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Sample records for affect regulation model

  1. Interactions of Metacognition with Motivation and Affect in Self-Regulated Learning: The MASRL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Metacognition, motivation, and affect are components of self-regulated learning (SRL) that interact. The "metacognitive and affective model of self-regulated learning" (the MASRL model) distinguishes two levels of functioning in SRL, namely, the Person level and the Task x Person level. At the Person level interactions between trait-like…

  2. Revisiting the Affect Regulation Model of Binge Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating, which posits that patients binge eat to reduce negative affect (NA), has received support from cross-sectional and laboratory-based studies. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves momentary ratings and repeated assessments over time and is ideally suited to identify temporal antecedents and…

  3. An integrative affect regulation process model of internalized weight bias and intuitive eating in college women.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Hardin, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    The present study extended the weight stigma and well-being process model (Tylka et al., 2014) by examining three affect regulation pathways that may help simultaneously explain the predicted inverse association between internalized weight bias and intuitive eating. A weight-diverse sample of 333 college women completed an online survey assessing internalized weight stigma, intuitive eating, body shame, body image flexibility, and self-compassion. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Non-parametric bootstrap resampling procedures were computed to ascertain the presence of the indirect effects of internalized weight bias on intuitive eating via the three hypothesized mediators controlling for BMI in a combined model. Results demonstrated that body image flexibility significantly and self-compassion marginally contributed unique variance in accounting for this relationship. Our preliminary cross-sectional findings contribute to a nascent body of scholarship seeking to provide a theoretically-driven understanding of how negative and positive forms of experiencing and relating to the body may co-occur within individuals. Results also point to potential target variables to consider incorporating in later-stage efforts to promote more adaptive ways of eating amidst internalized weight stigma.

  4. Affect and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmivuori, Marja-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents affect as an essential aspect of students' self-reflection and self-regulation. The introduced concepts of self-system and self-system process stress the importance of self-appraisals of personal competence and agency in affective responses and self-regulation in problem solving. Students are viewed as agents who constantly…

  5. The dyadic regulation of affect.

    PubMed

    Fosha, D

    2001-02-01

    Accelerated Experiential-Dynamic Psychotherapy integrates experiential, relational, and psychodynamic elements. Deep authentic affective experience and its regulation through coordinated emotional interchanges between patient and therapist are viewed as key transformational agents. When maintaining attachment with caregivers necessitates excluding particular affects, a patient's capacity to regulate emotion becomes compromised. Being in an emotionally alive therapeutic relationship enables patients to better tolerate and communicate affective states; doing so, in turn, fosters security, openness, and intimacy in their other relationships. A clinical vignette will illustrate how using the therapist's affect, and focusing on the patient's experience of it, contributes to the repair of affect regulatory difficulties.

  6. Loving-kindness in the treatment of traumatized refugees and minority groups: a typology of mindfulness and the nodal network model of affect and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Ojserkis, Rebecca A; Jalal, Baland; Peou, Sonith; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses how loving-kindness can be used to treat traumatized refugees and minority groups, focusing on examples from our treatment, culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy (CA-CBT). To show how we integrate loving-kindness with other mindfulness interventions and why loving-kindness should be an effective therapeutic technique, we present a typology of mindfulness states and the Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect and Affect Regulation. We argue that mindfulness techniques such as loving-kindness are therapeutic for refugees and minority populations because of their potential for increasing emotional flexibility, decreasing rumination, serving as emotional regulation techniques, and forming part of a new adaptive processing mode centered on psychological flexibility. We present a case to illustrate the clinical use of loving-kindness within the context of CA-CBT.

  7. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  8. Musical affect regulation in infancy.

    PubMed

    Trehub, Sandra E; Ghazban, Niusha; Corbeil, Mariève

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents and adults commonly use music for various forms of affect regulation, including relaxation, revitalization, distraction, and elicitation of pleasant memories. Mothers throughout the world also sing to their infants, with affect regulation as the principal goal. To date, the study of maternal singing has focused largely on its acoustic features and its consequences for infant attention. We describe recent laboratory research that explores the consequences of singing for infant affect regulation. Such work reveals that listening to recordings of play songs can maintain 6- to 9-month-old infants in a relatively contented or neutral state considerably longer than recordings of infant-directed or adult-directed speech. When 10-month-old infants fuss or cry and are highly aroused, mothers' multimodal singing is more effective than maternal speech at inducing recovery from such distress. Moreover, play songs are more effective than lullabies at reducing arousal in Western infants. We explore the implications of these findings along with possible practical applications.

  9. Understanding regulations affecting pet foods.

    PubMed

    Dzanis, David A

    2008-08-01

    In the United States, pet foods are subject to regulation at both the federal and the state levels. The US Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction over all animal feeds (including pet foods, treats, chews, supplements, and ingredients) in interstate commerce, which includes imported products. Many states adopt and enforce at least in part the Association of American Feed Control Officials Model Bill and Model Regulations for Pet Food and Specialty Pet Food. Thus, all pet foods in multi-state distribution are subject to a host of labeling requirements covering aspects such as product names, ingredient lists, nutrient content guarantees, and nutritional adequacy statements. Ingredients must be GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substances, approved food additives, or defined by Association of American Feed Control Officials for their intended use. Pet food labels may not bear claims that are false or misleading or that state or imply use for the treatment or prevention of disease. Pet foods that are found to be adulterated or misbranded may be subject to seizure or other enforcement actions.

  10. Do Emotional Eating Urges Regulate Affect? Concurrent and Prospective Associations and Implications for Risk Models of Binge Eating

    PubMed Central

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Keel, Pamela K.; Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Hu, Jean Yueqin; Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Klump, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Emotional eating (EE) reflects an urge to eat in response to emotional rather than physical cues and is a risk factor for the development of binge eating. EE has been conceptualized as an attempt to regulate negative affect (NA), a posited maintenance factor for binge eating. However, no study has examined whether EE urges regulate affect. Further, no studies have examined longitudinal associations between EE urges and positive affect (PA). Method We examined within-subject longitudinal associations between affect and EE urges in a community-based sample of female twins (mean age=17.8 years). Participants (N=239) completed ratings of affect and EE urges for 45 consecutive days. Results Greater NA was concurrently associated with greater EE urges. Additionally, greater EE urges predicted worse NA for both concurrent and prospective (next-day) analyses. Finally, lower PA was associated with greater EE urges in concurrent analyses, but there were no prospective associations between changes in PA and EE urges. Discussion EE urges do not appear to effectively regulate affect. EE urges in a community-based sample appears to have the same functional relationship with affect as binge eating in clinical samples, further supporting EE as a useful dimensional construct for examining processes related to binge eating. PMID:24431328

  11. Affect regulation: holding, containing and mirroring.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Gergely and colleagues' state that their "Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring" can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretization and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts.

  12. [Measurement of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS) expanded].

    PubMed

    Rovira, Darío Páez; Martínez Sánchez, Francisco; Sevillano Triguero, Verónica; Mendiburo Seguel, Andrés; Campos, Miriam

    2012-05-01

    An expanded Spanish version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS), was applied to episodes of anger and sadness, in a sample of 355 graduate students from Chile, Spain, and Mexico. The study examines the association between affective regulation, adaptation to episodes and dispositional coping and emotional regulation, and psychological well-being. With regard to perceived improvement of adaptive goals, the following adaptive affect regulation strategies were confirmed: Instrumental coping, seeking social support, positive reappraisal, distraction, rumination, self-comfort, self-control, and emotional expression were functional; whereas inhibition and suppression were dysfunctional. Adaptive strategies were positively associated with psychological well-being, reappraisal and humor as a coping strategy. Negative associations were found between adaptive strategies and suppression and alexithymia. Maladaptive strategies show the opposite profile. Confrontation, instrumental coping, social support as well as social isolation were more frequently found in anger, an approach emotion.

  13. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  14. The Affective Regulation of Social Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Pappas, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    The recent publication of David Heise’s Expressive Order (2007) provides an occasion for discussing some of the key ideas in Affect Control Theory. The theory proposes that a few dimensions of affective meaning provide a common basis for interrelating personal identities and social actions. It holds that during interpersonal interactions, social behavior is continually regulated to maintain an affective tone compatible with whatever social roles or identities define the situation. We outline the intellectual history of the proposed dimensions and of the idea that each social action invites an action from the other that has a particular location along these dimensions. We also relate these ideas to the Affect-as-Information hypothesis, an approach that often guides research in psychology on the role of affect in regulating judgment and thought. PMID:18461152

  15. New Regulations Affect School Debt Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol Duane

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of changes in Treasury Regulations as they affect school debt financing, including bond and note construction and acquisition issues, other types of equipment and property financing, as well as tax and revenue anticipation notes for working capital needs. (MLF)

  16. Flexible parasympathetic responses to sadness facilitate spontaneous affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Fresco, David M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-03-23

    The ability of the parasympathetic nervous system to flexibly adapt to changes in environmental context is thought to serve as a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, and deficits in parasympathetic flexibility appear to characterize affective disorders such as depression. However, whether parasympathetic flexibility (vagal withdrawal to emotional or environmental challenges such as sadness, and vagal augmentation during recovery from sadness) could facilitate the effectiveness of adaptive affect regulation strategies is not known. In a study of 178 undergraduate students, we evaluated whether parasympathetic flexibility in response to a sad film involving loss would enhance the effectiveness of regulatory strategies (reappraisal, distraction, and suppression) spontaneously employed to reduce negative affect during a 2-min uninstructed recovery period following the induction. Parasympathetic reactivity and recovery were indexed by fluctuations in respiratory sinus arrhythmia and high-frequency heart rate variability. Cognitive reappraisal and distraction were more effective in attenuating negative affect among individuals with more parasympathetic flexibility, particularly greater vagal augmentation during recovery, relative to individuals with less parasympathetic flexibility. In contrast, suppression was associated with less attenuation of negative affect, but only among individuals who also had less vagal withdrawal during the sad film. Alternative models provided partial support for reversed directionality, with reappraisal predicting greater parasympathetic recovery, but only when individuals also experienced greater reductions in negative affect. These results suggest that contextually appropriate parasympathetic reactivity and recovery may facilitate the success of affect regulation. Impairments in parasympathetic flexibility could confer risk for affective disorders due to attenuated capacity for effective self-regulation.

  17. Affect-regulation expectancies among Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Will Shead, N; Hodgins, David C

    2009-09-01

    Factor scores on a gambling expectancy questionnaire (GEQ) were used to subtype 132 university students who gamble regularly (37.9% male; M age = 22.6 years, SD = 6.04) as: Reward Expectancy Gamblers (Reward EGs)-have strong expectations that gambling augments positive mood, Relief Expectancy Gamblers (Relief EGs)-have strong expectations that gambling relieves negative affect, and Non-Expectancy Gamblers (Non-EGs)-have neither strong expectation. Gambling on a high-low card game was compared across subtypes following priming for either "relief" or "reward" affect-regulation expectancies with the Scrambled Sentence Test (SST). The hypothesized Prime type x GEQ subtype interaction was not significant. When a more stringent set of criteria for GEQ subtyping was imposed, the "purified" sub-sample (n = 54) resulted in the hypothesized statistically significant Prime type x GEQ subtype interaction. Relief EGs gambled more after being primed with the construct "relief of negative emotions" compared to after being primed with the construct "augmentation of positive emotion." Planned orthogonal contrasts showed a significant linear increase in number of bets made across GEQ subtypes when prime type corresponded to GEQ subtype. The results suggest a need for components in gambling treatment programs that address clients' expectancies that gambling can provide a specific desirable emotional outcome.

  18. Legislation: Legislation and Regulations Affecting Libraries in 2002; Legislation and Regulations Affecting Publishing in 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheketoff, Emily; Costabile, Mary R.; Adler, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Reviews legislation and regulations affecting libraries and the publishing industry, including the Museum and Library Services Act; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI); copyright; access to electronic government information; telecommunications and technology; electronic surveillance and privacy, including the USA Patriot Act;…

  19. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes.

  20. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  1. [Emotional intelligence, social support and affect regulation].

    PubMed

    Verissimo, Ramiro

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain additional information about the relationship between emotional intelligence, social support, and affectivity. The subjects were 64 university students who completed the short form of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-30), the Social Support Questionnaire, and the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL). The results show that Social Support is high and significantly related with both Mood Repair, on one hand, and more Positive Affects and Sensation Seeking, on the other. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social support can be considered, somehow, as a way of mood repair; and thus not surprisingly is also associated with more Positive Affects and Sensation Seeking.

  2. Self-regulation and Beyond: Affect Regulation and the Infant-Caregiver Dyad.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Joona

    2016-01-01

    In the available psychological literature, affect regulation is fundamentally considered in terms of self-regulation, and according to this standard picture, the contribution of other people in our affect regulation has been viewed in terms of socially assisted self-regulation. The present article challenges this standard picture. By focusing on affect regulation as it unfolds in early infancy, it will be argued that instead of being something original and fundamental, self-regulation developmentally emerges from the basis of a further type of affect regulation. While infants' capacities in recognizing, understanding, and modifying their own affective states are initially immature and undeveloped, affect regulation is initially managed by the other: it is initially the self, and not the other, that plays the role of an assistant in affect regulation. To capture this phenomenon, the concepts of "auto-matic," "hetero-matic," and "altero-matic" affect regulation will be introduced and their interrelations elaborated. By showing how the capacity of affective self-regulation, which is characteristic to maturity, is developmentally achieved by internalizing regulative functions that, at the outset of development, are managed by the caregiver, it will be argued that altero-matic affect regulation is an autonomous type of affect regulation and the developmental basis for self-regulation.

  3. Self-regulation and Beyond: Affect Regulation and the Infant–Caregiver Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Joona

    2016-01-01

    In the available psychological literature, affect regulation is fundamentally considered in terms of self-regulation, and according to this standard picture, the contribution of other people in our affect regulation has been viewed in terms of socially assisted self-regulation. The present article challenges this standard picture. By focusing on affect regulation as it unfolds in early infancy, it will be argued that instead of being something original and fundamental, self-regulation developmentally emerges from the basis of a further type of affect regulation. While infants’ capacities in recognizing, understanding, and modifying their own affective states are initially immature and undeveloped, affect regulation is initially managed by the other: it is initially the self, and not the other, that plays the role of an assistant in affect regulation. To capture this phenomenon, the concepts of “auto-matic,” “hetero-matic,” and “altero-matic” affect regulation will be introduced and their interrelations elaborated. By showing how the capacity of affective self-regulation, which is characteristic to maturity, is developmentally achieved by internalizing regulative functions that, at the outset of development, are managed by the caregiver, it will be argued that altero-matic affect regulation is an autonomous type of affect regulation and the developmental basis for self-regulation. PMID:27378984

  4. Affect regulation and HIV risk among youth in therapeutic schools

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22669595

  5. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M.; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching–learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching–learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching–learning context at university. PMID:25964764

  6. The role of personal self-regulation and regulatory teaching to predict motivational-affective variables, achievement, and satisfaction: a structural model.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, Jesus; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose M; Sander, Paul; Cardelle-Elawar, María

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation examines how personal self-regulation (presage variable) and regulatory teaching (process variable of teaching) relate to learning approaches, strategies for coping with stress, and self-regulated learning (process variables of learning) and, finally, how they relate to performance and satisfaction with the learning process (product variables). The objective was to clarify the associative and predictive relations between these variables, as contextualized in two different models that use the presage-process-product paradigm (the Biggs and DEDEPRO models). A total of 1101 university students participated in the study. The design was cross-sectional and retrospective with attributional (or selection) variables, using correlations and structural analysis. The results provide consistent and significant empirical evidence for the relationships hypothesized, incorporating variables that are part of and influence the teaching-learning process in Higher Education. Findings confirm the importance of interactive relationships within the teaching-learning process, where personal self-regulation is assumed to take place in connection with regulatory teaching. Variables that are involved in the relationships validated here reinforce the idea that both personal factors and teaching and learning factors should be taken into consideration when dealing with a formal teaching-learning context at university.

  7. Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Joan S.; Diddams, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The authors used structural equation modeling to test the mediational role of affect regulation on attachment and deliberate self-harm in 216 undergraduates. Results suggest that affect regulation mediates the relationship between attachment and deliberate self-harm, providing support for the theoretical importance of attachment and affect…

  8. Identification of Regions Critically Affecting Kinetics and Allosteric Regulation of the Escherichia coli ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase by Modeling and Pentapeptide-Scanning Mutagenesis▿

    PubMed Central

    Ballicora, Miguel A.; Erben, Esteban D.; Yazaki, Terutaka; Bertolo, Ana L.; Demonte, Ana M.; Schmidt, Jennifer R.; Aleanzi, Mabel; Bejar, Clarisa M.; Figueroa, Carlos M.; Fusari, Corina M.; Iglesias, Alberto A.; Preiss, Jack

    2007-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) is the enzyme responsible for the regulation of bacterial glycogen synthesis. To perform a structure-function relationship study of the Escherichia coli ADP-Glc PPase enzyme, we studied the effects of pentapeptide insertions at different positions in the enzyme and analyzed the results with a homology model. We randomly inserted 15 bp in a plasmid with the ADP-Glc PPase gene. We obtained 140 modified plasmids with single insertions of which 21 were in the coding region of the enzyme. Fourteen of them generated insertions of five amino acids, whereas the other seven created a stop codon and produced truncations. Correlation of ADP-Glc PPase activity to these modifications validated the enzyme model. Six of the insertions and one truncation produced enzymes with sufficient activity for the E. coli cells to synthesize glycogen and stain in the presence of iodine vapor. These were in regions away from the substrate site, whereas the mutants that did not stain had alterations in critical areas of the protein. The enzyme with a pentapeptide insertion between Leu102 and Pro103 was catalytically competent but insensitive to activation. We postulate this region as critical for the allosteric regulation of the enzyme, participating in the communication between the catalytic and regulatory domains. PMID:17496097

  9. Synaptic regulation of affective behaviors; role of BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Ninan, Ipe

    2013-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin essential for nervous system development and synaptic plasticity, has been found to have a significant influence on affective behaviors. The notion that an impairment in BDNF signaling might be involved in affective disorders is originated primarily from the opposing effects of antidepressants and stress on BDNF signaling. Antidepressants enhance BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity. On the other hand, negative environmental factors such as severe stress suppress BDNF signaling, impair synaptic activity and increase susceptibility to affective disorders. Postmortem studies provided strong support for decreased BDNF signaling in depressive disorders. Remarkably, studies in humans with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the BDNF gene, the BDNF Val66Met which affects regulated release of BDNF, showed profound deficits in hippocampal and prefrontal cortical (PFC) plasticity and cognitive behaviors. BDNF regulates synaptic mechanisms responsible for various cognitive processes including attenuation of aversive memories, a key process in the regulation of affective behaviors. The unique role of BDNF in cognitive and affective behaviors suggests that cognitive deficits due to altered BDNF signaling might underlie affective disorders. Understanding how BDNF modulates synapses in neural circuits relevant to affective behaviors, particularly the medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC)-hippocampus-amygdala pathway, and its interaction with development, sex, and environmental risk factors might shed light on potential therapeutic targets for affective disorders. PMID:23747574

  10. Following the affect: learning to observe emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kathleen R

    2006-11-01

    On inpatient psychiatric units, staff deal with children and adolescents whose affect escalates quickly and intensely. These same children experience strong emotions that they can neither understand nor explain. To intervene effectively, inpatient staff must understand the regulation issues underneath the escalated behaviors. Emotion Regulation theory and the developmental line of emotional understanding are useful concepts in assessing and intervening with these children and adolescents. Presented here are criteria to guide inpatient staff's assessment of children and adolescents with emotion regulation difficulties. The assessment cues are based in concepts of Emotion Regulation and emotional understanding and are accompanied by suggested intervention strategies.

  11. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Affect Regulation and Social Problem-Solving Psychotherapies for Mothers with Victimization-Related PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Steinberg, Karen L.; Zhang, Wanli

    2011-01-01

    Addressing affect dysregulation may provide a complementary alternative or adjunctive approach to the empirically supported trauma memory processing models of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A CBT designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing--trauma affect regulation: guide for…

  12. Daytime sleepiness affects prefrontal regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Weber, Mareen; Kipman, Maia; Deldonno, Sophie R; Weiner, Melissa R; Rauch, Scott L

    2013-05-01

    The recent epidemic of obesity corresponds closely with the decline in the average number of hours of sleep obtained nightly. While growing research suggests that sleep loss may affect hormonal and other physiological systems related to food intake, no studies have yet explored the role that sleepiness may play in reducing prefrontal inhibitory control over food intake. Because evidence suggests that women may be more prone to obesity and eating disorders, as well as more likely to suffer from sleep problems, we examined the relation between general daytime sleepiness, brain responses to food stimuli, and self-reported overeating separately for men and women. Thirty-eight healthy adults (16 women; 22 men) aged 18 to 45 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. Subjects completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and provided a rating to the query "how often do you eat more than you intend to." Contrast images comparing brain activation derived from the high- versus low-calorie conditions were correlated voxel-wise with scores from the ESS in a second-level regression model, the output of which was used to predict self-reported overeating. As hypothesized, daytime sleepiness correlated with reduced activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during perception of high- versus low-calorie food images. Moreover, activation within this cluster predicted overeating, but only for women. Findings suggest that normal fluctuations in sleepiness may be sufficient to affect brain regions important for regulating food intake, but that these effects may differ between men and women.

  13. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  14. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect.

  15. Glyphosate-based pesticides affect cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Marc, Julie; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Bellé, Robert

    2004-04-01

    Cell-cycle dysregulation is a hallmark of tumor cells and human cancers. Failure in the cell-cycle checkpoints leads to genomic instability and subsequent development of cancers from the initial affected cell. A worldwide used product Roundup 3plus, based on glyphosate as the active herbicide, was suggested to be of human health concern since it induced cell cycle dysfunction as judged from analysis of the first cell division of sea urchin embryos, a recognized model for cell cycle studies. Several glyphosate-based pesticides from different manufacturers were assayed in comparison with Roundup 3plus for their ability to interfere with the cell cycle regulation. All the tested products, Amega, Cargly, Cosmic, and Roundup Biovert induced cell cycle dysfunction. The threshold concentration for induction of cell cycle dysfunction was evaluated for each product and suggests high risk by inhalation for people in the vicinity of the pesticide handling sprayed at 500 to 4000 times higher dose than the cell-cycle adverse concentration.

  16. Models of Affective Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Caroline J.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Li, Xinyi; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Sharot, Tali

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, how you feel about potential outcomes will determine your decisions. Indeed, an implicit assumption in one of the most influential theories in psychology, prospect theory, is that feelings govern choice. Surprisingly, however, very little is known about the rules by which feelings are transformed into decisions. Here, we specified a computational model that used feelings to predict choices. We found that this model predicted choice better than existing value-based models, showing a unique contribution of feelings to decisions, over and above value. Similar to the value function in prospect theory, our feeling function showed diminished sensitivity to outcomes as value increased. However, loss aversion in choice was explained by an asymmetry in how feelings about losses and gains were weighted when making a decision, not by an asymmetry in the feelings themselves. The results provide new insights into how feelings are utilized to reach a decision. PMID:27071751

  17. Goal regulation across time: the effects of feedback and affect.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Judge, Timothy A

    2005-05-01

    This research focused on the processes individuals use to regulate their goals across time. Two studies examined goal regulation following task performance with 6 samples of participants in a series of 8-trial task performance experiments. The experiments involved: (a) 3 task types, (b) 2 goal types, and (c) actual or manipulated performance feedback referring to the focal participant's own performance or to the participant's performance compared with others' performance. Applying multilevel methods, the authors examined (a) how performance feedback influences subsequent goals within individuals across both negative and positive performance feedback ranges, and (b) the mediating role of affect in explaining the relationship between feedback and subsequent goal setting. Results showed that participants adjusted their goals downwardly following negative feedback and created positive goal-performance discrepancies by raising their goals following positive feedback. In each sample, affect mediated substantial proportions of the feedback-goals relationship within individuals.

  18. Automatic goals and conscious regulation in social cognitive affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Chandra; Swain, John D; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E

    2014-04-01

    The Selfish Goal model challenges traditional agentic models that place conscious systems at the helm of motivation. We highlight the need for ongoing supervision and intervention of automatic goals by higher-order conscious systems with examples from social cognitive affective neuroscience. We contend that interplay between automatic and supervisory systems is required for adaptive human behavior.

  19. Homer Protein–Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Binding Regulates Endocannabinoid Signaling and Affects Hyperexcitability in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alger, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    The Fmr1 knock-out mouse model of fragile X syndrome (Fmr1−/y) has an epileptogenic phenotype that is triggered by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. We found that a membrane-permeable peptide that disrupts mGluR5 interactions with long-form Homers enhanced mGluR-induced epileptiform burst firing in wild-type (WT) animals, replicating the early stages of hyperexcitability in Fmr1−/y. The peptide enhanced mGluR-evoked endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated suppression of inhibitory synapses, decreased it at excitatory synapses in WTs, but had no effect on eCB actions in Fmr1−/y. At a low concentration, the mGluR agonist did not generate eCBs at excitatory synapses but nevertheless induced burst firing in both Fmr1−/y and peptide-treated WT slices. This burst firing was suppressed by a cannabinoid receptor antagonist. We suggest that integrity of Homer scaffolds is essential for normal mGluR–eCB functioning and that aberrant eCB signaling resulting from disturbances of this molecular structure contributes to the epileptic phenotype of Fmr1−/y. PMID:25740522

  20. PROSTATE REGULATION: MODELING ENDOGENOUS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prostate function is an important indicator of androgen status in toxicological studies making predictive modeling of the relevant pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics desirable. Prostate function is an important indicator of androgen status in toxicological studies making predictive modeling of the relevant pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics desirable.

  1. European Regulation Affecting Nanomaterials - Review of Limitations and Future Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    After learning about the potential risks associated with various specific nanomaterials, concerns have been raised about adequacy of existing regulation in Europe and what should be done to address any potential regulatory gaps related to nanomaterials. Understanding the limitations of the current regulation in regard to nanomaterials is a starting point in a democratic and transparent process towards adapting existing laws and facilitating an informed discussion about which kind of regulatory options best address the identified limitations. In the following we will introduce key pieces of European legislation affecting nanomaterials, analyze their limitations, and provide a number of recommendations on how these can be overcome. We find that, although nanomaterials are in principle covered by the scope of many of the existing legislative frameworks, it is often unclear, if current regulations are actually applicable when it comes to specific nanomaterials and their diverse applications. Main limitations seem to be: that requirements to do safety evaluations are triggered by production volumes by tonnage not tailored to the nanoscale, the profound lack of (eco)toxicological data, and that thresholds values and occupational exposure limits cannot be established with existing methodologies. PMID:22942870

  2. European regulation affecting nanomaterials - review of limitations and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    After learning about the potential risks associated with various specific nanomaterials, concerns have been raised about adequacy of existing regulation in Europe and what should be done to address any potential regulatory gaps related to nanomaterials. Understanding the limitations of the current regulation in regard to nanomaterials is a starting point in a democratic and transparent process towards adapting existing laws and facilitating an informed discussion about which kind of regulatory options best address the identified limitations. In the following we will introduce key pieces of European legislation affecting nanomaterials, analyze their limitations, and provide a number of recommendations on how these can be overcome. We find that, although nanomaterials are in principle covered by the scope of many of the existing legislative frameworks, it is often unclear, if current regulations are actually applicable when it comes to specific nanomaterials and their diverse applications. Main limitations seem to be: that requirements to do safety evaluations are triggered by production volumes by tonnage not tailored to the nanoscale, the profound lack of (eco)toxicological data, and that thresholds values and occupational exposure limits cannot be established with existing methodologies.

  3. ADP1 Affects Plant Architecture by Regulating Local Auxin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs. PMID:24391508

  4. ADP1 affects plant architecture by regulating local auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixi; Li, Jieru; Li, Shibai; Qin, Genji; Novák, Ondřej; Pěnčík, Aleš; Ljung, Karin; Aoyama, Takashi; Liu, Jingjing; Murphy, Angus; Gu, Hongya; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Qu, Li-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Plant architecture is one of the key factors that affect plant survival and productivity. Plant body structure is established through the iterative initiation and outgrowth of lateral organs, which are derived from the shoot apical meristem and root apical meristem, after embryogenesis. Here we report that ADP1, a putative MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter, plays an essential role in regulating lateral organ outgrowth, and thus in maintaining normal architecture of Arabidopsis. Elevated expression levels of ADP1 resulted in accelerated plant growth rate, and increased the numbers of axillary branches and flowers. Our molecular and genetic evidence demonstrated that the phenotypes of plants over-expressing ADP1 were caused by reduction of local auxin levels in the meristematic regions. We further discovered that this reduction was probably due to decreased levels of auxin biosynthesis in the local meristematic regions based on the measured reduction in IAA levels and the gene expression data. Simultaneous inactivation of ADP1 and its three closest homologs led to growth retardation, relative reduction of lateral organ number and slightly elevated auxin level. Our results indicated that ADP1-mediated regulation of the local auxin level in meristematic regions is an essential determinant for plant architecture maintenance by restraining the outgrowth of lateral organs.

