most benefit from its therapeutic utilization. Yet, a consensus regarding the particular underlying mechanisms that contribute to these outcomes is very much limited. There are many reasons for this, including the inconsistent operationalization and use of mindfulness meditation across research investigations. Despite the elusive mechanisms, many studies seem to indicate that cultivating different aspects of attention is a feasible, consistent, and parsimonious starting point bridging mindfulness practice and psychological well-being. Attention in itself is a complex construct. It comprises different networks, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, and is also explained in terms of the way it is regulated. This paper supports a previously suggested idea that cultivating all aspects of attention through mindfulness meditation leads to greater psychological well-being through decreased ruminative processes. Ruminative processes are decreased by engaging in both focused and receptive attention, which foster the ability to distract and decenter. PMID:26170728

  15. Intergeneration social support affects the subjective well-being of the elderly: Mediator roles of self-esteem and loneliness.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qian

    2016-06-01

    The mental health of the elderly is an important issue in the area of health psychology. This study investigated the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of 429 elderly participants. Results suggested that intergeneration social support, self-esteem, and loneliness were significantly correlated to subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-esteem and loneliness partially mediated the effect of intergeneration social support on subjective well-being. These findings provided insights into the effect of intergeneration social support on the subjective well-being of the elderly.

  16. Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents' well-being, engagement, and achievement.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Anat; Steinmetz, Sarit; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2016-08-01

    As positive psychology is a nascent area of research, there are very few empirical studies assessing the impact and sustained effects of positive psychology school interventions. The current study presents a 2-year longitudinal evaluation of the effects of a school-based positive psychology program on students' subjective well-being, school engagement, and academic achievements. The study investigated the effectiveness of the Maytiv school program using a positive psychology-based classroom-level intervention with 2517 seventh- to ninth-grade students in 70 classrooms, from six schools in the center of Israel. The classes were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions, which were comparable in terms of students' age, gender, and socio-economic status. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed positive intervention effects on positive emotions, peer relations, emotional engagement in school, cognitive engagement, and grade point average scores (Cohen's ds 0.16-0.71). In the control group, there were significant decreases in positive emotions and cognitive engagement, and no significant changes in peer relations, emotional engagement or school achievements. These findings demonstrate the significant socio-emotional and academic benefits of incorporating components of positive psychology into school curricula.

  17. Ovum pick-up in dairy heifers: does it affect animal well-being?

    PubMed

    Petyim, S; Båge, R; Madej, A; Larsson, B

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick-up (OPU) technique on animal well-being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice-weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4-month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG-metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2(1/2) min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU ('restraint', 'epidural', 'device in' and 'puncture') were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre-OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG-metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4-month sessions. The response to 'device in' and 'puncture' varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.

  18. Well-being at workplace through mindfulness: Influence of Yoga practice on positive affect and aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Umesh; Kumari, Sony; Akhilesh, K. B.; Nagendra, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mindfulness is about being aware of internal and external stimuli by witnessing the act in a nonjudgmental manner. Earlier researches suggest that positive affectivity (PA) is negatively related to negative affectivity, aggression, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Aim: The present study examined the effect of mindfulness developed through Yoga practices on aggression and PA among working professionals involved in CWB. Materials and Methods: A pre-test, post-test randomized controlled design was used with a study sample of Yoga group (n = 80) and control group (n = 80) for a duration of 10 weeks. Yoga module that included Asanas, Pranayama, meditation, and Yogic theories were taught to the Yoga group. Mild to moderate physical exercises and management theories were taught to the control group. Measurements of aggression and PA scores were taken at the baseline and postintervention for assessment. Results: At the baseline, there was no significant difference in the variable scores between both the groups. Postintervention results revealed that Yoga group showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in aggression and significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in PA in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: When compared with the control group at the end of the intervention, the Yoga group scores were significantly lower for aggression and higher for PA. PMID:27833364

  19. The Influence of Environment and Personality on the Affective and Cognitive Component of Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2008-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has two components: affective well-being (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB). The present study demonstrated that AWB and CWB have are influenced by different factors in a nationally representative sample in Germany (N = 1053). Neuroticism was a stronger predictor of AWB than CWB. Unemployment and regional differences…

  20. Work conditions and employees' self-set goals: goal processes enhance prediction of psychological distress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Pomaki, Georgia; Maes, Stan; Ter Doest, Laura

    2004-06-01

    Although previous theory and research suggest that employee well-being should be predicted by work conditions (viz., Karasek and colleagues' job demands-control-social support [J-DCS] model), other factors are also likely to be important. In this study, the authors consider correlates of employee psychological distress and well-being using a goal-focused approach grounded in Ford's (1992) motivational systems theory. Specifically, work conditions and midlevel work goal processes (WGP) were examined in a questionnaire study of health care employees. Regarding predictions derived from the J-DCS model, the authors found full support for the iso-strain, partial support for the nonlinearity, and no support for the buffer hypothesis. Of importance, however, WGP (i.e., cognitions and emotions involved in the pursuit of self-set work goals) explained variance in job satisfaction, burnout, depression, and somatic complaints, over and above that of the J-DCS model. This suggests that investigation of WGP can enhance our understanding of employee psychological distress and well-being.

  1. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-03-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage in Hong Kong (N = 199) responded to instruments measuring perceived parental parenthood qualities (indexed by perceived parenting styles, support and help from parents, and conflict and relationship with the parents) and psychosocial adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse, and delinquency). Results showed that parental parenthood variables were concurrently associated with different measures of adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior at Time 1 and Time 2. While paternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in existential well-being and delinquency in adolescent boys, but not in adolescent girls, at Time 2, maternal parenthood qualities at Time 1 predicted changes in the mental health and problem behavior in adolescent girls, but not in adolescent boys, at Time 2. There is no strong support for the thesis that adolescent adjustment influences perceived parental parenthood qualities over time. The present study suggests that the influences of fathers and mothers on the adjustment of Chinese adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage vary with the gender of adolescent children.

  2. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy: An Effective Intervention for Improving Psychological Well-Being in Patients With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Applebaum, Allison; Kulikowski, Julia; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy (MCGP) to reduce psychological distress and improve spiritual well-being in patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced cancer (N = 253) were randomly assigned to manualized eight-session interventions of either MCGP or supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the treatment and 2 months after treatment. The primary outcome measures were spiritual well-being and overall quality of life, with secondary outcome measures assessing depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, anxiety, and physical symptom distress. Results Hierarchical linear models that included a priori covariates and only participants who attended ≥ three sessions indicated a significant group × time interaction for most outcome variables. Specifically, patients receiving MCGP showed significantly greater improvement in spiritual well-being and quality of life and significantly greater reductions in depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and physical symptom distress compared with those receiving SGP. No group differences were observed for changes in anxiety. Analyses that included all patients, regardless of whether they attended any treatment sessions (ie, intent-to-treat analyses), and no covariates still showed significant treatment effects (ie, greater benefit for patients receiving MCGP v SGP) for quality of life, depression, and hopelessness but not for other outcome variables. Conclusion This large randomized controlled study provides strong support for the efficacy of MCGP as a treatment for psychological and existential or spiritual distress in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:25646186

  3. Spirituality vis-a-vis Islam as prerequisite to Arab American well being: the implications of Eurocentrism for mainstream psychology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ronald E; Breland-Noble, Alfiee

    2011-01-01

    Due to the historical preponderance of racial and/or intellectual homogeneity in the field of psychology, Eurocentrism set the "gold standard" for its method of intervention. As such, it might be argued that psychology remains a bastion of Eurocentric thought despite the globalization of knowledge and the influx of racially and ethnically diverse scientists into the research endeavor. At the same time and the significant increase in the immigrant Arab population, Arab Americans remain a less familiar component of society. Among the various Arab populations, spirituality through Islam is fundamental. Thus, psychologists would be remiss to exclude a critical aspect of Arab American life from intervention when it is essential to well-being.

  4. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  5. Social, psychological and existential well-being in patients with glioma and their caregivers: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Cavers, Debbie; Hacking, Belinda; Erridge, Sara E.; Kendall, Marilyn; Morris, Paul G.; Murray, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cerebral glioma has a devastating impact on cognitive, physical, social, psychological and spiritual well-being. We sought to understand the multidimensional experience of patients with this form of cancer as they progressed from receiving a diagnosis to the terminal phase of the disease. Methods: We recruited patients with a suspected brain tumour from a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom. We interviewed patients and their caregivers at key stages of the illness: before receiving a formal diagnosis, at the start of initial treatment, after initial treatment was completed and at six months’ follow-up; caregivers were also interviewed postbereavement. We interviewed the patients’ general practitioners once, after treatment had been completed. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them thematically using the constant comparative method of a grounded theory approach. Results: We conducted in-depth interviews with 26 patients, 23 of their relatives and 19 general practitioners. We saw evidence of physical, social, psychological and existential distress even before a diagnosis was confirmed. Social decline followed a similar trajectory to that of physical decline, whereas psychological and existential distress were typically acute around diagnosis and again after initial treatment. Each patient’s individual course varied according to other factors including the availability of support and individual and family resources (e.g., personal resilience and emotional support). Interpretation: There are practical ways that clinicians can care for patients with glioma and their caregivers, starting from before a diagnosis is confirmed. Understanding the trajectories of physical, social, psychological and existential well-being for these patients allows health care professionals to predict their patients’ likely needs so they can provide appropriate support and sensitive and effective communication. PMID:22431898

  6. Life Course Pathways of Adverse Childhood Experiences Toward Adult Psychological Well-Being: A Stress Process Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N = 13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. PMID:25846195

  7. Death of Parents and Adult Psychological and Physical Well-Being: A Prospective U.S. National Study

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Nadine F.; Jun, Heyjung; Song, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective, attachment theory, and gender theory, this study aims to examine the impact of death of a father, a mother, or both parents, as well as continuously living with one or both parents dead (in contrast to having two parents alive) on multiple dimensions of psychological well-being (depressive symptoms, happiness, self-esteem, mastery, and psychological wellness), alcohol abuse (binge drinking), and physical health (self-assessed health). Analyses of longitudinal data from. 8,865 adults in the National Survey of Families and Households 1987–1993 reveal that a father’s death leads to more negative effects for sons than daughters and a mother’s death leads to more negative effects for daughters than sons. Problematic effects of parent loss are reflected more in men’s physical health reports than women’s. This study’s results suggest that family researchers and practitioners working with aging families should not underestimate the impact of filial bereavement on adult well-being. PMID:19212446

  8. Sexual Stigma, Psychological Well-Being and Social Engagement among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Karam, Rita; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore the sexual identity development of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beirut, the stigma experienced by these men, and how their psychological well-being and social engagement are shaped by how they cope with this stigma. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 MSM, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. While many men reported feeling very comfortable with their sexual orientation and had disclosed their sexual orientation to family, most men struggled at least somewhat with their sexuality, often because of perceived stigma from others and internal religious conflict about the immorality of homosexuality. Most participants described experiencing verbal harassment or ridicule, or being treated as different or lesser than in social relationships with friends or family. Mechanisms for coping with stigma included social avoidance (trying to pass as heterosexual; limiting interaction with MSM to the internet) or withdrawal from relationships in an attempt to limit exposure to stigma. Our findings suggest that effective coping with both internal and external sexual stigma is central to the psychological well-being and social engagement of MSM in Beirut, much like what has been found in Western gay communities. PMID:23730919

  9. Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Youth with Fragile X Syndrome: Syndrome Specificity and within-Syndrome Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, P.; Abbeduto, L.; Murphy, M.; Richmond, E.; Giles, N.; Bruno, L.; Schroeder, S.; Anderson, J.; Orsmond, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research on parental well-being has focused largely on Down syndrome and autism; however, fragile X syndrome is likely to pose different challenges for parents compared with these other diagnostic conditions. Moreover, there is considerable variability among youth with fragile X syndrome; for example, 25% to 33% of affected youth meet…

  10. Soccer results affect subjective well-being, but only briefly: a smartphone study during the 2014 FIFA World Cup

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Stefan; Götz, Friedrich M.; Gehrig, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators’ subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects increasing as a function of goal difference. Moreover, this gain in well-being was only found in spectators supporting the German soccer team, allowing us to rule out a general emotional contagion effect affecting all spectators. Although soccer results are associated with national identity and pride, their effects on subjective well-being were short-lived and only affected supporters. PMID:26029124

  11. Soccer results affect subjective well-being, but only briefly: a smartphone study during the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Götz, Friedrich M; Gehrig, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    The current research examined the effects of soccer match results on spectators' subjective well-being. Across the group stage of the soccer World Cup 2014, German-speaking participants indicated their well-being three times per day through a smartphone-based science app. In line with proposed hypotheses, comparisons of data taken after the three matches of the German national team showed robust effects, revealing that well-being was higher among spectators than non-spectators, with effects increasing as a function of goal difference. Moreover, this gain in well-being was only found in spectators supporting the German soccer team, allowing us to rule out a general emotional contagion effect affecting all spectators. Although soccer results are associated with national identity and pride, their effects on subjective well-being were short-lived and only affected supporters.

  12. FOOD INSECURITY AND ITS RELATION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING AMONG SOUTH INDIAN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Elsa; Panicker, Siju Thomas; Chandy, Sara; Steward, Wayne T.; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2015-01-01

    Food insecurity (FI) and its link with depression and quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India are not well-documented. We analyzed cohort data from 243 male and 129 female PLHIV from Bengaluru, and found 19% of men and 26% of women reported moderate or severe FI over a six-month period. Women reported higher mean depression than men, and lower mean QOL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for HIV stigma and demographic covariates, both male and female PLHIV with moderate to severe FI showed lower mean QOL than those reporting mild to no FI. Male but not female food insecure participants also had higher depression scores in adjusted regression analyses. As ART has improved the physical health of PLHIV, more effort is being invested in improving their psychological well-being. Our results suggest such interventions could benefit from including nutritional support to reduce FI among PLHIV. PMID:25488171

  13. The influence of the early retirement process on satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiró, José María

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group norms about early retirement as antecedents of the early retirement process and subsequent satisfaction with early retirement and psychological well-being. In addition, we examined the moderating role of the voluntariness of the early retirement transition in the proposed model. Our hypotheses were tested using a sample of 213 early retirees. We found that while high organizational pressures were related to lower retirement age, low perceived ability to continue working and group norms favorable to early retirement were related to higher levels of early retirement intentions. Furthermore, group norms favorable to early retirement

  14. Food Insecurity and Its Relation to Psychological Well-Being Among South Indian People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heylen, Elsa; Panicker, Siju Thomas; Chandy, Sara; Steward, Wayne T; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2015-08-01

    Food insecurity (FI) and its link with depression and quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India are not well-documented. We analyzed cohort data from 243 male and 129 female PLHIV from Bengaluru, and found 19 % of men and 26 % of women reported moderate or severe FI over a 6-month period. Women reported higher mean depression than men, and lower mean QOL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for HIV stigma and demographic covariates, both male and female PLHIV with moderate to severe FI showed lower mean QOL than those reporting mild to no FI. Male but not female food insecure participants also had higher depression scores in adjusted regression analyses. As ART has improved the physical health of PLHIV, more effort is being invested in improving their psychological well-being. Our results suggest such interventions could benefit from including nutritional support to reduce FI among PLHIV.

  15. The nonlinear effects of job complexity and autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover, and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Chung-Yan, Greg A

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the interactive relationship between job complexity and job autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and psychological well-being. It was hypothesized that the positive or motivating effects of job complexity are only realized when workers are given enough autonomy to effectively meet the challenges of complex jobs. Results show that not only do job complexity and job autonomy interact, but that the relationships to the outcome variables are curvilinear in form. Job complexity is shown to be both a motivator and a stressor when job autonomy is low. However, the most beneficial effects of job complexity occur when it is matched by a high level of job autonomy. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. "When I am lonely the mountains call me": the impact of sacred geography on Navajo psychological well being.

    PubMed

    Griffin-Pierce, T

    1997-01-01

    As we approach the twenty-first century, sacred geography continues to have a profound impact on Navajo psychological well being. This article explores the extent of the Navajo's bond with their homeland through an emphasis on orderly conditions in their world view, myths, and ceremonies. When traditional Navajos leave their homeland to pursue educational and professional endeavors or to seek biomedical treatment, a sense of emotional dislocation can undermine their success. The emotional trauma goes far beyond mere homesickness because it is based on an often unconscious sense of having violated the moral order of the universe. It is essential that mental health professionals respond with sensitivity to this issue by understanding the extent to which the sacred mountains and other landforms serve as a vital source of spiritual strength.