  5. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent’s resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target’s feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent’s strategy and the target’s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as

  6. Using interpersonal affect regulation in simulated healthcare consultations: an experimental investigation of self-control resource depletion.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation -the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others- occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent's resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target's feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers' resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients' feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent's strategy and the target's response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as personal

  7. [An iron regulator hepcidin is affected by EPO].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Zhao, Yong-Qiang

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the effect of EPO on hepcidin mRNA expression in normal mice, acute inflammatory mice and ACD mice, the acute phase model and ACD model of mouse was produced by subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression levels of normal mice, acute inflammatory mice and ACD mice were detected by semi-quantitative retro-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after intra-peritoneal injection of EPO. The results showed that prolonged chronic inflammation did not significantly increase mouse hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression, but a single injection of turpentine oil increased mouse hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression transiently. Intra-peritoneal injection of EPO down-regulated hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression in normal mice, ACD mice and acute inflammatory mice. Hb levels had a negative correlation with hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression levels in ACD mice treated with EPO. It is concluded that the ACD model can be produced by repeated subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil. Hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression increased during the early period of ACD process and then fall to normal level. EPO down-regulate hepcidin mRNA expression under the normal, acute inflammation and chronic inflammation conditions.

  8. Mathematical Models of Gene Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Michael C.

    2004-03-01

    This talk will focus on examples of mathematical models for the regulation of repressible operons (e.g. the tryptophan operon), inducible operons (e.g. the lactose operon), and the lysis/lysogeny switch in phage λ. These ``simple" gene regulatory elements can display characteristics experimentally of rapid response to perturbations and bistability, and biologically accurate mathematical models capture these aspects of the dynamics. The models, if realistic, are always nonlinear and contain significant time delays due to transcriptional and translational delays that pose substantial problems for the analysis of the possible ranges of dynamics.

  9. Adult Antisocial Behavior and Affect Regulation among Primary Crack/Cocaine-Using Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Lisa Caren; Hien, Denise A.; Levin, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between deficits in affect regulation and Adult Antisocial Behavior (ASB) in primary crack/cocaine-using women was explored in a sample of 80 inner-city women. Narrative early memories were coded for two components of affect regulation, Affect Tolerance and Affect Expression, using the Epigenetic Assessment Rating Scale (EARS;…

  10. Does regulating others' feelings influence people's own affective well-being?

    PubMed

    Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David; Headley, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Individuals in a variety of social contexts try to regulate other people's feelings, but how does this process affect the regulators themselves? This research aimed to establish a relationship between people's use of interpersonal affect regulation and their own affective well-being. In a field study, self- and other-reported data were collected from prisoners and staff members in a therapeutic prison using two surveys separated in time. In a laboratory study, a student sample reported their affect before and after attempting to influence the feelings of talent show contestants in a role-play task. The results of both studies indicated congruent associations between the use of affect-improving and affect-worsening interpersonal affect regulation and strategy agents' affective well-being. Our findings highlight that, when performing interpersonal affect regulation, people may not be immune from the effects of their own actions.

  11. SYSTEMS MODELING OF PROSTATE REGULATION AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The prostate is an androgen-dependent tissue that is an important site of disease in human males as well as an important indicator of androgen status in animals. The rat prostate is used for studying antiandrogenic drugs as well as for evaluation of endocrine disruption (e.g., Hershberger Assay). Pubertal changes in the prostate have been observed to be as sensitive to environmental antiandrogens as in utero effects. The goal of this research is to model the biology of prostate androgen function on a systems level to determine the factors responsible for the dose-response observable with androgens and antiandrogens in the male rat. This includes investigation of the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in prostatic response following castration and dosing with testosterone and/or antiandrogens. A biologically-based, systems-level model will be developed describing the regulation of the prostate by androgens. The model will extend an existing model for the male rat central axis, which describes feedback between luteinizing hormone and testosterone production in the testes, to include the prostate and conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The prostate model will describe binding of androgens to the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase catalyzed production of DHT, and gene regulation affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prostatic fluid production. The model will combine pharmacokinetic models for endogenous hormones (i.e., testost

  12. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  13. Potential animal models of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depressive episodes during winter that are alleviated during summer and by morning bright light treatment. Currently, there is no animal model of SAD. However, it may be possible to use rodents that respond to day length (photoperiod) to understand how photoperiod can shape the brain and behavior in humans. As nights lengthen in the autumn, the duration of the nightly elevation of melatonin increase; seasonally breeding animals use this information to orchestrate seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. SAD may originate from the extended duration of nightly melatonin secretion during fall and winter. These similarities between humans and rodents in melatonin secretion allows for comparisons with rodents that express more depressive-like responses when exposed to short day lengths. For instance, Siberian hamsters, fat sand rats, Nile grass rats, and Wistar rats display a depressive-like phenotype when exposed to short days. Current research in depression and animal models of depression suggests that hippocampal plasticity may underlie the symptoms of depression and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. It is also possible that day length induces structural changes in human brains. Many seasonally breeding rodents undergo changes in whole brain and hippocampal volume in short days. Based on strict validity criteria, there is no animal model of SAD, but rodents that respond to reduced day lengths may be useful to approximate the neurobiological phenomena that occur in people with SAD, leading to greater understanding of the etiology of the disorder as well as novel therapeutic interventions.

  14. Affect Regulation Training (ART) for Alcohol Use Disorders: Development of a Novel Intervention for Negative Affect Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Schlauch, Robert C.; Coffey, Scott F.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Gudleski, Gregory; Bole, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Although negative affect is a common precipitant of alcohol relapse, there are few interventions for alcohol dependence that specifically target negative affect. In this Stage 1a/1b treatment development study, several affect regulation strategies (e.g., mindfulness, prolonged exposure, distress tolerance) were combined to create a new treatment supplement called Affect Regulation Training (ART), which could be added to enhance Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence. A draft therapy manual was given to therapists and treatment experts before being administered to several patients who also provided input. After two rounds of manual development (Stage 1a), a pilot randomized clinical trial (N = 77) of alcohol-dependent outpatients who reported drinking often in negative affect situations was conducted (Stage 1b). Participants received 12-weekly, 90-minute sessions of either CBT for alcohol dependence plus ART (CBT + ART) or CBT plus a healthy lifestyles control condition (CBT + HLS). Baseline, end-of-treatment, and 3- and 6-month posttreatment interviews were conducted. For both treatment conditions, participant ratings of treatment satisfaction were high, with CBT + ART rated significantly higher. Drinking outcome results indicated greater reductions in alcohol use for CBT + ART when compared to CBT + HLS, with moderate effect sizes for percent days abstinent, drinks per day, drinks per drinking day, and percent heavy drinking days. Overall, findings support further research on affect regulation interventions for negative affect drinkers. PMID:23876455

  15. Economic Approaches to Estimating Benefits of Regulations Affecting Addictive Goods.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Jessup, Amber I; Kenkel, Donald S; Starr, Martha A

    2016-05-01

    The question of how to evaluate lost consumer surplus in benefit-cost analyses has been contentious. There are clear health benefits of regulations that curb consumption of goods with health risks, such as tobacco products and foods high in fats, calories, sugar, and sodium. Yet, if regulations cause consumers to give up goods they like, the health benefits they experience may be offset by some utility loss, which benefit-cost analyses of regulations need to take into account. This paper lays out the complications of measuring benefits of regulations aiming to curb consumption of addictive and habitual goods, rooted in the fact that consumers' observed demand for such goods may not be in line with their true preferences. Focusing on the important case of tobacco products, the paper describes four possible approaches for estimating benefits when consumers' preferences may not be aligned with their behavior, and identifies one as having the best feasibility for use in applied benefit-cost analyses in the near term.

  16. [Mentalisation and affect regulation--how the infantile self develops].

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The text comprises the different elements of the psychoanalytic mentalization theory of Peter Fonagy et al. and tries to explain them. Part of this theory are above all the affect mirroring as well as the affect reciprocity theory and the two modes of the "as if" character and the psychic equivalence (playing with reality). You can find clear examples for each of these theoretical components. Moreover there are many correlations to other authors and their respective development theories: that is to Wilfred Bion, Donald Winnicott and John Bowlby. The text is based above all on Martin Dornes' approaches on this topic (2004, 2006).

  17. 93rd Congress: Federal Laws and Regulations Affecting the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettings, Robert M.

    Provided is a summary of 1973 and 1974 legislative and administrative developments affecting handicapped persons. The report is divided into five major sections: an outline of some overriding issues faced by the 93rd Congress; a detailed analysis of the implications for the handicapped of bills enacted by the past session of Congress; a brief…

  18. 75 FR 33501 - Definitions for Regulations Affecting All Savings Associations; Money Market Deposit Accounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision 12 CFR Part 561 RIN 1550-AC40 Definitions for Regulations Affecting All... REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS 0 1. The authority citation for part 509 continues to read...

  19. 25 CFR 542.5 - How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction? 542.5 Section 542.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.5 How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction? Nothing in this...

  20. 32 CFR 701.67 - Petitions for issuance, revision, or cancellation of regulations affecting the public.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cancellation of regulations affecting the public. 701.67 Section 701.67 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE...

  1. Accuracy and Generalizability in Summaries of Affect Regulation Strategies: Comment on Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Adam A.; Hemenover, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    In their examination of the effectiveness of affect regulation strategies, Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012) offered the results of a broad meta-analysis of studies on regulatory interventions. Their analysis provides an alternative to our earlier, more focused meta-analysis of the affect regulation literature (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009).…

  2. FMRP regulates multipolar to bipolar transition affecting neuronal migration and cortical circuitry.

    PubMed

    La Fata, Giorgio; Gärtner, Annette; Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Dresselaers, Tom; Dawitz, Julia; Poorthuis, Rogier B; Averna, Michele; Himmelreich, Uwe; Meredith, Rhiannon M; Achsel, Tilmann; Dotti, Carlos G; Bagni, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Deficiencies in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) are the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, fragile X syndrome (FXS), with symptoms manifesting during infancy and early childhood. Using a mouse model for FXS, we found that Fmrp regulates the positioning of neurons in the cortical plate during embryonic development, affecting their multipolar-to-bipolar transition (MBT). We identified N-cadherin, which is crucial for MBT, as an Fmrp-regulated target in embryonic brain. Furthermore, spontaneous network activity and high-resolution brain imaging revealed defects in the establishment of neuronal networks at very early developmental stages, further confirmed by an unbalanced excitatory and inhibitory network. Finally, reintroduction of Fmrp or N-cadherin in the embryo normalized early postnatal neuron activity. Our findings highlight the critical role of Fmrp in the developing cerebral cortex and might explain some of the clinical features observed in patients with FXS, such as alterations in synaptic communication and neuronal network connectivity.

  3. Does close temperature regulation affect surgical site infection rates?

    PubMed

    Leeds, Ira L; Wick, Elizabeth C; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    The argument for close temperature control, to which regulatory bodies have held health systems in an effort to reduce the burden of hospital-acquired infections, is not fully supported by current evidence. The literature is complex on the topic, and overinterpretation of historical data supporting close temperature regulation does not preclude an important recognition of these early works' contribution to high-quality surgical care. Avoidance of hypothermia through the regular use of active rewarming should be a routine part of safe surgical care. The biochemical basis of emphasizing temperature regulation is sound, and ample evidence shows the frank physiologic derangements seen when biological processes occur at suboptimal temperature. It is also recognized that patients tend to do better when warmed during the perioperative period, suggesting that warming devices are an important and essential adjunct to good perioperative care. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers must be careful in how they apply these well-supported findings to process metrics in an era of limited resources with increasingly stringent quality guidelines and outcomes measures. Discrete temperature targets in current measures are not supported by the existing literature. Not only do these targets artificially anchor clinicians to temperature values with an inadequate scientific basis but they demand intensive resources from health institutions that could potentially be better used on quality requirements with stronger evidence of their ultimate effect on patient care.

  4. The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan; Russell, James A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    The circumplex model of affect proposes that all affective states arise from cognitive interpretations of core neural sensations that are the product of two independent neurophysiological systems. This model stands in contrast to theories of basic emotions, which posit that a discrete and independent neural system subserves every emotion. We propose that basic emotion theories no longer explain adequately the vast number of empirical observations from studies in affective neuroscience, and we suggest that a conceptual shift is needed in the empirical approaches taken to the study of emotion and affective psychopathologies. The circumplex model of affect is more consistent with many recent findings from behavioral, cognitive neuroscience, neuroimaging, and developmental studies of affect. Moreover, the model offers new theoretical and empirical approaches to studying the development of affective disorders as well as the genetic and cognitive underpinnings of affective processing within the central nervous system. PMID:16262989

  5. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, Alexis R

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed “exercise-induced pain”. Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. PMID:25228823

  6. Affect in the "Communicative" Classroom: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, William

    Recent research on affective variables and classroom second language learning suggests that: (1) affective variables are context-sensitive in at least two ways; (2) attitudes are contagious, and the general attitude of students can be influenced from various directions; (3) research in pragmatics, discourse analysis, and communicative functions…

  7. A Hierarchical Latent Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Affective Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oravecz, Zita; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    In this article a continuous-time stochastic model (the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) is presented to model the perpetually altering states of the core affect, which is a 2-dimensional concept underlying all our affective experiences. The process model that we propose can account for the temporal changes in core affect on the latent level. The key…

  8. ALPK1 affects testosterone mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines production.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzer-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tu, Hung-Pin; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-protein kinase 1, also known as alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1), is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), myocardial infarction, gout and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to having an inductive effect on the proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic THP1 cells, ALPK1 is expressed abundantly in the mouse testes. Low testosterone levels are commonly associated with arthritis, CKD, type 2 DM, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. The testosterone's anti-inflammatory effect has been demonstrated to reduce proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. In this study, we found that ALPK1 transgenic mice showed lower levels of testosterone in both the testes and the serum. Decreasing endogenous ALPK1 enhanced testosterone levels and transcripts of testosterone-regulated genes (P450scc, 3beta-HSD, P450C17, 17beta-HSD, StAR, and INSL3) in TM3 Leydig cells. In contrast, increasing testosterone decreased ALPK1 in both TM3 and monocytic THP1 cells. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction of the proinflammatory cytokines. Increased ALPK1 levels attenuated the testosterone effects in THP1 cells. Finally, we also found that ALPK1 increased the release of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 in the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, while testosterone inhibited ALPK1 in the primary kidney cells. Taken together, this data suggests that the balance between ALPK1 and testosterone plays a critical role in the testosterone-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.

  9. Sequences affecting the regulation of solvent production in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Scotcher, Miles C; Huang, Ke-xue; Harrison, Mary L; Rudolph, Frederick B; Bennett, George N

    2003-07-01

    The high solvent phenotype of Clostridium acetobutylicum mutants B and H was complemented by the introduction of a plasmid that contains either an intact or partially-deleted copy of solR, restoring acetone and butanol production to wild-type levels. This demonstrates that the solR open reading frame on pSOLThi is not required to restore solvent levels. The promoter region upstream of alcohol dehydrogense E (adhE) was examined in efforts to identify sites that play major roles in the control of expression. A series of adhE promoter fragments was constructed and the expression of each in acid- and solvent-phases of growth was analyzed using a chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase reporter system. Our results show that a region beyond the 0A box is needed for full induction of the promoter. Additionally, we show that the presence of sequences around a possible processing site designated S2 may have a negative role in the regulation of adhE expression.

  10. Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

  11. Affect as Information in Persuasion: A Model of Affect Identification and Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Albarracín, Dolores; Kumkale, G. Tarcan

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the implications of a model of affect as information in persuasion. According to this model, extraneous affect may have an influence when message recipients exert moderate amounts of thought, because they identify their affective reactions as potential criteria but fail to discount them as irrelevant. However, message recipients may not use affect as information when they deem affect irrelevant or when they do not identify their affective reactions at all. Consistent with this curvilinear prediction, recipients of a message that either favored or opposed comprehensive exams used affect as a basis for attitudes in situations that elicited moderate thought. Affect, however, had no influence on attitudes in conditions that elicited either large or small amounts of thought. PMID:12635909

  12. 77 FR 467 - Notice of Tribal Consultation Meetings Regarding How the Current SACWIS Regulations Affect Tribes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Meetings Regarding How the Current SACWIS Regulations Affect Tribes Administering a Title IV-E Program... CONTACT: If you have questions about this process, or want further information about current...

  13. Accuracy and generalizability in summaries of affect regulation strategies: comment on Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012).

    PubMed

    Augustine, Adam A; Hemenover, Scott H

    2013-05-01

    In their examination of the effectiveness of affect regulation strategies, Webb, Miles, and Sheeran (2012) offered the results of a broad meta-analysis of studies on regulatory interventions. Their analysis provides an alternative to our earlier, more focused meta-analysis of the affect regulation literature (Augustine & Hemenover, 2009). Unfortunately, there are a number of errors and omissions in this new meta-analysis that could lead to misconceptions regarding both our previous work and the state of the affect regulation literature. In this comment, we examine the impact of methodological issues, inconsistent inclusion criteria, variance in manipulations, and what we perceive to be a subjective and inconsistent selection of effect sizes on the accuracy and generalizability of Webb and colleagues' estimates of affect regulation strategy effectiveness.

  14. Maternal regulation of child affect in externalizing and typically-developing children.

    PubMed

    Lougheed, Jessica P; Hollenstein, Tom; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Granic, Isabela

    2015-02-01

    Temporal contingencies between children's affect and maternal behavior play a role in the development of children's externalizing problems. The goal of the current study was to use a microsocial approach to compare dyads with externalizing dysregulation (N =191) to healthy controls (N = 54) on maternal supportive regulation of children's negative and positive affect. Children were between the ages of 8 and 12 years. Mother-child dyads participated in conflict and positive discussions, and child affect and maternal supportive affect regulation were coded in real time. First, no group differences on overall levels of mother supportive regulation or child affect were found. Second, three event history analyses in a 2-level Cox hazard regression framework were used to predict the hazard rate of (a) maternal supportiveness, and of children's transitions (b) out of negative affect and (c) into positive affect. The hazard rate of maternal supportiveness, regardless of child affect, was not different between groups. However, as expected, the likelihood of mothers' supportive responses to children's negative affect was lower in externalizing than comparison dyads. In addition, children with externalizing problems were significantly less likely than typically developing children to transition out of negative affect in response to maternal supportiveness. The likelihood of both typically developing children and children with externalizing problems transitioning into positive affect were not related to specific occurrences of maternal supportiveness. Results of the current study show the importance of temporal dynamics in mother-child interactions in the emergence of children's externalizing problems.

  15. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories During Secondary School Predict Substance Use Among Urban Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multi-ethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived stress. As young adults, participants reported on the frequency and quantity of their alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a telephone interview. Controlling for demographic variables, self-regulation did not significantly change over adolescence, although there was significant variation in participants’ rates of growth and decline. Lower seventh grade self-regulation and less steep increases in self-regulation were predictive of higher young adult substance use. Male participants had significantly lower initial self-regulation and higher young adult substance use. The results suggest that interventions that build affective self-regulation skills in adolescence may decrease the risk of young adult substance use. PMID:26549966

  16. Drawing versus Writing: The Role of Preference in Regulating Short-Term Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Jennifer E.; Hodge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    In a pilot study we investigated whether the most effective medium for regulating short-term affect depends on one's preference for drawing or writing, and also investigated the emotion regulation strategy (distraction versus expression) spontaneously chosen when drawing and writing. Eighty undergraduates indicated their preference for drawing or…

  17. Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR): HIV Prevention in Alternative/Therapeutic Schools

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as well as HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. It was hypothesized that STAR would lead to a decrease in sexual risk and improved HIV knowledge and attitudes. Method Fourteen schools were randomly assigned by year either to the STAR intervention or a brief educational program. Schools received the alternate intervention the following year. 185 adolescents in 29 cohorts (groups) participated in the interventions. Assessment of sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes with audio computer-assisted self-interviews occurred at three, six and nine months post intervention. Results Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) analyses found that adolescents in the STAR intervention reported a significantly greater decrease (p < .05) in the Sexual Risk Index than youth in the control group over the six months post intervention and similar improvements in the HIV Knowledge Scale and the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale. There were no group differences between six and nine months post intervention. Conclusions This STAR intervention for youth in alternative schools was associated with decreased sexual risk for six months after the intervention. These data suggest that intervention strategies that target cognitions and affect within a sexual context might be usefully applied to improving sexual behavior but may need to be reinforced over time. PMID:21961780

  18. Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR): Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention in Alternative/Therapeutic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality-specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as…

  19. Toddler Emotion Regulation with Mothers and Fathers: Temporal Associations between Negative Affect and Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.; Lickenbrock, Diane M.; Zentall, Shannon R.; Maxwell, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated temporal associations between putative emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in 20-month-old toddlers. Toddlers' parent-focused, self-distraction, and toy-focused strategies, as well as negative affect, were rated on a second-by-second basis during laboratory parent-toddler interactions. Longitudinal…

  20. Beyond sensation seeking: affect regulation as a framework for predicting risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport.

    PubMed

    Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Sensation seeking has been widely studied when investigating individual differences in the propensity for taking risks. However, risk taking can serve many different goals beyond the simple management of physiological arousal. The present study is an investigation of affect self-regulation as a predictor of risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Risk-taking behaviors, negative affectivity, escape self-awareness strategy, and sensation seeking data were obtained from 265 high-risk sportsmen. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed significant main and interaction effects of negative affectivity and escape self-awareness strategy in predicting risk-taking behaviors: high-risk sportsmen's negative affectivity leads them to adopt risk-taking behaviors only if they also use escape self-awareness strategy. Furthermore, the affective model remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking. The present study contributes to an in-depth understanding of risk taking in high-risk sport.

  1. Gene Regulation Networks for Modeling Drosophila Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, E.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster.

  2. Endospanin1 affects oppositely body weight regulation and glucose homeostasis by differentially regulating central leptin signaling.

    PubMed

    Vauthier, Virginie; Roujeau, Clara; Chen, Patty; Sarkis, Chamsy; Migrenne, Stéphanie; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro; Rouillé, Yves; Foretz, Marc; Mallet, Jacques; Launay, Jean-Marie; Magnan, Christophe; Jockers, Ralf; Dam, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is a major integration center for energy and glucose homeostasis that responds to leptin. Resistance to leptin in the ARC is an important component of the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, we showed that Endospanin1 (Endo1) is a negative regulator of the leptin receptor (OBR) that interacts with OBR and retains the receptor inside the cell, leading to a decreased activation of the anorectic STAT3 pathway. Endo1 is up-regulated in the ARC of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and its silencing in the ARC of lean and obese mice prevents and reverses the development of obesity.

  3. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: the role of MP3 players.

    PubMed

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-08-07

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners' mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  4. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players.

    PubMed

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners' mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  5. The relationships between HIV stigma, emotional status, and emotional regulation among HIV-affected children in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV/AIDS have unique psychosocial needs that often go unaddressed in traditional treatment approaches. They are more likely than unaffected peers to encounter stigma, including overt discriminatory behaviors, as well as stereotyped attitudes. In addition, HIV-affected children are at risk for experiencing negative affect, including sadness and depression. Previous studies have identified a link between HIV stigma and the subsequent emotional status of children affected by HIV/AIDS. However, limited data are available regarding protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effects of HIV stigma and thus promote resiliency for this vulnerable population. Utilizing data from 790 children aged 6–17 years affected by parental HIV in rural central China this study aims to examine the association between HIV stigma, including both enacted and perceived stigma, and emotional status among HIV-affected children, as well as to evaluate the mediating effects of emotional regulation on the relationship between HIV stigma and emotional status. In addition, the moderating role of age is tested. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. We found that the experience of HIV stigma had a direct positive effect on negative emotions among children affected by HIV. Emotional regulation offers a level of protection, as it mediated the impact of HIV stigma on negative emotions. Moreover, age was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and negative emotions. A significant interaction between perceived stigma and age suggested that negative emotions increase with age among those who perceived a higher level of stigmatization. Results suggest that children affected by HIV may benefit from interventions designed to enhance their capacity to regulate emotions and that health professionals should be aware of the link between stigma and negative emotion in childhood and adolescence and use the knowledge to inform

  6. The role of emotion regulation in situational empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour in the presence of negative affect.

    PubMed

    Hein, Sascha; Röder, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Empathy and prosocial behaviour are crucial factors for children's positive social adjustment. Contemporary models of empathy highlight the capacity to regulate vicariously experienced emotions as a precursor to empathy-related responses (e.g., prosocial behaviour). The goal of this study was to examine the role of emotion regulation (ER) in situational empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour. A sample of 157 children (76 boys and 81 girls; Mage = 9.94 years) participated in a two-tiered interview procedure that utilised vignettes to assess empathy and prosocial behaviour. Between both phases of the interview, a negative affect was induced to investigate the influence of ER on the change between the two phases. Results from a latent change model showed that ER strategies positively predicted change scores, that is, children with higher abilities to regulate emotions showed a higher increase in empathy and prosocial behaviour. Implications for the promotion of social-emotional learning in school are discussed.

  7. Identifying Molecular Regulators of Neuronal Functions Affected in the Movement Disorder Dystonia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0301 TITLE: Identifying Molecular Regulators of Neuronal Functions Affected in the Movement Disorder...Affected in the Movement Disorder Dystonia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0301 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The movement disorder dystonia is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions in the limbs, hands, feet or neck. The aim

  8. Melanocortin Receptor 4 Deficiency Affects Body Weight Regulation, Grooming Behavior, and Substrate Preference in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J.M.; Brans, Maike A.D.; Brakkee, Jan H.; Toonen, Pim W.; Garner, Keith M.; Adan, Roger A.H.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis–induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein79–129 (AgRP79–129), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function. PMID:21527895

  9. Melanocortin receptor 4 deficiency affects body weight regulation, grooming behavior, and substrate preference in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; van Boxtel, Ruben; Bergen, Dylan J M; Brans, Maike A D; Brakkee, Jan H; Toonen, Pim W; Garner, Keith M; Adan, Roger A H; Cuppen, Edwin

    2012-03-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure and has become a major health-care problem in western society. The central melanocortin system plays a crucial role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure, and functional loss of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is the most common genetic cause of human obesity. In this study, we present the first functional Mc4r knockout model in the rat, resulting from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis-induced point mutation. In vitro observations revealed impaired membrane-binding and subsequent nonfunctionality of the receptor, whereas in vivo observations showed that functional loss of MC4R increased body weight, food intake, white adipose mass, and changed substrate preference. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of Agouti-Related Protein(79-129) (AgRP(79-129)), an MC4R inverse agonist, or Melanotan-II (MTII), an MC4R agonist, did affect feeding behavior in wild-type rats but not in homozygous mutant rats, confirming complete loss of MC4R function in vivo. Finally, ICV administration of MTII induced excessive grooming behavior in wild-type rats, whereas this effect was absent in homozygous mutant rats, indicating that MTII-induced grooming behavior is exclusively regulated via MC4R pathways. Taken together, we expect that the MC4R rat model described here will be a valuable tool for studying monogenic obesity in humans. More specifically, the relative big size and increased cognitive capacity of rats as compared to mice will facilitate complex behavioral studies and detailed mechanistic studies regarding central function of MC4R, both of which ultimately may help to further understand the specific mechanisms that induce obesity during loss of MC4R function.

  10. Neurofeedback, Affect Regulation and Attachment: A Case Study and Analysis of Anti-Social Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Sebern F.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the effects of neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training on affect regulation in a fifty-five year-old man with a history marked by fear, rage, alcoholism, chronic unemployment and multiple failed treatments. He had been diagnosed with ADHD and attachment disorder and met criteria for anti-social personality disorder. The…

  11. The Changing Climate Toward Occupational Regulation: How Does It Affect Cosmetology Board Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimberg, Benjamin

    This document contains two letters. The first letter, which might have been written by a cosmetology licensing board member to his mother, illustrates the changing climate toward occupational regulations and how it might affect the attitudes of a board member. The second letter, the mother's reply, attempts to put some of the changes into a…

  12. Developing Connections for Affective Regulation: Age-Related Changes in Emotional Brain Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of affective arousal is a critical aspect of children's social and cognitive development. However, few studies have examined the brain mechanisms involved in the development of this aspect of "hot" executive functioning. This process has been conceptualized as involving prefrontal control of the amygdala. Here, using functional…

  13. Do Regulable Features of Child-Care Homes Affect Children's Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; O'Brien, Marion; McCartney, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Used data from NICHD Study of Early Child Care to assess whether regulable features of child care homes affected children's development. Found caregivers' education and recency of training related to learning environment and caregiving sensitivity. More positive caregiving related to compliance with age-weighted group-size cut-offs. Caregiver…

  14. The Role of Depression and Negative Affect Regulation Expectancies in Tobacco Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Holly E.; Harris, Kari Jo; Catley, Delwyn; Nazir, Niaman

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about nicotine's ability to alleviate negative mood states may play a role in the relationship between smoking and depression. The authors examined the role of negative affect regulation expectancies as a potential mediator of depression (history of depression and depressive symptoms) and smoking among college students.…

  15. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  16. 25 CFR 547.2 - How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction? 547.2 Section 547.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.2 How do...

  17. 25 CFR 547.2 - How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction? 547.2 Section 547.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.2 How do...

  18. 25 CFR 547.2 - How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How do these regulations affect state jurisdiction? 547.2 Section 547.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.2 How do...

  19. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  20. When death is not a problem: Regulating implicit negative affect under mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern.

  1. The 'too muchness' of excitement: sexuality in light of excess, attachment and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Jessica; Atlas, Galit

    2015-02-01

    This paper brings together contemporary thinking about early attachment and affect regulation with our clinical and theoretical understanding of the problems of adult sexuality. In addition to recent theories of affect regulation and attachment, we incorporate Laplanche's idea of 'excess', which was an important transitional concept integrating real experience with fantasy in sexuality. We elaborate the idea of excess-- 'too-muchness' --to illuminate the early overwhelming of the psyche that affects the formation of sexuality. Linked to recent theoretical developments, this idea helps to grasp the relationship between sexual excitement and early affect regulation, showing how excitement becomes dangerous, thus impeding or distorting desire. The 'too-muchness' of excitement recalls the experience of being a stimulated, overwhelmed, unsoothed child and influences later inability to tolerate sexual arousal and the excitement affect. A clinical case illustrates this connection between attachment trauma, anxiety about sexuality, as well as shameful experiences of gender identity as an area of trauma. We emphasize the importance of working through the terrors and desires of the mother-baby relationship as they emerge in the transference-countertransference in order to develop the ability to hold excitement and stimulation without experiencing the too-much as the intolerable. This includes the working-through of ruptures related to overstimulation as well as the delicate balance of attention to fantasy and intersubjective work in the transference.