  17. An intersectional approach for understanding perceived discrimination and psychological well-being among African American and Caribbean Black youth.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender, and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black female adolescents exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared with older African American male adolescents.

  18. Effects of racial and sexual harassment on work and the psychological well-being of African American women.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F

    2008-04-01

    Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.

  19. Metabolic risk factors, coping with stress, and psychological well-being in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cavar, Ivan; Lovrić, Sanjin; Vukojević, Mladenka; Sesar, Irena; Petric-Vicković, Ivanka; Sesar, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the risk factors (age, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, consumption of alchohol and drugs, positive family history, and exposure to sunlight), coping with stress, psychological well-being and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Forty patients with ARMD (case group) and 63 presbyopes (control group) participated in the study. Patient data were collected through general information questionnaire including patient habits, the COPE questionnaire that showed the way the patients handling stress, and the GHQ that analyzed the psychological aspects of their quality of life. These questionnaires were administered to the patients during ophthalmologic examination. The study involved 46 (44.66%) men and 57 (55.33%) women. Statistical analysis showed that the major risks for the development of ARMD were elevated cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in plasma. A significantly higher number ofARMD patients had a positive family history when compared with presbyopes. This study showed presbyopes to cope with emotional problems significantly better and to have a lower level of social dysfunction when compared with ARMD patients. However, it is necessary to conduct further studies in a large number of patients to determine more accurately the pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic factors as well as the impact of the disease on the quality of life in patients with ARMD.

  20. Psychosocial Well-Being of Children in HIV/AIDS-Affected Families in Southwest China: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Tao; Yan, Zhihua; Duan, Song; Wang, Changhe; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the psychosocial well-being of children in HIV/AIDS-affected families in rural China from the child's and caregiver's perspectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among children living in HIV/AIDS-affected families (n = 16), their caregivers (n = 16) and key community informants (n = 5). Our findings showed that all of…

  1. Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs, Self-Determined Exercise Motivation, and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers Exercising in Group-Based Versus Individual-Based Contexts.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Geoff P; Gordon, James A R; Mueller, Marcus B; Mulgrew, Kate; Sharman, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    We compared mothers who exercised predominantly in group settings, those who exercised predominantly in individual settings, and those who exercised equally in group and individual contexts among the following: (a) satisfaction of basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness); (b) self-determined exercise motivation; and (c) psychological well-being. With clear implications for mothers' exercise interventions we found that exercising either predominantly in group contexts or in mixed group and individual settings was associated with mothers having significantly higher satisfaction of basic psychological needs and self-determined exercise motivation than those exercising predominantly alone.

  2. Cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being in later life: Measurement equivalence over gender and life stage.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2014-05-31

    The hedonic view on well-being, consisting of both cognitive and affective aspects, assumes that through maximizing pleasurable experiences, and minimizing suffering, the highest levels of well-being can be achieved. The eudemonic approach departs from the concept of a good life that is not just about pleasure and happiness, but involves developing one-self, being autonomous and realizing one's potential. While these approaches are often positioned against each other on theoretical grounds, this paper investigates the empirical plausibility of this two dimensional view on subjective well-being. The interrelations between common measures such as the General Health Questionnaire, the CES-D inventory of depressive symptoms, the satisfaction with life scale and the eudemonic CASP scale are examined in a confirmatory factor analysis framework using the third wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). A multidimensional structure of well-being, distinguishing cognitive, affective and eudemonic well-being, is shown to be the best fitting empirical solution. This three dimensional second order structure is neutral to gender in its measurement. A lower influence of feeling energetic on self-actualisation, and of somatic symptoms of depression on affective well-being was noted for respondents in the fourth age in comparison to respondents in the third age. These small measurement artefacts underline that somatic symptoms of later life depression should be distinguished from mood symptoms. Two main social facts are confirmed when we compare the different forms of well-being over gender and life stage: men tend to have a higher level of well-being than women, and well-being is lower in the fourth age than in the third age. Although the three measures are very closely related, with high correlations between .74 and .88, they each have their specific meaning. While affective and cognitive well-being emphasize the use of an internal yardstick to measure well-being

  3. Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Luhmann, Maike; Fisher, Rachel R; Vohs, Kathleen D; Baumeister, Roy F

    2014-08-01

    Does trait self-control (TSC) predict affective well-being and life satisfaction--positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well-being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well-being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism--that TSC may boost well-being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice-virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self-control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict.

  4. Moving beyond the welfare standard of psychological well-being for nonhuman primates: the case of chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Gluck, John P

    2014-04-01

    Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan "for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates." In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of the programs substantially up to "professional judgment" at the local level. Recently, however, the Institute of Medicine, in its path-finding 2011 report on the necessity of chimpanzee use in research, bypassed this flexible and contingent concept, and instead, required as a central precondition that chimpanzees be housed in "ethologically appropriate" environments. In so doing, obligations of ethical treatment of one great ape species were elevated above the needs of some research. The evolution and significance of this change are discussed.

  5. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism.

  6. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424

  7. Robust links between religious/spiritual struggles, psychological distress, and well-being in a national sample of American adults.

    PubMed

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Pargament, Kenneth I; Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail

    2015-11-01

    This study is one of the first attempts to examine the relationships between religious and spiritual struggles (r/s struggles) measured comprehensively and indicators of psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety) and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, happiness) using a nationally representative sample of American adults (N = 2,208) dealing with a wide range of major life stressors. In addition, it examines the key question of whether these relationships persist after controlling for potentially confounding psychosocial/religious influences. Correlational analyses revealed that all 5 types of the r/s struggles assessed (i.e., divine, demonic, interpersonal, moral, ultimate-meaning) correlated significantly positively with both depressive symptoms and generalized anxiety, and significantly negatively with both satisfaction with life and happiness. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that even after controlling for the effects of demographics and other potentially confounding variables (i.e., neuroticism, social isolation, religious commitment) the r/s struggle subscales added unique variance to the prediction of all 4 criterion measures. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are offered, and the limitations of the study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Changing Mental Health and Positive Psychological Well-Being Using Ecological Momentary Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Verkuil, Bart; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F

    2016-01-01

    , 13 studies were included, and a small to medium effect was found (g=0.40, 95% CI: 0.22-0.57). Yet, these between-subject analyses were at risk for publication bias and were not suited for moderator analyses. Furthermore, the overall quality of the studies was relatively low. Conclusions Results showed that there was a small to medium effect of EMIs on mental health and positive psychological well-being and that the effect was not different between outcome types. Moreover, the effect was larger with additional support by an MHP. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to further strengthen the results and to determine potential moderator variables. Overall, EMIs offer great potential for providing easy and cost-effective interventions to improve mental health and increase positive psychological well-being. PMID:27349305

  9. Christian Commitment and Personal Well Being: Exploring the Connection between Religious Affect and Global Happiness among Young Churchgoers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess the connection between religious affect (as a measure of Christian commitment) and global happiness (as a measure of personal well being) among a sample of 6,194 young churchgoers in Australia between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a…

  10. The Relationship between Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Affective Well-Being: Mediation of Cognitive Appraisals and Moderation of Peer Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping; Yu, Guoliang

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the mediation effect of cognitive appraisals and the moderation role of peer status in the association between interparental conflict and adolescents' affective well-being based on a sample of 549 Chinese adolescents from 7th to 12th grades. Interparental conflict properties, adolescents' cognitive appraisals of conflict,…

  11. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  12. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Williams, Lawrence E.; Wager, Tor D.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders. PMID:25628593

  13. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Raison, Charles L; Hale, Matthew W; Williams, Lawrence E; Wager, Tor D; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD) in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behavior, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that (1) thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, (2) these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and (3) activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  14. An Investigation into Psychological Well-Being Levels of Higher Education Students with Respect to Personality Traits and Self-Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricaoglu, Halim; Arslan, Coskun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being, personal traits and self-compassion levels, and to find out whether personal traits and self-compassion level significantly predict psychological well-being. The study sample is composed of 232 (36.5%) students from Education Faculty of Selçuk University,…

  15. Examining Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem Levels of Turkish Students in Gaining Identity against Role during Conflict Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiklar, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    In this research, university students' psychological well being and self-esteem levels are investigated in terms of a number of variables. The sample in this study is composed of 382 university students. To gather the data for this study, the Subjective Information Form, Psychological Well-Being Scale and Self-Esteem Scale are used. T tests and…

  16. Leaving High School: The Influence and Consequences for Psychological Well-Being and Career-Related Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Muller, Juanita; Patton, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the well-being and career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE) of adolescents before and after leaving school, and tests for the changes in these variables as a result of leaving school. Results reveal that leaving school improved well-being and confidence for some. One group was disadvantaged by having poorer well-being while at school,…

  17. Linking Employment Status, Maternal Psychological Well-Being, Parenting, and Children's Attributions about Poverty in Families Receiving Government Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murry, Velma McBride; Brody, Gene H.; Brown, Anita; Wisenbaker, Joseph; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    Using an ecological risk-protection perspective, explores functional changes in single African American mothers (N=96) receiving government assistance. Examines links among maternal employment, mothers' physical and psychological health, and children's attributions about causes of poverty. Maternal psychological distress was linked with children's…

  18. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year: A Positive Psychology Strategy for Promoting Law Student Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Rachael; Duffy, James; Huggins, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence in Australia and overseas has established that in many university disciplines, students begin to experience elevated levels of psychological distress in their first year of study. There is now a considerable body of empirical data that establishes that this is a significant problem for law students. Psychological distress may…

  19. A Flaw in Gerontological Assessment: The Weak Relationship of Elderly Superficial Life Satisfaction to Deep Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euler, Bryan L.

    1992-01-01

    Assessed degree of relationship between superficial and deep psychological adjustment among elderly individuals (n=86). Found only moderate correlation between shallow and deep psychological adjustment as measured by Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale for life satisfaction (shallow) and Eriksonian-based Measures of Psychosocial Development (deep).…

  20. On "feeling right" in cultural contexts: how person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, C Ashley; Gelfand, Michele J; Kruglanski, Arie W; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Diener, Ed; Pierro, Antonio; Higgins, E Tory

    2010-11-01

    Whether one is in one's native culture or abroad, one's personality can differ markedly from the personalities of the majority, thus failing to match the "cultural norm." Our studies examined how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects people's self-esteem and well-being. We propose a person-culture match hypothesis that predicts that when a person's personality matches the prevalent personalities of other people in a culture, culture functions as an important amplifier of the positive effect of personality on self-esteem and subjective well-being at the individual level. Across two studies, using data from more than 7,000 individuals from 28 societies, multilevel random-coefficient analyses showed that when a relation between a given personality trait and well-being or self-esteem exists at the individual level, the relation is stronger in cultures characterized by high levels of that personality dimension. Results were replicated across extraversion, promotion focus, and locomotive regulatory mode. Our research has practical implications for the well-being of both cultural natives and migrants.

  1. The contribution of schools to supporting the well being of children affected by HIV in eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Masoka, Tidings; Mpandaguta, Edith; Andersen, Louise; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Campbell, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Schools are often cited as a source of support for orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS in populations experiencing generalized HIV epidemics and severe poverty. Here we investigate the success of schools at including and supporting the well being of vulnerable children in rural Zimbabwe. Design Data from a cross-sectional household survey of 4577 children (aged 6–17 years), conducted between 2009 and 2011, were linked to data on the characteristics of 28 primary schools and 18 secondary schools from a parallel monitoring and evaluation facility survey. Methods We construct two measures of school quality (one general and one HIV-specific) and use multivariable regression to test whether these were associated with improved educational outcomes and well being for vulnerable children. Results School quality was not associated with primary or secondary school attendance, but was associated with children’s being in the correct grade for age [adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.5, P = 0.01]. General and HIV-specific school quality had significant positive effects on well being in the primary school-age children (coefficient 5.1, 95% CI 2.4–7.7, P < 0.01 and coefficient 3.0, 95% CI 0.4–5.6, P = 0.02, respectively), but not in the secondary school-age children (P > 0.2). There was no evidence that school quality provided an additional benefit to the well being of vulnerable children. Community HIV prevalence was negatively associated with well being in the secondary school-age children (coefficient −0.7, 95% CI −1.3 to −0.1, P = 0.03). Conclusions General and HIV-specific school quality may enhance the well being of primary school-age children in eastern Zimbabwe. Local community context also plays an important role in child well being. PMID:24991911

  2. Minority Stress Experiences and Psychological Well-Being: The Impact of Support from and Connection to Social Networks within the Los Angeles House and Ball Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carolyn F.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Holloway, Ian W.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Kipke, Michele D.

    2013-01-01

    African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM) from the House and Ball communities are at high risk for HIV infection. Because these communities are not only sources of risk, but also support for AAYMSM, researchers must also consider the resources these communities possess. This knowledge will assist in the formulation of more effective prevention strategies and intervention approaches. Using Minority Stress Theory as a framework, the current study illustrates the impact minority stress has on the psychological well-being of a sample of MSM from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities and investigates how these factors affect the relationship between minority stress and psychological well-being. Surveys were administered to participants over the course of a year. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate a model of the associations between minority stressors, support, connection to social network, and psychological well-being/distress (N=233). Results indicated significant associations between different sources of minority stress, including distal minority stress (e.g., racism, homophobia), gay identification, and internalized homophobia. Minority stressors were in turn significantly associated with greater distress. However, greater instrumental support significantly reduced the effects of distal minority stress on distress. Greater connection to social network also significantly reduced stress associated with gay identification on distress. Findings captured the diverse sources of minority stress faced by this population and how these stressors are interrelated to impact mental health. Results also illustrate how support from and connection to social networks can reduce the negative impact of minority stress experiences. PMID:23412944

  3. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features. PMID:27417620

  4. Women with Ovarian Cancer: Examining the Role of Social Support and Rumination in Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological Distress, and Psychological Well-being.

    PubMed

    Hill, Erin M; Watkins, Kaitlin

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the role of social support and rumination (deliberate vs. intrusive) in posttraumatic growth (PTG), psychological distress (PD), and psychological well-being (PWB) among women with ovarian cancer. Sixty-seven women who had experienced ovarian cancer were recruited through social media and cancer-related websites, and completed an online survey. Contrary to hypotheses, results indicated that social support was not predictive of PTG, and the mediation of rumination was not significant in the regression of social support on PTG. Social support was, however, positively correlated with the Relating to Others domain of PTG. Deliberate rumination was positively predictive of PTG, and intrusive rumination was positively predictive of PD and negatively predictive of PWB. Social support was negatively predictive of PD, and positively predictive of PWB. Results are discussed with reference to clinical implications and future research needed in understanding the ovarian cancer experience.

  5. Psychological well-being among fathers of children with and without disabilities: the role of family cohesion, adaptability, and paternal self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Boyraz, Güler; Sayger, Thomas V

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of family cohesion, adaptability, and paternal self-efficacy in psychological well-being of fathers of children with and without disabilities and whether the effects of these variables on psychological well-being were the same for both groups of fathers. In addition, the potential differences in perceived well-being between the two groups of fathers were examined. Sixty-three fathers of children with disabilities and 217 fathers of typically developing children participated in this study. Fathers of children with disabilities scored significantly higher on the self-acceptance dimension of psychological well-being compared with fathers of children without disabilities. After controlling for the demographic factors, family cohesion and paternal self-efficacy significantly and positively predicted well-being of fathers; the effects of these variables on well-being were the same for both groups of fathers.

  6. Bright versus dim ambient light affects subjective well-being but not serotonin-related biological factors.

    PubMed

    Stemer, Bettina; Melmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Kemmler, Georg; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A

    2015-10-30

    Light falling on the retina is converted into an electrical signal which stimulates serotonin synthesis. Previous studies described an increase of plasma and CNS serotonin levels after bright light exposure. Ghrelin and leptin are peptide hormones which are involved in the regulation of hunger/satiety and are related to serotonin. Neopterin and kynurenine are immunological markers which are also linked to serotonin biosynthesis. In this study, 29 healthy male volunteers were exposed to bright (5000lx) and dim (50lx) light conditions for 120min in a cross-over manner. Subjective well-being and hunger as well as various serotonin associated plasma factors were assessed before and after light exposure. Subjective well-being showed a small increase under bright light and a small decrease under dim light, resulting in a significant interaction between light condition and time. Ghrelin concentrations increased significantly under both light conditions, but there was no interaction between light and time. Correspondingly, leptin decreased significantly under both light conditions. Hunger increased significantly with no light-time interaction. We also found a significant decrease of neopterin, tryptophan and tyrosine levels, but no interaction between light and time. In conclusion, ambient light was affecting subjective well-being rather than serotonin associated biological factors.

  7. Psychosocial factors and psychological well-being: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Bum-Joon; LAMICHHANE, Dirga Kumar; JUNG, Dal-Young; MOON, So-Hyun; KIM, Seong-Jin; KIM, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine how each psychosocial factor on working conditions is related to a worker’s well-being. Data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey were analyzed for 33,569 employed workers aged ≥15 years. Well-being was evaluated through the WHO-5 questionnaire and variables about occupational psychosocial factors were classified into eight categories. The prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression model. Overall, 44.3% of men and 57.4% of women were in a low well-being group. In a univariate analysis, most of the psychosocial factors on working conditions are significantly related with a worker’s low well-being, except for insufficient job autonomy in both genders and job insecurity for males only. After adjusting for sociodemographic and structural factors on working conditions, job dissatisfaction, lack of reward, lack of social support, violence and discrimination at work still showed a statistically significant association with a worker’s low well-being for both genders. We found that psychosocial working conditions were associated with the workers’ well-being. PMID:26726830

  8. Promoting Psychological Well-Being in an Urban School Using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Patrick B.; Summerville, Meredith A.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Patterson, Julie; Earnshaw, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    School psychology has recently reconceptualized its service provision model to include multitiered systems of academic and psychosocial promotion, prevention, and intervention. The availability of evidence-based programs and advances in school consultation theory accompany the paradigm shift of the field. Despite these advances, implementing…

  9. Linking Metatraits of the Big Five to Well-Being and Ill-Being: Do Basic Psychological Needs Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Omer Faruk; Koydemir, Selda

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that two higher order factors underlie the Big-Five dimensions and that these two factors provide a parsimonious taxonomy. However, not much empirical evidence has been documented as to the extent to which these traits relate to certain psychological constructs. In this study, we tested a structural model to…

  10. Relationship of Weight-Based Teasing and Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To date, research has focused primarily on psychological correlates of weight-based teasing. In this study, we extended previous work by also examining physical health-related variables (eg, physical self-concept and physical fitness [PF]). Methods: Participants included 1419 middle school students (637 boys and 782 girls). Of these,…

  11. School Functioning and Psychological Well-Being of International Baccalaureate and General Education Students: A Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Hardesty, Robin B.; Shaffer, Emily J.

    2006-01-01

    The current study compared the school and psychological functioning of 122 gifted and high-achieving students to that of 176 general education students educated in the same school. Relative to their peers in general education, gifted and high-achieving students served in the school's International Baccalaureate (IB) program reported more positive…

  12. The Role of Work in Psychological Health and Well-Being: A Conceptual, Historical, and Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the "American Psychologist," is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a…

  13. Prevention in the Twenty-First Century: Promoting Health and Well-Being in Education and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the science of prevention, with special attention to prevention research and applications in education and psychology, and the importance of prevention in Asian countries. One example that will be highlighted is the recently adopted Korean government policy on Internet addiction which addresses the problem from prevention to…

  14. Sedentary behavior, depressed affect, and indicators of mental well-being in adolescence: Does the screen only matter for girls?

    PubMed

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated the effects of sedentary behavior (SB) on mental well-being and examined differences between screen-based (sSB) and non-screen-based sedentary behaviors (nSB) separately by gender. In a total sample of 1296 students (609 girls) aged 12-17 (m = 13.7, SD = 0.67), SB, depressed affect, self-esteem, physical self-concept, general self-efficacy and physical activity were assessed through self-administered questionnaires. Among girls, lower scores in self-esteem, physical self-concept as well as general self-efficacy were associated with higher sSB but not nSB. Among boys higher levels of sSB related to higher self-esteem, nSB but not sSB predicted higher scores in depressed affect, and there was a u-shaped association between sSB and general self-efficacy. Results replicate the inverse association between SB and mental well-being, and suggest a distinction between nSB and sSB especially among girls. Additional studies will be necessary to replicate, and further examine mediating mechanisms.

  15. The relation of social support, connectedness, and collective self-esteem to the psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth.

    PubMed

    Detrie, Pamela M; Lease, Suzanne H

    2007-01-01

    The present study extended the research on the mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth by testing the relationship of social support, social connectedness, and collective self-esteem to psychological well-being in a sample of 218 LGB youth. Perceived social support significantly predicted psychological well-being subscales; social connectedness and collective self-esteem contributed significantly to the psychological well-being of the LGB participants when controlling for perceived social support. Age moderated the relations between several of the social and psychological well-being variables. Results of the study suggest that helping professionals working with LGB youth consider assessment of the youth's sense of connectedness to those around him/her and esteem related to LGB group membership in addition to assessing general social support.

  16. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.

  17. Applying Intervention Mapping to Develop a Community-Based Intervention Aimed at Improved Psychological and Social Well-Being of Unmarried Teenage Mothers in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried…

  18. Assessing Psychological Symptoms and Well-Being: Application of a Dual-Factor Mental Health Model to Understand College Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antaramian, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A dual-factor mental health model includes measures of positive psychological well-being in addition to traditional indicators of psychopathology to comprehensively determine mental health status. The current study examined the utility of this model in understanding the psychological adjustment and educational functioning of college students. A…

  19. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  20. Social support, organizational characteristics, psychological well-being, and group appraisal in three self-help group populations.

    PubMed

    Maton, K I

    1988-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of three social support and three organizational variables to two well-being and two group appraisal variables among 144 members of Compassionate Friends, Multiple Sclerosis, and Overeaters Anonymous self-help groups. An anonymous questionnaire was the major research instrument. Receiving social support was not significantly related to depression or anxiety but was positively related to perceived group benefits and group satisfaction. Providing social support and friendship were each positively related to one well-being and one group appraisal variable. Bidirectional supporters (i.e., individuals high on both receiving and providing support) reported more favorable well-being and group appraisal than Receivers, Providers, and Low Supporters. At the group level of analysis (n = 15 groups), groups with higher levels of role differentiation, greater order and organization, and in which leaders were perceived as more capable contained members who reported more positive well-being and group appraisal. The implications for future research and professional consultation to self-help groups are discussed.

  1. Culture, Power, Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being within Romantic Relationships: A Comparison of European American and Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Kristin D.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated possible cultural differences in the association of power, authentic self-expression, and well-being within romantic relationships. Participants (N = 314) included European American students from a central Texas university and Mexican American students from a border university. Results indicated that power inequality was…

  2. Psychological Needs as Mediators? The Relationship between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Well Being in People Diagnosed with Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnell, Katie E.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Adachi, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in compromised bone strength, increased fracture risk, and reduced well being. With evidence attesting to the positive effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on biomedical health in people with…

  3. Marital Satisfaction among Older Couples: The Role of Satisfaction with Social Networks and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ruth; Isherwood, Linda; Burton, Cassandra; Kitwe-Magambo, Katie; Luszcz, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is important for health and well-being, although determinants of satisfaction among older couples are unclear. Much of the marital literature has focused on the role of the spouse, in isolation from satisfaction with broader social relationships. We conducted separate semi-structured interviews with both members of n = 40…

  4. Psychological Well-Being and Family Satisfaction Levels Five Years After Being Confirmed as a Carrier of the Machado-Joseph Disease Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carlos; Gomes, Elisabete; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Bettencourt, Conceição; Raposo, Mafalda; Kay, Teresa Taylor; MacLeod, Patrick; Vasconcelos, João

    2012-01-01

    The present study on long-term outcome of presymptomatic testing for Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) aimed to evaluate the psychological well-being and the familial satisfaction of subjects that 5 years prior received an unfavorable result in the predictive testing (PT). The study included 47 testees of Azorean origin (23 from the island of Flores and 24 from S. Miguel) that completed the fourth evaluation session of the MJD protocol, and undertook a neurological examination at the moment of participation in the study. Nearly 50% of testees were symptomatic at the time of the study. Psychological well-being of the 47 participants was evaluated using the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB). The family satisfaction scale by adjectives was applied to obtain information on family dynamics. The average PGWB score of the total participants was of 73.3, a value indicative of psychological well-being. Nearly half of the testees presented scores indicating psychological well-being, whereas scores indicating moderate (28.9%) or severe (23.7%) stress were found in the remaining. The average score in the PGWB scale was lower in symptomatic than in asymptomatic subjects; moreover, the distinct distribution of the well-being categories seen in the two groups shows an impact of the appearance of first symptoms on the psychological state. Motives for undertaking the test, provided 5 years prior, failed to show an impact in well-being. The average score for familial satisfaction was of 134, a value compatible with high familial satisfaction, which represented the most frequent category (59.6%). Results demonstrate that well-being and family satisfaction need to be monitored in confirmed carriers of the MJD mutation. The inclusion of acceptance studies, after PT, as well as the development of acceptance training actions, should be of major importance to anticipate the possibility of psychological damage. PMID:23153003

  5. 'Feel the Feeling': Psychological practitioners' experience of acceptance and commitment therapy well-being training in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Wardley, Matt Nj; Flaxman, Paul E; Willig, Carla; Gillanders, David

    2016-08-01

    This empirical study investigates psychological practitioners' experience of worksite training in acceptance and commitment therapy using an interpretative phenomenological analysis methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants, and three themes emerged from the interpretative phenomenological analysis data analysis: influence of previous experiences, self and others and impact and application The significance of the experiential nature of the acceptance and commitment therapy training is explored as well as the dual aspects of developing participants' self-care while also considering their own clinical practice. Consistencies and inconsistencies across acceptance and commitment therapy processes are considered as well as clinical implications, study limitations and future research suggestions.

  6. Women of the 1950s and the "Normative" Life Course: The Implications of Childlessness, Fertility Timing, and Martial Status for Psychological Well-Being in Late Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Pienta, Amy Mehraban; Brown, Tyson H.

    2007-01-01

    We explore women's psychological well-being in late midlife in relation to childlessness and timing of entry into motherhood. Using two U.S. surveys, Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (1992) and National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) (Sweet, Bumpass, & Call, 1988), we assess the well-being of childless women in their 50s compared to…

  7. Effect of Growth Mindset on School Engagement and Psychological Well-Being of Chinese Primary and Middle School Students: The Mediating Role of Resilience.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guang; Hou, Hanchao; Peng, Kaiping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of positive education is not only to improve students' well-being but also their academic performance. As an important concept in positive education, growth mindset refers to core assumptions about the malleability of a person's intellectual abilities. The present study investigates the relation of growth mindsets to psychological well-being and school engagement. The study also explores the mediating function of resilience in this relation. We recruited a total of 1260 (658 males and 602 females) Chinese students from five diversified primary and middle schools. Results from the structural equation model show that the development of high levels of growth mindsets in students predicts higher psychological well-being and school engagement through the enhancement of resilience. The current study contributes to our understanding of the potential mechanisms by which positive education (e.g., altering the mindset of students) can impact psychological well-being and school engagement.

  8. Do clown visits improve psychological and sense of physical well-being of hospitalized pediatric patients? A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M; Skolaude, D; Zaplinski, K; Maier, R F

    2011-03-01

    The study tested whether clown visits would be associated with an increase in psychological and perceived physical well-being of pediatric patients. Patients (6-14 years old) were randomized to a clown visit (n=50) or no-visit control (n=50). Patients and parents were administered a modified version of the KINDL-R questionnaire at pretest, immediately after the clown visit (posttest), and at a 4-h follow-up. The experimental group showed an increase in self-reported and parent-reported psychological well-being at posttest. However, these effects were not maintained at follow-up. There was no effect of the clown visit on perceived physical well-being. It is concluded that clown visits appear to improve psychological well-being of pediatric patients, but the effects may only be short lived.

  9. Effect of Growth Mindset on School Engagement and Psychological Well-Being of Chinese Primary and Middle School Students: The Mediating Role of Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Guang; Hou, Hanchao; Peng, Kaiping

    2016-01-01

    The objective of positive education is not only to improve students’ well-being but also their academic performance. As an important concept in positive education, growth mindset refers to core assumptions about the malleability of a person’s intellectual abilities. The present study investigates the relation of growth mindsets to psychological well-being and school engagement. The study also explores the mediating function of resilience in this relation. We recruited a total of 1260 (658 males and 602 females) Chinese students from five diversified primary and middle schools. Results from the structural equation model show that the development of high levels of growth mindsets in students predicts higher psychological well-being and school engagement through the enhancement of resilience. The current study contributes to our understanding of the potential mechanisms by which positive education (e.g., altering the mindset of students) can impact psychological well-being and school engagement. PMID:28018251

  10. Disordered Eating and Psychological Well-Being in Overweight and Nonoverweight Adolescents: Secular Trends from 1999 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Loth, Katie; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this research study, we examine how both overweight and nonoverweight adolescent girls and boys fared from 1999 to 2010 in terms of disordered eating behaviors and psychosocial well-being. Method A repeated cross-sectional design was used. Participants were recruited from public schools in 1999 (n = 3072, mean age = 14.6 ± 1.8) and 2010 (n = 2793, mean age = 14.4 ± 2.0). Secular trends were examined by weight status and gender using inverse probability weighting to control for changes in socio-demographics. Results In general, the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors and markers of psychosocial well-being among overweight girls and boys remained the same from 1999 to 2010. In contrast, among nonoverweight girls, chronic dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and extreme weight control behaviors decreased, and body satisfaction improved during this time period. Further, among non-overweight boys, the prevalence of unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors decreased, as did mean depression scores. Discussion Overall, findings indicate a strong need to ensure that messages about the dangers of disordered eating behaviors are reaching overweight youth. Obesity prevention interventions should not overlook the comorbid nature of obesity, disordered eating and poor psychosocial health; prevention programming should address shared risk factors, including dieting, media use, body dissatisfaction, and weight-related teasing. PMID:25641764

  11. Social and parasocial relationships on social network sites and their differential relationships with users' psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Baek, Young Min; Bae, Young; Jang, Hyunmi

    2013-07-01

    With the advent of social network sites (SNSs), people can efficiently maintain preexisting social relationships and make online friendships without offline encounters. While such technological features of SNSs hold a variety of potential for individual and collective benefits, some scholars warn that use of SNSs might lead to socially negative consequences, such as social isolation, erosion of social cohesion, or SNS addiction. This study distinguishes types of SNS relationships, and investigates their relationships with social isolation, interpersonal trust, and SNS addiction. We classify SNS relationships into two types: (a) social relationships based on reciprocity between a user and his/her friends, and (b) parasocial relationships in which an ordinary user is aware of activities of a celebrity (e.g., famous actors, athletes, and others) but not vice versa. Based on achievements in studies of media effect and social psychology, we constructed a set of hypotheses, and tested them using a subsample of SNS users drawn from representative survey data in South Korea. We found that dependency on parasocial relationships is positively related with loneliness but negatively correlated with interpersonal distrust, while dependency on social relationship is negatively correlated with loneliness but positively related with trust. However, more dependency on both social and parasocial relationships are positively related with SNS addiction. Implications based on findings are also discussed.

  12. The moral worth of sport reconsidered: contributions of recreational sport and competitive sport to life aspirations and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2007-07-01

    Based on self-determination theory, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that importance ratings of life aspirations would mediate the effects of participation in recreational and competitive sport on psychological well-being. In addition, the effects of sport participation on psychological well-being were hypothesized to indicate that, compared with competitive athletes, recreational athletes would report higher psychological well-being. The participants were 118 university students (83 males, 35 females) with a mean age of 20.8 years (s = 7.6). In accordance with the initial hypotheses, a path analysis supported the mediating effect of importance ratings of life aspirations, but not of attainment ratings of life aspirations, on the relationship between participation in recreational and competitive sport and psychological well-being. The indirect effects observed for importance ratings supported the conclusion that recreational athletes showed a preference for intrinsic life aspirations compared with competitive athletes and reported higher psychological well-being. Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that the moral worth of sport does not reside so much in the frequency with which individuals engage in sport but in the goals and values people express through sport participation.