  2. Better, Stronger, Faster Self-Serving Judgment, Affect Regulation, and the Optimal Vigilance Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Roese, Neal J.; Olson, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-serving judgments, in which the self is viewed more favorably than other people, are ubiquitous. Their dynamic variation within individuals may be explained in terms of the regulation of affect. Self-serving judgments produce positive emotions, and threat increases self-serving judgments (a compensatory pattern that restores affect to a set point or baseline). Perceived mutability is a key moderator of these judgments; low mutability (i.e., the circumstance is closed to modification) triggers a cognitive response aimed at affect regulation, whereas high mutability (i.e., the circumstance is open to further modification) activates direct behavioral remediation. Threats often require immediate response, whereas positive events do not. Because of this brief temporal window, an active mechanism is needed to restore negative (but not positive) affective shifts back to a set point. Without this active reset, an earlier threat would make the individual less vigilant toward a new threat. Thus, when people are sad, they aim to return their mood to baseline, often via self-serving judgments. We argue that asymmetric homeostasis enables optimal vigilance, which establishes a coherent theoretical account of the role of self-serving judgments in affect regulation. PMID:18552989

  3. Addiction Motivation Reformulated: An Affective Processing Model of Negative Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Majeskie, Matthew R.; Fiore, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a reformulation of the negative reinforcement model of drug addiction and proposes that the escape and avoidance of negative affect is the prepotent motive for addictive drug use. The authors posit that negative affect is the motivational core of the withdrawal syndrome and argue that, through repeated cycles of drug use and…

  4. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Steward, Trevor; Picó-Pérez, Maria; Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

  5. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  6. Children's affect regulation during a disappointment: psychophysiological responses and relation to parent history of depression.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Erika E; Fox, Nathan A; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Galles, Steven F; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-03-01

    Psychophysiological responses during affect regulation were examined in 57 children ages 3-9 years, 41 of whom had a parent history of childhood-onset depression (COD). During a structured laboratory task, children were given first a disappointing toy and then a desired toy. Frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), heart period, and heart period variability were measured during resting and task conditions. Affective and self-regulatory behaviors were coded from videotape. In 3-5-year olds, greater relative right frontal activity was associated with withdrawal behavior. High heart period was associated with approach behavior. Compared with children of psychiatrically healthy parents, children of parents with COD exhibited poor heart period recovery after disappointment. For children of parents with COD, greater relative left frontal activity was related to concurrent internalizing and externalizing problems, and low resting RSA was related to internalizing problems. Physiological responses associated with affect regulation may help identify children at risk for depression.

  7. Leucine metabolism regulates TRI6 expression and affects deoxynivalenol production and virulence in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Narayanan, Swara; Walkowiak, Sean; Wang, Li; Joshi, Manisha; Rocheleau, Hélène; Ouellet, Thérèse; Harris, Linda J

    2015-11-01

    TRI6 is a positive regulator of the trichothecene gene cluster and the production of trichothecene mycotoxins [deoxynivalenol (DON)] and acetylated forms such as 15-Acetyl-DON) in the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. As a global transcriptional regulator, TRI6 expression is modulated by nitrogen-limiting conditions, sources of nitrogen and carbon, pH and light. However, the mechanism by which these diverse environmental factors affect TRI6 expression remains underexplored. In our effort to understand how nutrients affect TRI6 regulation, comparative digital expression profiling was performed with a wild-type F. graminearum and a Δtri6 mutant strain, grown in nutrient-rich conditions. Analysis showed that TRI6 negatively regulates genes of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolic pathway. Feeding studies with deletion mutants of MCC, encoding methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase, one of the key enzymes of leucine metabolism, showed that addition of leucine specifically down-regulated TRI6 expression and reduced 15-ADON accumulation. Constitutive expression of TRI6 in the Δmcc mutant strain restored 15-ADON production. A combination of cellophane breach assays and pathogenicity experiments on wheat demonstrated that disrupting the leucine metabolic pathway significantly reduced disease. These findings suggest a complex interaction between one of the primary metabolic pathways with a global regulator of mycotoxin biosynthesis and virulence in F. graminearum.

  8. The Allostery Model of TCR Regulation.

    PubMed

    Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Alarcon, Balbino; Höfer, Thomas; Minguet, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The activity of the αβ TCR is controlled by conformational switches. In the resting conformation, the TCR is not phosphorylated and is inactive. Binding of multivalent peptide-MHC to the TCR stabilizes the active conformation, leading to TCR signaling. These two conformations allow the TCRs to be allosterically regulated. We review recent data on heterotropic allostery where peptide-MHC and membrane cholesterol serve opposing functions as positive and negative allosteric regulators, respectively. In resting T cells cholesterol keeps TCRs in the resting conformation that otherwise would become spontaneously active. This regulation is well described by the classical Monod-Wyman-Changeux model of allostery. Moreover, the observation that TCRs assemble into nanoclusters might allow for homotropic allostery, in which individual TCRs could positively cooperate and thus enhance the sensitivity of T cell activation. This new view of TCR regulation will contribute to a better understanding of TCR functioning.

  9. Transnational models for regulation of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Sylvester, Douglas J

    2006-01-01

    Like all technologies, nanotechnology will inevitably present risks, whether they result from unintentional effects of otherwise beneficial applications, or from the malevolent misuse of technology. Increasingly, risks from new and emerging technologies are being regulated at the international level, although governments and private experts are only beginning to consider the appropriate international responses to nanotechnology. In this paper, we explore both the potential risks posed by nanotechnology and potential regulatory frameworks that law may impose. In so doing, we also explore the various rationales for international regulation including the potential for cross-boundary harms, sharing of regulatory expertise and resources, controlling protectionism and trade conflicts, avoiding a "race to the bottom" in which governments seek economic advantage through lax regulation, and limiting the "nano divide" between North and South. Finally, we examine some models for international regulation and offer tentative thoughts on the prospects for each.

  10. Dysfunctional affect regulation in borderline personality disorder and in somatoform disorder

    PubMed Central

    van Dijke, Annemiek

    2012-01-01

    Background Although affect dysregulation is considered a core component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorders (SoD), remarkably little research has focused on the prevalence and nature of affect dysregulation in these disorders. Also, despite apparent similarities, little is known about how dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and positive and negative somatoform and psychoform dissociative experiences inter-relate. Prior studies suggest a clear relationship between early childhood psychological trauma and affect dysregulation, especially when the caretaker is emotionally, sexually, or physically abusing the child, but how these relate to under- and overregulation while differentiating for developmental epochs is not clear. Although an elevated risk of childhood trauma exposure or complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) symptoms has been reported in BPD and SoD, trauma histories, dysfunctional affect regulation, dissociation, PTSD, and CPTSD were never assessed in unison in BPD and/or SoD. Method BPD and/or SoD diagnoses were confirmed or ruled out in 472 psychiatric inpatients using clinical interviews. Dysfunctional under- and overregulation of affect and somatoform and psychoform dissociation, childhood trauma-by-primary-caretaker (TPC), PTSD, and CPTSD were all measured using self reports. Results No disorder-specific form of dysfunctional affect regulation was found. Although both BPD and SoD can involve affect dysregulation and dissociation, there is a wide range of intensity of dysfunctional regulation phenomena in patients with these diagnoses. Evidence was found for the existence of three qualitatively different forms of experiencing states: inhibitory experiencing states (overregulation of affect and negative psychoform dissociation) most commonly found in SoD, excitatory experiencing states (underregulation of affect and positive psychoform dissociation) most commonly found in BPD, and combination of

  11. Self-Regulation Programs for At-Risk Youth: Are Teachers Affected Too?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtinger, Einat; Leichtentritt, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes experienced by teachers of youth at socioeconomic risk during and after conducting self-regulation programs with their students. Participants' self-reports were classified into 3 change models. Teachers in the 1st model reported changes in their interaction with the school, their role with the students, and their own…

  12. Regulating telomere length from the inside out: the replication fork model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length is regulated around an equilibrium set point. Telomeres shorten during replication and are lengthened by telomerase. Disruption of the length equilibrium leads to disease; thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that regulate length at the molecular level. The prevailing protein-counting model for regulating telomerase access to elongate the telomere does not explain accumulating evidence of a role of DNA replication in telomere length regulation. Here I present an alternative model: the replication fork model that can explain how passage of a replication fork and regulation of origin firing affect telomere length. PMID:27401551

  13. Regulation of miRNAs Affects Radiobiological Response of Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-mei; Liao, Xing-yun; Chen, Xie-wan; Li, De-zhi; Sun, Jian-guo; Liao, Rong-xia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a key therapeutic strategy for lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, but radioresistance often occurs and leads to failure of RT. It is therefore important to clarify the mechanism underlying radioresistance in lung cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered the fundamental reason for radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been regarded as important regulatory molecules of CSCs, carcinogenesis, and treatment response of cancers. It is crucial to clarify how regulation of miRNAs affects repair of DNA damage, redistribution, repopulation, reoxygenation, and radiosensitivity (5R) of lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs). A thorough understanding of the regulation of miRNAs affecting 5R of LCSCs has potential impact on identifying novel targets and thus may improve the efficacy of lung cancer radiotherapy. PMID:25815339

  14. Regulating and facilitating: the role of emotional intelligence in maintaining and using positive affect for creativity.

    PubMed

    Parke, Michael R; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Sherf, Elad N

    2015-05-01

    Although past research has identified the effects of emotional intelligence on numerous employee outcomes, the relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity has not been well established. We draw upon affective information processing theory to explain how two facets of emotional intelligence-emotion regulation and emotion facilitation-shape employee creativity. Specifically, we propose that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (PA) when faced with unique knowledge processing requirements, while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their PA to enhance their creativity. We find support for our hypotheses using a multimethod (ability test, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers across a wide range of jobs.

  15. Mining protein kinases regulation using graphical models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-03-01

    Abnormal kinase activity is a frequent cause of diseases, which makes kinases a promising pharmacological target. Thus, it is critical to identify the characteristics of protein kinases regulation by studying the activation and inhibition of kinase subunits in response to varied stimuli. Bayesian network (BN) is a formalism for probabilistic reasoning that has been widely used for learning dependency models. However, for high-dimensional discrete random vectors the set of plausible models becomes large and a full comparison of all the posterior probabilities related to the competing models becomes infeasible. A solution to this problem is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper proposes a BN-based framework to discover the dependency correlations of kinase regulation. Our approach is to apply the MCMC method to generate a sequence of samples from a probability distribution, by which to approximate the distribution. The frequent connections (edges) are identified from the obtained sampling graphical models. Our results point to a number of novel candidate regulation patterns that are interesting in biology and include inferred associations that were unknown.

  16. Better Not to Know? Emotion Regulation Fails to Benefit from Affective Cueing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siwei; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Zhou, Juan; Schirmer, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Often we know whether an upcoming event is going to be good or bad. But does that knowledge help us regulate ensuing emotions? To address this question, we exposed participants to alleged social feedback that was either positive or negative. On half the trials, a preceding cue indicated the feedback’s affective quality. On the remaining trials, the cue was uninformative. In two different blocks, participants either appraised feedback spontaneously or down-regulated ensuing emotions using a controlled appraisal strategy. Event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded throughout both blocks revealed an increased late positive potential (LPP) during cue and feedback epochs when cues were affectively informative as compared to uninformative. Additionally, during feedback epochs only, informative, but not uninformative, cueing was associated with an appraisal effect whereby controlled appraisal reduced the LPP relative to spontaneous appraisal for negative feedback. There was an opposite trend for positive feedback. Together, these results suggest that informative cues allowed individuals to anticipate an emotional response and to adjust emotion regulation. Overall, however, informative cues seemed to have prolonged and intensified emotional responding when compared with uninformative cues. Thus, affective cueing appears to be contraindicated when individuals aim to reduce their emotions. PMID:27932967

  17. Stiff Mutant Genes of Phycomyces Affect Turgor Pressure and Wall Mechanical Properties to Regulate Elongation Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.; Munoz, Cindy M.; Blakley, Scott E.; Truong, Jason T.; Ortega, Elena L.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses) and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses). “Stiff” mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least five genes; madD, E, F, G, and J. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the “growth zone.” Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type (WT). A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (−) and C216 geo- (−). Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible wall deformation rates within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to WT. These findings can explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores. It is speculated that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner cell

  18. Stiff mutant genes of phycomyces affect turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties to regulate elongation growth rate.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Joseph K E; Munoz, Cindy M; Blakley, Scott E; Truong, Jason T; Ortega, Elena L

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses) and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses). "Stiff" mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least five genes; madD, E, F, G, and J. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the "growth zone." Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type (WT). A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (-) and C216 geo- (-). Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible wall deformation rates within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to WT. These findings can explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores. It is speculated that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner cell wall.

  19. Differentiation state affects morphine induced cell regulation in neuroblastoma cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Giovina; Ghelardini, Carla; Bruni, Giancarlo; Guarna, Massimo; Bianchi, Enrica

    2013-10-25

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood and the most common cancer in infancy. Our purpose was to investigate in vitro how cancer cell survival occurs in presence of morphine in undifferentiated and differentiated SHSY-5Y human neuroblastoma cultured cell line. Exposure of differentiated cells to morphine dose-dependently induced apoptosis in these cells through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/caspase pathway. Otherwise, morphine induced activation for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, caused positive regulation of cell survival in undifferentiated cells. Therefore, cell differentiation state bimodally affects the cellular regulation activity triggered by morphine in isolated cultured neuroblastoma cells raising concerns about the application of morphine to this type of cancer patients.

  20. Self-Regulated Learning in Younger and Older Adults: Does Aging Affect Metacognitive Control?

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether younger and older adults’ self-regulated study (item selection and study time) conformed to the region of proximal learning (RPL) model when studying normatively easy, medium, and difficult vocabulary pairs. Experiment 2 manipulated the value of recalling different pairs and provided learning goals for words recalled and points earned. Younger and older adults in both experiments selected items for study in an easy-to-difficult order, indicating the RPL model applies to older adults’ self-regulated study. Individuals allocated more time to difficult items, but prioritized easier items when given less time or point values favoring difficult items. Older adults studied more items for longer but realized lower recall than did younger adults. Older adults’ lower memory self-efficacy and perceived control correlated with their greater item restudy and avoidance of difficult items with high point values. Results are discussed in terms of RPL and agenda-based regulation models. PMID:19866382

  1. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is...

  2. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  3. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  4. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  5. 45 CFR Appendix I to Part 617 - List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I Appendix I to Part 617.... 617, App. I Appendix I to Part 617—List of Age Distinctions Provided in Federal Statutes or Regulations Affecting Federal Financial Assistance Administered by NSF I. Section 6 of Pub. L. 94-86, 42...

  6. Predicting Short-Term Positive Affect in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Selected Personality Traits and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140

  7. Predicting short-term positive affect in individuals with social anxiety disorder: The role of selected personality traits and emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C

    2015-08-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety.

  8. How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; Vos, C M P; Westers, P; Croiset, G

    2013-03-01

    Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.

  9. Incorporating affective bias in models of human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this model is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.

  10. A model of neurovisceral integration in emotion regulation and dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Thayer, J F; Lane, R D

    2000-12-01

    In the present paper we present the outlines of a model that integrates autonomic, attentional, and affective systems into a functional and structural network that may help to guide us in our understanding of emotion regulation and dysregulation. We will emphasize the relationship between attentional regulation and affective processes and propose a group of underlying physiological systems that serve to integrate these functions in the service of self-regulation and adaptability of the organism. We will attempt to place this network in the context of dynamical systems models which involve feedback and feedforward circuits with special attention to negative feedback mechanisms, inhibitory processes, and their role in response selection. From a systems perspective, inhibitory processes can be viewed as negative feedback circuits that allow for the interruption of ongoing behavior and the re-deployment of resources to other tasks. When these negative feedback mechanisms are compromised, positive feedback loops may develop as a result (of dis-inhibition). From this perspective, the relative sympathetic activation seen in anxiety disorders may represent dis-inhibition due to faulty inhibitory mechanisms.

  11. Prediction of symptoms of emotional distress by mood regulation expectancies and affective traits.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Salvatore J; Backenstrass, Matthias; Miller, Steven A; Mearns, Jack; Pfeiffer, Nils; Brendalen, Sherry

    2014-12-01

    Three studies examined negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) and affective traits as independent predictors of self-reported symptoms of emotional distress. NMRE represent individuals' beliefs that they can alleviate unpleasant emotional states. Stronger NMRE are associated with more adaptive coping, more positive cognition during negative moods, more effective responses under stress and less emotional distress. Affective traits represent long-term tendencies toward particular affective experiences; they confer risk for specific symptoms of emotional distress. In Study 1, NMRE, trait negative affect (TNA) and trait positive affect (TPA) were all independently associated with depression among students and staff of a German university. In Study 2, in prospective analyses among U.S. college students traits exhibited hypothesised relationships with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and NMRE uniquely predicted anhedonic depression. Study 3 revealed independent prediction of change in symptoms over time by NMRE among U.S. college students, whereas traits were not associated with change in distress, anxiety and depression symptoms. Results suggest independent roles for NMRE and traits in the development of depression and anxiety symptoms and highlight the importance of NMRE as a potential target of therapeutic intervention in the process of symptom change.

  12. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits.

  13. Eccentric exercise activates novel transcriptional regulation of hypertrophic signaling pathways not affected by hormone changes.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Lauren G; Melov, Simon; Hubbard, Alan E; Baker, Steven K; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2010-05-18

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise damages skeletal muscle tissue, activating mechanisms of recovery and remodeling that may be influenced by the female sex hormone 17beta-estradiol (E2). Using high density oligonucleotide based microarrays, we screened for differences in mRNA expression caused by E2 and eccentric exercise. After random assignment to 8 days of either placebo (CON) or E2 (EXP), eighteen men performed 150 single-leg eccentric contractions. Muscle biopsies were collected at baseline (BL), following supplementation (PS), +3 hours (3H) and +48 hours (48H) after exercise. Serum E2 concentrations increased significantly with supplementation (P<0.001) but did not affect microarray results. Exercise led to early transcriptional changes in striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), Rho family GTPase 3 (RND3), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulation and the downstream transcription factor FOS. Targeted RT-PCR analysis identified concurrent induction of negative regulators of calcineurin signaling RCAN (P<0.001) and HMOX1 (P = 0.009). Protein contents were elevated for RND3 at 3H (P = 0.02) and FOS at 48H (P<0.05). These findings indicate that early RhoA and NFAT signaling and regulation are altered following exercise for muscle remodeling and repair, but are not affected by E2.

  14. Affective Responses and Cognitive Models of the Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Andrew R.; Sinclair, Kenneth E.

    New electronic technologies provide powerful tools for managing and processing the rapidly increasing amounts of information available for learning; teachers, however, have often been slow in integrating computers into the curriculum. This study addresses the question of how prospective teachers construct affective and cognitive models about…

  15. Affect regulation and food intake in bulimia nervosa: emotional responding to food cues after deprivation and subsequent eating.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Birgit I; Hamm, Alfons O; Weike, Almut I; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2006-08-01

    Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation of startle responses during viewing of food cues relative to control women. This startle potentiation was attenuated by food deprivation and augmented by increased food consumption. These data support the affective regulation model suggesting that food cues prompt negative affective states in women with bulimia, who are overwhelmed by fasting. The resulting deprivation increases the incentive value of food cues and may thus trigger binge eating.

  16. AP-2α-dependent regulation of Bcl-2/Bax expression affects apoptosis in the trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Jia, Liting; Cui, Shihong; Shi, Ying; Chang, Aimin; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhan

    2012-12-01

    Enhanced apoptosis of the cytotrophoblast in early pregnancy is associated with a high risk of preeclampsia. We and others have previously reported that the transcriptional factor, activator protein AP-2α, suppressed trophoblast migration and invasion. However, it is not clear whether AP-2α affects apoptosis in trophoblast cells and whether it regulates expression of apoptosis-related factors Bcl-2 and Bax. We analyzed the expression of AP-2α, Bcl-2 and Bax in placental tissues in severe preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive pregnancies using immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. Further, apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometric analysis in the human trophoblastic cell line, BeWo cells, in which AP-2α expression was transiently overexpressed or down-regulated by siRNA. There was significantly higher expression of AP-2α and Bax, but lower expression of Bcl-2 in severe preeclampsia placentas as compared to the control placentas. Overexpression of AP-2α in BeWo cells led to an increased rate of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was decreased when AP-2α expression was reduced. Furthermore, overexpression of AP-2α increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas down-regulation of AP-2α expression resulted in a decrease in Bax expression and an increase in Bcl-2 expression. AP-2α regulates expression of Bcl-2 and Bax and apoptosis in BeWo cells. These results suggest that AP-2α-mediated regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax regulation influences apoptosis which in turn leads to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  17. Regulation of negative affect in schizophrenia: the effectiveness of acceptance versus reappraisal and suppression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Yael; Henry, Julie D; Nangle, Matthew R; Grisham, Jessica R

    2012-01-01

    Although general emotion coping difficulties are well documented in schizophrenia, there has been limited study of specific regulatory strategies such as suppression, reappraisal, and acceptance. In the present study, clinical and control participants were asked to watch video clips selected to elicit negative affect while engaging in one of these three different emotion regulation strategies (counterbalanced), versus a passive viewing condition. The experiential and expressive components of emotion were quantified using self-report and facial electromyography, respectively. A major finding was that, in contrast to control participants, individuals with schizophrenia did not report a greater willingness to reexperience negative emotion after engaging in acceptance. These data are discussed in the context of evidence highlighting the potentially important role of acceptance in understanding affective abnormalities in clinical conditions such as schizophrenia.

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms affecting regulation of energy balance: many questions, few answers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive human and animal model data show that nutrition and other environmental influences during critical periods of embryonic, fetal, and early postnatal life can affect the development of body weight regulatory pathways, with permanent consequences for risk of obesity. Epigenetic processes are ...

  19. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders.

  20. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression

    PubMed Central

    SHACKMAN, JESSICA E.; POLLAK, SETH D.

    2015-01-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children’s allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  1. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Oogai, Yuichi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production) and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS) and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans. PMID:28036052

  2. Emotion categorization using affective-pLSA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Feng, Songhe

    2010-12-01

    Emotion categorization of natural scene images represents a very useful task for automatic image analysis systems. Psychological experiments have shown that visual information at the emotion level is aggregated according to a set of rules. Hence, we attempt to discover the emotion descriptors based on the composition of visual word representation. First, the composition of visual word representation models each image as a matrix, where elements record the correlations of pairwise visual words. In this way, an image collection is modeled as a third-order tensor. Then we discover the emotion descriptors using a novel affective-probabilistic latent semantic analysis (affective-pLSA) model, which is an extension of the pLSA model, on this tensor representation. Considering that the natural scene image may evoke multiple emotional feelings, emotion categorization is carried out using the multilabel k-nearest-neighbor approach based on emotion descriptors. The proposed approach has been tested on the International Affective Picture System and a collection of social images from the Flickr website. The experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method for eliciting image emotions.

  3. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  4. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents.

    PubMed

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use 'reverse translation' to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs.

  5. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  6. Emotion malleability beliefs, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: Integrating affective and clinical science.

    PubMed

    Kneeland, Elizabeth T; Dovidio, John F; Joormann, Jutta; Clark, Margaret S

    2016-04-01

    Beliefs that individuals hold about whether emotions are malleable or fixed, also referred to as emotion malleability beliefs, may play a crucial role in individuals' emotional experiences and their engagement in changing their emotions. The current review integrates affective science and clinical science perspectives to provide a comprehensive review of how emotion malleability beliefs relate to emotionality, emotion regulation, and specific clinical disorders and treatment. Specifically, we discuss how holding more malleable views of emotion could be associated with more active emotion regulation efforts, greater motivation to engage in active regulatory efforts, more effort expended regulating emotions, and lower levels of pathological distress. In addition, we explain how extending emotion malleability beliefs into the clinical domain can complement and extend current conceptualizations of major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. This may prove important given the increasingly central role emotion dysregulation has been given in conceptualization and intervention for these psychiatric conditions. Additionally, discussion focuses on how emotion beliefs could be more explicitly addressed in existing cognitive therapies. Promising future directions for research are identified throughout the review.

  7. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Helen J; Lu, Qingjun; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Xiaomin; Ding, Jixiang; Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-12-15

    TAM tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles, including regulation of the target genes important in homeostatic regulation of cytokine receptors or TLR-mediated signal transduction pathways. In this study, we show that TAM receptors affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and loss of TAM receptors impairs hippocampal neurogenesis, largely attributed to exaggerated inflammatory responses by microglia characterized by increased MAPK and NF-κB activation and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines that are detrimental to neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Injection of LPS causes even more severe inhibition of BrdU incorporation in the Tyro3(-/-)Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) triple-knockout (TKO) brains, consistent with the LPS-elicited enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, for example, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and inducible NO synthase, and this effect is antagonized by coinjection of the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin in wild-type but not TKO brains. Conditioned medium from TKO microglia cultures inhibits neuron stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. IL-6 knockout in Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double-knockout mice overcomes the inflammatory inhibition of neurogenesis, suggesting that IL-6 is a major downstream neurotoxic mediator under homeostatic regulation by TAM receptors in microglia. Additionally, autonomous trophic function of the TAM receptors on the proliferating neuronal progenitors may also promote progenitor differentiation into immature neurons.

  8. Mutations in TSPEAR, Encoding a Regulator of Notch Signaling, Affect Tooth and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Samuelov, Liat; Bertolini, Marta; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Eskin-Schwartz, Marina; Malchin, Natalia; Bochner, Ron; Fainberg, Gilad; Goldberg, Ilan; Sugawara, Koji; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Morasso, Maria; Shalev, Stavit; Gallo, Richard L.; Shomron, Noam; Paus, Ralf; Sprecher, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of ectodermal dysplasias (EDs), the molecular basis of many of these disorders remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed at elucidating the genetic basis of a new form of ED featuring facial dysmorphism, scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified 2 frameshift and 2 missense mutations in TSPEAR segregating with the disease phenotype in 3 families. TSPEAR encodes the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats (TSPEAR) protein, whose function is poorly understood. TSPEAR knock-down resulted in altered expression of genes known to be regulated by NOTCH and to be involved in murine hair and tooth development. Pathway analysis confirmed that down-regulation of TSPEAR in keratinocytes is likely to affect Notch signaling. Accordingly, using a luciferase-based reporter assay, we showed that TSPEAR knock-down is associated with decreased Notch signaling. In addition, NOTCH1 protein expression was reduced in patient scalp skin. Moreover, TSPEAR silencing in mouse hair follicle organ cultures was found to induce apoptosis in follicular epithelial cells, resulting in decreased hair bulb diameter. Collectively, these observations indicate that TSPEAR plays a critical, previously unrecognized role in human tooth and hair follicle morphogenesis through regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27736875

  9. Integrating the Regulation of Affect, Behavior, and Cognition into Self-Regulated Learning Paradigms among Secondary and Post-Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    An integrative framework for investigating self-regulated learning situated in students' favorite and least favorite courses was empirically tested in a sample of 178 high school and 280 college students. Building on cognitive, clinical, social, and educational conceptions of self-regulation, the current paper integrated affective (e.g.,…

  10. COMPLEMENT REGULATION IN RENAL DISEASE MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Abhijit; Sharma, Shweta; Quigg, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the complement system is tightly regulated by plasma and cell-associated complement regulatory proteins (CRPs), such as factor H (fH), decay-accelerating factor (DAF), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP). Animal models of disease have provided considerable insights into the important roles for CRPs in the kidney. Mice deficient in fH have excessive fluid phase C3 activation and inactivation leading to deposition of iC3b in glomerular capillary walls (GCW), comparable to dense deposit disease. In contrast, when fH lacks C-terminal surface targeting regions, local activation on the GCW leads to a disease reminiscent of thrombotic microangiopathy. The uniquely rodent protein, CR1-related y (Crry), has features analogous to human MCP. Defective Crry leads to unrestricted alternative pathway activation in the tubulointerstitium (TI) resulting in pathological features ranging from TMA, acute kidney injury and TI nephritis. In the presence of initiators of the classical or lectin pathways, commonly in the form of immune complexes in human glomerular diseases, complement regulation on self is stressed, with the potential for recruitment of the spontaneously active alternative pathway. The threshold for this activation is set by CRPs; pathology is more likely when complement regulation is defective. Within the endocapillary region of the GCW, fH is key, while DAF and Crry are protective on mesangial cells and podocytes. Arguably, acquired alterations in these CRPs is a more common event, extending from pathological states of cellular injury or production of inhibitory antibodies, to physiological fine tuning of the adaptive immune response. PMID:24161042

  11. Modelling cognitive affective biases in major depressive disorder using rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Claire A; Stuart, Sarah A; Anderson, Michael H; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects more than 10% of the population, although our understanding of the underlying aetiology of the disease and how antidepressant drugs act to remediate symptoms is limited. Major obstacles include the lack of availability of good animal models that replicate aspects of the phenotype and tests to assay depression-like behaviour in non-human species. To date, research in rodents has been dominated by two types of assays designed to test for depression-like behaviour: behavioural despair tests, such as the forced swim test, and measures of anhedonia, such as the sucrose preference test. These tests have shown relatively good predictive validity in terms of antidepressant efficacy, but have limited translational validity. Recent developments in clinical research have revealed that cognitive affective biases (CABs) are a key feature of MDD. Through the development of neuropsychological tests to provide objective measures of CAB in humans, we have the opportunity to use ‘reverse translation’ to develop and evaluate whether similar methods are suitable for research into MDD using animals. The first example of this approach was reported in 2004 where rodents in a putative negative affective state were shown to exhibit pessimistic choices in a judgement bias task. Subsequent work in both judgement bias tests and a novel affective bias task suggest that these types of assay may provide translational methods for studying MDD using animals. This review considers recent work in this area and the pharmacological and translational validity of these new animal models of CABs. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24467454

  12. Modeling Climate Change Effects on Stream Temperatures in Regulated Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S. E.; Akhbari, M.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    We provide a method for examining mesoscale stream temperature objectives downstream of dams with anticipated climate change using an integrated multi-model approach. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact stream temperatures within reservoirs and below dams, and affect downstream ecology. We model hydrology and water temperature using a series of linked models that includes a hydrology model to predict natural unimpaired flows in upstream reaches, a reservoir temperature simulation model , an operations model to simulate reservoir releases, and a stream temperature simulation model to simulate downstream conditions . All models are 1-dimensional and operate on either a weekly or daily timestep. First, we model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with climate-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage stream temperatures for coldwater habitat. Results are presented as stream temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoir releases are cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with climate change. We also apply our method to a case study in California's Yuba River watershed to evaluate water regulation and hydropower operation effects on stream temperatures with climate change. Catchments of the upper Yuba River are highly-engineered, with multiple, interconnected infrastructure to provide hydropower, water supply, flood control, environmental flows, and recreation. Results illustrate climate-driven versus operations-driven changes to stream temperatures. This work highlights the need for methods to consider reservoir regulation effects on stream temperatures with climate change, particularly for hydropower relicensing (which currently ignores climate change) such that impacts to other beneficial uses like coldwater habitat and instream ecosystems can be

  13. Catching transcriptional regulation by thermostatistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Till D.; Cheong, Alex; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2012-08-01

    Gene expression is frequently regulated by multiple transcription factors (TFs). Thermostatistical methods allow for a quantitative description of interactions between TFs, RNA polymerase and DNA, and their impact on the transcription rates. We illustrate three different scales of the thermostatistical approach: the microscale of TF molecules, the mesoscale of promoter energy levels and the macroscale of transcriptionally active and inactive cells in a cell population. We demonstrate versatility of combinatorial transcriptional activation by exemplifying logic functions, such as AND and OR gates. We discuss a metric for cell-to-cell transcriptional activation variability known as Fermi entropy. Suitability of thermostatistical modeling is illustrated by describing the experimental data on transcriptional induction of NFκB and the c-Fos protein.

  14. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  15. The CREB-binding protein affects the circadian regulation of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Christian; Winter, Tobias; Chen, Siwei; Hung, Hsiu-Cheng; Weber, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Rhythmic changes in light and temperature conditions form the primary environmental cues that synchronize the molecular circadian clock of most species with the external cycles of day and night. Previous studies established a role for the CREB-binding protein (CBP) in molecular clock function by coactivation of circadian transcription. Here, we report that moderately increased levels of CBP strongly dampen circadian behavioural rhythms without affecting molecular oscillations of circadian transcription. Interestingly, light-dark cycles as well as high temperature facilitated a circadian control of behavioural activity. Based on these observations we propose that in addition to its coactivator function for circadian transcription, CBP is involved in the regulation of circadian behaviour down-stream of the circadian clock.

  16. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  17. Genetic diversity affects the strength of population regulation in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Freiwald, J; Bernardi, G

    2016-03-01

    Variation is an essential feature of biological populations, yet much of ecological theory treats individuals as though they are identical. This simplifying assumption is often justified by the perception that variation among individuals does not have significant effects on the dynamics of whole populations. However, this perception may be skewed by a historic focus on studying single populations. A true evaluation of the extent to which among-individual variation affects the dynamics of populations requires the study of multiple populations. In this study, we examined variation in the dynamics of populations of a live-bearing, marine fish (black surfperch; Embiotoca jacksoni). In collaboration with an organization of citizen scientists (Reef Check California), we were able to examine the dynamics of eight populations that were distributed throughout approximately 700 km of coastline, a distance that encompasses much of this species' range. We hypothesized that genetic variation within a local population would be related to the intensity of competition and to the strength of population regulation. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether genetic diversity (measured by the diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) was related to the strength of population regulation. Low-diversity populations experienced strong density dependence in population growth rates and population sizes were regulated much more tightly than they were in high-diversity populations. Mechanisms that contributed to this pattern include links between genetic diversity, habitat use, and spatial crowding. On average, low-diversity populations used less of the available habitat and exhibited greater spatial clustering (and more intense competition) for a given level of density (measured at the scale of the reef). Although the populations we studied also varied with respect to exogenous characteristics (habitat complexity, densities of predators, and interspecific competitors), none of these

  18. The Slx5-Slx8 complex affects sumoylation of DNA repair proteins and negatively regulates recombination.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Rahman, Sadia; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2007-09-01

    Recombination is important for repairing DNA lesions, yet it can also lead to genomic rearrangements. This process must be regulated, and recently, sumoylation-mediated mechanisms were found to inhibit Rad51-dependent recombination. Here, we report that the absence of the Slx5-Slx8 complex, a newly identified player in the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathway, led to increased Rad51-dependent and Rad51-independent recombination. The increases were most striking during S phase, suggesting an accumulation of DNA lesions during replication. Consistent with this view, Slx8 protein localized to replication centers. In addition, like SUMO E2 mutants, slx8Delta mutants exhibited clonal lethality, which was due to the overamplification of 2 microm, an extrachromosomal plasmid. Interestingly, in both SUMO E2 and slx8Delta mutants, clonal lethality was rescued by deleting genes required for Rad51-independent recombination but not those involved in Rad51-dependent events. These results suggest that sumoylation negatively regulates Rad51-independent recombination, and indeed, the Slx5-Slx8 complex affected the sumoylation of several enzymes involved in early steps of Rad51-independent recombination. We propose that, during replication, the Slx5-Slx8 complex helps prevent DNA lesions that are acted upon by recombination. In addition, the complex inhibits Rad51-independent recombination via modulating the sumoylation of DNA repair proteins.

  19. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    PubMed

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  20. Mutation of AREA affects growth, sporulation, nitrogen regulation, and pathogenicity in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fangcheng; Ment, Dana; Luria, Neta; Meng, Xiangchun; Prusky, Dov

    2017-02-01

    The GATA transcription factor AreA is a global nitrogen regulator that restricts the utilization of complex and poor nitrogen sources in the presence of good nitrogen sources in microorganisms. In this study, we report the biological function of an AreA homolog (the CgareA gene) in the fruit postharvest pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Targeted gene deletion mutants of areA exhibited significant reductions in vegetative growth, increases in conidia production, and slight decreases in conidial germination rates. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of AreA was highly induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Moreover, compared to wild-type and complemented strains, nitrogen metabolism-related genes were misregulated in ΔareA mutant strains. Pathogenicity assays indicated that the virulence of ΔareA mutant strains were affected by the nitrogen content, but not the carbon content, of fruit hosts. Taken together, our results indicate that CgareA plays a critical role in fungal development, conidia production, regulation of nitrogen metabolism and virulence in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

  1. Leading trends in environmental regulation that affect energy development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R V; Attaway, L D; Christerson, J A; Kikel, D A; Kuebler, J D; Lupatkin, B M; Liu, C S; Meyer, R; Peyton, T O; Sussin, M H

    1980-01-01

    Major environmental issues that are likely to affect the implementation of energy technologies between now and the year 2000 are identified and assessed. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; true and modified in situ oil shale retorting; geothermal energy; biomass energy conversion; and nuclear power (fission). Environmental analyses of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. A comprehensive survey of the environmental community (including environmental groups, researchers, and regulatory agencies) was carried out in parallel with an analysis of the technologies to identify important future environmental issues. Each of the final 20 issues selected by the project staff has the following common attributes: consensus of the environmental community that the issue is important; it is a likely candidate for future regulatory action; it deals with a major environmental aspect of energy development. The analyses of the 20 major issues address their environmental problem areas, current regulatory status, and the impact of future regulations. These analyses are followed by a quantitative assessment of the impact on energy costs and nationwide pollutant emissions of possible future regulations. This is accomplished by employing the Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) for a subset of the 20 major issues. The report concludes with a more general discussion of the impact of environmental regulatory action on energy development.

  2. Cj1199 Affect the Development of Erythromycin Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni through Regulation of Leucine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Haihong; Li, Fei; Han, Jing; Foley, Steven L.; Dai, Menghong; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Sun, Yawei; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the biological function of Cj1199 which was overexpressed in the laboratory induced erythromycin resistant strains. The Cj1199 deletion mutant (ΦCj1199) was constructed via insertional inactivation from its parent strain Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168. The ΦCj1199 and NCTC11168 were then subjected to microarray and real-time PCR to find gene pathway of Cj1199. The antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance development, growth characteristics and leucine metabolism were examined to confirm the biological function of Cj1199. Our result showed that a total of 20 genes were down-regulated in ΦCj1199. These genes were mainly involved in leucine biosynthesis, amino acid transport and periplasmic/membrane structure. Compared to NCTC11168, ΦCj1199 was difficult to acquire higher-level erythromycin resistance during the in vitro step-wise selection. The competition growth and leucine-dependent growth assays demonstrated that ΦCj1199 imposed a growth disadvantage under pressure of erythromycin and in the leucine-free medium. In conclusion, Cj1199 gene may directly regulate the leucine biosynthesis and transport and indirectly affect the development of erythromycin resistance in C. jejuni. PMID:28144238

  3. Transcriptional regulation is affected by subnuclear targeting of reporter plasmids to PML nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Block, Gregory J; Eskiw, Christopher H; Dellaire, Graham; Bazett-Jones, David P

    2006-12-01

    Whereas the PML protein has been reported to have both transcriptional coactivator and corepressor potential, the contribution of the PML nuclear body (PML NB) itself to transcriptional regulation is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that plasmid DNA artificially tethered to PML or the PML NB-targeting domain of Sp100 is preferentially localized to PML NBs. Using the tethering technique, we targeted a simian virus 40 promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PML NBs, resulting in the repression of the transgene transcriptional activity. Conversely, the tethering of a cytomegalovirus promoter-containing reporter plasmid resulted in activation. Targeting a minimal eukaryotic promoter did not affect its activity. The expression of targeted promoters could be modulated by altering the cellular concentration of PML NB components, including Sp100 and isoforms of the PML protein. Finally, we demonstrate that ICP0, the promiscuous herpes simplex virus transactivator, increases the level of transcriptional activation of plasmid DNA tethered to the PML NB. We conclude that when PML NB components are artificially tethered to reporter plasmids, the PML NB contributes to the regulation of the tethered DNA in a promoter-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that transient transcription assays are sensitive to the subnuclear localization of the transgene plasmid.

  4. Secretagogin affects insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells by regulating actin dynamics and focal adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Kyungeun; Oh, Seung Hoon; Lim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Secretagogin (SCGN), a Ca2+-binding protein having six EF-hands, is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells and neuroendocrine cells. Previous studies suggested that SCGN enhances insulin secretion by functioning as a Ca2+-sensor protein, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. The present study explored the mechanism by which SCGN enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in NIT-1 insulinoma cells. To determine whether SCGN influences the first or second phase of insulin secretion, we examined how SCGN affects the kinetics of insulin secretion in NIT-1 cells. We found that silencing SCGN suppressed the second phase of insulin secretion induced by glucose and H2O2, but not the first phase induced by KCl stimulation. Recruitment of insulin granules in the second phase of insulin secretion was significantly impaired by knocking down SCGN in NIT-1 cells. In addition, we found that SCGN interacts with the actin cytoskeleton in the plasma membrane and regulates actin remodelling in a glucose-dependent manner. Since actin dynamics are known to regulate focal adhesion, a critical step in the second phase of insulin secretion, we examined the effect of silencing SCGN on focal adhesion molecules, including FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and paxillin, and the cell survival molecules ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. We found that glucose- and H2O2-induced activation of FAK, paxillin, ERK1/2 and Akt was significantly blocked by silencing SCGN. We conclude that SCGN controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and thus may be useful in the therapy of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:27095850

  5. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Puddu, A.; Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L.

    2010-04-23

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic {beta}-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  6. Stability Affects of Artificial Viscosity in Detonation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2002-06-03

    Accurate multi-dimensional modeling of detonation waves in solid HE materials is a difficult task. To treat applied problems which contain detonation waves one must consider reacting flow with a wide range of length-scales, non-linear equations of state (EOS), and material interfaces at which the detonation wave interacts with other materials. To be useful numerical models of detonation waves must be accurate, stable, and insensitive to details of the modeling such as the mesh spacing, and mesh aspect ratio for multi-dimensional simulations. Studies we have performed show that numerical simulations of detonation waves can be very sensitive to the form of the artificial viscosity term used. The artificial viscosity term is included in our ALE hydrocode to treat shock discontinuities. We show that a monotonic, second order artificial viscosity model derived from an approximate Riemann solver scheme can strongly damp unphysical oscillations in the detonation wave reaction zone, improving the detonation wave boundary wall interaction. These issues are demonstrated in 2D model simulations presented of the 'Bigplate' test. Results using LX-I 7 explosives are compared with numerical simulation results to demonstrate the affects of the artificial viscosity model.

  7. The reservoir model: a differential equation model of psychological regulation.

    PubMed

    Deboeck, Pascal R; Bergeman, C S

    2013-06-01

    Differential equation models can be used to describe the relationships between the current state of a system of constructs (e.g., stress) and how those constructs are changing (e.g., based on variable-like experiences). The following article describes a differential equation model based on the concept of a reservoir. With a physical reservoir, such as one for water, the level of the liquid in the reservoir at any time depends on the contributions to the reservoir (inputs) and the amount of liquid removed from the reservoir (outputs). This reservoir model might be useful for constructs such as stress, where events might "add up" over time (e.g., life stressors, inputs), but individuals simultaneously take action to "blow off steam" (e.g., engage coping resources, outputs). The reservoir model can provide descriptive statistics of the inputs that contribute to the "height" (level) of a construct and a parameter that describes a person's ability to dissipate the construct. After discussing the model, we describe a method of fitting the model as a structural equation model using latent differential equation modeling and latent distribution modeling. A simulation study is presented to examine recovery of the input distribution and output parameter. The model is then applied to the daily self-reports of negative affect and stress from a sample of older adults from the Notre Dame Longitudinal Study on Aging.

  8. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets.

    PubMed

    Kuniansky, Eve L; Lowery, Mark A; Campbell, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  9. Regulating availability: how access to alcohol affects drinking and problems in youth and adults.

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems.

  10. Regulation of sulphur assimilation is essential for virulence and affects iron homeostasis of the human-pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Amich, Jorge; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Krappmann, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element that all pathogens have to absorb from their surroundings in order to grow inside their infected host. Despite its importance, the relevance of sulphur assimilation in fungal virulence is largely unexplored. Here we report a role of the bZIP transcription factor MetR in sulphur assimilation and virulence of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The MetR regulator is essential for growth on a variety of sulphur sources; remarkably, it is fundamental for assimilation of inorganic S-sources but dispensable for utilization of methionine. Accordingly, it strongly supports expression of genes directly related to inorganic sulphur assimilation but not of genes connected to methionine metabolism. On a broader scale, MetR orchestrates the comprehensive transcriptional adaptation to sulphur-starving conditions as demonstrated by digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, A. fumigatus is able to utilize volatile sulphur compounds produced by its methionine catabolism, a process that has not been described before and that is MetR-dependent. The A. fumigatus MetR transcriptional activator is important for virulence in both leukopenic mice and an alternative mini-host model of aspergillosis, as it was essential for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis and supported the systemic dissemination of the fungus. MetR action under sulphur-starving conditions is further required for proper iron regulation, which links regulation of sulphur metabolism to iron homeostasis and demonstrates an unprecedented regulatory crosstalk. Taken together, this study provides evidence that regulation of sulphur assimilation is not only crucial for A. fumigatus virulence but also affects the balance of iron in this prime opportunistic pathogen.

  11. Neutral models as a way to evaluate the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commonly used landscape model to simulate wetland change – the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model(SLAMM) – has rarely been explicitly assessed for its prediction accuracy. Here, we evaluated this model using recently proposed neutral models – including the random constraint matc...

  12. Allostasis: a model of predictive regulation.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Peter

    2012-04-12

    The premise of the standard regulatory model, "homeostasis", is flawed: the goal of regulation is not to preserve constancy of the internal milieu. Rather, it is to continually adjust the milieu to promote survival and reproduction. Regulatory mechanisms need to be efficient, but homeostasis (error-correction by feedback) is inherently inefficient. Thus, although feedbacks are certainly ubiquitous, they could not possibly serve as the primary regulatory mechanism. A newer model, "allostasis", proposes that efficient regulation requires anticipating needs and preparing to satisfy them before they arise. The advantages: (i) errors are reduced in magnitude and frequency; (ii) response capacities of different components are matched -- to prevent bottlenecks and reduce safety factors; (iii) resources are shared between systems to minimize reserve capacities; (iv) errors are remembered and used to reduce future errors. This regulatory strategy requires a dedicated organ, the brain. The brain tracks multitudinous variables and integrates their values with prior knowledge to predict needs and set priorities. The brain coordinates effectors to mobilize resources from modest bodily stores and enforces a system of flexible trade-offs: from each organ according to its ability, to each organ according to its need. The brain also helps regulate the internal milieu by governing anticipatory behavior. Thus, an animal conserves energy by moving to a warmer place - before it cools, and it conserves salt and water by moving to a cooler one before it sweats. The behavioral strategy requires continuously updating a set of specific "shopping lists" that document the growing need for each key component (warmth, food, salt, water). These appetites funnel into a common pathway that employs a "stick" to drive the organism toward filling the need, plus a "carrot" to relax the organism when the need is satisfied. The stick corresponds broadly to the sense of anxiety, and the carrot broadly to

  13. Multiple states of environmental regulation in well-mixed model biospheres.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Arwen E; Wilkinson, David M; Williams, Hywel T P; Lenton, Timothy M

    2017-02-07

    The Gaia hypothesis postulates that life influences Earth's feedback mechanisms to form a self regulating system. This provokes the question: how can global self-regulation evolve? Most models demonstrating environmental regulation involving life have relied on alignment between local selection and global regulation. In these models environment-improving individuals or communities spread to outcompete environment degrading individuals/communities, leading to global regulation, but this depends on local differences in environmental conditions. In contrast, well-mixed components of the Earth system, such as the atmosphere, lack local environmental differentiation. These previous models do not explain how global regulation can emerge in a system with no well defined local environment, or where the local environment is overwhelmed by global effects. We present a model of self-regulation by 'microbes' in an environment with no spatial structure. These microbes affect an abiotic 'temperature' as a byproduct of metabolism. We demonstrate that global self-regulation can arise in the absence of spatial structure in a diverse ecosystem without localised environmental effects. We find that systems can exhibit nutrient limitation and two temperature limitation regimes where the temperature is maintained at a near constant value. During temperature regulation, the total temperature change caused by the microbes is kept near constant by the total population expanding or contracting to absorb the impacts of new mutants on the average affect on the temperature per microbe. Dramatic shifts between low temperature regulation and high temperature regulation can occur when a mutant arises that causes the sign of the temperature effect to change. This result implies that self-regulating feedback loops can arise without the need for spatial structure, weakening criticisms of the Gaia hypothesis that state that with just one Earth, global regulation has no mechanism for developing

  14. JMJD2A attenuation affects cell cycle and tumourigenic inflammatory gene regulation in lipopolysaccharide stimulated neuroectodermal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amitabh; Chai, Jin Choul; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Das, Nando Dulal; Kang, Sung Chul; Lee, Young Seek; Seo, Hyemyung; Chai, Young Gyu

    2014-11-01

    JMJD2A is a lysine trimethyl-specific histone demethylase that is highly expressed in a variety of tumours. The role of JMJD2A in tumour progression remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to identify JMJD2A-regulated genes and understand the function of JMJD2A in p53-null neuroectodermal stem cells (p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs). We determined the effect of LPS as a model of inflammation in p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and investigated whether the epigenetic modifier JMJD2A alter the expression of tumourigenic inflammatory genes. Global gene expression was measured in JMJD2A knockdown (kd) p53{sup −/−} NE-4Cs and in LPS-stimulated JMJD2A-kd p53{sup −/−} NE-4C cells. JMJD2A attenuation significantly down-regulated genes were Cdca2, Ccnd2, Ccnd1, Crebbp, IL6rα, and Stat3 related with cell cycle, proliferation, and inflammatory-disease responses. Importantly, some tumour-suppressor genes including Dapk3, Timp2 and TFPI were significantly up-regulated but were not affected by silencing of the JMJD2B. Furthermore, we confirmed the attenuation of JMJD2A also down-regulated Cdca2, Ccnd2, Crebbp, and Rest in primary NSCs isolated from the forebrains of E15 embryos of C57/BL6J mice with effective p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α). Transcription factor (TF) motif analysis revealed known binding patterns for CDC5, MYC, and CREB, as well as three novel motifs in JMJD2A-regulated genes. IPA established molecular networks. The molecular network signatures and functional gene-expression profiling data from this study warrants further investigation as an effective therapeutic target, and studies to elucidate the molecular mechanism of JMJD2A-kd-dependent effects in neuroectodermal stem cells should be performed. - Highlights: • Significant up-regulation of epigenetic modifier JMJD2A mRNA upon LPS treatment. • Inhibition of JMJD2A attenuated key inflammatory and tumourigenic genes. • Establishing IPA based functional genomics in JMJD2A-attenuated p53{sup

  15. Modeling sRNA-Regulated Plasmid Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We study a theoretical model for the toxin-antitoxin (hok/sok) mechanism for plasmid maintenance in bacteria. Toxin-antitoxin systems enforce the maintenance of a plasmid through post-segregational killing of cells that have lost the plasmid. Key to their function is the tight regulation of expression of a protein toxin by an sRNA antitoxin. Here, we focus on the nonlinear nature of the regulatory circuit dynamics of the toxin-antitoxin mechanism. The mechanism relies on a transient increase in protein concentration rather than on the steady state of the genetic circuit. Through a systematic analysis of the parameter dependence of this transient increase, we confirm some known design features of this system and identify new ones: for an efficient toxin-antitoxin mechanism, the synthesis rate of the toxin’s mRNA template should be lower that of the sRNA antitoxin, the mRNA template should be more stable than the sRNA antitoxin, and the mRNA-sRNA complex should be more stable than the sRNA antitoxin. Moreover, a short half-life of the protein toxin is also beneficial to the function of the toxin-antitoxin system. In addition, we study a therapeutic scenario in which a competitor mRNA is introduced to sequester the sRNA antitoxin, causing the toxic protein to be expressed. PMID:28085919

  16. Cis-Acting Polymorphisms Affect Complex Traits through Modifications of MicroRNA Regulation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hartsperger, Mara L.; Pfeufer, Arne; Stümpflen, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become an effective tool to map genes and regions contributing to multifactorial human diseases and traits. A comparably small number of variants identified by GWAS are known to have a direct effect on protein structure whereas the majority of variants is thought to exert their moderate influences on the phenotype through regulatory changes in mRNA expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as powerful posttranscriptional regulators of mRNAs. Binding to their target sites, which are mostly located within the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of mRNA transcripts, they modulate mRNA expression and stability. Until today almost all human mRNA transcripts are known to harbor at least one miRNA target site with an average of over 20 miRNA target sites per transcript. Among 5,101 GWAS-identified sentinel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that correspond to 18,884 SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the sentinels () we identified a significant overrepresentation of SNPs that affect the 3′-UTR of genes (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 2.12–2.57, ). This effect was even stronger considering all SNPs in one LD bin a single signal (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 3.84–4.74, ). Based on crosslinking immunoprecipitation data we identified four mechanisms affecting miRNA regulation by 3′-UTR mutations: (i) deletion or (ii) creation of miRNA recognition elements within validated RNA-induced silencing complex binding sites, (iii) alteration of 3′-UTR splicing leading to a loss of binding sites, and (iv) change of binding affinity due to modifications of 3′-UTR folding. We annotated 53 SNPs of a total of 288 trait-associated 3′-UTR SNPs as mediating at least one of these mechanisms. Using a qualitative systems biology approach, we demonstrate how our findings can be used to support biological interpretation of GWAS results as well as to provide new experimentally testable hypotheses. PMID:22606281

  17. The model of fungal population dynamics affected by nystatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voychuk, Sergei I.; Gromozova, Elena N.; Sadovskiy, Mikhail G.

    Fungal diseases are acute problems of the up-to-day medicine. Significant increase of resistance of microorganisms to the medically used antibiotics and a lack of new effective drugs follows in a growth of dosage of existing chemicals to solve the problem. Quite often such approach results in side effects on humans. Detailed study of fungi-antibiotic dynamics can identify new mechanisms and bring new ideas to overcome the microbial resistance with a lower dosage of antibiotics. In this study, the dynamics of the microbial population under antibiotic treatment was investigated. The effects of nystatin on the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts were used as a model system. Nystatin effects were investigated both in liquid and solid media by viability tests. Dependence of nystatin action on osmotic gradient was evaluated in NaCl solutions. Influences of glucose and yeast extract were additionally analyzed. A "stepwise" pattern of the cell death caused by nystatin was the most intriguing. This pattern manifested in periodical changes of the stages of cell death against stages of resistance to the antibiotic. The mathematical model was proposed to describe cell-antibiotic interactions and nystatin viability effects in the liquid medium. The model implies that antibiotic ability to cause a cells death is significantly affected by the intracellular compounds, which came out of cells after their osmotic barriers were damaged

  18. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  19. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  20. Global proteomic analysis of protein acetylation affecting metabolic regulation in Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Kwang; Sim, Juhee; Kim, Sun Ju; Oh, Hye Ryeung; Nam, Doo Hyun; Lee, Sangkyu

    2016-02-01

    Daphnia (Daphnia pulex) is a small planktonic crustacean and a key constituent of aquatic ecosystems. It is generally used as a model organism to study environmental toxic problems. In the past decade, genomic and proteomic datasets of Daphnia have been developed. The proteomic dataset allows for the investigation of toxicological effects in the context of "Daphnia proteomics," resulting in greater insights for toxicological research. To exploit Daphnia for ecotoxicological research, information on the post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is necessary, as this is a critical regulator of biological processes. Acetylation of lysine (Kac) is a reversible and highly regulated PTM that is associated with diverse biological functions. However, a comprehensive description of Kac in Daphnia is not yet available. To understand the cellular distribution of lysine acetylation in Daphnia, we identified 98 acetylation sites in 65 proteins by immunoprecipitation using an anti-acetyllysine antibody and a liquid chromatography system supported by mass spectroscopy. We identified 28 acetylated sites related to metabolic proteins and six acetylated enzymes associated with the TCA cycle in Daphnia. From GO and KEGG enrichment analyses, we showed that Kac in D. pulex is highly enriched in proteins associated with metabolic processes. Our data provide the first global analysis of Kac in D. pulex and is an important resource for the functional analysis of Kac in this organism.

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticles cause inhibition of microbial denitrification by affecting transcriptional regulation and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Liu, Kun; Li, Mu; Yin, Daqiang

    2014-12-02

    Over the past few decades, human activities have accelerated the rates and extents of water eutrophication and global warming through increasing delivery of biologically available nitrogen such as nitrate and large emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. In particular, nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases, because it has a 300-fold higher global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Microbial denitrification is a major pathway responsible for nitrate removal, and also a dominant source of N2O emissions from terrestrial or aquatic environments. However, whether the release of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) into the environment affects microbial denitrification is largely unknown. Here we show that the presence of ZnO NPs lead to great increases in nitrate delivery (9.8-fold higher) and N2O emissions (350- and 174-fold higher in the gas and liquid phases, respectively). Our data further reveal that ZnO NPs significantly change the transcriptional regulations of glycolysis and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis, which causes the decrease in reducing powers available for the reduction of nitrate and N2O. Moreover, ZnO NPs substantially inhibit the gene expressions and catalytic activities of key denitrifying enzymes. These negative effects of ZnO NPs on microbial denitrification finally cause lower nitrate removal and higher N2O emissions, which is likely to exacerbate water eutrophication and global warming.