  13. Developing a predictive tool for psychological well-being among Chinese adolescents in the presence of missing data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multi-dimensional behavioral rating scales like the CBCL and YSR are available for diagnosing psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents, but these are unsuitable for large-scale usage since they are time-consuming and their many sensitive questions often lead to missing data. This research applies multiple imputation to tackle the effects of missing data in order to develop a simple questionnaire-based predictive instrument for psychosocial maladjustment. Methods Questionnaires from 2919 Chinese sixth graders in 21 schools were collected, but 86% of the students were missing one or more of the variables for analysis. Fifteen (10 training, 5 validation) samples were imputed using multivariate imputation chain equations. A ten-variable instrument was constructed by applying stepwise variable selection algorithms to the training samples, and its predictive performance was evaluated on the validation samples. Results The instrument had an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.78) and a calibration slope of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.86 to 1.09). The prevalence of psychosocial maladjustment was 18%. If a score of > 1 was used to define a negative test, then 80% of the students would be classified as negative. The resulting test had a diagnostic odds ratio of 5.64 (95% CI: 4.39 to 7.24), with negative and positive predictive values of 88% and 43%, and negative and positive likelihood ratios of 0.61 and 3.41, respectively. Conclusions Multiple imputation together with internal validation provided a simple method for deriving a predictive instrument in the presence of missing data. The instrument's high negative predictive value implies that in populations with similar prevalences of psychosocial maladjustment test-negative students can be confidently excluded as being normal, thus saving 80% of the resources for confirmatory psychological testing. PMID:21854626

  14. The relationship of prejudicial attitudes to psychological, social, and physical well-being within a sample of college students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khanh T; Holmberg, Michelle D; Ho, Ivy K; Haynes, Michelle C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of prejudicial attitudes to psychological, social, and physical well-being among 495 college students in the Northeast region of the United States. Prejudicial attitudes included racism, sexism, homophobia, physical disability bias, weight/body-size bias, and anti-immigrant sentiment. As a secondary objective, we examined the associations among the various forms of prejudice and their relationship to key demographic and personal characteristics. We also examined the associations between psychological, social, and physical well-being. The results indicated that specific forms of prejudice, especially racism and sexism, were negative correlates of psychological, social, and/or physical well-being. The results also indicated that there may exist a prejudicial syndrome, linking diverse forms of prejudice. Furthermore, poor functioning in one area of well-being (e.g., psychological health) is related to poor functioning in other areas of well-being (social and physical health). Overall, this study provides important implications for future research and prevention programs in the area of prejudice and well-being.

  15. Meaning in life in chronic pain patients over time: associations with pain experience and psychological well-being

    PubMed Central

    Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen; Wachholtz, Amy

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relationship between meaning in life and adjustment to chronic pain in a three-wave, 2 year, longitudinal study of 273 Belgian chronic pain patients. We examined the directionality of the relationships among the meaning in life dimensions (Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning) and indicators of adjustment (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, pain intensity, and pain medication use). We found that Presence of Meaning was an important predictor of well-being. Secondly, we used a typological methodology to distinguish meaning in life profiles, and the relationship of individual meaning in life profiles with indicators of adjustment. Five meaning in life profiles emerged: High Presence High Search, High Presence Low Search, Moderate Presence Moderate Search, Low Presence Low Search, and Low Presence High Search. Each meaning in life profile was associated with a unique adjustment outcome. Profiles that scored high on Presence of Meaning showed more optimal adjustment. The profiles showed little change over time and did not moderate the development of adjustment indicators, except for life satisfaction. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25537924

  16. Change in Brainstem Gray Matter Concentration Following a Mindfulness-Based Intervention is Correlated with Improvement in Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Omar; Hölzel, Britta K.; Vangel, Mark; Brach, Narayan; Carmody, James; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can improve their levels of psychological well-being (PWB) through utilization of psychological interventions, including the practice of mindfulness meditation, which is defined as the non-judgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment. We recently reported that an 8-week-mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course lead to increases in gray matter concentration in several brain areas, as detected with voxel-based morphometry of magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo MRI scans, including the pons/raphe/locus coeruleus area of the brainstem. Given the role of the pons and raphe in mood and arousal, we hypothesized that changes in this region might underlie changes in well-being. A subset of 14 healthy individuals from a previously published data set completed anatomical MRI and filled out the PWB scale before and after MBSR participation. PWB change was used as the predictive regressor for changes in gray matter density within those brain regions that had previously shown pre- to post-MBSR changes. Results showed that scores on five PWB subscales as well as the PWB total score increased significantly over the MBSR course. The change was positively correlated with gray matter concentration increases in two symmetrically bilateral clusters in the brainstem. Those clusters appeared to contain the area of the pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus, nucleus raphe pontis, and the sensory trigeminal nucleus. No clusters were negatively correlated with the change in PWB. This preliminary study suggests a neural correlate of enhanced PWB. The identified brain areas include the sites of synthesis and release of the neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin, which are involved in the modulation of arousal and mood, and have been related to a variety of affective functions as well as associated clinical dysfunctions. PMID:24600370

  17. Trans-local ties, local ties and psychological well-being among rural-to-urban migrants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Wen, Ming; Fan, Jessie X; Wang, Guixin

    2012-07-01

    During the past three decades, an estimated 200 million rural residents have moved to urban centers in China. They are "sojourners" in the cities and maintain close ties with their home communities, which we term trans-local ties. This paper examines the relationship between migrants' social ties and their mental health, and contrasts the trans-local ties with migrants' ties in the receiving communities, which are termed local ties. We expect that for the migrants, trans-local ties foster better mental health not only through providing emotional support but also through generating favorable social comparisons; whereas local ties may furnish important social support, but may also produce negative social comparisons. We use data collected in Shanghai to test our expectations. We compare the migrants to a sample of Shanghai natives to assess patterns of relationship between social ties and mental health that are unique to the migrants. We find that for the migrants, more numerous trans-local ties are associated with better mental health, whereas the number of local ties is not a significant predictor. This pattern is not observed among the Shanghai natives. Moreover, for migrants, trans-local ties foster a favorable evaluation of their status in Shanghai and buffer their perception of discrimination; in contrast, more numerous local ties tend to be associated with a more negative perception of social status. The findings highlight an often-overlooked pathway between social ties and health outcomes, namely, through influencing social comparison and perceived social status. This study also suggests that in addition to reducing institutional and personal discrimination, facilitating close bonds between the migrants and their home communities may be a productive way to foster their well-being, in the context of contemporary urban China.

  18. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities and psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents in intact and non-intact families in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether Chinese adolescents' perceptions (N = 3,017) of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge, expectation, monitoring, discipline, and demandingness as well as parental control based on indigenous Chinese concepts), parental psychological control, parent-child relational qualities (perceived parental trust, child's trust of the parents, child's readiness to communicate with the parents, and child's satisfaction with parental control), and adolescent psychological well-being (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem) differed in intact and non-intact families. Results showed that relative to non-intact families, parental behavioral control processes were higher and parent-child relational qualities were better in intact families. In contrast, parental psychological control was higher in non-intact families than in intact families. Finally, the psychological well-being of adolescents in non-intact families was poorer than that of adolescents in intact families.

  19. Developing Instruments to Capture Young People's Perceptions of How School as a Learning Environment Affects Their Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awartani, Marwan; Whitman, Cheryl Vince; Gordon, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Universal Education Foundation's (UEF) activities to create research tools and methodologies that capture the voices of children concerning their perceptions of the effect of the school learning environment on their well-being. UEF defines well-being as the realisation of one's physical, emotional, mental, social and…

  20. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  1. Chinese Migrant Adolescents’ Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being: The Moderating Roles of Group Identity and the Type of School

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination can be harmful to migrant adolescents in China. However, little is known about the processes through which discrimination may be linked to decreased well-being in Chinese migrant adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and three indices of psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, collective self-esteem) in 798 Chinese migrant adolescents (49.4% from public schools). Group identity affirmation and belonging (GIAB) was examined as a protective factor that was expected to alleviate the negative effects of perceived discrimination on well-being, and the type of school was investigated as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. The results indicate that perceived discrimination was negatively linked to the three indices of psychological well-being and that the negative effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being were particularly salient for migrant adolescents attending public schools. Additionally, GIAB emerged as a protective buffer against perceived discrimination’s negative effects on collective well-being. PMID:26731529

  2. Psychological factors affecting migraine.

    PubMed

    Shulman, B H

    1989-01-01

    Psychological factors are known to increase the severity and intensity of headaches. When they are shown to be present, an appropriate psychiatric diagnosis is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's (DSMIII-R) category of psychological factors affecting physical condition (code no. 316.0). These factors can be differentiated into stress factors, personality traits, psychodynamic factors, learned behaviors, and mood disturbances. The factors overlap and intertwine in the average headache patient. Attention to these factors in a systematic way should enhance our understanding and treatment of the chronic headache patient.

  3. Well-being affects changes in perceptual speed in advanced old age: longitudinal evidence for a dynamic link.

    PubMed

    Gerstorf, Denis; Lövdén, Martin; Röcke, Christina; Smith, Jacqui; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2007-05-01

    This study examined competing hypotheses about dynamic cross-domain associations between perceptual speed and well-being in advanced old age. We applied the bivariate dual change score model (J. J. McArdle & F. Hamagami, 2001) to 13-year incomplete longitudinal data from the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N=516, 70-103 years at T1, M=85 years). Reports of well-being were found to influence subsequent decline in perceptual speed (time lags of 2 years). No evidence was found for a directed effect in the other direction. None of the potential covariates examined (initial health constraints, personality, and social participation) accounted for these differential lead-lag associations. Our results suggest that well-being is not only a consequence of but also a source for successful aging. The discussion focuses on conceptual implications and methodological considerations.

  4. Experiences of School Bullying, Psychological Well-Being and Stress in Northern Ireland: Findings from the Young Life and Times Survey, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Guckin, Conor

    2010-01-01

    Comparatively little is known about the nature, incidence and correlates of bully/victim problems in the Northern Ireland school system. The study examined the prevalence of self-reported experiences of bully/victim problems and the relationship between such experiences and levels of stress and psychological well-being among a representative…

  5. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values, and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian…

  6. Investigating Burnout and Psychological Well-Being of Staff Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: The Role of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Man Cheung; Harding, Carly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present research extended previous research by broadening the dimensions of personality traits, and focusing on burnout and psychological well-being among staff working with people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey in which 103 staff completed questionnaires…

  7. The Mediating Role of Perceived Parental Warmth and Parental Punishment in the Psychological Well-Being of Children in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented that parenting practices, such as parental warmth and parental punishment, play a mediating role in linking individual (e.g., age, gender) and familial characteristics (e.g., economic status, marital quality) to the psychological well-being of children. However, few studies have validated these connections with respect to…

  8. Family Quality of Life and Psychological Well-Being in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double ABCX Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, P.; Sarriá, E.; Brioso, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined family quality of life (FQOL) and psychological well-being from a multidimensional perspective. The proposed model was based on the double ABCX model, with severity of the disorder, behaviour problems, social support, sense of coherence (SOC) and coping strategies as components. Method: One hundred and eighteen…

  9. Effects of Emotional Intelligence and Locus of Control Training on the Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eniola, M. S.; Ajobiewe, Abthonia Ifeoma

    2013-01-01

    This current study, investigated the relative effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Training (EIT) and Locus of Control Training (LCT) on the psychological well-being of adolescent with visual impairment. The pretest-posttest control group experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix was used. The participants were 120 adolescents with…

  10. Bullying of Students by Teachers and Peers and Its Effect on the Psychological Well-Being of Students in Jamaican Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Audrey M.; Stair, Angela Gordon

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 225 Jamaican university students were asked to recall their bullying experiences at elementary and high schools. Being verbally humiliated, robbed, and beaten were the top three frequently-occurring experiences. Acts of bullying by peers and educators were compared for their impact on students' psychological well being. Educator but…

  11. Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Well-Being: Stability and Cross-Lagged Relations within One- and Six-Year Follow-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2008-01-01

    The rank-order stability and cross-lagged relations between work-to-family conflict (WFC), family-to-work conflict (FWC), and psychological well-being were examined in two longitudinal studies with full two-wave panel designs. In Study 1 (n = 365), the time lag was one year, and in Study 2 (n = 153), six years. The Structural Equation Modeling…

  12. Perceived Parental Control Processes, Parent-Child Relational Qualities, and Psychological Well-Being in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques…

  13. The Psychological Well-Being of Unaccompanied Minors: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescents Immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the psychological well-being of high school adolescents immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without parents. Data were collected in a 3-year longitudinal study that covered the premigration through postmigration periods. Immigrant adolescents were compared with nonemigrating adolescents in Russia and Ukraine.…

  14. Childlessness and Psychological Well-Being in Midlife and Old Age: An Examination of Parental Status Effects across a Range of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt; Moum, Torbjorn

    2009-01-01

    The study explores and distinguishes links between parental status (childless persons, parents with residential children, and empty nest parents) and a range of psychological well-being outcomes in midlife and old age. Data are from the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG) study (n = 5,189). We separate outcomes…

  15. The impacts of dispositional optimism and psychological resilience on the subjective well-being of burn patients: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Cao, Rong; Feng, Ziqi; Guan, Hao; Peng, Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Burn wounds are severely stressful events that can have a significant impact on the mental health of patients. However, the impact of burns on individuals with different personality traits can be different. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of dispositional optimism on the subjective well-being of burn patients, and mainly focused on the confirmation of the mediator role of psychological resilience. 410 burn patients from five general hospitals in Xi'an accomplished the revised Life Orientation Test, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) scale. The results revealed that both dispositional optimism and psychological resilience were significantly correlated with SWB. Structural equation modelling indicated that psychological resilience partially mediated the relationship between dispositional optimism and SWB. The current findings extended prior reports and shed some light on how dispositional optimism influenced SWB. Limitations of the study were considered and suggestions for future studies were also discussed.

  16. Psychological need satisfaction and well-being in adults aged 80 years and older living in residential homes: using a self-determination theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Martinent, Guillaume; Durmaz, Neriman

    2014-08-01

    Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study aims to examine the psychological needs satisfaction of the elderly living in residential homes and their relationship with indicators of well-being, and then to test the contribution of each need on these indicators. Participants (N=100; Mage=86.7 years, SD=3.78) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, purpose in life, personal growth and geriatric depression. Cluster analyses showed two distinct profiles: one profile with a high satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs and another profile with a low satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. These profiles did not differ in terms of residents' characteristics, health problems and functional limitations. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results revealed that the participants with the profile of a high satisfaction of psychological needs have significantly higher levels of purpose in life and personal growth than participants with the profile of a low satisfaction of psychological needs, and no effect of cluster membership on depressive feelings was reported. Moreover, for all participants, relatedness need satisfaction was significantly and positively related to personal growth, and autonomy and relatedness needs satisfaction was related to purpose of life. In conclusion, our results offer evidence that old age can be fruitful and, in consistent with SDT, show that autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction is positively associated with indicators of well-being such as purpose in life and personal growth, considered as essential components of optimal functioning.

  17. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    PubMed

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  18. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  19. Pain-related musculoskeletal disorders, psychological comorbidity, and the relationship with physical and mental well-being in Gulf War veterans.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Helen Louise; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Roberts, Minainyo Helen; Urquhart, Donna Michelle; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2014-04-01

    Occupational activities such as lifting loads, working in constrained spaces, and training increase the risk of pain-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in military veterans. Few studies have investigated MSD and psychological disorder in veterans, and previous studies had limitations. This cross-sectional study compared pain-related MSD and psychological comorbidity and well-being between 1381 male Australian 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans (veterans) and a military comparison group (n=1377, of whom 39.6% were serving and 32.7% had previously deployed). At a medical assessment, 2000-2002, reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis or rheumatism, back or neck problems, joint problems, and soft tissue disorders were rated by medical practitioners as nonmedical, unlikely, possible, or probable diagnoses. Only probable MSDs were analysed. Psychological disorders in the past 12 months were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) assessed 4-week physical and mental well-being. Almost one-quarter of veterans (24.5%) and the comparison group (22.4%) reported an MSD. Having any or specific MSD was associated with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not alcohol disorders. Physical and mental well-being was poorer in those with an MSD compared to those without, in both study groups (eg, veterans with any MSD, difference in SF-12 physical component summary scale medians = -10.49: 95% confidence interval -12.40, -8.57), and in those with MSD and psychological comorbidity compared with MSD alone. Comorbidity of any MSD and psychological disorder was more common in veterans, but MSDs were associated with depression, PTSD, and poorer well-being in both groups. Psychological comorbidity needs consideration in MSD management. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess directionality and causality.