  2. Glucocorticoids increase adipocytes in muscle by affecting IL-4 regulated FAP activity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanjun; Silva, Kleiton Augusto Santos; Dong, Yanlan; Zhang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intramuscular adipocyte tissue (IMAT) is associated with glucose dysregulation, decreased muscle strength, and increased risk of disability. Unfortunately, the mechanisms stimulating intramuscular adipogenesis remain unclear. We found that dexamethasone (Dex) administration to mice with injured muscles stimulates the accumulation of IMAT. To identify precursors of these adipocytes, we isolated satellite cells and fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) from muscle; satellite cells did not differentiate into adipocytes even following Dex treatment. In contrast, Dex stimulated FAP differentiation into adipocytes. In vivo, we transplanted purified FAPs from transgenic, EGFP mice into the injured muscles of C57/BL6 mice and found that Dex administration stimulated adipogenesis from FAP-EGFP. The increase in adipogenesis depended on Dex-induced inhibition of interleukin-4 (IL-4). In the injured muscle of IL-4-knockout mice, the levels of adipocytes were increased, while in the injured muscles of Dex-treated mice with IL-4 injections, adipogenesis was suppressed. In cultured FAPs, IL-4 inhibited Dex-induced conversion of FAPs into adipocytes; this did not occur in FAPs expressing knockdown of the IL-4 receptor. Thus, we concluded that glucocorticoids stimulate FAPs to differentiate into adipocytes in injured muscles. This process is blocked by IL-4, suggesting that interfering with IL-4 signaling could prevent adipogenesis in muscle.—Dong, Y., Silva, K. A. S., Dong, Y., Zhang, L. Glucocorticoids increase adipocytes in muscle by affecting IL-4 regulated FAP activity. PMID:24948596

  3. Human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit affects the expression of apoptosis-regulating factors in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Szczerba, Anna; Śliwa, Aleksandra; Kubiczak, Marta; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Jankowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin, especially its free β subunit (hCGβ) were shown to play an important role in cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. It is postulated that hCGβ is one of the factors determining cancer cell survival. To test this hypothesis, we applied two models: an in vitro model of ovarian cancer using OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cell lines transfected with the CGB5 gene and an in vivo model of ovarian cancer tissues. The material was tested against changes in expression level of genes encoding factors involved in apoptosis: BCL2, BAX and BIRC5. Overexpression of hCGβ was found to cause a decrease in expression of the analyzed genes in the transfected cells compared with the control cells. In ovarian cancer tissues, high expression of CGB was related to significantly lower BCL2 but higher BAX and BIRC5 transcript levels. Moreover, a low BCL2/BAX ratio, characteristic of advanced stages of ovarian cancer, was revealed. Since tumors were discriminated by a significantly lower LHCGR level than the level noted in healthy fallopian tubes and ovaries, it may be stated that the effect of hCGβ on changes in the expression of apoptosis-regulating agents observed in ovarian cancer is LHCGR-independent. The results of the study suggest that the biological effects evoked by hCGβ are related to apoptosis suppression.

  4. Natural mixtures of POPs affected body weight gain and induced transcription of genes involved in weight regulation and insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Lyche, Jan L; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Karlsson, Camilla; Stavik, Benedicte; Berg, Vidar; Skåre, Janneche Utne; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, and is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and dyslipidemias (metabolic syndrome). Commonly held causes of obesity are overeating coupled with a sedentary lifestyle. However, it has also been postulated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity and associated diseases. In the present study, developmental and reproductive effects of lifelong exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of two natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated using classical and molecular methods in a controlled zebrafish model. The mixtures used were extracted from burbot (Lota lota) liver originating from freshwater systems in Norway (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna). The concentration of POPs in the zebrafish ranged from levels detected in wild fish (Lake Mjøsa and Lake Losna), to concentrations reported in human and wildlife populations. Phenotypic effects observed in both exposure groups included (1) earlier onset of puberty, (2) elevated male/female sex ratio, and (3) increased body weight at 5 months of age. Interestingly, genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes, in which key regulators of weight homeostasis (PPARs, glucocoricoids, CEBPs, estradiol), steroid hormone functions (glucocoricoids, estradiol, NCOA3) and insulin signaling (HNF4A, CEBPs, PPARG) occupied central positions. The increased weight and the regulation of genes associated with weight homeostasis and insulin signaling observed in the present study suggest that environmental pollution may affect the endocrine regulation of the metabolism, possibly leading to increased weight gain and obesity.

  5. Spontaneous emotion regulation during evaluated speaking tasks: associations with negative affect, anxiety expression, memory, and physiological responding.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas

    2006-08-01

    In these studies, the correlates of spontaneously using expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal during stressful speeches were examined. Spontaneous emotion regulation means that there were no instructions of how to regulate emotions during the speech. Instead, participants indicated after the speech to what extent they used self-motivated expressive suppression or reappraisal during the task. The results show that suppression is associated with less anxiety expression, greater physiological responding, and less memory for the speech while having no impact on negative affect. In contrast, reappraisal has no impact on physiology and memory while leading to less expression and affect. Taken together, spontaneous emotion regulation in active coping tasks has similar consequences as experimentally induced emotion regulation in passive tasks.

  6. Cell flexibility affects the alignment of model myxobacteria.

    PubMed

    Janulevicius, Albertas; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Simone, Angelo; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2010-11-17

    Myxobacteria are social bacteria that exhibit a complex life cycle culminating in the development of multicellular fruiting bodies. The alignment of rod-shaped myxobacteria cells within populations is crucial for development to proceed. It has been suggested that myxobacteria align due to mechanical interactions between gliding cells and that cell flexibility facilitates reorientation of cells upon mechanical contact. However, these suggestions have not been based on experimental or theoretical evidence. Here we created a computational mass-spring model of a flexible rod-shaped cell that glides on a substratum periodically reversing direction. The model was formulated in terms of experimentally measurable mechanical parameters, such as engine force, bending stiffness, and drag coefficient. We investigated how cell flexibility and motility engine type affected the pattern of cell gliding and the alignment of a population of 500 mechanically interacting cells. It was found that a flexible cell powered by engine force at the rear of the cell, as suggested by the slime extrusion hypothesis for myxobacteria motility engine, would not be able to glide in the direction of its long axis. A population of rigid reversing cells could indeed align due to mechanical interactions between cells, but cell flexibility impaired the alignment.

  7. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  8. How Does Self-Regulation Affect Computer-Programming Achievement in a Blended Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigdem, Harun

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on learners' self-regulation which is one of the essential skills for student achievement in blended courses. Research on learners' self-regulation skills in blended learning environments has gained popularity in recent years however only a few studies investigating the correlation between self-regulation skills and student…

  9. Failure of climate regulation in a geophysiological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, James E.; Kump, Lee R.

    1994-06-01

    THERE has been much debate about how the Earth responds to changes in climate-specifically, how feedbacks involving the biota change with temperature. There is in particular an urgent need to understand the extent of coupling and feedback between plant growth, global temperature and enhanced atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we present a simple, but we hope qualitatively realistic, analysis of the effects of temperature change on the feedbacks induced by changes in surface distribution of marine algae and land plants. We assume that algae affect climate primarily through their emission of dimethyl sulphide1-8 (which may influence cloud albedo), and that land plants do so by fixation of atmospheric CO2 (refs 9-12). When we consider how the planetary area occupied by these two ecosystems varies with temperature, we find that a simple model based on these ideas exhibits three feedback regimes. In glacial conditions, both marine and terrestrial ecosystems provide a negative feedback. As the temperature rises to present-day values, algae lose their strong climate influence, but terrestrial ecosystems continue to regulate the climate. But if global mean temperatures rise above about 20 °C, both terrestrial and marine ecosystems are in positive feedback, amplifying any further increase of temperature. As the latter conditions have existed in the past, we propose that other climate-regulating mechanisms must operate in this warm regime.

  10. IL-15 regulates memory CD8+ T cell O-glycan synthesis and affects trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Nolz, Jeffrey C.; Harty, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Memory and naive CD8+ T cells exhibit distinct trafficking patterns. Specifically, memory but not naive CD8+ T cells are recruited to inflamed tissues in an antigen-independent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate memory CD8+ T cell trafficking are largely unknown. Here, using murine models of infection and T cell transfer, we found that memory but not naive CD8+ T cells dynamically regulate expression of core 2 O-glycans, which interact with P- and E-selectins to modulate trafficking to inflamed tissues. Following infection, antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells strongly expressed core 2 O-glycans, but this glycosylation pattern was lost by most memory CD8+ T cells. After unrelated infection or inflammatory challenge, memory CD8+ T cells synthesized core 2 O-glycans independently of antigen restimulation. The presence of core 2 O-glycans subsequently directed these cells to inflamed tissue. Memory and naive CD8+ T cells exhibited the opposite pattern of epigenetic modifications at the Gcnt1 locus, which encodes the enzyme that initiates core 2 O-glycan synthesis. The open chromatin configuration in memory CD8+ T cells permitted de novo generation of core 2 O-glycans in a TCR-independent, but IL-15–dependent, manner. Thus, IL-15 stimulation promotes antigen-experienced memory CD8+ T cells to generate core 2 O-glycans, which subsequently localize them to inflamed tissues. These findings suggest that CD8+ memory T cell trafficking potentially can be manipulated to improve host defense and immunotherapy. PMID:24509081

  11. Exercisers' perceptions of their fitness instructor's interacting style, perceived competence, and autonomy as a function of self-determined regulation to exercise, enjoyment, affect, and exercise frequency.

    PubMed

    Puente, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis, derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT), that an individual's perceived competence and autonomy mediate the relationship between the exercisers' perception of their instructor's interaction style and the exercisers' motivation to exercise. A secondary purpose was to identify the affective and behavioral outcomes derived from self-determined regulation. It was hypothesized that SDT would significantly explain and predict exercise behavior. Participants consisted of 238 college students, 103 males and 135 females (M age = 20.4 years, SD = 2.16), who volunteered to participate in the study. They were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires measuring instructor's interacting style, self-regulation to exercise, perceived autonomy and competence, enjoyment, positive and negative affect, and exercise frequency. Using structural equation modeling with observed variables, the results showed that perceived competence and autonomy mediated the relationship between perceived instructor's interacting style and self-determined regulation. It was also found that self-determined regulation was significantly related to exercise enjoyment, positive affect, and exercise frequency. It was concluded that understanding the motivational factors and emotional and behavioral consequences of physical activity will partially explain an individual's motives to engage regularly in exercise.

  12. Event-Related Potentials Reveal Preserved Attention Allocation but Impaired Emotion Regulation in Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    De Taeye, Leen; Pourtois, Gilles; Meurs, Alfred; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl; Carrette, Evelien; Raedt, Robrecht

    2015-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy have a high prevalence of comorbid mood disorders. This study aims to evaluate whether negative affect in epilepsy is associated with dysfunction of emotion regulation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are used in order to unravel the exact electrophysiological time course and investigate whether a possible dysfunction arises during early (attention) and/or late (regulation) stages of emotion control. Fifty epileptic patients with (n = 25) versus without (n = 25) comorbid negative affect plus twenty-five matched controls were recruited. ERPs were recorded while subjects performed a face- or house-matching task in which fearful, sad or neutral faces were presented either at attended or unattended spatial locations. Two ERP components were analyzed: the early vertex positive potential (VPP) which is normally enhanced for faces, and the late positive potential (LPP) that is typically larger for emotional stimuli. All participants had larger amplitude of the early face-sensitive VPP for attended faces compared to houses, regardless of their emotional content. By contrast, in patients with negative affect only, the amplitude of the LPP was significantly increased for unattended negative emotional expressions. These VPP results indicate that epilepsy with or without negative affect does not interfere with the early structural encoding and attention selection of faces. However, the LPP results suggest abnormal regulation processes during the processing of unattended emotional faces in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect. In conclusion, this ERP study reveals that early object-based attention processes are not compromised by epilepsy, but instead, when combined with negative affect, this neurological disease is associated with dysfunction during the later stages of emotion regulation. As such, these new neurophysiological findings shed light on the complex interplay of epilepsy with negative affect during the processing of emotional

  13. Age Differences in Affective and Cardiovascular Responses to a Negative Social Interaction: The Role of Goals, Appraisals, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luong, Gloria; Charles, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often report less affective reactivity to interpersonal tensions than younger individuals, but few studies have directly investigated mechanisms explaining this effect. The current study examined whether older adults' differential endorsement of goals, appraisals, and emotion regulation strategies (i.e., conflict…

  14. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children with Multiple Disabilities during Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuengel, C.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Jeczynski, P.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Jongbloed, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist…

  15. The Development and Implementation of an Affect Regulation and Attachment Intervention for Incarcerated Adolescents and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiley, Margaret K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of the research and theory about affect regulation and attachment strategies of families to develop a low-cost multiple-family group intervention for incarcerated adolescents and their parents. Reviews the research that underlies the intervention, describes the development of the videotapes used, discusses the intervention…

  16. Procrastination, Self-Regulation Failure, Academic Life Satisfaction, and Affective Well-Being: Underregulation or Misregulation Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkis, Murat; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of self-regulation failure in procrastination. In addition, it also aimed to investigate the effects of procrastination on affective well-being and academic life satisfaction. Three hundred and twenty-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The most obvious finding emerging from this…

  17. Attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood: changes in affect and vagal tone during a social stress task.

    PubMed

    Movahed Abtahi, Mahsa; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    In middle childhood, more securely attached children show better emotion regulation when assessed as general tendencies (e.g. coping style), but studies looking at emotion in response to specific stressors have revealed mixed results. This study examined how attachment security, avoidance, and ambivalence - assessed with a story stem task (99 children, 9-11 years old) - relate to dynamic indices of affective and autonomic responses (baseline, reactivity, recovery). Reports of positive and negative affect, and high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), were assessed during a social stressor task. Securely attached children did not show reactivity effects, although they did show greater recovery of positive affect after the task ended. Avoidant children showed both less reactivity and recovery of negative affect, suggesting a dampened emotional response. Ambivalent children showed more reactivity and more recovery of negative affect. Autonomic response changes were only evident for ambivalent children, who showed less suppression of HF-HRV variability under stress.

  18. Modelling and Analysis of a New Piezoelectric Dynamic Balance Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhe; Mei, Xue-Song; Xu, Mu-Xun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator, which can be used in motorised spindle systems, is presented. The dynamic balancing adjustment mechanism is driven by an in-plane bending vibration from an annular piezoelectric stator excited by a high-frequency sinusoidal input voltage. This device has different construction, characteristics and operating principles than a conventional balance regulator. In this work, a dynamic model of the regulator is first developed using a detailed analytical method. Thereafter, MATLAB is employed to numerically simulate the relations between the dominant parameters and the characteristics of the regulator based on thedynamic model. Finally, experimental measurements are used to certify the validity of the dynamic model. Consequently, the mathematical model presented and analysed in this paper can be used as a tool for optimising the design of a piezoelectric dynamic balance regulator during steady state operation. PMID:23202182

  19. PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone affects rat gouty arthritis by regulating cytokines.

    PubMed

    Wang, R-C; Jiang, D-M

    2014-08-28

    The objective was to study peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone regulation effect and its mechanism of expression of cytokines on acute gouty arthritis synovial in rats. Rats with unilateral ankle were injected with artificial monosodium urate (MSU) crystals to make the acute gouty arthritis model. Taking the synovium 48 h after the injection of MSU and using RT-PCR, we assessed the effect of pioglitazone (20 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), oral administration) on synovial expression, by detecting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The pioglitazone treatment group showed synovial expression of TNF-α, and IFN-γ was significantly lower than in the control group; the inhibition rates were 78.5 and 60.4%. The IL-1 expression difference was not statistically significant between the two groups. Pioglitazone has anti-inflammatory effects on acute gouty arthritis by inhibiting the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ.

  20. Addiction Vulnerability and Binge Eating in Women: Exploring Reward Sensitivity, Affect Regulation, Impulsivity & Weight/Shape Concerns.

    PubMed

    Eichen, Dawn M; Chen, Eunice Y; Schmitz, Mark F; Arlt, Jean; McCloskey, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    Almost 40% of individuals with eating disorders have a comorbid addiction. The current study examined weight/shape concerns as a potential moderator of the relation between the hypothesized latent factor "addiction vulnerability" (i.e., impairments in reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity) and binge eating. Undergraduate women (n=272) with either high or low weight/shape concerns completed self-report measures examining reward sensitivity, emotion regulation, impulsivity and disordered (binge) eating. Results showed that (1) reward sensitivity, affect regulation and impulsivity all loaded onto a latent "addiction vulnerability" factor for both women with high and with low weight/shape concerns, (2) women with higher weight/shape concerns reported more impairment in these areas, and (3) weight/shape concerns moderated the relation between addiction vulnerability and binge eating. These findings suggest that underlying processes identified in addiction are present in individuals who binge eat, though weight/shape concerns may be a unique characteristic of disordered eating.

  1. Dynamical Analysis of bantam-Regulated Drosophila Circadian Rhythm Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zengrong

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with 3‧untranslated region (UTR) elements of target genes to regulate mRNA stability or translation, and play a crucial role in regulating many different biological processes. bantam, a conserved miRNA, is involved in several functions, such as regulating Drosophila growth and circadian rhythm. Recently, it has been discovered that bantam plays a crucial role in the core circadian pacemaker. In this paper, based on experimental observations, a detailed dynamical model of bantam-regulated circadian clock system is developed to show the post-transcriptional behaviors in the modulation of Drosophila circadian rhythm, in which the regulation of bantam is incorporated into a classical model. The dynamical behaviors of the model are consistent with the experimental observations, which shows that bantam is an important regulator of Drosophila circadian rhythm. The sensitivity analysis of parameters demonstrates that with the regulation of bantam the system is more sensitive to perturbations, indicating that bantam regulation makes it easier for the organism to modulate its period against the environmental perturbations. The effectiveness in rescuing locomotor activity rhythms of mutated flies shows that bantam is necessary for strong and sustained rhythms. In addition, the biological mechanisms of bantam regulation are analyzed, which may help us more clearly understand Drosophila circadian rhythm regulated by other miRNAs.

  2. p53 Regulates the neuronal intrinsic and extrinsic responses affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Floriddia, Elisa M; Rathore, Khizr I; Tedeschi, Andrea; Quadrato, Giorgia; Wuttke, Anja; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Kigerl, Kristina A; Popovich, Phillip G; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2012-10-03

    Following spinal trauma, the limited physiological axonal sprouting that contributes to partial recovery of function is dependent upon the intrinsic properties of neurons as well as the inhibitory glial environment. The transcription factor p53 is involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, cell survival, and axonal outgrowth, suggesting p53 as key modifier of axonal and glial responses influencing functional recovery following spinal injury. Indeed, in a spinal cord dorsal hemisection injury model, we observed a significant impairment in locomotor recovery in p53(-/-) versus wild-type mice. p53(-/-) spinal cords showed an increased number of activated microglia/macrophages and a larger scar at the lesion site. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments suggested p53 as a direct regulator of microglia/macrophages proliferation. At the axonal level, p53(-/-) mice showed a more pronounced dieback of the corticospinal tract (CST) and a decreased sprouting capacity of both CST and spinal serotoninergic fibers. In vivo expression of p53 in the sensorimotor cortex rescued and enhanced the sprouting potential of the CST in p53(-/-) mice, while, similarly, p53 expression in p53(-/-) cultured cortical neurons rescued a defect in neurite outgrowth, suggesting a direct role for p53 in regulating the intrinsic sprouting ability of CNS neurons. In conclusion, we show that p53 plays an important regulatory role at both extrinsic and intrinsic levels affecting the recovery of motor function following spinal cord injury. Therefore, we propose p53 as a novel potential multilevel therapeutic target for spinal cord injury.

  3. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  4. Children's Negative Emotionality Combined with Poor Self-Regulation Affects Allostatic Load in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…

  5. How Do Motivational Regulation Strategies Affect Achievement: Mediated by Effort Management and Moderated by Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    It was assumed that the effect of motivational regulation strategies on achievement is mediated by effort management and moderated by intelligence. A sample of 231 11th and 12th grade German high-school students provided self-reports on their use of motivational regulation strategies and effort management and completed an intelligence test.…

  6. Differential regulation of Gli proteins by Sufu in the lung affects PDGF signaling and myofibroblast development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling relies on three Gli transcription factors to mediate Hh responses. This process is controlled in part by a major negative regulator, Sufu, through its effects on Gli protein level, distribution and activity. In this report, we showed that Sufu regulates Gli1 protein...

  7. Do Child Care Regulations Affect the Child Care and Labor Markets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of child care regulations on outcomes in the child care market and the labor market for mothers of young children is examined. The analysis uses a time series of cross sections and examines the robustness of previous cross-section findings to controls for state-level heterogeneity. Child care regulations as a group have statistically…

  8. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, Aman Y.; Benkovics, Anna H.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple. PMID:26589551

  9. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Aman Y; Benkovics, Anna H; Nogueira, Fabio T S; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2015-12-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple.

  10. Thermodynamic model of heterochromatin formation through epigenetic regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Peter J.; Koslover, Elena F.; Spakowitz, Andrew J.

    2015-02-01

    Gene regulation in eukaryotes requires the segregation of silenced genomic regions into densely packed heterochromatin, leaving the active genes in euchromatin regions more accessible. We introduce a model that connects the presence of epigenetically inherited histone marks, methylation at histone 3 lysine-9, to the physical compaction of chromatin fibers via the binding of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Our model demonstrates some of the key physical features that are necessary to explain experimental observations. In particular, we demonstrate that strong cooperative interactions among the HP1 proteins are necessary to see the phase segregation of heterochromatin and euchromatin regions. We also explore how the cell can use the concentration of HP1 to control condensation and under what circumstances there is a threshold of methylation over which the fibers will compact. Finally, we consider how different potential in vivo fiber structures as well as the flexibility of the histone 3 tail can affect the bridging of HP1. Many of the observations that we make about the HP1 system are guided by general thermodynamics principles and thus could play a role in other DNA organizational processes such as the binding of linker histones.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Greek TCI-R and its clinical correlates: schizotypy and the self-regulation of affective and cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannopoulou, Leda; Rózsa, Sándor; Zouraraki, Chrysoula; Karamaouna, Penny; Cloninger, C. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. The revised Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) measures Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality. The average effects of individual temperament and character traits have been associated with schizotypy and with impaired regulation of affect and cognition. We extended prior research by testing predictions about the association of specific multidimensional configurations of temperament and character traits on schizotypy, affect balance, and self-perceived cognitive functioning. Method. A well-educated sample of native Greeks (N = 483), completed a new Greek translation of the TCI-R, as well as the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), the Positive/Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). The factor structure of the TCI-R was examined with exploratory and confirmatory tests. Associations between reported measures were examined with correlational and regression analyses. Results. The TCI-R had good psychometric properties as expected from studies in other countries. As predicted, specific configurations of temperament and character were associated with schizotypy, negative affect balance, and cognitive lapses. The “Borderline/Explosive temperament” (high Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance, low Reward Dependence), “Schizotypal/Disorganized character” (low Self-directedness, low Cooperativeness, high Self-transcendence), and “Low Ego Strength/Fragile” profile (high Harm Avoidance, low Persistence, low Self-Directedness) were each strongly associated with higher stereotypy, negative affect balance (low positive affect and high negative affect), and subjective cognitive lapses compared to their contrast groups. Discussion. Multidimensional TCI profiles are strongly related to individual differences in schizotypy and self-reported regulation of affect and cognition. The Greek translation of the TCI-R is psychometrically sound and useful for clinical assessment and research. PMID

  12. Positioning of extracellular loop 1 affects pore gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    PubMed Central

    Infield, Daniel T.; Cui, Guiying; Kuang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride ion channel, the dysfunction of which directly leads to the life-shortening disease CF. Extracellular loop 1 (ECL1) of CFTR contains several residues involved in stabilizing the open state of the channel; some, including D110, are sites of disease-associated gating mutations. Structures from related proteins suggest that the position of CFTR's extracellular loops may change considerably during gating. To better understand the roles of ECL1 in CFTR function, we utilized functional cysteine cross-linking to determine the effects of modulation of D110C-CFTR and of a double mutant of D110C with K892C in extracellular loop 4 (ECL4). The reducing agent DTT elicited a large potentiation of the macroscopic conductance of D110C/K892C-CFTR, likely due to breakage of a spontaneous disulfide bond between C110 and C892. DTT-reduced D110C/K892C-CFTR was rapidly inhibited by binding cadmium ions with high affinity, suggesting that these residues frequently come in close proximity in actively gating channels. Effects of DTT and cadmium on modulation of pore gating were demonstrated at the single-channel level. Finally, disulfided D110C/K892C-CFTR channels were found to be less sensitive than wild-type or DTT-treated D110C/K892C-CFTR channels to stimulation by IBMX, suggesting an impact of this conformational restriction on channel activation by phosphorylation. The results are best explained in the context of a model of CFTR gating wherein stable channel opening requires correct positioning of functional elements structurally influenced by ECL1. PMID:26684250

  13. How local and state regulations affect the child care food environment: A qualitative study of child care center directors’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Williams, C. E.; Camp, E. J.; Mullen, P. D.; Briley, M. E.; Hoelscher, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Almost one-third of preschoolers spend regular time in child care centers where they can consume the majority of their daily dietary intake. The child care setting influences children’s dietary intake. Thus, it is important to examine factors, such as local and state regulations, that influence the food environment at the center. This qualitative study explored directors’ perceptions of how regulations influence the foods available at child care centers. Ten directors of centers in Travis County, Texas completed semi-structured interviews. Directors reported that changes in local health department regulations (e.g., kitchen specifications) result in less-healthful foods being served (e.g., more prepackaged foods). Directors of centers that do not participate in the federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) said the state licensing regulations clarify the portion size and nutritional requirements for preschoolers thereby improving the nutritional quality of the food served. Directors of centers participating in CACFP said they are not affected by state mandates, because the CACFP regulations are more stringent. These findings suggest that state regulations that specify and quantify nutritional standards may beneficially impact preschoolers’ diets. However, local health department regulations enacted to improve food safety may negatively influence the nutritional value of food served in centers. PMID:26251694

  14. Marijuana and tobacco exposure predict affect-regulation expectancies in dual users.

    PubMed

    Martens, K M; Gilbert, David G

    2008-11-01

    In order to better compare affect-related expectancies for tobacco and marijuana smoking, associations of marijuana and tobacco exposure to negative affect reduction (NAR), positive affect enhancement (PAE), and related smoking outcome expectancies were assessed in young individuals who reported smoking both marijuana and tobacco on a regular basis (dual users). More frequent smoking of a given substance was associated with expectations of greater NAR and PAE by that substance while duration of exposure did not reliably predict NAR or PAE drug expectancies. Contrary to expectations, individuals anticipating greater NAR and/or PAE for one substance did not exhibit corresponding expectancies for the other drug. These findings suggest that exposure duration may be less important than current usage levels in influencing affect expectancies and that the affect-related expectancies for tobacco and marijuana are largely independent of each other.

  15. Models of Self-regulated Learning: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puustinen, Minna; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2001-01-01

    Describes and compares the latest models of self-regulated learning, including those developed by M. Boekaerts, J. Borkowski, P. Pintrich, P. Winne, and B. Zimmerman. The comparison shows that theoretical background is an important differentiating feature. (SLD)

  16. Tetracycline-regulated mouse models of cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Elizabeth S; Vernon-Grey, Ann; Martin, Heather; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2014-10-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have proven essential to the study of mammalian gene function in both development and disease. However, traditional constitutive transgenic mouse model systems are limited by the temporal and spatial characteristics of the experimental promoter used to drive transgene expression. To address this limitation, considerable effort has been dedicated to developing conditional and inducible mouse model systems. Although a number of approaches to generating inducible GEMMs have been pursued, several have been restricted by toxic or undesired physiological side effects of the compounds used to activate gene expression. The development of tetracycline (tet)-dependent regulatory systems has allowed for circumvention of these issues resulting in the widespread adoption of these systems as an invaluable tool for modeling the complex nature of cancer progression.

  17. Integrating affective and cognitive correlates of heart rate variability: A structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Mann, Sarah L; Selby, Edward A; Bates, Marsha E; Contrada, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    High frequency heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of neurocardiac communication thought to reflect predominantly parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Low HRV has been associated empirically with clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression and, more recently, high levels of HRV have been associated with better performance on some measures of executive functioning (EF). These findings have offered support for theories proposing HRV as an index measure of a broad, self-regulatory capacity underlying aspects of emotion regulation and executive control. This study sought to test that proposition by using a structural equation modeling approach to examine the relationships of HRV to negative affect (NA) and EF in a large sample of U.S. adults ages 30s-80s. HRV was modeled as a predictor of an NA factor (self-reported trait anxiety and depression symptoms) and an EF factor (performance on three neuropsychological tests tapping facets of executive abilities). Alternative models also were tested to determine the utility of HRV for predicting NA and EF, with and without statistical control of demographic and health-related covariates. In the initial structural model, HRV showed a significant positive relationship to EF and a nonsignificant relationship to NA. In a covariate-adjusted model, HRV's associations with both constructs were nonsignificant. Age emerged as the only significant predictor of NA and EF in the final model, showing inverse relationships to both. Findings may reflect population and methodological differences from prior research; they also suggest refinements to the interpretations of earlier findings and theoretical claims regarding HRV.

  18. The Role of Genetic Sex in Affect Regulation and Expression of GABA-Related Genes Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Seney, Marianne L.; Chang, Lun-Ching; Oh, Hyunjung; Wang, Xingbin; Tseng, George C.; Lewis, David A.; Sibille, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to investigate sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N = 51 MDD subjects, 50 controls), we show that the previously reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST), a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N = 214; two frontal cortex regions) and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N = 170 subjects), we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model [Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice], in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N ≥ 12/group), we show that genetic sex (i.e., X/Y-chromosome) influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice) and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice). This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males < gonadal females). Collectively, these combined human and mouse studies provide mechanistic insight into sexual dimorphism in mood disorders, and specifically demonstrate an unexpected role of male-like factors (XY genetic sex) on

  19. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  20. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  1. Hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Deats, Sean P; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2015-08-18

    Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12 h dim light:dark (DLD) or 8:16 h short photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12 h bright light:dark (BLD) condition. Furthermore, we have shown that the orexinergic system is involved in mediating the effects of light on mood and anxiety. To explore other potential neural substrates involved in the depressive phenotype, the present study examined hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) and somatostatin (SST) neurons in the brains of grass rats housed in DLD, SP and BLD. Using immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SST, we found that the number of TH- and SST-ir cells in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DLD and SP groups compared to the BLD group. We also found that treating BLD animals with a selective orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduced the number of hypothalamic TH-ir cells. The present study suggests that the hypothalamic DA neurons are sensitive to daytime light deficiency and are regulated by an orexinergic pathway. The results support the hypothesis that the orexinergic pathways mediate the effects of light on other neuronal systems that collectively contribute to light-dependent changes in the affective state.