  20. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found to moderate the relationship between race-related stress on well-being. Specifically, individuals in low race-related stress conditions who had low Asian values, high Conformity and low Dissonance attitudes started high on well being but decreased as race-related stress increased. These findings underscore the importance of how racial identity statuses, Asian values and ethnic identity jointly and uniquely explain and moderate the effects of race-related stress on positive well-being. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20396592

  1. Psychological well-being of parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment in south India: influence of behavioural problems in children and social support.

    PubMed

    van Driessche, Anne; Jotheeswaran, A T; Murthy, G V S; Pilot, Eva; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pant, Hira; Singh, Vivek; Dpk, Babu

    2014-08-01

    Parents of children with hearing impairment are at increased risk of mental health morbidities. We examined the predictive factors associated with caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities in parents and family caregivers of children with hearing impairment. In total, n = 201 parents and family caregivers of children with and without hearing impairment aged 3 to 16 years were recruited. Caregiver's strain and psychological morbidities were measured using the Zarit Burden scale and the World Health Organization's Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Presence of behavioural problems in children was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. After adjustment, low educational attainment and domestic violence were found to be associated with caregiving strain, whereas dissatisfaction with social support from family, behavioural problems in children, and domestic violence strongly predicted psychological morbidities. Addressing the mental healthcare needs of parents may help in downsizing the impact of psychological morbidities on the well-being of children with hearing impairment.

  2. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Rapid Screening of Psychological Well-Being of Patients with Chronic Illness: Reliability and Validity Test on WHO-5 and PHQ-9 Scales.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to test the reliability and validity of two simple psychological screening scales, the World Health Organization Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), in patients with chronic illness in Taiwan and to understand the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness (e.g., metabolic syndrome) in Taiwan and the incidences of psychological problems that follow. The research design of this study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 310 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS), aged 20 years or more, from the outpatient clinic of a municipal hospital in Taiwan. This study used questionnaires to collect basic information, including physiological indices, WHO-5 and PHQ-9 that were used. "Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS)," and "World Health Organization Quality of Life-Short-form Version for Taiwan (WHOQOL)". Results are as follows: (1) compared to PHQ-9, the reliability and validity of WHO-5 are better for screening the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness. (2) The features of WHO-5 are high sensitivity, briefness, and ease-of-use. The incidence of depression in patients with metabolic syndrome was approximately 1.0-6.5%, which is significantly lower than that of western countries.

  4. A review of the effectiveness of stress management skills training on academic vitality and psychological well-being of college students.

    PubMed

    Alborzkouh, P; Nabati, M; Zainali, M; Abed, Y; Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Carrying out the appropriate psychological interventions to improve vitality and mental well-being is critical. The study was carried out to review the effectiveness of stress management training on the academic life and mental well-being of the students of Shahed University. Methodology: The method used was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest plan and control group. Therefore, a total of 40 students of Shahed University of Tehran were selected by a convenience sampling method and were organized into two groups: experimental and control group. Both groups were pretested by using an academic vitality inventory and an 84-question psychological well-being inventory. Then, the experimental group received stress management skills training for ten sessions, and the control group did not receive any intervention. Next, both groups were post-tested, and the data were analyzed with SPSS-21 software by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings: The findings showed that the stress management skills training significantly contributed to promoting the academic vitality and psychological well-being of students (p < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded from this research that teaching the methods for dealing with stress was an effective strategy to help students exposed to high stress and pressure, and this was due to its high efficiency, especially when it was held in groups, had a small cost, and it was accepted by the individuals.

  5. Social and psychological well-being in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: the effects of race, gender, age, and sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Kertzner, Robert M; Meyer, Ilan H; Frost, David M; Stirratt, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Using a social stress perspective, the authors studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual vs. gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, the authors examined whether LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. The authors found different patterns when looking at social versus psychological well-being and positive versus negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Although no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. The authors conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model.

  6. Social and Psychological Well-being in Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals: The Effects of Race, Gender, Age, and Sexual Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kertzner, Robert M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Frost, David M.; Stirratt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Using social stress perspective, we studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African-American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual versus gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, we examined if LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. We found different patterns when looking at social vs. psychological well-being and positive vs. negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Though no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. We conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model. PMID:20099941

  7. A review of the effectiveness of stress management skills training on academic vitality and psychological well-being of college students

    PubMed Central

    Alborzkouh, P; Nabati, M; Zainali, M; Abed, Y; Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Carrying out the appropriate psychological interventions to improve vitality and mental well-being is critical. The study was carried out to review the effectiveness of stress management training on the academic life and mental well-being of the students of Shahed University. Methodology: The method used was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest plan and control group. Therefore, a total of 40 students of Shahed University of Tehran were selected by a convenience sampling method and were organized into two groups: experimental and control group. Both groups were pretested by using an academic vitality inventory and an 84-question psychological well-being inventory. Then, the experimental group received stress management skills training for ten sessions, and the control group did not receive any intervention. Next, both groups were post-tested, and the data were analyzed with SPSS-21 software by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings: The findings showed that the stress management skills training significantly contributed to promoting the academic vitality and psychological well-being of students (p < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded from this research that teaching the methods for dealing with stress was an effective strategy to help students exposed to high stress and pressure, and this was due to its high efficiency, especially when it was held in groups, had a small cost, and it was accepted by the individuals.

  8. Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Anitra C.; Mainvil, Louise A.; Vissers, Margreet C. M.

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the psychological benefits of a 14-day preregistered clinical intervention to increase fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption in 171 low-FV-consuming young adults (67% female, aged 18–25). Participants were randomly assigned into a diet-as-usual control condition, an ecological momentary intervention (EMI) condition involving text message reminders to increase their FV consumption plus a voucher to purchase FV, or a fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI) condition in which participants were given two additional daily servings of fresh FV to consume on top of their normal diet. Self-report outcome measures were depressive symptoms and anxiety measured pre- and post-intervention, and daily negative and positive mood, vitality, flourishing, and flourishing behaviors (curiosity, creativity, motivation) assessed nightly using a smartphone survey. Vitamin C and carotenoids were measured from blood samples pre- and post-intervention, and psychological expectancies about the benefits of FV were measured post-intervention to test as mediators of psychological change. Only participants in the FVI condition showed improvements to their psychological well-being with increases in vitality, flourishing, and motivation across the 14-days relative to the other groups. No changes were found for depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood. Intervention benefits were not mediated by vitamin C, carotenoids, or psychological expectancies. We conclude that providing young adults with high-quality FV, rather than reminding them to eat more FV (with a voucher to purchase FV), resulted in significant short-term improvements to their psychological well-being. These results provide initial proof-of-concept that giving young adults fresh fruit and vegetables to eat can have psychological benefits even over a brief period of time. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12615000183583 PMID:28158239

  9. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being – A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19–72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father–child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes. PMID:27679796

  10. Contemporary Fatherhood and Its Consequences for Paternal Psychological Well-being - A Cross-sectional Study of Fathers in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The emotional consequences of fatherhood are markedly conditional on the context in which fatherhood is lived out. This study examines the association between different contemporary forms of fatherhood and paternal psychological well-being. The data are from an anonymous online survey of 3615 biological fathers, stepfathers, adoptive fathers, and foster fathers across the German-speaking countries of Central Europe. First, a detailed characterization of the different existing family constellations is provided. Second, the consequences of these different contemporary forms of fatherhood for paternal psychological well-being are investigated. Fathers of all ages (M = 40.11, range: 19-72) with at least one child under the age of 18 were included in the present analysis (N = 2785). The presented findings demonstrate that a family structure consisting of two biological parents with biological children seems to be most beneficial to paternal well-being, while some other forms of contemporary fatherhood are associated with impaired well-being, independently of sociodemographic or relationship aspects. More specifically, a history of family separation in non-residential biological fathers and blended-family fathers, and the concomitant loss of father-child contact, is shown to be particularly disadvantageous for the well-being of these fathers. Shared living arrangements, maintaining regular contact with biological children, or forming a new intact family could protect these fathers from negative outcomes.

  11. Social media use, body image, and psychological well-being: a cross-cultural comparison of Korea and the United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Lee, Hye Eun; Choi, Jounghwa; Kim, Jang Hyun; Han, Hae Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships among social media use for information, self-status seeking and socializing, body image, self-esteem, and psychological well-being, and some cultural effects moderating these relationships. Americans (n = 502) and Koreans (n = 518) completed an online survey. The main findings showed that (a) social media use for information about body image is negatively related to body satisfaction in the United States and Korea, while social media use for self-status seeking regarding body image is positively related to body satisfaction only in Korea; and (b) body satisfaction has direct and indirect positive effects on psychological well-being manifested in similar ways in the United States and Korea. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  12. The psychological well-being of disability caregivers: examining the roles of family strain, family-to-work conflict, and perceived supervisor support.

    PubMed

    Li, Andrew; Shaffer, Jonathan; Bagger, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We draw on the cross-domain model of work-family conflict and conservation of resources theory to examine the relationship between disability caregiving demands and the psychological well-being of employed caregivers. Using a sample of employed disability caregivers from a national survey, we found that the relationship between caregiving demands and family-to-work conflict was stronger when employees experienced high levels of strain from family. Additionally, we found high levels of family to-work conflict were subsequently associated with decreases in life satisfaction and increases in depression, but only when perceived supervisor support was low. Overall, our findings suggest an indirect relationship between caregiving demands and psychological well-being that is mediated by family-to-work conflict and is conditional on family strain and perceived supervisor support. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Workplace Bullying in a Sample of Italian and Spanish Employees and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction, and Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Montani, Francesco; Mancuso, Serena; Perez, Javier Fiz; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence rate of workplace bullying in a sample of Italian and Spanish employees, and its differential consequences on employees’ job satisfaction and psychological well-being. The effects of workplace bullying on job satisfaction and psychological well-being were explored taking into account a contextualized approach. Design/Methodology/approach – Cross-sectional study was adopted, in which a sample of 1,151 employees in Italy and 705 in Spain completed a questionnaire. We hypothesized that the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and psychological well-being is mediated by job satisfaction, and that this simple mediation model is moderated by the country (moderated mediation). Findings – Results suggest that no particular differences exist in bullying prevalence among Spanish and Italian employees. However, we found scientific confirmation of our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Research limitations/implications – Despite the limitations of the sample studied, findings capture contextual differences in the bullying phenomenon, which may have several implications for further research in this domain, as well as for designing interventions to deal with workplace bullying. Originality/value – Although this study explores bullying in different cultural contexts without investigating specific cultural values, it establishes the roots to assess workplace bullying from a contextualized perspective. PMID:26696948

  14. The mediating role of social support in the relationship between psychological well-being and health-risk behaviors among Chinese university students

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Catie CW; Ma, Cecilia MS

    2016-01-01

    While literature has displayed a link between psychological well-being (i.e. depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction) and health-risk behaviors (i.e. smoking, drinking, suicide, and physical inactivity), the mechanisms underlying this relationship have received little empirical attention. This study examines the mediation effects of social support (from family, friends, and significant others) that accounted for the link. Participants were 2023 university students (47.7% male). Structural equation modeling showed partial mediation effect of social support between psychological well-being and health-risk behaviors. In particular, social support from family and friends jointly mediated about 80 percent of the effect of life satisfaction and hopelessness on drinking. These results offered novel evidence that helps improve theorizing the mechanisms of the relationship between psychological well-being and health-risk behaviors. They also highlighted the potential benefits of social support for university students to help them stay healthy. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:28070409

  15. Exploring the predicted effect of social networking site use on perceived social capital and psychological well-being of Chinese international students in Japan.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Li, Yiwei; Ito, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how social networking sites (SNSs) use by Chinese international students in Japan influenced their perceived social capital and psychological well-being. In addition, it examined how, as sojourners, Chinese international students' perceived acculturative stress varied. Data were collected from 142 Chinese international students. The results indicated that the intensity of SNS use was unable to predict individuals' perceived social capital and psychological well-being. The effect of SNS use varied according to the functions it serves. Specifically, SNS use for social and informational functions (SIF) increased individuals' levels of perceived bridging social capital and perceived life satisfaction, while SNS use for entertaining recreational functions (ERF) was unable to predict perceived social capital but increased individuals' levels of loneliness. It was also found that, in the intercultural environment, Chinese international students' levels of perceived acculturative stress were decreased by their perceived bonding social capital and increased by their perceived loneliness but had no relationship with their SNS use. Findings of the study suggest that individuals using SNSs to stay informed and connected will benefit with regard to their social network building and psychological well-being.

  16. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS) was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue) which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women. PMID:27610245

  17. The Effect of the More Active MuMs in Stirling Trial on Body Composition and Psychological Well-Being among Postnatal Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alyssa S; McInnes, Rhona J; Hughes, Adrienne R; Guthrie, Wendy; Jepson, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity is important for health and well-being; however, rates of postnatal physical activity can be low. This paper reports the secondary outcomes of a trial aimed at increasing physical activity among postnatal women. Methods. More Active MuMs in Stirling (MAMMiS) was a randomised controlled trial testing the effect of physical activity consultation and pram walking group intervention among inactive postnatal women. Data were collected on postnatal weight, body composition, general well-being, and fatigue. Participants were also interviewed regarding motivations and perceived benefits of participating in the trial. Results. There was no significant effect of the intervention on any weight/body composition outcome or on general well-being at three or six months of follow-up. There was a significant but inconsistent difference in fatigue between groups. Qualitative data highlighted a number of perceived benefits to weight, body composition, and particularly well-being (including improved fatigue) which were not borne out by objective data. Discussion. The MAMMiS study found no impact of the physical activity intervention on body composition and psychological well-being and indicates that further research is required to identify successful approaches to increase physical activity and improve health and well-being among postnatal women.

  18. Caregiver Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Dujela, Carren; Smith, André

    2015-01-01

    We know much about caregiving women compared with caregiving men and caregiving spouses compared with caregiving adult children. We know less about the intersections of relationship and gender. This article explores this intersection through the well-being (burden and self-esteem) of caregivers to family members with dementia. Throughout British Columbia, Canada, 873 caregivers were interviewed in person for on average, over 1½ hours. The results reveal that daughters experience the highest burden but also the highest self-esteem, suggesting the role is less salient for their self-identities. Wives emerge as the most vulnerable of the four groups when both burden and self-esteem are considered. The data confirm the usefulness of the intersectionality framework for understanding co-occupancy of more than one status and indicate that positive cognitive well-being and negative affective well-being can be differentially related. Multivariate analyses confirm the importance of caregiver, not patient, characteristics for burden and self-esteem. PMID:25651586

  19. Communication competence, psychological well-being, and the mediating role of coping efforts among women with breast cancer: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Mercer Kollar, Laura M; Roberts, Linda J; Gustafson, David H

    2015-01-01

    Despite existing research identifying psychological benefits of patients' interpersonal competence in various contexts, little longitudinal research has addressed underlying mechanism(s). To address this limitation, we examined both the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between cancer patients' communication competence in close relationships and psychological well-being, as well as the mediating role of coping efforts. Data came from a larger project with women with breast cancer (N = 661), recruited from April 2005 to May 2007 at three large university-affiliated cancer centers in the U.S. to study the effects of an Internet-based system providing patients and families with a range of services. The present study focused on survey data at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after the intervention (controlling for the possible effects of the intervention). Results from both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicated that competence in open communication between patients and their close support persons had a positive association with patients' psychological well-being and that approach coping efforts partially mediated this association. We discussed the implications and limitations of the study.

  20. Total workload as related to psychological well-being and symptoms in full-time employed female and male white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Petra; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Most research on the combined effects of paid and unpaid workload has related these factors to stress, depression, and physical symptoms. Thus, comparative knowledge concerning positive aspects of human functioning, such as health and well-being and how they relate to total workload of employed women and men, is limited. Our aim in this study was to investigate how total workload including paid and unpaid work is related to psychological well-being and symptoms in full-time employed women and men. We obtained data on workload, general symptoms, and the Ryff scales covering self-acceptance, environmental mastery, positive relations, personal growth, purpose in life, and autonomy from questionnaires mailed to a stratified sample of highly educated white-collar workers aged between 32 and 58 years. Data from women (n = 430) and men (n = 400) living in partner relationships with at least one child showed that increasing hours of unpaid work was associated with decreasing levels of self-acceptance and environmental mastery in women, whereas paid work was associated with increasing levels of personal growth and decreasing levels of purpose in life. For men, paid work was associated with increasing levels of personal growth and more symptoms. We discuss factors underlying the gender-specific relationships between paid and unpaid work, psychological well-being, and symptoms.

  1. Felt Obligation to Help Others as a Protective Factor Against Losses in Psychological Well-being Following Functional Decline in Middle and Later Life

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study examined felt obligation to help others in two domains (close others and society) as protective factors against losses in psychological well-being following functional decline. Lagged-dependent regression models were estimated using data from 849 respondents aged 35–74 years and without any functional limitations at baseline in the 1995–2005 National Survey of Midlife in the United States. Greater felt obligation to help close others protected against declining self-acceptance in the face of more severe functional decline, and greater felt obligation to help society protected against declining personal growth and self-acceptance. Greater felt obligation to help close others and society protected against increasing depressive symptoms at younger ages in adulthood. Findings suggest the importance for additional research on how aspects of altruism can promote psychological adaptation to declining functional health in middle and later life. PMID:19825942

  2. Felt obligation to help others as a protective factor against losses in psychological well-being following functional decline in middle and later life.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Emily A

    2009-11-01

    This study examined felt obligation to help others in two domains (close others and society) as protective factors against losses in psychological well-being following functional decline. Lagged-dependent regression models were estimated using data from 849 respondents aged 35-74 years and without any functional limitations at baseline in the 1995-2005 National Survey of Midlife in the United States. Greater felt obligation to help close others protected against declining self-acceptance in the face of more severe functional decline, and greater felt obligation to help society protected against declining personal growth and self-acceptance. Greater felt obligation to help close others and society protected against increasing depressive symptoms at younger ages in adulthood. Findings suggest the importance for additional research on how aspects of altruism can promote psychological adaptation to declining functional health in middle and later life.

  3. Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention to improve parents' psychological well-being and child development: Description of the intervention and study protocol.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Boukydis, Zack; Axelin, Anna Margareta; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2016-10-12

    Parents of preterm infants commonly experience separation from their infant or exclusion from their role as primary caregivers during the hospital care of their infant, which may impair parent-infant bonding and parents' psychological well-being. Therefore, we developed the Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention to improve staff skills in communicating and collaborating with parents in neonatal intensive care units (NICU), to increase parents' presence and participation into infant care, and to improve parent-infant bonding and, thereby, parents' psychological well-being and later child development. The Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention was developed and carried out at Turku University Hospital. The intervention was based on developmental theories about early parenthood and parent-infant attachment. The training was targeted at both doctors and nurses. The goals of the training included understanding individual behaviors and responses of infants and the uniqueness of families, using receptive listening skills in communication with parents and making decisions collaboratively with them. By increasing the sensitivity of the staff to the individual needs of infants and parents and by increasing staff-parent collaboration in daily care, the intervention supported parents' presence and parents' participation in the care of their infant. The effectiveness of the intervention is being evaluated in a prospective study comparing the post-intervention cohort (n=113) to the baseline cohort (n=232). The outcomes include bonding, long-term psychological well-being of both mothers and fathers and child development up to 5 years of age. The Close Collaboration with Parents™ intervention potentially offers a preventive and salutogenic model to integrate parents and parenting in neonatal hospital care.

  4. Contributions of Social Comparison and Self-Objectification in Mediating Associations Between Facebook Use and Emergent Adults' Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Emily; Ward, L Monique; Seabrook, Rita C; Jerald, Morgan; Reed, Lauren; Giaccardi, Soraya; Lippman, Julia R

    2017-03-01

    Although Facebook was created to help people feel connected with each other, data indicate that regular usage has both negative and positive connections to well-being. To explore these mixed results, we tested the role of social comparison and self-objectification as possible mediators of the link between Facebook use and three facets of psychological well-being: self-esteem, mental health, and body shame. Participants were 1,104 undergraduate women and men who completed surveys assessing their Facebook usage (minutes, passive use, and active use), social comparison, self-objectification, and well-being. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, testing separate models for women and men. Models for each gender fit the data well. For women and men, Facebook use was associated with greater social comparison and greater self-objectification, which, in turn, was each related to lower self-esteem, poorer mental health, and greater body shame. Mediated models provided better fits to the data than models testing direct pathways to the mediators and well-being variables. Implications are discussed for young people's social media use, and future directions are provided.

  5. Effects of computer-based stress management training on psychological well-being and work performance in japanese employees: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Umanodan, Rino; Shimazu, Akihito; Minami, Masahide; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management training (SMT) program in improving employees' psychological well-being and work performance. A total of 12 work units (N=263) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (8 work units, n=142) or to a wait-list control group (4 work units, n=121). All participants were requested to answer online questionnaires assessing psychological well-being as a primary outcome, and coping style, social support, and knowledge about stress management as secondary outcomes at baseline (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1), and 2 months after the intervention (T2). The group × time interaction was tested using a mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. Results showed a group × time interaction for "knowledge about stress management" in the entire sample. Among participants who had more than 3 d of training, a significant group × time interaction was observed for "problem-solving" and "avoidance and suppression" as well as "knowledge about stress management." Our computer-based stress management program was effective for improving knowledge about stress management. It was also effective for improving coping skills in instances where participants had enough time (at least 3 d) to complete all sessions.

  6. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression, Psychological Well-Being and Feeling of Guilt in 7 - 15 Years Old Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702

  7. Why are early maturing girls less active? Links between pubertal development, psychological well-being, and physical activity among girls at ages 11 and 13

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Werder, Jessica L; Trost, Stewart G; Baker, Birgitta L; Birch, Leann L

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maturing girls at age 11 have lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 in comparison to later maturing girls. Possible reasons for this association have not been assessed. This study examines girls’ psychological response to puberty and their enjoyment of physical activity as intermediary factors linking pubertal maturation and physical activity. Participants included 178 girls who were assessed at age 11, of whom 168 were reassessed at age 13. All participants were non-Hispanic white and resided in the U.S. Three measures of pubertal development were obtained at age 11 including Tanner breast stage, estradiol levels, and mothers’ reports of girls’ development on the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS). Measures of psychological well-being at ages 11 and 13 included depression, global self worth, perceived athletic competence, maturation fears, and body esteem. At age 13, girls’ enjoyment of physical activity was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and their daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using objective monitoring. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess direct and indirect pathways between pubertal development at age 11 and MVPA at age 13. In addition to a direct effect of pubertal development on MVPA, indirect effects were found for depression, global self worth and maturity fears controlling for covariates. In each instance, more advanced pubertal development at age 11 was associated with lower psychological well-being at age 13, which predicted lower enjoyment of physical activity at age 13 and in turn lower MVPA. Results from this study suggest that programs designed to increase physical activity among adolescent girls should address the self-consciousness and discontent that girls’ experience with their bodies during puberty, particularly if they mature earlier than their peers, and identify activities or settings that make differences in

  8. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  9. Feeling good when sleeping in? Day-to-day associations between sleep duration and affective well-being differ from youth to old age.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated how night-to-night variations in sleep duration relate to affective well-being the next morning as well as how the relationship varies for people of different ages. Using an Experience Sampling approach, 397 participants aged 12 to 88 years reported their sleep duration and their momentary affect on 9 mornings, on average. Associations between sleep duration during the previous night and morning affect differed depending on the participants' age. For adolescents, for example, affective well-being in the morning was worse the shorter participants had slept the previous night. For adults aged over 20 years, however, affective well-being was worse following nights with shorter or longer than average sleep duration. This effect was more pronounced the older the participants were. The findings demonstrate that the importance of sleep duration for daily affective well-being is better understood when considering the age of the sleeper. In adults, but not adolescents, not only sleeping less but also sleeping more than one's average can be associated with lower affective well-being.

  10. Understanding Well-being: Lessons for Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    Indicators for Well -Being Assessment- Oxford Poverty Development Initiative (Sammans, 2007) – Satisfaction with Life (Diener, Emmons, & Griffin, 1985...Physical, mental, and social health-related quality of life – Well -being/ satisfaction – Participation in common activities Health-Related Quality...either of two sets of subjective or psychological attributes: – life satisfaction , higher positive/lower negative affect, by self-assessment (the

  11. The effects of office ergonomic training on musculoskeletal complaints, sickness absence, and psychological well-being: a cluster randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Norashikin; Kenny, Dianna T; Md Zein, Raemy; Hassan, Siti Nurani

    2015-03-01

    This study explored whether musculoskeletal complaints can be reduced by the provision of ergonomics education. A cluster randomized controlled trial study was conducted in which 3 units were randomized to intervention and received training and 3 units were given a leaflet. The effect of intervention on knowledge, workstation practices, musculoskeletal complaints, sickness absence, and psychological well-being were assessed at 6 and 12 months. Although there was no increment of knowledge among workers, significant improvements in workstation practices in the use of monitor, keyboard, and chair were observed. There were significant reductions in neck and upper and lower back complaints among workers but these did not translate into fewer days lost from work. Workers' stress was found to be significantly reduced across the studies. In conclusion, office ergonomics training can be beneficial in reducing musculoskeletal risks and stress among workers.

  12. Family support in the transition to adulthood in Portugal--its effects on identity capital development, uncertainty management and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, José Egídio; Mendonça, Marina; Coimbra, Susana; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2014-12-01

    In a familistic southern European society such as the Portuguese, the family has historically played a prominent role in supporting the negotiation of transition pathways into adulthood. The present study aimed at capturing (1) the relative weight of parental financial support and autonomy support in contributing to the youngsters' psychological well-being (PWB), and (2) the mediating role of identity capital and uncertainty management in this relationship. A total of 620 participants completed measures of parental support, identity capital, uncertainty management and PWB. Autonomy support was found to be the strongest predictor of PWB, both directly and indirectly through its effects on identity capital and the use of target focused uncertainty management strategies. Conversely, financial support evidenced only a minor indirect impact through the mediation of tangible identity capital. Autonomy stimulation may constitute one of the most developmentally determinant family challenges in assisting the process of coming of age in Portugal.

  13. Lower Psychological Well-Being and Excessive Sexual Interest Predict Symptoms of Compulsive Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material Among Adolescent Boys.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.

  14. Informal Child Care and Adolescent Psychological Well-Being: Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Cherry Y.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home) in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong’s Chinese “Children of 1997” birth cohort. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years) with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable) at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care. Results Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.26 to -0.14). Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73). Conclusion In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms. PMID:25781484

  15. [Evaluation of the psychological well-being and coping strategies in a population of ex asbestos exposed on its work place].

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Santoro, P E; Bettolo, P Marini; Zaccaria, E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current study was mainly to asses the coping strategies used by a sample of subjects (n = 100) and its psychological well-being. The INAIL had recognized these subjects in the past time had been massively exposed to asbestos in their work place. An anonymous self-report questionnaire, made up of (a) an explorative section, (b) the Carver's COPE, (c) the Carol Ryff's Psychological Wellbeing Scales (PWBS), has been used. Both tests parametric (Chi Square and t Student analysis) and not parametric (Mann-Whitney Test) were carried out in order to assure strength results. The survey data indicated that there were an acknowledge about the asbestos-related diseases' action and a general use of "avoidance" coping strategies. Contrary to expectation concerning the PWBS, there was a statistically significant higher score in the "exposed group" than the "control group" (n = 50) as regards the "Positive Relations with Others" and the "Personal Growth" scales. Different variables may concur to explain the results of this study.

  16. Applying Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based intervention aimed at improved psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E R; Ruiter, Robert A C; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K

    2014-08-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in rural Uganda. We used Intervention Mapping (IM) for systematically developing a theory and evidence-based comprehensive health promotion programme. A planning group consisting of community leaders, teenage mothers, staff of a community-based organization and a health promotion professional was involved in the six steps of IM: needs assessment, programme objectives, methods and applications, intervention design, planning for adoption and implementation and planning for evaluation. The programme includes five intervention components: community awareness raising, teenage mother support groups, formal education and income generation, counselling, and advocacy. The intervention components are based on a variety of theoretical methods, including entertainment education, persuasive communication, mobilization of social networks and social action. In conclusion, IM facilitated the planning group to structure the iterative, bottom-up, participatory design of the project in a real-life setting and to use evidence and theory. The article provides suggestions for the planning of support interventions for unmarried teenage mothers.

  17. System Justification's Opposite Effects on Psychological Well-Being: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model in a Gay Men and Lesbian Sample in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bahamondes-Correa, Joaquín

    2016-08-12

    Those who adhere to system justifying beliefs benefit from a palliative function that buffers negative effects on psychological well-being. This has been consistently observed for high-status groups, whereas for members of low-status groups, it remains rather unclear whether system justification exerts a positive or a negative effect. This study tested the palliative effect of system justification on symptoms of anxiety-depression in a gay men and lesbian sample (N = 467) in Chile. Results from moderated mediation analyses revealed that system justification beliefs buffer symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, system justification enhances anxious and depressive symptoms through internalized homonegativity; this mediation effect was significant for gay men. We pose that justifying the social order comprises two contradictory functions: system justification as a coping source, and otherwise, as source of distress under conditions of in-group derogation, posing a threat to well-being among members of low-status groups (as observed in gay and lesbian individuals). Implications of the opposing effects, and gender differences are further discussed in this study.

  18. Modeling late-life adaptation in affective well-being under a severe chronic health condition: the case of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2006-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was used as a case model to longitudinally study adaptation in affective well-being under a prevalent chronic health condition. Measures of positive and negative affect, obtained at 5 subsequent measurement occasions with 3-month intervals in between, were analyzed in 90 older adults diagnosed with AMD. The authors proposed a pattern of adaptation that shows initial decline in affective well-being after disease outbreak, followed by a turnaround into a restorative phase of increase, implying nonlinear intraindividual trajectories, with changes substantially related to disease duration. Analysis was conducted by means of a nonlinear mixed models approach. Results confirmed the hypothesized adaptation pattern for positive affect but not for negative affect, which was found more stable across measurement occasions.