  2. State Regulation Of Freestanding Emergency Departments Varies Widely, Affecting Location, Growth, And Services Provided.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Catherine; Lindor, Rachel A; Baker, Olesya; Cutler, David; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2016-10-01

    Freestanding emergency departments (EDs), which offer emergency medical care at sites separate from hospitals, are a rapidly growing alternative to traditional hospital-based EDs. We evaluated state regulations of freestanding EDs and describe their effect on the EDs' location, staffing, and services. As of December 2015, thirty-two states collectively had 400 freestanding EDs. Twenty-one states had regulations that allowed freestanding EDs, and twenty-nine states did not have regulations that applied specifically to such EDs (one state had hospital regulations that precluded them). State policies regarding freestanding EDs varied widely, with no standard requirements for location, staffing patterns, or clinical capabilities. States requiring freestanding EDs to have a certificate of need had fewer of such EDs per capita than states without such a requirement. For patients to better understand the capabilities and costs of freestanding EDs and to be able to choose the most appropriate site of emergency care, consistent state regulation of freestanding EDs is needed.

  3. Supporting affect regulation in children with multiple disabilities during psychotherapy: a multiple case design study of therapeutic attachment.

    PubMed

    Schuengel, C; Sterkenburg, P S; Jeczynski, P; Janssen, C G C; Jongbloed, G

    2009-04-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist stimulating therapeutic attachment, alternating with a control therapist providing positive personal attention only. In the 2nd phase, both therapists applied behavior therapy. Clients sought more proximity to the experimental therapist compared with the control therapist. Psychophysiological arousal (respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre-ejection period) was lower when the experimental therapist applied behavior modification than when the control therapist did. Despite prolonged social deprivation, the attachment behavioral system appeared responsive to stimulation. The effects on affect regulation may explain the synergy between psychotherapy based on interpersonal and behavior modification approaches.

  4. Down-regulation of Wnt10a affects odontogenesis and proliferation in mesenchymal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang Han, Dong Wang, Lei Feng, Hailan

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Down-regulation of Wnt10a in dental mesenchymal cells impairs odontogenesis of reassociated tooth germs. •Dspp is down- and up-regulated after Wnt10a-knockdown and overexpression in dental mesenchymal cells. •Down-regulation of Wnt10a inhibits proliferation of dental mesenchymal cells. -- Abstract: The WNT10a mutation has been found in patients with abnormal odontogenesis. In mice, Wnt10a expression is found in the tooth germ, but its role has not yet been elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of Wnt10a in odontogenesis. Mesenchymal cells of the first mandibular molar germ at the bell stage were isolated, transfected with Wnt10a SiRNA or plasmid, and reassociated with epithelial part of the molar germ. Scrambled SiRNA or empty vector was used in the control group. The reassociated tooth germs were transplanted into mice subrenal capsules. After gene modification, dental mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro were checked for cell proliferation and the expression of Dspp was examined. All 12 reassociated tooth germs in the control group resumed odontogenesis, while only 5 of 12 in the Wnt10a knockdown group developed into teeth. After Wnt10a knockdown, the mesenchymal cells cultured in vitro presented repressed proliferation. Wnt10a knockdown and overexpression led to both down- and up-regulation of Dspp. We conclude that the down-regulation of Wnt10a impairs odontogensis and cell proliferation, and that Wnt10a regulates Dspp expression in mesenchymal cells. These findings help to elucidate the mechanism of abnormal tooth development in patients with the WNT10A mutation.

  5. TERE1, a novel gene affecting growth regulation in prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Terence W; Nguyen, Trang; Puthiyaveettil, Raghunath; Tomaszewski, John E; Malkowicz, S Bruce

    2003-02-01

    Recently, we isolated a ubiquitously expressed gene designated TERE1, which has a significant effect on the growth regulation in bladder cancer. The TERE1 gene maps to chromosome 1p36.11-1p36.33 between the micro-satellite markers D1S2667 and D1S434, a chromosome locus that has been identified by loss of heterozygosity studies as a site of a putative tumor suppressor gene or genes for multiple tumor types including prostate carcinoma. The expression of the TERE1 transcript and protein was examined in a series of thirty microdissected prostate tumors by semi-quantitative RT/PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was a significant 61% decrease in the TERE1 transcript in prostate carcinoma (CaP) and a distinct loss of the TERE1 protein in metstatic prostate. Though a loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 1p36 was found in 25% of these prostate tumors, there appeared to be no TERE1 mutations present in these tumor samples. Induced TERE1 expression after transduction or transfection of TERE1 constructs into two prostate carcinoma (LNCaP and PC-3) cell lines significantly decreased proliferation up to 80% with a significant increase in the number of cells in G1. Serum factors but not DHT (dihydrotestosterone) appear to regulate the amount of TERE1 protein in the androgen responsive LNCaP cell line. Additionally, we have identified by microarray analysis various growth regulatory genes that are down-regulated or up-regulated in TERE1-transduced PC-3 cells. Altogether, these data suggest that TERE1 maybe significant in prostate cancer growth regulation and the down regulation or absence of TERE1 may be an important component of the phenotype of advanced disease.

  6. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  7. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity and posttraumatic stress: exploring the contributions of impaired executive control and affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Tim; Rolfe, Jennifer; Golden, Ann-Marie; Dunn, Barnaby D; Barnard, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories retrieved to word cues on the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) is associated with increased posttraumatic stress in traumatized samples. Theoretical debates concerning the dominant influences on this effect have focused on affect regulation, whereby specific personal information is avoided more by those experiencing greater distress, versus compromised executive control, whereby increased distress is associated with an inability to set aside inappropriately general responses on the AMT. The present study compared these 2 views in a correlational design using a reversed version of the AMT (the AMT-R) for which trauma-exposed participants (N=36) had to generate general memories from the past and avoid specific memories. An emphasis on the role of affect regulation would predict that distress would be associated with reduced specificity (as in the standard AMT), whereas emphasis on the role of executive control would predict that this relationship would be reversed. The data supported the affect regulation account, with greater posttraumatic stress being associated with reduced memory specificity.

  8. Clinical models of cardiovascular regulation after weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Jacob, G.; Ertl, A.; Shannon, J.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Biaggioni, I.

    1996-01-01

    After several days in microgravity, return to earth is attended by alterations in cardiovascular function. The mechanisms underlying these effects are inadequately understood. Three clinical disorders of autonomic function represent possible models of this abnormal cardiovascular function after spaceflight. They are pure autonomic failure, baroreflex failure, and orthostatic intolerance. In pure autonomic failure, virtually complete loss of sympathetic and parasympathetic function occurs along with profound and immediate orthostatic hypotension. In baroreflex failure, various degrees of debuffering of blood pressure occur. In acute and complete baroreflex failure, there is usually severe hypertension and tachycardia, while with less complete and more chronic baroreflex impairment, orthostatic abnormalities may be more apparent. In orthostatic intolerance, blood pressure fall is minor, but orthostatic symptoms are prominent and tachycardia frequently occurs. Only careful autonomic studies of human subjects in the microgravity environment will permit us to determine which of these models most closely reflects the pathophysiology brought on by a period of time in the microgravity environment.

  9. Schizophrenia-Associated MIR204 Regulates Noncoding RNAs and Affects Neurotransmitter and Ion Channel Gene Sets

    PubMed Central

    Cammaerts, Sophia; Strazisar, Mojca; Smets, Bart; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Nordin, Annelie; De Jonghe, Peter; Adolfsson, Rolf; De Rijk, Peter; Del Favero, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    As regulators of gene expression, microRNAs (miRNAs) are likely to play an important role in the development of disease. In this study we present a large-scale strategy to identify miRNAs with a role in the regulation of neuronal processes. Thereby we found variant rs7861254 located near the MIR204 gene to be significantly associated with schizophrenia. This variant resulted in reduced expression of miR-204 in neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cells. Analysis of the consequences of the altered miR-204 expression on the transcriptome of these cells uncovered a new mode of action for miR-204, being the regulation of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including several miRNAs, such as MIR296. Furthermore, pathway analysis showed downstream effects of miR-204 on neurotransmitter and ion channel related gene sets, potentially mediated by miRNAs regulated through miR-204. PMID:26714269

  10. Computer-Based Science Inquiry: How Components of Metacognitive Self-Regulation Affect Problem-Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Bruce C.; McGee, Steven; Shia, Regina; Hong, Namsoo Shin

    This study sought to examine the effects of meta cognitive self-regulation on problem solving across three conditions: (1) an interactive, computer-based treatment condition; (2) a noninteractive computer-based alternative treatment condition; and (3) a control condition. Also investigated was which of five components of metacognitive…

  11. Emotion Regulation in Preschoolers: The Roles of Behavioral Inhibition, Maternal Affective Behavior, and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xin; Shaw, Daniel S.; Kovacs, Maria; Lane, Tonya; O'Rourke, Flannery E.; Alarcon, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined preschoolers' emotion regulation (ER) strategies and the association with temperament, maternal interactive style, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Methods: Participants were 62 children and their mothers, 37 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's ER was assessed using a disappointment…

  12. Methodological Implications of the Affect Revolution: A 35-Year Review of Emotion Regulation Assessment in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Veits, Gina

    2011-01-01

    This investigation analyzed the methods used over the past 35 years to study emotion regulation (ER) in children. Articles published from 1975 through 2010 were identified in 42 child clinical, developmental, and emotion psychology journals. Overall, 61.1% of published ER articles relied on one method and 23.6% used two methods. Analyses revealed…

  13. The Handbook: A Vocational Education Legislative Reference. Federal Laws and Regulations Affecting Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariscal and Co., Los Angeles, CA.

    To assist administrators, researchers, and evaluators in better understanding and implementing the Vocational Education Act of 1963, this booklet brings together the provisions of the Act, the regulations, selected provisions from related laws, significant policy, and statements based on public hearings issues. Its format of columns that clearly…

  14. Pluralistic and stochastic gene regulation: examples, models and consistent theory

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Elisa N.; Shu, Jiang; Cserhati, Matyas F.; Weeks, Donald P.; Ladunga, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    We present a theory of pluralistic and stochastic gene regulation. To bridge the gap between empirical studies and mathematical models, we integrate pre-existing observations with our meta-analyses of the ENCODE ChIP-Seq experiments. Earlier evidence includes fluctuations in levels, location, activity, and binding of transcription factors, variable DNA motifs, and bursts in gene expression. Stochastic regulation is also indicated by frequently subdued effects of knockout mutants of regulators, their evolutionary losses/gains and massive rewiring of regulatory sites. We report wide-spread pluralistic regulation in ≈800 000 tightly co-expressed pairs of diverse human genes. Typically, half of ≈50 observed regulators bind to both genes reproducibly, twice more than in independently expressed gene pairs. We also examine the largest set of co-expressed genes, which code for cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Numerous regulatory complexes are highly significant enriched in ribosomal genes compared to highly expressed non-ribosomal genes. We could not find any DNA-associated, strict sense master regulator. Despite major fluctuations in transcription factor binding, our machine learning model accurately predicted transcript levels using binding sites of 20+ regulators. Our pluralistic and stochastic theory is consistent with partially random binding patterns, redundancy, stochastic regulator binding, burst-like expression, degeneracy of binding motifs and massive regulatory rewiring during evolution. PMID:26823500

  15. URC Fuzzy Modeling and Simulation of Gene Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    URC FUZZY MODELING AND SIMULATION OF GENE REGULATION B. A. Sokhansanj1,2 and J. P. Fitch1 1Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence...engineering, pharmaceuticals , gene therapy). Diverse modeling approaches have been proposed, in two general categories: modeling a biological pathway as (a) a...systems, we propose that fuzzy logic is a natural language for modeling biology. The Union Rule Configuration (URC) avoids combinatorial explosion in the

  16. Dynamics of the two process model of human sleep regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenngott, Max; McKay, Cavendish

    2011-04-01

    We examine the dynamics of the two process model of human sleep regulation. In this model, sleep propensity is governed by the interaction between a periodic threshold (process C) and a saturating growth/decay (process S). We find that the parameter space of this model admits sleep cycles with a wide variety of characteristics, many of which are not observed in normal human sleepers. We also examine the effects of phase dependent feedback on this model.

  17. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    PubMed Central

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  18. Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

    EIA Publications

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

  19. A New Approach to Identifying the Drivers of Regulation Compliance Using Multivariate Behavioural Models

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alyssa S.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Gavin, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-compliance with fishing regulations can undermine management effectiveness. Previous bivariate approaches were unable to untangle the complex mix of factors that may influence fishers’ compliance decisions, including enforcement, moral norms, perceived legitimacy of regulations and the behaviour of others. We compared seven multivariate behavioural models of fisher compliance decisions using structural equation modeling. An online survey of over 300 recreational fishers tested the ability of each model to best predict their compliance with two fishing regulations (daily and size limits). The best fitting model for both regulations was composed solely of psycho-social factors, with social norms having the greatest influence on fishers’ compliance behaviour. Fishers’ attitude also directly affected compliance with size limit, but to a lesser extent. On the basis of these findings, we suggest behavioural interventions to target social norms instead of increasing enforcement for the focal regulations in the recreational blue cod fishery in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. These interventions could include articles in local newspapers and fishing magazines highlighting the extent of regulation compliance as well as using respected local fishers to emphasize the benefits of compliance through public meetings or letters to the editor. Our methodological approach can be broadly applied by natural resource managers as an effective tool to identify drivers of compliance that can then guide the design of interventions to decrease illegal resource use. PMID:27727292

  20. COX assembly factor ccdc56 regulates mitochondrial morphology by affecting mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1.

    PubMed

    Ban-Ishihara, Reiko; Tomohiro-Takamiya, Shiho; Tani, Motohiro; Baudier, Jacques; Ishihara, Naotada; Kuge, Osamu

    2015-10-07

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that alter their morphology in response to cellular signaling and differentiation through balanced fusion and fission. In this study, we found that the mitochondrial inner membrane ATPase ATAD3A interacted with ccdc56/MITRAC12/COA3, a subunit of the cytochrome oxidase (COX)-assembly complex. Overproduction of ccdc56 in HeLa cells resulted in fragmented mitochondrial morphology, while mitochondria were highly elongated in ccdc56-repressed cells by the defective recruitment of the fission factor Drp1. We also found that mild and chronic inhibition of COX led to mitochondrial elongation, as seen in ccdc56-repressed cells. These results indicate that ccdc56 positively regulates mitochondrial fission via regulation of COX activity and the mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1, and thus, suggest a novel relationship between COX assembly and mitochondrial morphology.

  1. Neuroticism and responsiveness to error feedback: adaptive self-regulation versus affective reactivity.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2010-10-01

    Responsiveness to negative feedback has been seen as functional by those who emphasize the value of reflecting on such feedback in self-regulating problematic behaviors. On the other hand, the very same responsiveness has been viewed as dysfunctional by its link to punishment sensitivity and reactivity. The present 4 studies, involving 203 undergraduate participants, sought to reconcile such discrepant views in the context of the trait of neuroticism. In cognitive tasks, individuals were given error feedback when they made mistakes. It was found that greater tendencies to slow down following error feedback were associated with higher levels of accuracy at low levels of neuroticism but lower levels of accuracy at high levels of neuroticism. Individual differences in neuroticism thus appear crucial in understanding whether behavioral alterations following negative feedback reflect proactive versus reactive mechanisms and processes. Implications for understanding the processing basis of neuroticism and adaptive self-regulation are discussed.

  2. How Type of Treatment and Presence of PTSD affect Employment, Self-regulation, and Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Mileviciute, Inga; Aase, Darrin M; Stevens, Ed; Digangi, Julia; Contreras, Richard; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined self-regulation, unemployment, and substance use outcomes for individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who had transitioned from substance use treatment centers to the community. Participants, recruited from substance abuse treatment centers, were randomly assigned to an Oxford House self-help communal living environment (n = 75) or received usual aftercare (n = 75). Among these 150 individuals, 32 participants (27 women, 5 men) were diagnosed with lifetime PTSD. At a two year follow-up, individuals with PTSD in the usual aftercare condition showed significantly lower levels of self-regulation than those in the Oxford House condition with or without PTSD. These findings highlight the importance of abstinence supportive settings following substance use treatment, especially for individuals with PTSD.

  3. LapF and Its Regulation by Fis Affect the Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Lahesaare, Andrio; Ainelo, Hanna; Teppo, Annika; Kivisaar, Maia; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Teras, Riho

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to regulate cell surface hydrophobicity is important for the adaptation to different environmental conditions. The hydrophobicity of cell surface can be determined by several factors, including outer membrane and surface proteins. In this study, we report that an adhesin LapF influences cell surface hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas putida. Cells lacking LapF are less hydrophobic than wild-type cells in stationary growth phase. Moreover, the overexpression of the global regulator Fis decreases surface hydrophobicity by repressing the expression of lapF. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that bacteria producing LapF are more viable when confronted with methanol (a hydrophilic compound) but are more susceptible to 1-octanol (a hydrophobic compound). Thus, these results revealed that LapF is the hydrophobicity factor for the cell surface of P. putida. PMID:27812186

  4. Buffers affect the bending rigidity of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bouvrais, Hélène; Duelund, Lars; Ipsen, John H

    2014-01-14

    In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules.

  5. SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer and affects genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; True, Kirsten; Hamilton, Mark P; Nielsen, Morten M; Damas, Nkerorema D; Damgaard, Christian K; Ongen, Halit; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bramsen, Jesper B; Pedersen, Jakob S; Lund, Anders H; Vang, Søren; Stribolt, Katrine; Madsen, Mogens R; Laurberg, Søren; McGuire, Sean E; Ørntoft, Torben F; Andersen, Claus L

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer where they have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. RNA profiling of 314 colorectal adenomas/adenocarcinomas and 292 adjacent normal colon mucosa samples using RNA-sequencing demonstrated that the snoRNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) is significantly up-regulated in adenomas and all stages of CRC. SNHG16 expression was positively correlated to the expression of Wnt-regulated transcription factors, including ASCL2, ETS2, and c-Myc. In vitro abrogation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells reduced the expression of SNHG16 indicating that SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway. Silencing of SNHG16 resulted in reduced viability, increased apoptotic cell death and impaired cell migration. The SNHG16 silencing particularly affected expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. A connection between SNHG16 and genes involved in lipid metabolism was also observed in clinical tumors. Argonaute CrossLinking and ImmunoPrecipitation (AGO-CLIP) demonstrated that SNHG16 heavily binds AGO and has 27 AGO/miRNA target sites along its length, indicating that SNHG16 may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) "sponging" miRNAs off their cognate targets. Most interestingly, half of the miRNA families with high confidence targets on SNHG16 also target the 3'UTR of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD). SCD is involved in lipid metabolism and is down-regulated upon SNHG16 silencing. In conclusion, up-regulation of SNHG16 is a frequent event in CRC, likely caused by deregulated Wnt signaling. In vitro analyses demonstrate that SNHG16 may play an oncogenic role in CRC and that it affects genes involved in lipid metabolism, possible through ceRNA related mechanisms.

  6. In Ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Min; Cai, Demin; Li, Xi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P < 0.05) and the hepatic content (P < 0.01) of cholesterol. Accordingly, the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMGCR was up-regulated (P < 0.05 for both mRNA and protein), while CYP7A1 which converts cholesterol to bile acids was down-regulated (P < 0.05 for mRNA and P = 0.07 for protein). Moreover, hepatic protein content of the sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 which regulates cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, and the mRNA abundance of ATP binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1) which mediates cholesterol counter transport were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P < 0.05), which was associated with global genomic DNA hypermethylation (P < 0.05) and diminished gene repression mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CpG methylation level on gene promoters was found to be increased (P < 0.05) for CYP7A1 yet decreased (P < 0.05) for ABCA1. These results indicate that in ovo betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations.

  7. Studying Children's Intrapersonal Emotion Regulation Strategies from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Belén; Gummerum, Michaela; Wilson, Ellie; Dellaria, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    The authors relied on the Process Model of Emotion Regulation (PMER; J. J. Gross, 2007 ) to investigate children's abilities to regulate their emotions and to assess how distinct emotion regulation strategies are used by children of different ages. In Study 1, 180 parents of children aged between 3 and 8 years old reported about a situation in which their child had been able to change what she or he was feeling. In Study 2, 126 children 3-8 years old answered 2 questions about how they regulate their own emotions. Results from both studies showed age differences in children's reported emotion regulation abilities and the strategies they used. As expected, strategies such as situation selection, situation modification, and cognitive change were used more frequently by 5-6- and 7-8-year-olds, whereas attention deployment was mainly used by 3-4-year-olds. No age differences were found for response modulation. The present research contributes to the existing body of literature on emotion regulation by adding more information about the developmental patterns for each specific emotion regulation strategy.

  8. Complement C5a regulates IL-17 by affecting the crosstalk between DC and gammadelta T cells in CLP-induced sepsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruonan; Wang, Renxi; Han, Gencheng; Wang, Jianan; Chen, Guojiang; Wang, Liyan; Li, Xia; Guo, Renfeng; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan

    2010-04-01

    Complement 5a (C5a) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) are two important inflammatory mediators in sepsis. Here we studied the mechanisms underlying regulation of IL-17 by anaphylatoxin C5a. We found that C5a blockade increased the survival rate of mice following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and decreased IL-17 expression in vivo. IL-17 was secreted mainly by gammadelta T cells in this model. Importantly, our data suggest that C5a participates in the regulation of IL-17 secretion by gammadelta T cells. Dendritic cells (DC) were found to act as a "bridge" between C5a and gammadelta T cells in a mechanism involving IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). These results imply that C5a affects the crosstalk between DC and gammadelta T cells during sepsis development, and this may result in a large production of inflammatory mediators such as IL-17.

  9. Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Scalise, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca{sup 2+} concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca{sup 2+}-mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphorylation of the {alpha}subunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca{sup 2+} are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that ({sup 3}H) spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development.

  10. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Campos Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina; Ramos Pedersoli, Wellington; dos Santos Castro, Lílian; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cruz, Aline Helena da Silva; Nogueira, Karoline Maria Vieira; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Rossi, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0), neutral (pH 7.0), and alkaline (pH 10.0) medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry. PMID:28107376

  11. Deletion of pH Regulator pac-3 Affects Cellulase and Xylanase Activity during Sugarcane Bagasse Degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Campos Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina; Ramos Pedersoli, Wellington; Dos Santos Castro, Lílian; da Silva Santos, Rodrigo; Cruz, Aline Helena da Silva; Nogueira, Karoline Maria Vieira; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Rossi, Antonio; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms play a vital role in bioethanol production whose usage as fuel energy is increasing worldwide. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa synthesize and secrete the major enzymes involved in plant cell wall deconstruction. The production of cellulases and hemicellulases is known to be affected by the environmental pH; however, the regulatory mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the pH regulator PAC-3 in N. crassa during their growth on sugarcane bagasse at different pH conditions. Our data indicate that secretion of cellulolytic enzymes is reduced in the mutant Δpac-3 at alkaline pH, whereas xylanases are positively regulated by PAC-3 in acidic (pH 5.0), neutral (pH 7.0), and alkaline (pH 10.0) medium. Gene expression profiles, evaluated by real-time qPCR, revealed that genes encoding cellulases and hemicellulases are also subject to PAC-3 control. Moreover, deletion of pac-3 affects the expression of transcription factor-encoding genes. Together, the results suggest that the regulation of holocellulase genes by PAC-3 can occur as directly as in indirect manner. Our study helps improve the understanding of holocellulolytic performance in response to PAC-3 and should thereby contribute to the better use of N. crassa in the biotechnology industry.

  12. GOLDEN 2-LIKE transcription factors for chloroplast development affect ozone tolerance through the regulation of stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Nagatoshi, Yukari; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Hayashi, Maki; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Okuma, Eiji; Kubo, Akihiro; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Saji, Hikaru; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal movements regulate gas exchange, thus directly affecting the efficiency of photosynthesis and the sensitivity of plants to air pollutants such as ozone. The GARP family transcription factors GOLDEN 2-LIKE1 (GLK1) and GLK2 have known functions in chloroplast development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants expressing the chimeric repressors for GLK1 and -2 (GLK1/2-SRDX) exhibited a closed-stomata phenotype and strong tolerance to ozone. By contrast, plants that overexpress GLK1/2 exhibited an open-stomata phenotype and higher sensitivity to ozone. The plants expressing GLK1-SRDX had reduced expression of the genes for inwardly rectifying K+ (K+in) channels and reduced K+in channel activity. Abscisic acid treatment did not affect the stomatal phenotype of 35S:GLK1/2-SRDX plants or the transcriptional activity for K+in channel gene, indicating that GLK1/2 act independently of abscisic acid signaling. Our results indicate that GLK1/2 positively regulate the expression of genes for K+in channels and promote stomatal opening. Because the chimeric GLK1-SRDX repressor driven by a guard cell-specific promoter induced a closed-stomata phenotype without affecting chloroplast development in mesophyll cells, modulating GLK1/2 activity may provide an effective tool to control stomatal movements and thus to confer resistance to air pollutants. PMID:27035938

  13. GOLDEN 2-LIKE transcription factors for chloroplast development affect ozone tolerance through the regulation of stomatal movement.

    PubMed

    Nagatoshi, Yukari; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Hayashi, Maki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Okuma, Eiji; Kubo, Akihiro; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Seo, Mitsunori; Saji, Hikaru; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2016-04-12

    Stomatal movements regulate gas exchange, thus directly affecting the efficiency of photosynthesis and the sensitivity of plants to air pollutants such as ozone. The GARP family transcription factors GOLDEN 2-LIKE1 (GLK1) and GLK2 have known functions in chloroplast development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants expressing the chimeric repressors for GLK1 and -2 (GLK1/2-SRDX) exhibited a closed-stomata phenotype and strong tolerance to ozone. By contrast, plants that overexpress GLK1/2 exhibited an open-stomata phenotype and higher sensitivity to ozone. The plants expressing GLK1-SRDX had reduced expression of the genes for inwardly rectifying K(+) (K(+) in) channels and reduced K(+) in channel activity. Abscisic acid treatment did not affect the stomatal phenotype of 35S:GLK1/2-SRDX plants or the transcriptional activity for K(+) in channel gene, indicating that GLK1/2 act independently of abscisic acid signaling. Our results indicate that GLK1/2 positively regulate the expression of genes for K(+) in channels and promote stomatal opening. Because the chimeric GLK1-SRDX repressor driven by a guard cell-specific promoter induced a closed-stomata phenotype without affecting chloroplast development in mesophyll cells, modulating GLK1/2 activity may provide an effective tool to control stomatal movements and thus to confer resistance to air pollutants.

  14. MIG6 is MEK-regulated and affects EGF-induced migration in mutant NRAS melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Ha Linh; Rosenbaum, Sheera; Capparelli, Claudia; Purwin, Timothy J.; Davies, Michael A.; Berger, Adam C.; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in NRAS are frequent driver events in cutaneous melanoma. NRAS is a GTP-binding protein, whose most well-characterized downstream effector is RAF leading to activation of MEK-ERK1/2 signaling. While there are no FDA-approved targeted therapies for melanoma patients with a primary mutation in NRAS, one form of targeted therapy that has been explored is MEK inhibition. In clinical trials, MEK inhibitors have shown disappointing efficacy in mutant NRAS patients, the reasons for which are unclear. To explore the effects of MEK inhibitors in mutant NRAS melanoma, we utilized a high-throughput reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) platform to identify signaling alterations. RPPA analysis of phospho-proteomic changes in mutant NRAS melanoma in response to trametinib indicated a compensatory increase in AKT signaling and decreased expression of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), a negative regulator of EGFR/ERBB receptors. MIG6 expression did not alter the growth or survival properties of mutant NRAS melanoma cells. Rather, we identified a role for MIG6 as a negative regulator of EGF-induced signaling and cell migration and invasion. In MEK inhibited cells, further depletion of MIG6 increased migration and invasion, whereas MIG6 expression decreased these properties. Therefore, a decrease in MIG6 may promote the migration and invasiveness of MEK-inhibited mutant NRAS melanoma especially in response to EGF stimulation. PMID:26967478

  15. Down-regulation of GhADF1 gene expression affects cotton fibre properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yun; Wang, Juan; Gao, Peng; Jiao, Gai-Li; Zhao, Pi-Ming; Li, Yan; Wang, Gui-Ling; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2009-01-01

    Cotton fibre is the most important natural fibres for textile industry. To date, the mechanism that governs the development of fibre traits is largely unknown. In this study, we have characterized the function of a member of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) family in Gossypium hirsutum by down-regulation of the gene (designated as GhADF1) expression in the transgenic cotton plants. We observed that both the fibre length and strength of the GhADF1-underexpressing plants increased as compared to the wild-type fibre, and transgenic fibres contained more abundant F-actin filaments in the cortical region of the cells. Moreover, the secondary cell wall of the transgenic fibre appeared thicker and the cellulose content was higher than that of the control fibre. Our results suggest that organization of actin cytoskeleton regulated by actin-associated proteins such as GhADF1 plays a critical role in the processes of elongation and secondary cell wall formation during fibre development. Additionally, our study provided a candidate intrinsic gene for the improvement of fibre traits via genetic engineering.