  19. Family routines within the ecological niche: an analysis of the psychological well-being of U.S. caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elizabeth; Miller-Bishoff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using mixed methods, this study examined the relationship of caregivers of children with disabilities’ psychological well-being (PWB) and their orchestration of daily routines within their ecological niche. Thirty-nine U.S. caregivers completed in-depth interviews, PWB Scales, and Family Time and Routines Index (FTRI). We used a multi-step analysis. Interview data was coded and vignettes created without knowledge of PWB and FTRI ratings. Next, the relationship of quantitative measures was analyzed. Four groups were created using FTRI-extent and PWB means: (1) low routine-low PWB, (2) low routine-high PWB, (3) high routine-low PWB, and (4) high routine-high PWB. We examined qualitative differences in key features between groups. Findings: Total PWB and FTRI scores were not significantly correlated, PWB Purpose in Life and FTRI-extent scores were moderately positively correlated, and PWB Environmental Mastery and FTRI-extent correlation approached significance. Qualitative findings describe caregivers’ structuring of routines, intensity of oversight, support in routines, management of dinner, paid work, and needs for respite. The four groups differed in paid work, household support, degree the child could self-occupy, Environmental Mastery, and opportunities to recuperate. Caregivers with higher levels of well-being and more regular routines did paid work, had supportive spouses, had children who more often could follow routines, had higher Environmental Mastery, could orchestrate a family meal, and had breaks from care in either work or leisure. All Native American caregivers and Mexican American caregivers with spouses were in the high routine-high PWB group. Insight into this complex negotiation between family members within daily routines may provide practitioners a better understanding of how to work within family circles to foster therapeutic alliances, identify focused intervention targets, and promote positive family wide outcomes. PMID:24910625

  20. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  1. Usage of Social Media and Smartphone Application in Assessment of Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Individuals in Times of a Major Air Pollution Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Cyrus SH; Fang, Pan; Lu, Yanxia; Ho, Roger CM

    2014-01-01

    Background Crisis situations bring about many challenges to researchers, public institutions, and governments in collecting data and conducting research in affected individuals. Recent developments in Web-based and smartphone technologies have offered government and nongovernment organizations a new system to disseminate and acquire information. However, research into this area is still lacking. The current study focuses largely on how new social networking websites and, in particular, smartphone technologies could have helped in the acquisition of crucial research data from the general population during the recent 2013 Southeast Asian Haze. This crisis lasted only for 1 week, and is unlike other crisis where there are large-scale consequential after-effects. Objective To determine whether respondents will make use of Internet, social media, and smartphone technologies to provide feedback regarding their physical and psychological wellbeing during a crisis, and if so, will these new mechanisms be as effective as conventional, technological, Internet-based website technologies. Methods A Web-based database and a smartphone application were developed. Participants were recruited by snowball sampling. The participants were recruited either via a self-sponsored Facebook post featuring a direct link to the questionnaire on physical and psychological wellbeing and also a smartphone Web-based application; or via dissemination of the questionnaire link by emails, directed to the same group of participants. Information pertaining to physical and psychological wellbeing was collated. Results A total of 298 respondents took part in the survey. Most of them were between the ages of 20 to 29 years and had a university education. More individuals preferred the option of accessing and providing feedback to a survey on physical and psychological wellbeing via direct access to a Web-based questionnaire. Statistical analysis showed that demographic variables like age, gender, and

  2. Illness perceptions and stress: mediators between disease severity and psychological well-being and quality of life among patients with Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Maochen; Hong, Liwen; Zhang, Tianyu; Lin, Yun; Zheng, Sichang; Zhou, Xiaolin; Fan, Rong; Wang, Zhengting; Zhang, Chenli; Zhong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease severity, illness perceptions, coping strategies, stress, psychological well-being, and quality of life were reported to have close relationships. According to the Common Sense Model, illness perceptions and coping strategies could mediate the relationship between illness stimuli and illness outcomes such as psychological health and quality of life. Stress was also associated with the individual’s disease severity, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Objectives The study aimed to explore the influencing factors of illness outcomes, and to what extent illness perceptions, coping strategies, and stress mediate the relationship between disease severity and anxiety, and depression and quality of life. Methods Our study included 159 patients with Crohn’s disease who were attending a tertiary hospital outpatient clinic or who were hospitalized. Disease severity was measured with the Crohn’s Disease Activity Index. Illness perceptions were measured with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Coping strategies were measured with the Carver Brief Coping Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Quality of life was measured with the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Results Disease severity, illness perceptions, maladaptive coping, stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life were significantly correlated with each other among patients with Crohn’s disease. Using structural equation modeling to describe the inner relationship of the aforementioned variables, an excellent-fitted model was drawn. (χ2[10]=13.83, P=0.18, χ2/N=1.38, standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] <0.05, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] <0.05, goodness of fit index [GFI] >0.97, comparative fit index [CFI] >0.99). Disease severity had a direct influence on illness perceptions. Illness perceptions had a direct

  3. The effectiveness of physical exercise training in pain, mobility, and psychological well-being of older persons living in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Tang, Shuk Kwan; Wan, Vanessa T C; Vong, Sinfia K S

    2014-12-01

    Pain is common in the aging population, particularly among older residents of nursing homes. It has been found that 50% of older people living in the community have been experiencing chronic pain, and the number increased to 80% for older residents of nursing homes. Exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention that can reduce pain and improve physical and psychological functions. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group designed was conducted to evaluate the effects of a physical exercise program (PEP) on older residents of nursing homes who have chronic pain. Three-hundred-ninety-six older residents with chronic pain were recruited from 10 nursing homes run by non-governmental organizations in Hong Kong. The average age of the older residents was 85.44 ± 6.29. Five nursing homes were randomized to the experimental group with PEP (n = 225, age = 85.45 ± 6.25); the other five nursing homes were randomized to the control group without the PEP (n = 171, age = 85.44 ± 6.35). PEP was an eight-week training program given by a physiotherapist and nurses once a week. It consisted of warm-up exercises, muscle strengthening, stretching, balancing, and self-administered massage to acupressure points. At the end of each PEP session, pamphlets with pictures illustrating the "exercise of the day" were given to the older residents of nursing homes as a tool to enhance their self-management skills. The control group received no training during the eight weeks. Upon completion of the PEP, the experimental group experienced a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity from 4.19 ± 2.25 (on an 11 point scale) to 2.67 ± 2.08, as compared to the control group (p < .05). In addition, the psychological well-being (happiness, loneliness, life satisfaction, and depression) of the experimental group was significantly improved (p < .05).

  4. Adjusting to death: the effects of mortality salience and self-esteem on psychological well-being, growth motivation, and maladaptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Clay; Ostafin, Brian; Juhl, Jacob; Sedikides, Constantine; Cathey, Christie; Liao, Jiangqun

    2010-12-01

    This research builds on terror management theory to examine the relationships among self-esteem, death cognition, and psychological adjustment. Self-esteem was measured (Studies 1-2, 4-8) or manipulated (Study 3), and thoughts of death were manipulated (Studies 1-3, 5-8) or measured (Study 4). Subsequently, satisfaction with life (Study 1), subjective vitality (Study 2), meaning in life (Studies 3-5), positive and negative affect (Studies 1, 4, 5), exploration (Study 6), state anxiety (Study 7), and social avoidance (Study 8) were assessed. Death-related cognition (a) decreased satisfaction with life, subjective vitality, meaning in life, and exploration; (b) increased negative affect and state anxiety; and (c) exacerbated social avoidance for individuals with low self-esteem but not for those with high self-esteem. These effects occurred only when death thoughts were outside of focal attention. Parallel effects were found in American (Studies 1-4, 6-8) and Chinese (Study 5) samples.

  5. Link between healthy lifestyle and psychological well-being in Lithuanian adults aged 45–72: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Luksiene, Dalia; Virviciute, Dalia; Bobak, Martin; Tamosiunas, Abdonas

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study uses a cross-sectional study design to analyse the connection between psychological well-being (PWB) and components of a healthy lifestyle in the Lithuanian population aged 45–72. The purpose of our study is to establish the links between PWB and lifestyle factors such as physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns in people above the age of 44. Participants A stratified sample of 10 940 urban citizens aged 45–72 years were randomly selected from the National Population Register. The response rate was 65%. Methods PWB was evaluated by using a Control Autonomy Self-realization and Pleasure (CASP-12) questionnaire. The standard questionnaire included questions regarding the respondent's sociodemographic, socioeconomic and social status. The lifestyle questionnaire evaluated behavioural factors as smoking status, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits and physical activity. Objective measurements of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were taken. Results Adjusted for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, social and biological CVD risk factors, the probability of higher PWB increased for physically active men and women and male former smokers. Higher PWB was directly associated with consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits. Responders who consumed potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs less frequently than average were more likely to have higher PWB. A direct association was ascertained between PWB and consumption of chicken and fish, as well as an inverse association between PWB and consumption of sweets in women. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle education efforts should focus on increasing physical activity, controlling smoking and improving diversity in healthy food consumption including the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, particularly among older adults with lower PWB. PMID:28373254

  6. A Qualitative Examination of the Impact of Culturally Responsive Educational Practices on the Psychological Well-Being of Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholewa, Blaire; Goodman, Rachael D.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Amatea, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have shown that educational experiences within the classroom may marginalize students of color which may result in psychological distress. However, the utilization of culturally responsive educational practices (CRE) can create environments in which marginalized students can thrive not only academically, but psychologically. The authors…

  7. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering and Other Speech Problems on Psychological Well-Being in Adulthood: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental stuttering is associated with increased risk of psychological distress and mental health difficulties. Less is known about the impact of other developmental speech problems on psychological outcomes, or the impact of stuttering and speech problems once other predictors have been adjusted for. Aims: To determine the impact…

  8. Affect as a Psychological Primitive

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the hypothesis that affect is a fundamental, psychologically irreducible property of the human mind. We begin by presenting historical perspectives on the nature of affect. Next, we proceed with a more contemporary discussion of core affect as a basic property of the mind that is realized within a broadly distributed neuronal workspace. We then present the affective circumplex, a mathematical formalization for representing core affective states, and show that this model can be used to represent individual differences in core affective feelings that are linked to meaningful variation in emotional experience. Finally, we conclude by suggesting that core affect has psychological consequences that reach beyond the boundaries of emotion, to influence learning and consciousness. PMID:20552040

  9. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students.

  10. Negative Health Comparisons Decrease Affective and Cognitive Well-Being in Older Adults. Evidence from a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of health comparisons on affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in older adults longitudinally. Methods: Data were derived from the third and fourth wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) which is a population-based prospective cohort study of community-dwelling subjects in Germany aged 40 and above (with 8,277 observations in fixed effects regressions). Health comparisons were assessed by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). While AWB was quantified by using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), CWB was assessed by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Fixed effects regressions were used to analyze the effect of health comparisons on AWB and CWB. Results: While positive health comparisons only slightly increased CWB (total sample), negative health comparisons markedly decreased CWB (total sample and women), and negative affects (women). Neither positive nor negative health comparisons affected positive affects. Conclusions: Our findings stress the importance of negative health comparisons for CWB and negative affects in women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and in most cases upwards. Consequently, designing interventions to avoid upwards health comparisons might be a fruitful approach in order to maintain AWB and CWB. PMID:27445953

  11. The Moderating Roles of Race and Gender-Role Attitudes in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.

    2007-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…

  12. Adaptation to the Birth of a Child with a Congenital Anomaly: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Maternal Well-Being and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nes, Ragnhild B.; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J.; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants…

  13. Influencing the Psychological Well-Being of Beginning Teachers across Three Years of Teaching: Self-Efficacy, Stress Causes, Job Tension and Job Discontent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the path of influence of support programmes for beginning teachers (BTs) is examined. Longitudinal relationships between self-efficacy and stress causes experienced by BTs and their job tension and discontent are investigated. Differential effects are explored in the relationships between the perceived psychological variables for…

  14. Psychological Maltreatment--Maltreatment of the Mind: A Catalyst for Advancing Child Protection toward Proactive Primary Prevention and Promotion of Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Glaser, Danya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child protection, as primarily applied toward narrow corrective intervention, has been judged to be inadequate in dealing with the wide variety of forms and levels of physical, psychological and sexual violence to which children are subjected throughout the world. Concern about this state of affairs has grown as a part of a global…

  15. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men.

  16. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  17. Promoting food security and well-being among poor and HIV/AIDS affected households: lessons from an interactive and integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Swaans, Kees; Broerse, Jacqueline; Meincke, Maylin; Mudhara, Maxwell; Bunders, Joske

    2009-02-01

    Participatory and interdisciplinary approaches have been suggested to develop appropriate agricultural innovations as an alternative strategy to improve food security and well-being among HIV/AIDS affected households. However, sustainable implementation of such interactive approaches is far from easy and straight forward. This study reports of the Interactive Learning and Action (ILA) approach, a methodology for agricultural innovation which has been adapted to the context of HIV/AIDS. Role players in agriculture and health were brought together to stimulate and sustain innovation among three support groups for poor and affected households in a rural high HIV/AIDS prevalence area in South Africa. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using both outcome and process criteria. The results indicate that an interactive approach in which service providers/researchers engage themselves as actors to explore the livelihood system and develop appropriate solutions in joint collaboration with resource users has potential. However, it also revealed that cooperation among participants and stakeholders at the interface of agriculture and HIV/AIDS is complicated and sensitive to erosion. Of particular concern was the difficulty of mobilizing members from poor and affected households to participate and to overcome stigma and discrimination. Lessons and potential applications for the further development of interactive approaches are discussed.

  18. The association of exposure to the 2009 south war with the physical, psychological, and family well-being of Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Hatw, Mohamed M. El; Taher, Aly A. El; Hamidi, Ahmed El; Alturkait, Fawziyah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the nutritional, psychological, behavioral, family adjustment, and psychiatric assessment of Saudi children exposed to the 2009-2010 Jazan war. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Saudi Arabia in July 2010. One hundred and eighty-six children exposed to the South war in Jazan, and 157 unexposed children in King Khaled Military City, Hafr Al Batin were studied for evidence of malnutrition using physical measures, evaluating psychological problems using the Child Behavior Inventory, behavioral problems using the Rutter Scale A2, family adjustment using the McMaster Family adjustment device, and for psychiatric disorders. The association of different socioeconomic variables with the psychological outcome of the exposed group was also studied. Results: The exposed children were well nourished, had more anxiety (p=0.044), better adaptation (p<0.001), less aggression (p=0.025), less deviant behavior (p=0.007), better family adjustment and had more post traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety, nightmares, and grief reaction. In the exposed children, females had more anxiety (p=0.006), and males had more antisocial behavior (p=0.02). Older children had less deviant behavior (p=0.005), better adaptation (p=0.007) and better planful behavior (p<0.001). Children of elder mothers had better planful behavior (p=0.039). Children from bigger families were less aggressive (p=0.049), and had less antisocial behavior (p=0.04). Conclusion: This study found that children exposed to the Jazan war had more anxiety. Unexpectedly they were well nourished and had higher adaptation, lower antisocial behavior, and better family adjustment. The socioeconomic status was associated with the psychological outcome. PMID:25630008

  19. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  20. The Role of Generational Status, Self-Esteem, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Social Support in College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Castaneda-Sound, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influences of generational status, self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and perceived social support on 367 undergraduate college students' well-being. Findings showed that 1st-generation students reported significantly more somatic symptoms and lower levels of academic self-efficacy than did non-1st-generation students. In…

  1. Positive Psychology in the Class: The Effectiveness of a Teaching Method Based on Subjective Well-Being and Engagement Increasing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is investigate that the effectiveness of a teaching method which is based on subjective well-being increasing activities and engagement increasing activities, has been developed for university students in the present study. The method of the present study is a mixed method. Thus, the most important feature of it has…

  2. Development and validation of the positive affect and well-being scale for the neurology quality of life (Neuro-QOL) measurement system

    PubMed Central

    Salsman, John M.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Peterman, Amy H.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Nowinski, Cindy; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate an item-response theory-based patient-reported outcomes assessment tool of positive affect and well-being (PAW). This is part of a larger NINDS-funded study to develop a health-related quality of life measurement system across major neurological disorders, called Neuro-QOL. Methods Informed by a literature review and qualitative input from clinicians and patients, item pools were created to assess PAW concepts. Items were administered to a general population sample (N = 513) and a group of individuals with a variety of neurologic conditions (N = 581) for calibration and validation purposes, respectively. Results A 23-item calibrated bank and a 9-item short form of PAW was developed, reflecting components of positive affect, life satisfaction, or an overall sense of purpose and meaning. The Neuro-QOL PAW measure demonstrated sufficient unidimensionality and displayed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability, model fit, convergent and discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Conclusion The Neuro-QOL PAW measure was designed to aid clinicians and researchers to better evaluate and understand the potential role of positive health processes for individuals with chronic neurological conditions. Further psychometric testing within and between neurological conditions, as well as testing in non-neurologic chronic diseases, will help evaluate the generalizability of this new tool. PMID:23526093

  3. Is Friendship Network Weight Status Associated with One’s Own Psychological Well-being? It Depends on One’s Own Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Wall, Melanie M.; Shim, Jin Joo; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on multiple theoretical perspectives (e.g., social comparison theory, reward theory, evolutionary theory), the present research examined the relations of self and friendship network weight status to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and depression. A diverse, population-based sample of adolescents completed measures of well-being and were measured for height and weight. Boys had greater self-esteem if their male friendship networks’ weight status mismatched, versus matched, their own weight status (d = .23). Conversely, boys had greater body satisfaction if their female friendship networks’ weight status matched, versus mismatched, their own weight status (d = .18). For girls, the relations of male and female friendship networks’ weight status with well-being did not vary by one’s own weight status. Evolutionary theory appears to best explain the observed patter of results, and clinicians may want to consider friends’ weight status when dealing with adolescents’ body satisfaction issues. PMID:28316367

  4. Patients' psychological well-being and resilient coping protect from secondary somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) 1 year after vestibular disease.