  16. Proteasome affects the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated proteins.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Takumi; Kawakami, Masayo; Baba, Hiroko; Yahata, Masahiro; Mutoh, Junpei; Takeda, Shuso; Fujita, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2008-11-01

    The effect of proteasome inhibition with N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) on the protein expression regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was studied in T47D breast tumor cells. The luciferase reporter gene assay using a construct which has the xenobiotic responsive element showed that the inducible expression of the reporter with AhR ligands was significantly reduced by co-treatment with ALLN. The same suppressive effect by ALLN was observed for ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity induced by an AhR ligand, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC). Despite the above effects, the induced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNAs was unaffected by ALLN. While lactacystin, another proteasome inhibitor, exhibited the same effect as ALLN on EROD activity induced by 3MC, leupeptin, which is one of the cysteine protease inhibitors, had no such effect. Based on the evidence obtained, it appears that proteasome inhibition results in a reduction in the expression of AhR-regulated proteins.

  17. Lipin-2 regulates NLRP3 inflammasome by affecting P2X7 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Lordén, Gema; Sanjuán-García, Itziar; de Pablo, Nagore; Meana, Clara; Alvarez-Miguel, Inés; Pérez-García, M Teresa; Pelegrín, Pablo; Balsinde, Jesús; Balboa, María A

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in human LPIN2 produce a disease known as Majeed syndrome, the clinical manifestations of which are ameliorated by strategies that block IL-1β or its receptor. However the role of lipin-2 during IL-1β production remains elusive. We show here that lipin-2 controls excessive IL-1β formation in primary human and mouse macrophages by several mechanisms, including activation of the inflammasome NLRP3. Lipin-2 regulates MAPK activation, which mediates synthesis of pro-IL-1β during inflammasome priming. Lipin-2 also inhibits the activation and sensitization of the purinergic receptor P2X7 and K(+) efflux, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with a CARD domain oligomerization, and caspase-1 processing, key events during inflammasome activation. Reduced levels of lipin-2 in macrophages lead to a decrease in cellular cholesterol levels. In fact, restoration of cholesterol concentrations in cells lacking lipin-2 decreases ion currents through the P2X7 receptor, and downstream events that drive IL-1β production. Furthermore, lipin-2-deficient mice exhibit increased sensitivity to high lipopolysaccharide doses. Collectively, our results unveil lipin-2 as a critical player in the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

  18. A Coding Variant of ANO10, Affecting Volume Regulation of Macrophages, Is Associated with Borrelia Seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Christian; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Sirianant, Lalida; Papiol, Sergi; Monnheimer, Mathieu; Faria, Diana; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Schramek, Natalie; Schmitt, Corinna; Margos, Gabriele; Michel, Angelika; Kraiczy, Peter; Pawlita, Michael; Schreiber, Rainer; Schulz, Thomas F; Fingerle, Volker; Tumani, Hayrettin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-02-23

    In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl(-) channels and phospholipid scramblases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl(-) currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca(2+) signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection.

  19. Undulation frequency affects burial performance in living and model flatfishes.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; MacDonald, Ian; Farina, Stacy C; Summers, Adam P

    2016-04-01

    Flatfishes bury themselves under a thin layer of sand to hide from predators or to ambush prey. We investigated the role of undulation frequency of the body in burial in five species of flatfishes (Isopsetta isolepis, Lepidopsetta bilineata, Hippoglossoides elassodon, Parophrys vetulus, and Psettichthys melanostictus). High-speed videos show that undulations begin cranially and pass caudally while burying, as in forward swimming in many other fishes. The flatfishes also flick the posterior edge of their dorsal and anal fins during burial, which may increase the total surface area covered by substrate. We built a simple physical model - a flexible, oval silicone plate with a motorized, variable-speed actuator - to isolate the effect of undulation frequency on burial. In both the model and actuated dead flatfish, increased undulation frequency resulted in an increase in the area of sand coverage. Complete coverage required an undulation frequency of no more than 10Hz for our models, and that was also sufficient for live flatfishes. The model shows that undulation is sufficient to bury the animal, but live flatfishes showed a superior ability to bury, which we attribute to the action of the median fins.

  20. Coupled model of physical and biological processes affecting maize pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arritt, R.; Westgate, M.; Riese, J.; Falk, M.; Takle, E.

    2003-04-01

    Controversy over the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has led to increased interest in evaluating and controlling the potential for inadvertent outcrossing in open-pollinated crops such as maize. In response to this problem we have developed a Lagrangian model of pollen dispersion as a component of a coupled end-to-end (anther to ear) physical-biological model of maize pollination. The Lagrangian method is adopted because of its generality and flexibility: first, the method readily accommodates flow fields of arbitrary complexity; second, each element of the material being transported can be identified by its source, time of release, or other properties of interest. The latter allows pollen viability to be estimated as a function of such factors as travel time, temperature, and relative humidity, so that the physical effects of airflow and turbulence on pollen dispersion can be considered together with the biological aspects of pollen release and viability. Predicted dispersion of pollen compares well both to observations and to results from a simpler Gaussian plume model. Ability of the Lagrangian model to handle complex air flows is demonstrated by application to pollen dispersion in the vicinity of an agricultural shelter belt. We also show results indicating that pollen viability can be quantified by an "aging function" that accounts for temperature, humidity, and time of exposure.

  1. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  2. Survey of regulations affecting emissions from residential, gas-fired appliances. Topical report, January-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K.; Goodman, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide the U.S. gas industry with: an accurate database of existing emissions standards that may affect the use of natural gas in the U.S. residential sector; and a view of national and world-wide environmental trends that may provide insight into the future of U.S. emissions regulations and consumer interest in environmentally friendly technologies. In the U.S., the state of California has established a limit of 40 Nanogram/Jorale for NOx emissions from residential appliances in six air pollution control districts. The trend in the U.S. is for emission regulations to move away from traditional standards, toward market-based control strategies.

  3. Sphingolipids regulate telomere clustering by affecting the transcription of genes involved in telomere homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsuko; Muneoka, Tetsuya; Murakami, Suguru; Hirota, Ayaka; Yabuki, Yukari; Karashima, Takefumi; Nakazono, Kota; Tsuruno, Masahiro; Pichler, Harald; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Kodama, Yukiko; Shimamoto, Toshi; Mizuta, Keiko; Funato, Kouichi

    2015-07-15

    In eukaryotic organisms, including mammals, nematodes and yeasts, the ends of chromosomes, telomeres are clustered at the nuclear periphery. Telomere clustering is assumed to be functionally important because proper organization of chromosomes is necessary for proper genome function and stability. However, the mechanisms and physiological roles of telomere clustering remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate a role for sphingolipids in telomere clustering in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because abnormal sphingolipid metabolism causes downregulation of expression levels of genes involved in telomere organization, sphingolipids appear to control telomere clustering at the transcriptional level. In addition, the data presented here provide evidence that telomere clustering is required to protect chromosome ends from DNA-damage checkpoint signaling. As sphingolipids are found in all eukaryotes, we speculate that sphingolipid-based regulation of telomere clustering and the protective role of telomere clusters in maintaining genome stability might be conserved in eukaryotes.

  4. Simplified mechanistic models of gene regulation for analysis and design

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Edward J.; Stan, Guy-Bart; Arpino, James A. J.; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Simplified mechanistic models of gene regulation are fundamental to systems biology and essential for synthetic biology. However, conventional simplified models typically have outputs that are not directly measurable and are based on assumptions that do not often hold under experimental conditions. To resolve these issues, we propose a ‘model reduction’ methodology and simplified kinetic models of total mRNA and total protein concentration, which link measurements, models and biochemical mechanisms. The proposed approach is based on assumptions that hold generally and include typical cases in systems and synthetic biology where conventional models do not hold. We use novel assumptions regarding the ‘speed of reactions’, which are required for the methodology to be consistent with experimental data. We also apply the methodology to propose simplified models of gene regulation in the presence of multiple protein binding sites, providing both biological insights and an illustration of the generality of the methodology. Lastly, we show that modelling total protein concentration allows us to address key questions on gene regulation, such as efficiency, burden, competition and modularity. PMID:26063825

  5. Ctr2 regulates mast cell maturation by affecting the storage and expression of tryptase and proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Öhrvik, Helena; Logeman, Brandon; Noguchi, Glyn; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellén, Lena; Thiele, Dennis J.; Pejler, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential for multiple cellular functions. Cellular uptake of Cu+ is carried out by the Ctr1 high affinity Cu transporter. The mobilization of endosomal Cu pools is regulated by a protein structurally similar to Ctr1, called Ctr2. It was recently shown that ablation of Ctr2 caused an increase in the concentration of Cu localized to endolysosomes. However, the biological significance of excess endolysosomal Cu accumulation has not been assessed. Here we addressed this issue by investigating the impact of Ctr2 deficiency on mast cells, a cell type unusually rich in endolysosomal organelles (secretory granules). We show that Ctr2−/− mast cells have increased intracellular Cu concentrations and that the absence of Ctr2 results in increased metachromatic staining, the latter indicating an impact of Ctr2 on the storage of proteoglycans in the secretory granules. In agreement with this, the absence of Ctr2 caused a skewed ratio between proteoglycans of heparin and chondroitin sulfate type, with increased amounts of heparin accompanied by a reduction of chondroitin sulfate. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a higher number of electron dense granules in Ctr2−/− mast cells than in wild-type cells. The increase in granular staining and heparin content is compatible with an impact of Ctr2 on mast cell maturation and, in support of this, the absence of Ctr2 resulted in markedly increased mRNA expression, storage and enzymatic activity of tryptase. Taken together, the present study introduces Ctr2 and Cu as novel actors in the regulation of mast cell maturation and granule homeostasis. PMID:26342034

  6. Measuring Affect, Behavior and Cognition for Modeling Disaster Risk Attitudes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-15

    pilot study that was conducted online to determine the suitability of the disaster attitudinal dashboard in measuring ABC, as well as to validate the...determine the suitability of the disaster attitudinal dashboard in measuring ABC, as well as to validate the ABC model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...are university students and graduates. Survey Instrument. The survey instrument is a web-based attitudinal dashboard that was developed in

  7. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  8. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed.

  9. An Experimental Test of the Affect-Regulation Theory of Bulimic Symptoms and Substance Use: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Emily; Stice, Eric; Bearman, Sarah Kate; Rohde, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Conduct a randomized trial to test whether a cognitive behavioral intervention designed to decrease depressive symptoms produces subsequent decreases in bulimic and substance use symptoms. Methods: Female participants (N=145) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a 4-session depression intervention or a measurement-only condition and assessed through 6-month follow-up. Results: Relative to control participants, intervention participants showed decreases in depressive symptoms. Intervention participants also showed significantly greater reductions in bulimic symptoms, but not substance use, and change in depressive symptoms mediated this effect for bulimic symptoms. Discussion: Results provide experimental support for the theory that affect disturbances contribute to bulimic pathology, but do not support the affect regulation theory of substance use. PMID:16958129

  10. Modeling the effect of sleep regulation on a neural mass model.

    PubMed

    Costa, Michael Schellenberger; Born, Jan; Claussen, Jens Christian; Martinetz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, sleep is categorized by two main sleep stages, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep that are known to fulfill different functional roles, the most notable being the consolidation of memory. While REM sleep is characterized by brain activity similar to wakefulness, the EEG activity changes drastically with the emergence of K-complexes, sleep spindles and slow oscillations during NREM sleep. These changes are regulated by circadian and ultradian rhythms, which emerge from an intricate interplay between multiple neuronal populations in the brainstem, forebrain and hypothalamus and the resulting varying levels of neuromodulators. Recently, there has been progress in the understanding of those rhythms both from a physiological as well as theoretical perspective. However, how these neuromodulators affect the generation of the different EEG patterns and their temporal dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we build upon previous work on a neural mass model of the sleeping cortex and investigate the effect of those neuromodulators on the dynamics of the cortex and the corresponding transition between wakefulness and the different sleep stages. We show that our simplified model is sufficient to generate the essential features of human EEG over a full day. This approach builds a bridge between sleep regulatory networks and EEG generating neural mass models and provides a valuable tool for model validation.

  11. Modelling white-water rafting suitability in a hydropower regulated Alpine River.

    PubMed

    Carolli, Mauro; Zolezzi, Guido; Geneletti, Davide; Siviglia, Annunziato; Carolli, Fabiano; Cainelli, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    Cultural and recreational river ecosystem services and their relations with the flow regime are still poorly investigated. We develop a modelling-based approach to assess recreational flow requirements and the spatially distributed river suitability for white-water rafting, a typical service offered by mountain streams, with potential conflicts of interest with hydropower regulation. The approach is based on the principles of habitat suitability modelling using water depth as the main attribute, with preference curves defined through interviews with local rafting guides. The methodology allows to compute streamflow thresholds for conditions of suitability and optimality of a river reach in relation to rafting. Rafting suitability response to past, present and future flow management scenarios can be predicted on the basis of a hydrological model, which is incorporated in the methodology and is able to account for anthropic effects. Rafting suitability is expressed through a novel metric, the "Rafting hydro-suitability index" (RHSI) which quantifies the cumulative duration of suitable and optimal conditions for rafting. The approach is applied on the Noce River (NE Italy), an Alpine River regulated by hydropower production and affected by hydropeaking, which influences suitability at a sub-daily scale. A dedicated algorithm is developed within the hydrological model to resemble hydropeaking conditions with daily flow data. In the Noce River, peak flows associated with hydropeaking support rafting activities in late summer, highlighting the dual nature of hydropeaking in regulated rivers. Rafting suitability is slightly reduced under present, hydropower-regulated flow conditions compared to an idealized flow regime characterised by no water abstractions. Localized water abstractions for small, run-of-the-river hydropower plants are predicted to negatively affect rafting suitability. The proposed methodology can be extended to support decision making for flow

  12. From models to ornamentals: how is flower senescence regulated?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hilary J

    2013-08-01

    Floral senescence involves an ordered set of events coordinated at the plant, flower, organ and cellular level. This review assesses our current understanding of the input signals, signal transduction and cellular processes that regulate petal senescence and cell death. In many species a visible sign of petal senescence is wilting. This is accompanied by remobilization of nutrients from the flower to the developing ovary or to other parts of the plant. In other species, petals abscise while still turgid. Coordinating signals for floral senescence also vary across species. In some species ethylene acts as a central regulator, in others floral senescence is ethylene insensitive and other growth regulators are implicated. Due to the variability in this coordination and sequence of events across species, identifying suitable models to study petal senescence has been challenging, and the best candidates are reviewed. Transcriptomic studies provide an overview of the MAP kinases and transcription factors that are activated during petal senescence in several species including Arabidopsis. Our understanding of downstream regulators such as autophagy genes and proteases is also improving. This gives us insights into possible signalling cascades that regulate initiation of senescence and coordination of cell death processes. It also identifies the gaps in our knowledge such as the role of microRNAs. Finally future prospects for using all this information from model to non-model species to extend vase life in ornamental species is reviewed.

  13. Effective Strategies to Communicate Modeling with Project Regulators and Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, C.; Moser, K.; Bratton, W.

    2008-12-01

    Modeling is commonly used to support environmental project decision making. A notable example of the role of groundwater flow, fate, and transport modeling is to support the CERCLA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Modeling within an RI/FS is often used to evaluate new sampling locations, or to support evaluation of potential groundwater remedial technologies. Modeling used in these efforts ranges from simple to complex, and often must fit within a variety of state and federal regulations. Project stakeholder understanding and familiarity with model tools and application ranges broadly. Effective communication of the purpose, expected outcomes, strengths, limitations, and uncertainties of modeling efforts with regulators and project stakeholders is critical to successfully support project needs. Effective communication begins prior to the implementation of modeling efforts and should continue throughout the lifecycle of the modeling project. Communication efforts should include regular project workshops to keep stakeholders apprised of modeling progress. Regular communication throughout the modeling lifecycle provides a more technically and cost effective final product due to consideration of stakeholder concerns throughout the modeling effort through information exchange and negotiation, rather than at the end of the project, when it is often too late in the process or too expensive to change course and meet project milestones.

  14. Plasmon-pole models affect band gaps in GW calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Paul; Wu, Zhigang

    2013-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations have long been known to underestimate the band gaps in semiconductors. Significant improvements have been made by using GW calculations that uses the self energy, defined as the product of the Green function (G) and screened Coulomb exchange (W). However, many approximations are made in the GW method, specifically the plasmon-pole approximation. This approximation replaces the integration necessary to produce W with a simple approximation to the inverse dielectric function. Four different plasmon-pole approximations have been tested using the tight-binding program ABINIT: Godby-Needs, Hybertsen-Louie, von der Linden-Horsch, and Engel-Farid. For many materials, the differences in the GW band gaps for the different plasmon-pole models are negligible, but for systems with localized electrons, the difference can be larger than 1 eV. The plasmon-pole approximation is generally chosen to best agree with experimental data, but this is misleading in that this ignores all of the other approximations used in the GW method. Improvements in plasmon-pole models in GW can only come about by trying to reproduce the results of the numerical integration rather than trying to reproduce experimental results.

  15. Introducing an Intervention Model for Fostering Affective Involvement with Persons Who Are Congenitally Deafblind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marga A. W.; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The article presented here introduces the Intervention Model for Affective Involvement (IMAI), which was designed to train staff members (for example, teachers, caregivers, support workers) to foster affective involvement during interaction and communication with persons who have congenital deaf-blindness. The model is theoretically underpinned,…

  16. Thermodynamics-based models of transcriptional regulation with gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuqiang; Shen, Yanyan; Hu, Jinxing

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative models of gene regulatory activity have the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. However, the few models available today have been based on simplistic assumptions about the sequences being modeled or heuristic approximations of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this work, we have developed a thermodynamics-based model to predict gene expression driven by any DNA sequence. The proposed model relies on a continuous time, differential equation description of transcriptional dynamics. The sequence features of the promoter are exploited to derive the binding affinity which is derived based on statistical molecular thermodynamics. Experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively identify the activity levels of transcription factors and the regulatory parameters. Comparing with the previous models, the proposed model can reveal more biological sense.

  17. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of integrated community energy systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, Duane A.; Weaver, Clifford L.; Rielley, Kevin J.; Gallagher, Kevin C.; Harmon, Susan B.; Hejna, David T.; Kitch, Edmund W.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misund, Ole Arve; Heggland, Kristin; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Falck, Eva; Gjøsæter, Harald; Sundet, Jan; Watne, Jens; Lønne, Ole Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    The Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic is influenced by cold Arctic water masses from the north-east and the warm West Spitsbergen Current flowing northwards along its western coast. The eastern waters and the fjords are normally frozen during the winter months, while the coastal waters west of the archipelago remain open. Norwegian fishers have been harvesting from Svalbard waters for decades and detailed records of catches exists from 1980 onwards. We analyze the catch records from the Svalbard zone (approximately ICES area IIb). The large fishery for capelin in summer yielding annual catches up to 737 000 tons was closed by a Norwegian fishery regulation in the mid nineteen nineties. Demersal fisheries have been continuous, and the results clearly indicate a northward trend in landings of Northeast Arctic cod, haddock, ling and Atlantic halibut. Fisheries of Northern shrimp have been more variable and shown no clear geographic trends. A "gold rush" fishery for scallops north of Svalbard lasted for about 10 years (1986-1995) only, and ended due to low profitably. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of further northward extension of fisheries subjected to climate change.

  19. Gambling Disorder and Affect Regulation: The Role of Alexithymia and Attachment Style.

    PubMed

    Di Trani, Michela; Renzi, Alessia; Vari, Chiara; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Solano, Luigi

    2016-08-23

    The aim of the present study was to explore the dimensions of alexithymia and attachment styles in a group of disordered gamblers and to evaluate the relationship between alexithymia, attachment styles, and the severity of gambling disorder. Sixty disordered gamblers diagnosed according to the diagnostic and statistical manual-5 filled out the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised. Approximately 70 % of the sample displayed 'intermediate' and 'severe' gambling severity levels on the Kurzfragebogen zum Glücksspielverhalten, and 77 % showed 'high' or 'borderline' levels of alexithymia on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (mean = 56.40). Regarding attachment styles, 70 % of the sample displayed an 'insecure' attachment, with a particularly high prevalence of the 'fearful' style (26.66 %). A linear regression analysis revealed that only the anxiety dimension of the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire predicted the severity of gambling. Our data appear to confirm that gambling disorder is characterised by emotional and relational dysregulation, and that pathological gambling behaviours may serve as external regulators of internal undifferentiated emotional states.

  20. In vivo NCL targeting affects breast cancer aggressiveness through miRNA regulation

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Dario; De Luca, Luciana; Consiglio, Jessica; You, Jia; Rocci, Alberto; Talabere, Tiffany; Piovan, Claudia; Lagana, Alessandro; Cascione, Luciano; Guan, Jingwen; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Balatti, Veronica; Nuovo, Gerard; Coppola, Vincenzo; Hofmeister, Craig C.; Marcucci, Guido; Byrd, John C.; Volinia, Stefano; Shapiro, Charles L.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have described the altered expression and the causal role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancer. However, to date, efforts to modulate miRNA levels for therapeutic purposes have been challenging to implement. Here we find that nucleolin (NCL), a major nucleolar protein, posttranscriptionally regulates the expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-103, that are causally involved in breast cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. We also show that NCL is commonly overexpressed in human breast tumors and that its expression correlates with that of NCL-dependent miRNAs. Finally, inhibition of NCL using guanosine-rich aptamers reduces the levels of NCL-dependent miRNAs and their target genes, thus reducing breast cancer cell aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These findings illuminate a path to novel therapeutic approaches based on NCL-targeting aptamers for the modulation of miRNA expression in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23610125

  1. CcpA and LacD.1 Affect Temporal Regulation of Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Genes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kietzman, Colin C.; Caparon, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Production of H2O2 follows a growth phase-dependent pattern that mimics that of many virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes. To gain greater insight into mechanisms coupling virulence factor expression to growth phase, we investigated the molecular basis for H2O2 generation and its regulation. Deletion of the gene encoding lactate oxidase (lctO) or culture in the presence of glucose eliminated H2O2 production, implicating carbohydrate regulation of lctO as a key element of growth phase control. In examining known carbohydrate-responsive regulators, deletion of the gene encoding CcpA but not that encoding LacD.1 resulted in both derepression and an uncoupling of lctO transcription from its growth phase pattern. Expanding this analysis to additional virulence factors demonstrated both negative (cfa, encoding CAMP factor) and positive (speB, encoding a cysteine protease) regulation by CcpA and that CcpA mutants were highly cytotoxic for cultured macrophages. This latter property resulted from enhanced transcription of the streptolysin S biogenesis operon. Examination of CcpA-promoter interactions using a DNA pull-down assay mimicking physiological conditions showed direct binding to the promoters of lctO and speB but not those of sagA. CcpA but not LacD.1 mutants were attenuated in a murine model of soft-tissue infection, and analysis of gene expression in infected tissue indicated that CcpA mutants had altered expression of lctO, cfa, and speB but not the indirectly regulated sagA gene. Taken together, these data show that CcpA regulates virulence genes via at least three distinct mechanisms and that disruption of growth phase regulation alters transcriptional patterns in infected tissues. PMID:19841076

  2. A Model of the Economic Theory of Regulation for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brooks

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model of the economic theory of regulation and recommends its use in undergraduate economics classes. Describes the use of computer-assisted instruction to teach the theory. Maintains that the approach enables students to gain access to graphs and tables that they produce themselves. (CFR)

  3. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?

    PubMed

    Grovenburg, Troy W; Monteith, Kevin L; Jacques, Christopher N; Klaver, Robert W; DePerno, Christopher S; Brinkman, Todd J; Monteith, Kyle B; Gilbert, Sophie L; Smith, Joshua B; Bleich, Vernon C; Swanson, Christopher C; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001-2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  4. Re-Evaluating Neonatal-Age Models for Ungulates: Does Model Choice Affect Survival Estimates?

    PubMed Central

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  5. Re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: Does model choice affect survival estimates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Monteith, Kyle B.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Smith, Joshua B.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    New-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. We used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. During 2001–2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulates: 76 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Minnesota and South Dakota, 61 mule deer (O. hemionus) in California, and 37 pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in South Dakota. Estimated age of known-age newborns differed among hoof-growth models and varied by >15 days for white-tailed deer, >20 days for mule deer, and >10 days for pronghorn. Accuracy (i.e., the proportion of neonates assigned to the correct age) in aging newborns using published equations ranged from 0.0% to 39.4% in white-tailed deer, 0.0% to 3.3% in mule deer, and was 0.0% for pronghorns. Results of survival modeling indicated that variability in estimates of age-at-capture affected short-term estimates of survival (i.e., 30 days) for white-tailed deer and mule deer, and survival estimates over a longer time frame (i.e., 120 days) for mule deer. Conversely, survival estimates for pronghorn were not affected by estimates of age. Our analyses indicate that modeling survival in daily intervals is too fine a temporal scale when age-at-capture is unknown given the potential inaccuracies among equations used to estimate age of neonates. Instead, weekly survival intervals are more appropriate because most models accurately predicted ages within 1 week of the known age. Variation among results of neonatal-age models on short- and long-term estimates of survival for known-age young emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate hoof-growth equation and appropriately defining intervals (i.e., weekly

  6. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD )

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  7. Posttranslational arginylation enzyme Ate1 affects DNA mutagenesis by regulating stress response

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akhilesh; Birnbaum, Michael D; Patel, Devang M; Morgan, William M; Singh, Jayanti; Barrientos, Antoni; Zhang, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Arginyltransferase 1 (Ate1) mediates protein arginylation, a poorly understood protein posttranslational modification (PTM) in eukaryotic cells. Previous evidence suggest a potential involvement of arginylation in stress response and this PTM was traditionally considered anti-apoptotic based on the studies of individual substrates. However, here we found that arginylation promotes cell death and/or growth arrest, depending on the nature and intensity of the stressing factor. Specifically, in yeast, mouse and human cells, deletion or downregulation of the ATE1 gene disrupts typical stress responses by bypassing growth arrest and suppressing cell death events in the presence of disease-related stressing factors, including oxidative, heat, and osmotic stresses, as well as the exposure to heavy metals or radiation. Conversely, in wild-type cells responding to stress, there is an increase of cellular Ate1 protein level and arginylation activity. Furthermore, the increase of Ate1 protein directly promotes cell death in a manner dependent on its arginylation activity. Finally, we found Ate1 to be required to suppress mutation frequency in yeast and mammalian cells during DNA-damaging conditions such as ultraviolet irradiation. Our study clarifies the role of Ate1/arginylation in stress response and provides a new mechanism to explain the link between Ate1 and a variety of diseases including cancer. This is also the first example that the modulation of the global level of a PTM is capable of affecting DNA mutagenesis. PMID:27685622

  8. Neonatal immune challenge affects the regulation of estrus cyclicity and feeding behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Murakami, Masahiro; Kinouchi, Riyo; Shimizu, Fumi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    A single immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the neonatal period has a long-lasting influence on immune response. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined whether neonatal LPS challenge influences the life-long neuroendocrine sensitivity of reproductive function and feeding behavior to LPS, and whether stress-related neuropeptides and their receptors are involved in neonatal LPS-induced physiological change. On day 10 after birth, all pups were injected with LPS (100 microg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Then, in Experiment 1, LPS (100 microg/kg, i.p.) or saline was injected at diestrous in adulthood, and the length of the estrous cycle, 24h food intake and body weight change were recorded. In Experiment 2, the mRNA expression levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin (UCN), urocortin 2 (UCN2), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH receptor type 2 (CRH-R2) in the hypothalamus were measured using real-time PCR. LPS injection in adulthood prolonged the estrous cycle in neonatal LPS-injected rats. LPS injection in adulthood decreased food intake and body weight in both neonatal LPS- and saline-injected rats, more so in the latter. Basal expressions of UCN2 and CRH-R2 mRNA were higher in neonatal LPS-injected rats than in saline-injected rats. These findings indicate that neonatal immune challenge influences the anti-stress regulation of the estrous cycle and feeding behavior in adulthood. Increased expression of UCN2 and CRH-R2 might enhance the sensitivity of the estrous cycle in suppressing the effects of LPS.

  9. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. These data suggested that variation in the

  10. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  11. Neuropeptide Regulation of Social Attachment: The Prairie Vole Model

    PubMed Central

    Tabbaa, Manal; Paedae, Brennan; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2016-01-01

    Social attachments are ubiquitous among humans and integral to human health. Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the neural underpinnings regulating social attachments, we still know relatively little about the neuronal and neurochemical regulation of social attachments. As a laboratory animal research model, the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) displays behaviors paralleling human social attachments and thus has provided unique insights into the neural regulation of social behaviors. Research in prairie voles has particularly highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic regulation of social behaviors, especially of the roles of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP). This article aims to review these findings. We begin by discussing the role of the OT and AVP systems in regulating social behaviors relevant to social attachments, and thereafter restrict our discussion to studies in prairie voles. Specifically, we discuss the role of OT and AVP in adult mate attachments, biparental care, social isolation, and social buffering as informed by studies utilizing the prairie vole model. Not only do these studies offer insight into social attachments in humans, but they also point to dysregulated mechanisms in several mental disorders. We conclude by discussing these implications for human health. PMID:28135000

  12. Autism Associated Haplotype Affects the Regulation of the Homeobox Gene, ENGRAILED 2

    PubMed Central

    Benayed, Rym; Choi, Jiyeon; Matteson, Paul G; Gharani, Neda; Kamdar, Silky; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Millonig, James H

    2009-01-01

    Background Association analysis identified the homeobox transcription factor, ENGRAILED 2 (EN2), as a possible Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) susceptibility gene (ASD [MIM 608636]; EN2 [MIM 131310]). The common alleles (underlined) of two intronic SNPs, rs1861972 (A/G) and rs1861973 (C/T), are over-transmitted to affected individuals both singly and as a haplotype in three separate datasets (518 families total, haplotype P=0.00000035). Methods: Further support that EN2 is a possible ASD susceptibility gene requires the identification of a risk allele, a DNA variant that is consistently associated with ASD but is also functional. To identify possible risk alleles, additional association analysis and LD mapping were performed. Candidate polymorphisms were then tested for functional differences by luciferase (luc) reporter transfections and Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSAs). Results: Association analysis of additional EN2 polymorphisms and LD mapping with Hapmap SNPs identified the rs1861972-rs1861973 haplotype as the most appropriate candidate to test for functional differences. Luc reporters for the two common rs1861972-rs1861973 haplotypes (A-C and G-T) were then transfected into human and rat cell lines as well as primary mouse neuronal cultures. In all cases the A-C haplotype resulted in a significant increase in luc levels (P<.005). EMSAs were then performed and nuclear factors bound specifically to the A and C alleles of both SNPs. Conclusions: These data indicate the AC haplotype is functional and together with the association and LD mapping results support EN2 as a likely ASD susceptibility gene and the A-C haplotype as a possible risk allele. PMID:19615670

  13. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  14. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  15. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    DOE PAGES

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; ...