    PubMed

    Tschan, Regine; Best, Christoph; Beutel, Manfred E; Knebel, Achim; Wiltink, Jörg; Dieterich, Marianne; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret

    2011-01-01

    Secondary somatoform dizziness and vertigo (SVD) is an underdiagnosed and handicapping psychosomatic disorder, leading to extensive utilization of health care and maladaptive coping. Few long-term follow-up studies have focused on the assessment of risk factors and little is known about protective factors. The aim of this 1-year follow-up study was to identify neurootological patients at risk for the development of secondary SVD with respect to individual psychopathological disposition, subjective well-being and resilient coping. In a prospective interdisciplinary study, we assessed mental disorders in n=59 patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders (n=15 benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, n=15 vestibular neuritis, n=8 Menière's disease, n=24 vestibular migraine) at baseline (T0) and 1 year after admission (T1). Psychosomatic examinations included the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS), and a psychometric test battery measuring resilience (RS), sense of coherence (SOC), and satisfaction with life (SWLS). Subjective well-being significantly predicted the development of secondary SVD: Patients with higher scores of RS, SOC, and SWLS at T0 were less likely to acquire secondary SVD at T1. Lifetime mental disorders correlated with a reduced subjective well-being at T0. Patients with mental comorbidity at T0 were generally more at risk for developing secondary SVD at T1. Patients' dispositional psychopathology and subjective well-being play a major predictive role for the long-term prognosis of dizziness and vertigo. To prevent secondary SVD, patients should be screened for risk and preventive factors, and offered psychotherapeutic treatment in case of insufficient coping capacity.

  5. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.

  6. Can robot-assisted movement training (Lokomat) improve functional recovery and psychological well-being in chronic stroke? Promising findings from a case study

    PubMed Central

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Reitano, Simone; Leo, Antonino; De Luca, Rosaria; Melegari, Corrado; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Summary The Lokomat is a robotic device that has been widely used for gait rehabilitation in several neurological disorders, with a positive effect also in the chronic phase. We describe the case of a 54-year-old female with post-stroke moderate-to-severe chronic hemiplegia, whose force, gait and balance significantly improved after intensive training with Lokomat Pro. We also noted a positive impact of Lokomat on mood and coping styles. This may be partly related to the task-oriented exercises with computerized visual feedback, which in turn can be considered an important tool for increasing patients’ motor output, involvement and motivation during gait training. Augmented feedback during robot-assisted gait appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function, but also of improving psychological and cognitive status. PMID:25306125

  7. A Chinese Chan-based mind–body intervention improves psychological well-being and physical health of community-dwelling elderly: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean; Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the potential benefits of the Dejian mind–body intervention (DMBI) for psychological and physical health in older Chinese adults. Methods After confirmation of eligibility, the subjects were invited to receive DMBI once a week for 12 weeks. The intervention involved components of learning self-awareness and self-control, practicing mind–body exercises, and adopting a special vegetarian diet. Intervention-related changes were measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, and self-report ratings of health. Indicators of metabolic syndrome and walking speed were also measured. Results Of the 44 subjects recruited, 42 (54.8% men) completed the study, giving an adherence rate of 95%. There was a significant reduction in perceived stress (P<0.05). A significant improvement was also found in systolic blood pressure among those who had abnormally high blood pressure at baseline (P<0.05). Physical fitness as reflected by walking speed was also significantly increased after the intervention (P<0.05). Sleep disturbances were reduced (P<0.01). Self-rated health was significantly enhanced, with the percentage rating very good health increasing from 14.3% at baseline to 42.8% after the intervention (P<0.001). No intervention effect was found for waist circumference, lipids and fasting blood glucose levels, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score, and constipation measures. Conclusion The DMBI was feasible and acceptable, and subjects showed some improvements in psychological and physical health. A larger controlled trial is needed to confirm these promising preliminary results. PMID:24790425

  8. Field Psychometric Testing of the Instrument for Assessment of Psychological Predictors of Well-Being and Quality of Life in People with HIV or AIDS.

    PubMed

    Remor, Eduardo; Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria José; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Fumaz, Carmina R; González-Garcia, Marian; Ubillos-Landa, Silvia; Aguirrezabal-Prado, Arrate; Molero, Fernando; Ruzafa-Martínez, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The Screenphiv, a screening measure for psychological issues related to HIV, was psychometrically tested in a study involving 744 HIV-infected people in Spain. Participants ages 18-82 (M = 43.04, 72 % men, 28 % women) completed an assessment protocol that included the Screenphiv and the MOS-HIV. A trained interviewer also collected relevant illness-related clinical data and socio-demographics from the participants. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the Screenphiv's theoretical model and confirmed six first-order factors and two second-order factors [RMSEA (IC 90 %) = 0.07 (0.07-0.08)]. No floor or ceiling effects were observed for the scores. Cronbach's alphas were acceptable for all of the factors (from 0.65 to 0.92). Criterion-related validity also achieved; Screenphiv scores were related to socio-demographic and clinical variables and MOS-HIV summary scores. The Screenphiv is a reliable and valid measure, ready to use in research and clinical settings in Spain.

  9. Computer-Delivered and Web-Based Interventions to Improve Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Well-Being of University Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morriss, Richard; Glazebrook, Cris

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are common mental health difficulties experienced by university students and can impair academic and social functioning. Students are limited in seeking help from professionals. As university students are highly connected to digital technologies, Web-based and computer-delivered interventions could be used to improve students’ mental health. The effectiveness of these intervention types requires investigation to identify whether these are viable prevention strategies for university students. Objective The intent of the study was to systematically review and analyze trials of Web-based and computer-delivered interventions to improve depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and stress in university students. Methods Several databases were searched using keywords relating to higher education students, mental health, and eHealth interventions. The eligibility criteria for studies included in the review were: (1) the study aimed to improve symptoms relating to depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and stress, (2) the study involved computer-delivered or Web-based interventions accessed via computer, laptop, or tablet, (3) the study was a randomized controlled trial, and (4) the study was trialed on higher education students. Trials were reviewed and outcome data analyzed through random effects meta-analyses for each outcome and each type of trial arm comparison. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was used to assess study quality. Results A total of 17 trials were identified, in which seven were the same three interventions on separate samples; 14 reported sufficient information for meta-analysis. The majority (n=13) were website-delivered and nine interventions were based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A total of 1795 participants were randomized and 1480 analyzed. Risk of bias was considered moderate, as many publications did not sufficiently report their methods and seven explicitly conducted completers

  10. Correlates of health-related quality of life, psychological well-being, and eating self-regulation after successful weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Mata, Jutta; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Santos, Teresa C; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life and other psychosocial characteristics, including eating self-regulation and body image, in a group of successful long-term weight loss maintainers. Women enrolled in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry (n = 107) were matched and compared to women at the end of a behavior weight loss treatment program (n = 107), and also with women in the community who were not trying to lose weight (n = 107). Successful maintainers displayed higher quality of life and a more positive profile in selected eating and exercise markers of self-regulation compared to similarly-weighed women not attempting weight loss, but not when compared to the 'weight loss treatment' group. However, results also suggest that concerns with body shape and size may persist after weight loss and that some aspects of well-being and eating self-regulation can be more successfully targeted in specific weight loss programs.

  11. The Effect of Chinese Traditional Exercise-Baduanjin on Physical and Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Moyi; Fang, Qianying; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Tao, Jing; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Lan, Xiulu; Chen, Bai; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world, therefore, it is important to improve their health during college period. Baduanjin, a traditional Chinese exercise which combines movements with breath and mind, may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, the effect of Baduanjin exercise on college students has not been established. In this study, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise on physical and mental health of college students by a rigorous randomized, parallel-controlled design. Methods A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited and randomly allocated at an equal ratio into control or Baduanjin training. Participants in control group were informed to maintain their original activity habit, and those in Baduanjin exercise group received a 12-week Baduanjin exercise training with a frequency of 1 hour per day and 5 days per week on the basis of their original activity habit. The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lower limb proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, were evaluated at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of 12-week intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed for the above outcomes. Results Compared with controls, significant improvements in Baduanjin exercise group at the end of 12-week intervention period were found on lower limb proprioception function (the rate of average trace error on right lower limb (%): control 23.50±5.50, Baduanjin 21.92±6.54, P=0.004; the rate of average trace error on left lower limb (%): control 22.32±6.62, Baduanjin 20.63±4.62, P=0.046), cardiorespiratory endurance (step test index: control 47.66±5.94, Baduanjin 50.07±9

  12. Psychological factors affecting oncology conditions.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Biancosino, Bruno; Marmai, Luciana; Rossi, Elena; Sabato, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The area of psychological factors affecting cancer has been the object of research starting from the early 1950s and consolidating from the 1970s with the development of psychooncology. A series of problems in the DSM and ICD nosological systems, such as the difficult application of the criteria for psychiatric diagnoses (i.e. major depression, adjustment disorders) and the scarce space dedicated to the rubric of psychosocial implications of medical illness (i.e. Psychological Factors Affecting a Medical Condition under 'Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention' in the DSM-IV) represent a major challenge in psycho-oncology. The application of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR) has been shown to be useful in a more precise identification of several psychological domains in patients with cancer. The DCPR dimensions of health anxiety, demoralization and alexithymia have been shown to be quite frequent in cancer patient (37.7, 28.8 and 26%, respectively). The overlap between a formal DSM-IV diagnosis and the DCPR is low, with 58% of patients being categorized as non-cases on the DSM-IV having at least one DCPR syndrome. The specific quality of the DCPR in characterizing psychosocial aspects secondary to cancer is also confirmed by the fact that some dimensions of coping (e.g. Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer subscale hopelessness) correlate with the DCPR dimension of demoralization, while a quantitative approach on symptom assessment (e.g. stress symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory) is not useful in discriminating the patients with and without DCPR syndromes. More research is needed in order to understand the relationship between DCPR constructs (e.g. alexithymia) and psychosocial factors which have been shown to be significant in oncology (e.g. emotional repression and avoidance). The role of specific DCPR constructs in influencing the course of illness is also an area that should be investigated.

  13. Spacecraft Architecture and well being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ören, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.

  14. Psychological Well-Being of Refugee Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dean

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 183 mothers of refugee families indicated a considerable range of stress-related reactions among displaced children, including sleeping and eating disorders, separation fears, and withdrawal or aggression. Children exhibited a significantly higher incidence of stress reactions if their mothers had difficulty coping with the stress…

  15. ‘HeART of Stroke (HoS)’, a community-based Arts for Health group intervention to support self-confidence and psychological well-being following a stroke: protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis-Hill, Caroline; Gracey, Fergus; Thomas, Sarah; Lamont-Robinson, Catherine; Thomas, Peter W; Marques, Elsa M R; Grant, Mary; Nunn, Samantha; Cant, Robin P I; Galvin, Kathleen T; Reynolds, Frances; Jenkinson, Damian F

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over 152 000 people in the UK have strokes annually and a third experience residual disability. Low mood also affects a third of stroke survivors; yet psychological support is poor. While Arts for Health interventions have been shown to improve well-being in people with mild-to-moderate depression post-stroke, their role in helping people regain sense of self, well-being and confidence has yet to be evaluated. The main aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an Arts for Health group intervention (‘HeART of Stroke’ (HoS)) for stroke survivors. HoS is a 10-session artist-facilitated group intervention held in the community over 14 weeks. It offers a non-judgemental, supportive environment for people to explore sense of self, potentially enhancing well-being and confidence. Methods and analysis Sixty-four people, up to 2 years post-stroke, recruited via secondary care research staff or community stroke/rehabilitation teams in two UK centres will be randomised to either HoS plus usual care or usual care only. Self-reported outcomes, measured at baseline and approximately 5 months postrandomisation, will include stroke-related, well-being, mood, self-esteem, quality of life and process measures. Analyses will focus on estimating key feasibility parameters (eg, rates of recruitment, retention, intervention attendance). We will develop outcome and resource use data collection methods to inform an effectiveness and cost-effectiveness analysis in the future trial. Interviews, with a sample of participants, will explore the acceptability of the intervention and study processes, as well as experiences of the HoS group. Ethics and dissemination National Health Service (NHS), Research and Development and University ethical approvals have been obtained. Two peer-reviewed journal publications are planned plus one service user led

  16. Toward Innovative, Cost-Effective, and Systemic Solutions to Improve Outcomes and Well-Being of Military Families Affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Klin, Ami; Wetherby, Amy M.; Woods, Juliann; Saulnier, Celine; Stapel-Wax, Jennifer; Klaiman, Cheryl; Jones, Warren; Rubin, Emily; Scahill, Lawrence; Call, Nathan; Bearss, Karen; Gunter, Chris; Courtemanche, Charles J.; Lemieux, Anthony; Cox, James C.; Mandell, David S.; Van Decar, James P.; Miller, Ronald A.; Shireman, Cherri L.

    2015-01-01

    The burdens faced by military families who have a child with autism are unique. The usual challenges of securing diagnostic, treatment, and educational services are compounded by life circumstances that include the anxieties of war, frequent relocation and separation, and a demand structure that emphasizes mission readiness and service. Recently established military autism-specific health care benefits set the stage for community-viable and cost-effective solutions that can achieve better outcomes for children and greater well-being for families. Here we argue for implementation of evidence-based solutions focused on reducing age of diagnosis and improving access to early intervention, as well as establishment of a tiered menu of services, individualized to the child and family, that fit with the military ethos and system of health care. Absence of this new model of care could compromise the utility and sustainability of the autism-specific benefit. PMID:25745376

  17. Comparing the psychometric properties of two measures of wisdom: predicting forgiveness and psychological well-being with the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS) and the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew; Bates, Glen; Webster, Jeffrey Dean

    2011-03-01

    Two recently developed scales of wisdom were compared on their abilities to have their dimensional structure replicated and to predict relevant personality (i.e., forgiveness) and life satisfaction (i.e., psychological well-being) variables. One hundred and seventy-six primarily (71%) Australian participants ranging in age from 18 to 68 years (M = 36.60, SD = 12.07) completed an online survey of the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (SAWS; Webster, 2003, Journal of Adult Development, 10, 13-22; 2007, International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 65, 163-183), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (3D-WS; Ardelt, 2003, Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 52B, 15-27), the Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Thompson et al., 2005, Journal of Personality, 73, 313-360), Ryff's (1989, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081) measure of psychological well-being (PWB), and a measure of social desirability (BIDR; Paulhus, 1984, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 598-609). Results indicated that the dimensional structure of the SAWS, but not the 3D-WS, replicated, and the 3D-WS, but not the SAWS, was contaminated by a social desirability response bias. Both scales predicted equally well PWB and forgiveness in predicted directions. Implications for future use of both scales are discussed.

  18. Achievement Goals and Student Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Kaplan; Maehr

    1999-10-01

    This study is concerned with the role that achievement goals may play in facilitating the psychological well-being of students. Specifically, we build on "goal theory" analysis of adaptive behavior in examining the relationship between task and ego goals, perceptions of school emphases on task and ego goals, and indices of well-being and disruptive behavior. Generally, task goals and perception of the school as emphasizing task goals were related to positive psychological well-being, and ego goals and perceiving the school as emphasizing ego goals were related to negative psychological well-being. This pattern was found for both African American and Euro-American students. However, path analyses pointed to possible different processes as operating for the African Americans and the Euro-Americans in the sample. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Insomnia and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale

    2007-01-01

    Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…

  20. A functional genomic perspective on human well-being.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L; Grewen, Karen M; Coffey, Kimberly A; Algoe, Sara B; Firestine, Ann M; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steven W

    2013-08-13

    To identify molecular mechanisms underlying the prospective health advantages associated with psychological well-being, we analyzed leukocyte basal gene expression profiles in 80 healthy adults who were assessed for hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as potentially confounded negative psychological and behavioral factors. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being showed similar affective correlates but highly divergent transcriptome profiles. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from people with high levels of hedonic well-being showed up-regulated expression of a stress-related conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) involving increased expression of proinflammatory genes and decreased expression of genes involved in antibody synthesis and type I IFN response. In contrast, high levels of eudaimonic well-being were associated with CTRA down-regulation. Promoter-based bioinformatics implicated distinct patterns of transcription factor activity in structuring the observed differences in gene expression associated with eudaimonic well-being (reduced NF-κB and AP-1 signaling and increased IRF and STAT signaling). Transcript origin analysis identified monocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes as primary cellular mediators of these dynamics. The finding that hedonic and eudaimonic well-being engage distinct gene regulatory programs despite their similar effects on total well-being and depressive symptoms implies that the human genome may be more sensitive to qualitative variations in well-being than are our conscious affective experiences.