    2015-09-03

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system]more » and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. In conclusion, these data suggested that

  16. Regulation of electron transfer processes affects phototrophic mat structure and activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Phuc T.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Atci, Erhan; Reardon, Patrick N.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, James K.; Call, Douglas R.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-09-03

    Phototrophic microbial mats are among the most diverse ecosystems in nature. These systems undergo daily cycles in redox potential caused by variations in light energy input and metabolic interactions among the microbial species. In this work, solid electrodes with controlled potentials were placed under mats to study the electron transfer processes between the electrode and the microbial mat. The phototrophic microbial mat was harvested from Hot Lake, a hypersaline, epsomitic lake located near Oroville (Washington, USA). We operated two reactors: graphite electrodes were polarized at potentials of -700 mVAg/AgCl [cathodic (CAT) mat system] and +300 mVAg/AgCl [anodic (AN) mat system] and the electron transfer rates between the electrode and mat were monitored. We observed a diel cycle of electron transfer rates for both AN and CAT mat systems. Interestingly, the CAT mats generated the highest reducing current at the same time points that the AN mats showed the highest oxidizing current. To characterize the physicochemical factors influencing electron transfer processes, we measured depth profiles of dissolved oxygen (DO) and sulfide in the mats using microelectrodes. We further demonstrated that the mat-to-electrode and electrode-to-mat electron transfer rates were light- and temperature-dependent. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, we determined that the electrode potential regulated the diffusivity and porosity of the microbial mats. Both porosity and diffusivity were higher in the CAT mats than in the AN mats. We also used NMR spectroscopy for high-resolution quantitative metabolite analysis and found that the CAT mats had significantly higher concentrations of osmoprotectants such as betaine and trehalose. Subsequently, we performed amplicon sequencing across the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of incubated mats to understand the impact of electrode potential on microbial community structure. In conclusion, these data suggested

  17. Acute Lipotoxicity Regulates Severity of Biliary Acute Pancreatitis without Affecting Its Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Cline, Rachel; Trivedi, Ram N.; DeLany, James P.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I.; Lee, Kenneth; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Navina, Sarah; Murad, Faris; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Obese patients have worse outcomes during acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous animal models of AP have found worse outcomes in obese rodents who may have a baseline proinflammatory state. Our aim was to study the role of acute lipolytic generation of fatty acids on local severity and systemic complications of AP. Human postpancreatitis necrotic collections were analyzed for unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids. A model of biliary AP was designed to replicate the human variables by intraductal injection of the triglyceride glyceryl trilinoleate alone or with the chemically distinct lipase inhibitors orlistat or cetilistat. Parameters of AP etiology and outcomes of local and systemic severity were measured. Patients with postpancreatitis necrotic collections were obese, and 13 of 15 had biliary AP. Postpancreatitis necrotic collections were enriched in UFAs. Intraductal glyceryl trilinoleate with or without the lipase inhibitors resulted in oil red O–positive areas, resembling intrapancreatic fat. Both lipase inhibitors reduced the glyceryl trilinoleate–induced increase in serum lipase, UFAs, pancreatic necrosis, serum inflammatory markers, systemic injury, and mortality but not serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, or amylase. We conclude that UFAs are enriched in human necrotic collections and acute UFA generation via lipolysis worsens pancreatic necrosis, systemic inflammation, and injury associated with severe AP. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces UFA generation and improves these outcomes of AP without interfering with its induction. PMID:24854864

  18. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  19. Factors regulating lamb longissimus tenderness are affected by age at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Veiseth, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-12-01

    explained by changes in sarcomere length. However, at 10 days postmortem, where WBSF was shown to decrease from 2 to 8 months, the improvement in tenderness could be explained by the amount of postmortem proteolysis. The data presented in this paper show evidence that sarcomere length is the main determinant of background toughness in ovine longissimus, and that postmortem proteolysis, resulting from μ-calpain activity regulated by calpastatin, is the main determinant of ovine longissimus tenderization during aging. Thus, lamb longissimus tenderness after refrigerated storage is determined by postmortem proteolysis and its interaction with sarcomere length.

  20. Bang-bang Model for Regulation of Local Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Aleksander S.; Pittman, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    The classical model of metabolic regulation of blood flow in muscle tissue implies the maintenance of basal tone in arterioles of resting muscle and their dilation in response to exercise and/or tissue hypoxia via the evoked production of vasodilator metabolites by myocytes. A century-long effort to identify specific metabolites responsible for explaining active and reactive hyperemia has not been successful. Furthermore, the metabolic theory is not compatible with new knowledge on the role of physiological radicals (e.g., nitric oxide, NO, and superoxide anion, O2−) in the regulation of microvascular tone. We propose a model of regulation in which muscle contraction and active hyperemia are considered the physiologically normal state. We employ the “bang-bang” or “on/off” regulatory model which makes use of a threshold and hysteresis; a float valve to control the water level in a tank is a common example of this type of regulation. Active bang-bang regulation comes into effect when the supply of oxygen and glucose exceeds the demand, leading to activation of membrane NADPH oxidase, release of O2− into the interstitial space and subsequent neutralization of the interstitial NO. Switching arterioles on/off when local blood flow crosses the threshold is realized by a local cell circuit with the properties of a bang-bang controller, determined by its threshold, hysteresis and dead-band. This model provides a clear and unambiguous interpretation of the mechanism to balance tissue demand with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. PMID:23441827

  1. Affective dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome: Therapeutic effects of environmental stimulation and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mari A; Gray, Laura J; Pelka, Gregory J; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Christodoulou, John; Tam, Patrick P L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and consequent dysregulation of brain maturation. Patients suffer from a range of debilitating physical symptoms, however, behavioral and emotional symptoms also severely affect their quality of life. Here, we present previously unreported and clinically relevant affective dysfunction in the female heterozygous Mecp2(tm1Tam) mouse model of RTT (129sv and C57BL6 mixed background). The affective dysfunction and aberrant anxiety-related behavior of the Mecp2(+/-) mice were found to be reversible with environmental enrichment (EE) from 4 weeks of age. The effect of exercise alone (via wheel running) was also explored, providing the first evidence that increased voluntary physical activity in an animal model of RTT is beneficial for some phenotypes. Mecp2(+/-) mutants displayed elevated corticosterone despite decreased Crh expression, demonstrating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. EE of Mecp2(+/-) mice normalized basal serum corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The enrichment-induced rescue appears independent of the transcriptional regulation of the MeCP2 targets Bdnf exon 4 and Crh. These findings provide new insight into the neurodevelopmental role of MeCP2 and pathogenesis of RTT, in particular the affective dysfunction. The positive outcomes of environmental stimulation and physical exercise have implications for the development of therapies targeting the affective symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dimensions, of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  2. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna.

  3. One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Kinreich, Sivan; Jackont, Gilan; Cohen, Avihay; Podlipsky-Klovatch, Ilana; Hendler, Talma; Intrator, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that learned self-regulation of localized brain activity in deep limbic areas such as the amygdala, may alleviate symptoms of affective disturbances. Thus far self-regulation of amygdala activity could be obtained only via fMRI guided neurofeedback, an expensive and immobile procedure. EEG on the other hand is relatively inexpensive and can be easily implemented in any location. However the clinical utility of EEG neurofeedback for affective disturbances remains limited due to low spatial resolution, which hampers the targeting of deep limbic areas such as the amygdala. We introduce an EEG prediction model of amygdala activity from a single electrode. The gold standard used for training is the fMRI-BOLD signal in the amygdala during simultaneous EEG/fMRI recording. The suggested model is based on a time/frequency representation of the EEG data with varying time-delay. Previous work has shown a strong inhomogeneity among subjects as is reflected by the models created to predict the amygdala BOLD response from EEG data. In that work, different models were constructed for different subjects. In this work, we carefully analyzed the inhomogeneity among subjects and were able to construct a single model for the majority of the subjects. We introduce a method for inhomogeneity assessment. This enables us to demonstrate a choice of subjects for which a single model could be derived. We further demonstrate the ability to modulate brain-activity in a neurofeedback setting using feedback generated by the model. We tested the effect of the neurofeedback training by showing that new subjects can learn to down-regulate the signal amplitude compared to a sham group, which received a feedback obtained by a different participant. This EEG based model can overcome substantial limitations of fMRI-NF. It can enable investigation of NF training using multiple sessions and large samples in various locations. PMID:27163677

  4. Sleep and affect in older adults: using multilevel modeling to examine daily associations

    PubMed Central

    McCRAE, CHRISTINA S.; McNAMARA, JOSEPH P. H.; ROWE, MEREDETH A.; DZIERZEWSKI, JOSEPH M.; DIRK, JUDITH; MARSISKE, MICHAEL; CRAGGS, JASON G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The main objective of the present study was to examine daily associations (intraindividual variability or IIV) between sleep and affect in older adults. Greater understanding of these associations is important, because both sleep and affect represent modifiable behaviors that can have a major influence on older adults’ health and well-being. We collected sleep diaries, actigraphy, and affect data concurrently for 14 days in 103 community-dwelling older adults. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the sleep–affect relationship at both the group (between-persons) and individual (within-person or IIV) levels. We hypothesized that nights characterized by better sleep would be associated with days characterized by higher positive affect and lower negative affect, and that the inverse would be true for poor sleep. Daily associations were found between affect and subjective sleep, only and were in the hypothesized direction. Specifically, nights with greater reported awake time or lower sleep quality ratings were associated with days characterized by less positive affect and more negative affect. Gender was not a significant main effect in the present study, despite previous research suggesting gender differences in the sleep–affect relationship. The fact that self-ratings of sleep emerged as the best predictors of affect may suggest that perceived sleep is a particularly important predictor. Finally, our results suggest exploration of affect as a potential intervention target in late-life insomnia is warranted. PMID:18275554

  5. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  6. Model rocket engine burn injuries: the need for stricter regulation.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M T; Bellian, K T; Edlich, R F; Himel, H N

    1994-01-01

    During the 18-year period from 1975 to 1992, the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database received reports of 18 burn injuries caused by model rocketry sets and their engines. Children in the age range of 11 to 15 years, who frequently use the products inappropriately, are the pediatric population most at risk. Unfortunately, current regulations do not impose age restrictions on the purchase or use of these products; consequently, the industry sets its own age limits. The current regulations appear to be inadequate and need to be altered to cover the population at risk. Specific recommendations include imposing an adequate age limit and improving the labelling of these products. Two case reports are presented that exemplify the typical burn injuries sustained from model rocket engine accidents.

  7. The regulation of cognitive enhancement devices: extending the medical model

    PubMed Central

    Maslen, Hannah; Douglas, Thomas; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a model for regulating cognitive enhancement devices (CEDs). Recently, it has become very easy for individuals to purchase devices which directly modulate brain function. For example, transcranial direct current stimulators are increasingly being produced and marketed online as devices for cognitive enhancement. Despite posing risks in a similar way to medical devices, devices that do not make any therapeutic claims do not have to meet anything more than basic product safety standards. We present the case for extending existing medical device legislation to cover CEDs. Medical devices and CEDs operate by the same or similar mechanisms and pose the same or similar risks. This fact coupled with the arbitrariness of the line between treatment and enhancement count in favour of regulating these devices in the same way. In arguing for this regulatory model, the paper highlights potential challenges to its implementation, and suggests solutions. PMID:25243073

  8. Agreeableness and the Self-Regulation of Negative Affect: Findings Involving the Neuroticism/Somatic Distress Relationship.

    PubMed

    Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2007-12-01

    In the temperament literature, agreeableness has been theoretically linked to effortful control. Further, research in this area has suggested that effortful control may play a broad role in moderating temperament-based tendencies toward negative affect. The present three studies, involving a total of 300 undergraduate participants, sought to extend this perspective to the adult literature by examining potential interactions between agreeableness and neuroticism in predicting reported somatic symptoms. Although such symptoms have been linked to neuroticism, they are not characteristic of the interpersonal concerns linked to agreeableness. Nevertheless, all studies found that agreeableness and neuroticism interacted to predict somatic symptoms such that high levels of agreeableness decoupled the relationship between neuroticism and somatic distress. These findings indicate a broad role for agreeableness in the self-regulation of neuroticism-linked distress.

  9. Predicting wetland plant community responses to proposed water-level-regulation plans for Lake Ontario: GIS-based modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.; Xie, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated, GIS-based, wetland predictive models were constructed to assist in predicting the responses of wetland plant communities to proposed new water-level regulation plans for Lake Ontario. The modeling exercise consisted of four major components: 1) building individual site wetland geometric models; 2) constructing generalized wetland geometric models representing specific types of wetlands (rectangle model for drowned river mouth wetlands, half ring model for open embayment wetlands, half ellipse model for protected embayment wetlands, and ellipse model for barrier beach wetlands); 3) assigning wetland plant profiles to the generalized wetland geometric models that identify associations between past flooding / dewatering events and the regulated water-level changes of a proposed water-level-regulation plan; and 4) predicting relevant proportions of wetland plant communities and the time durations during which they would be affected under proposed regulation plans. Based on this conceptual foundation, the predictive models were constructed using bathymetric and topographic wetland models and technical procedures operating on the platform of ArcGIS. An example of the model processes and outputs for the drowned river mouth wetland model using a test regulation plan illustrates the four components and, when compared against other test regulation plans, provided results that met ecological expectations. The model results were also compared to independent data collected by photointerpretation. Although data collections were not directly comparable, the predicted extent of meadow marsh in years in which photographs were taken was significantly correlated with extent of mapped meadow marsh in all but barrier beach wetlands. The predictive model for wetland plant communities provided valuable input into International Joint Commission deliberations on new regulation plans and was also incorporated into faunal predictive models used for that purpose.

  10. A network model for activity-dependent sleep regulation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sandip; Krueger, James M; Rector, David M; Wan, Yan

    2008-08-07

    We develop and characterize a dynamical network model for activity-dependent sleep regulation. Specifically, in accordance with the activity-dependent theory for sleep, we view organism sleep as emerging from the local sleep states of functional units known as cortical columns; these local sleep states evolve through integration of local activity inputs, loose couplings with neighboring cortical columns, and global regulation (e.g. by the circadian clock). We model these cortical columns as coupled or networked activity-integrators that transition between sleep and waking states based on thresholds on the total activity. The model dynamics for three canonical experiments (which we have studied both through simulation and system-theoretic analysis) match with experimentally observed characteristics of the cortical-column network. Most notably, assuming connectedness of the network graph, our model predicts the recovery of the columns to a synchronized state upon temporary overstimulation of a single column and/or randomization of the initial sleep and activity-integration states. In analogy with other models for networked oscillators, our model also predicts the possibility for such phenomena as mode-locking.

  11. Power training and postmenopausal hormone therapy affect transcriptional control of specific co-regulated gene clusters in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Vidal; Törmäkangas, Timo; Ronkainen, Paula H. A.; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Takala, Timo; Koskinen, Satu; Cheng, Sulin; Puolakka, Jukka; Kujala, Urho M.; Suominen, Harri; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2010-01-01

    At the moment, there is no clear molecular explanation for the steeper decline in muscle performance after menopause or the mechanisms of counteractive treatments. The goal of this genome-wide study was to identify the genes and gene clusters through which power training (PT) comprising jumping activities or estrogen containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may affect skeletal muscle properties after menopause. We used musculus vastus lateralis samples from early stage postmenopausal (50–57 years old) women participating in a yearlong randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with PT and HRT interventions. Using microarray platform with over 24,000 probes, we identified 665 differentially expressed genes. The hierarchical clustering method was used to assort the genes. Additionally, enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways was carried out to clarify whether assorted gene clusters are enriched with particular functional categories. The analysis revealed transcriptional regulation of 49 GO/KEGG categories. PT upregulated transcription in “response to contraction”—category revealing novel candidate genes for contraction-related regulation of muscle function while HRT upregulated gene expression related to functionality of mitochondria. Moreover, several functional categories tightly related to muscle energy metabolism, development, and function were affected regardless of the treatment. Our results emphasize that during the early stages of the postmenopause, muscle properties are under transcriptional modulation, which both PT and HRT partially counteract leading to preservation of muscle power and potentially reducing the risk for aging-related muscle weakness. More specifically, PT and HRT may function through improving energy metabolism, response to contraction as well as by preserving functionality of the mitochondria. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this

  12. Seasonal Dynamics of Trace Elements in Tidal Salt Marsh Soils as Affected by the Flow-Sediment Regulation Regime

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Reddy, K. Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008) after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU) values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering. PMID:25216278

  13. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae inositol-1-phosphate synthase (INO1) gene is regulated by factors that affect phospholipid synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, J P; Henry, S A

    1986-01-01

    The INO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the regulated enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of inositol-containing phospholipids. The expression of this gene was analyzed under conditions known to regulate phospholipid synthesis. RNA blot hybridization with a genomic clone for INO1 detected two RNA species of 1.8 and 0.6 kb. The abundance of the 1.8-kb RNA was greatly decreased when the cells were grown in the presence of the phospholipid precursor inositol, as was the enzyme activity of the synthase. Complementation analysis showed that this transcript encoded the INO1 gene product. The level of INO1 RNA was repressed 12-fold when the cells were grown in medium containing inositol, and it was repressed 33-fold when the cells were grown in the presence of inositol and choline together. The INO1 transcript was present at a very low level in cells containing mutations (ino2 and ino4) in regulatory genes unlinked to INO1 that result in inositol auxotrophy. The transcript was constitutively overproduced in cells containing a mutation (opi1) that causes constitutive expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase and results in excretion of inositol. The expression of INO1 RNA was also examined in cells containing a mutation (cho2) affecting the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. In contrast to what was observed in wild-type cells, growth of cho2 cells in medium containing inositol did not result in a significant decrease in INO1 RNA abundance. Inositol and choline together were required for repression of the INO1 transcript in these cells, providing evidence for a regulatory link between the synthesis of inositol- and choline-containing lipids. The level of the 0.6-kb RNA was affected, although to a lesser degree, by many of the same factors that influence INO1 expression. Images PMID:3025587

  14. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in tidal salt marsh soils as affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime.

    PubMed

    Bai, Junhong; Xiao, Rong; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing; Reddy, K Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa) in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008) after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU) values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering.

  15. Once More with Feeling: Affect and Playing with the TGfU Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Clive C.

    2005-01-01

    Certainly, the process of decision-making and problem-solving in a shifting playing environment lies at the core of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model. What is not clear is how, at the time of decision-making, players' feelings or affective factors and their subsequent influence on thinking, influence these processes. Affect has a…

  16. Mentoring Resulting in a New Model: Affect-Centered Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, David W.; Tejeda, Armando R.

    2014-01-01

    The authors were professor and student, in a doctoral leadership course, during fall semester of 2013-2014. Across the term the professor mentored the mentee, guiding him to the creation of the next, needed model for leadership. The new model, known as The Affect-Centered Transformational Leadership Model, came about as the result. Becoming an…

  17. Generative modelling of regulated dynamical behavior in cultured neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volman, Vladislav; Baruchi, Itay; Persi, Erez; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2004-04-01

    The spontaneous activity of cultured in vitro neuronal networks exhibits rich dynamical behavior. Despite the artificial manner of their construction, the networks’ activity includes features which seemingly reflect the action of underlying regulating mechanism rather than arbitrary causes and effects. Here, we study the cultured networks dynamical behavior utilizing a generative modelling approach. The idea is to include the minimal required generic mechanisms to capture the non-autonomous features of the behavior, which can be reproduced by computer modelling, and then, to identify the additional features of biotic regulation in the observed behavior which are beyond the scope of the model. Our model neurons are composed of soma described by the two Morris-Lecar dynamical variables (voltage and fraction of open potassium channels), with dynamical synapses described by the Tsodyks-Markram three variables dynamics. The model neuron satisfies our self-consistency test: when fed with data recorded from a real cultured networks, it exhibits dynamical behavior very close to that of the networks’ “representative” neuron. Specifically, it shows similar statistical scaling properties (approximated by similar symmetric Lévy distribution with finite mean). A network of such M-L elements spontaneously generates (when weak “structured noise” is added) synchronized bursting events (SBEs) similar to the observed ones. Both the neuronal statistical scaling properties within the bursts and the properties of the SBEs time series show generative (a new discussed concept) agreement with the recorded data. Yet, the model network exhibits different structure of temporal variations and does not recover the observed hierarchical temporal ordering, unless fed with recorded special neurons (with much higher rates of activity), thus indicating the existence of self-regulation mechanisms. It also implies that the spontaneous activity is not simply noise-induced. Instead, the

  18. OsKinesin-13A Is an Active Microtubule Depolymerase Involved in Glume Length Regulation via Affecting Cell Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhu Yun; Liu, Ling Tong; Li, Tang; Yan, Song; Kuang, Bai Jian; Huang, Shan Jin; Yan, Chang Jie; Wang, Tai

    2015-01-01

    Grain size is an important trait influencing both the yield and quality of rice and its major determinant is glume size. However, how glume size is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we report the characterization of OsKinesin-13A, which regulates cell elongation and glume length in rice. The mutant of OsKinesin-13A, sar1, displayed length reduction in grains and other organs including internodes, leaves and roots. The grain phenotype in sar1 was directly caused by reduction in glume length, which in turn restricted caryopsis size. Histological results revealed that length decrease in sar1 organs resulted from abnormalities in cell elongation. The orientation of cellulose microfibrils was defective in sar1. Consistently, sar1 showed reduced transverse orientation of cortical microtubules. Further observations demonstrated that microtubule turnover was decreased in sar1. OsKinesin-13A was shown to be an active microtubule depolymerase and mainly distributed on vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus and destined for the cell surface. Thus, our results suggest that OsKinesin-13A utilizes its microtubule depolymerization activity to promote microtubule turnover, which may not only influence transverse orientation of cortical microtubules but also facilitate vesicle transport from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface, and thus affects cellulose microfibril orientation and cell elongation. PMID:25807460

  19. A new locus (leuK) affecting the regulation of branched-chain amino acid, histidine, and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; West, R; Hilderman, R H; Bayliss, F T; Klines, E L

    1978-08-01

    A locus (leuK) affecting regulation of the leucine operon was selected by isolating a spontaneous Ara+ derivative of an Escherichia coli B/r strain carrying an ara-leu fusion in which the arabinose operon is under leucine control. Genetic analyses by P1 transduction demonstrated that the lesion is located to the right of the galactose operon. Regulation of the biosynthetic enzymes for leucine, isoleucine-valine, histidine, and tryptophan was altered in a strain carrying leuK16. High-level gene expression in the heterozygous merodiploid strain F' leuK+/leuK16) demonstrated the dominance of the mutant allele to the wild-type allele. No apparent effect was observed in the mutant on N-acetylornithinase, a biosynthetic enzyme in the arginine pathway, nor on any of the 18 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases examined. However, compared with that of the parent strain, the extent of the charging of leucyl-, isoleucyl-, valyl-, histidyl-, and arginyl-tRNA was decreased in the mutant.

  20. Mothers' attachment styles and their children's self-reported security, as related to maternal socialization of children's positive affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Gentzler, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Black, Katelyn R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how mothers' attachment was related to their responses to their own and their children's positive events and positive affect (PA). Ninety-seven mothers reported on their attachment and their responses to their own and their 7-12-year-old children's positive events and emotions. Children reported on their mothers' responses to the children's positive events and their attachment security with their mothers. The results indicated that more avoidant mothers reported less intense PA in response to their own and their children's positive events. More avoidant mothers also were less likely to encourage their children to savor positive events (through expressing PA, reflecting on PA or themselves, giving rewards, and affectionate responses). Mothers higher on anxiety reported greater likelihood of dampening (e.g., minimizing the event's importance) their own positive events and reported being more likely to feel discomfort and to reprimand their children for expressing PA. Children's security was predicted by mothers' lower likelihood of encouraging children's dampening and of reprimanding children for PA displays. This study advances the literature on how mothers' attachment is related to the ways in which they regulate their own and their children's PA, which may have implications for children's attachment and developing PA regulation.

  1. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Martina; Paar, Margret; Eder, Christina; Brandis, Janina; Moser, Elena; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Grond, Susanne; Radner, Franz P W; Cerk, Ines; Cornaciu, Irina; Oberer, Monika; Kersten, Sander; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert; Lass, Achim

    2012-11-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1 switch gene-2 (G0S2). CGI-58 activates and G0S2 inhibits ATGL activity. In contrast to mice, the functional role of G0S2 in human adipocyte lipolysis is poorly characterized. Here we show that overexpression or silencing of G0S2 in human SGBS adipocytes decreases and increases lipolysis, respectively. Human G0S2 is upregulated during adipocyte differentiation and inhibits ATGL activity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, C-terminally truncated ATGL mutants, which fail to localize to lipid droplets, translocate to the lipid droplet upon coexpression with G0S2, suggesting that G0S2 anchors ATGL to lipid droplets independent of ATGL's C-terminal lipid binding domain. Taken together, our results indicate that G0S2 also regulates human lipolysis by affecting enzyme activity and intracellular localization of ATGL. Increased lipolysis is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and G0S2 expression has been shown to be reduced in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Our data indicate that downregulation of G0S2 in adipose tissue could represent one of the underlying causes leading to increased lipolysis in the insulin-resistant state.

  2. Complotype affects the extent of down-regulation by Factor I of the C3b feedback cycle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lay, E; Nutland, S; Smith, J E; Hiles, I; Smith, R A G; Seilly, D J; Buchberger, A; Schwaeble, W; Lachmann, P J

    2015-01-01

    Sera from a large panel of normal subjects were typed for three common polymorphisms, one in C3 (R102G) and two in Factor H (V62I and Y402H), that influence predisposition to age-related macular degeneration and to some forms of kidney disease. Three groups of sera were tested; those that were homozygous for the three risk alleles; those that were heterozygous for all three; and those homozygous for the low-risk alleles. These groups vary in their response to the addition of exogenous Factor I when the alternative complement pathway is activated by zymosan. Both the reduction in the maximum amount of iC3b formed and the rate at which the iC3b is converted to C3dg are affected. For both reactions the at-risk complotype requires higher doses of Factor I to produce similar down-regulation. Because iC3b reacting with the complement receptor CR3 is a major mechanism by which complement activation gives rise to inflammation, the breakdown of iC3b to C3dg can be seen to have major significance for reducing complement-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate for the first time that sera from subjects with different complement alleles behave as predicted in an in-vitro assay of the down-regulation of the alternative complement pathway by increasing the concentration of Factor I. These results support the hypothesis that exogenous Factor I may be a valuable therapeutic aid for down-regulating hyperactivity of the C3b feedback cycle, thereby providing a treatment for age-related macular degeneration and other inflammatory diseases of later life. PMID:25124117

  3. Dyadic co-regulation, affective intensity and infant's development at 12 months: A comparison among extremely preterm and full-term dyads.

    PubMed

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Zavagli, Veronica; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-08-01

    Extremely low gestational age children (ELGA, born below 28 weeks of GA) represent the most at-risk preterm group in terms of survival, developmental sequelae and rates of impairment and cognitive delays. However, the impact of an extremely preterm birth on mother-infant co-regulation and affective intensity which may affect early infant's development has not been investigated. Based on a relational dynamic system approach, our study aimed to investigate the quality of co-regulation and affective intensity during spontaneous play interaction in 20 mother-infant ELGA dyads compared to 20 full-term (FT) dyads at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between the quality of dyadic co-regulation and the infant's level of cognitive, motor and language development were also investigated. The quality of dyadic co-regulation was assessed using the Revised Relational Coding System (R-RCS) by Fogel et al. (2003), the mothers' and infants' affective intensity was coded using a coding system by Lunkenheimer, Olson, Hollenstein, Sameroff, and Winter (2011). Infants' development was assessed using the Bayley Scales (BSID-III, 2006). With respect to FT dyads, ELGA dyads were characterised by less frequent symmetric and more frequent unilateral co-regulation patterns and by less positive and more neutral affective intensity of both infants and mothers. Cognitive, motor and language scores were lower in ELGA infants than in FT infants. Symmetrical co-regulation was related to motor scores in ELGA infants, and to cognitive scores in FT infants. Our findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating the difficulties of ELGA mother-infant dyads at 12 months in sharing the symmetric co-regulation and positive affective intensity and how symmetric co-regulation is strictly related to motor development in ELGA infants. Based on these findings, intervention programmes to foster joint attention, active involvement and positive affective intensity in ELGA dyads and

  4. Gene regulation and the origin of cancer: a new model.

    PubMed

    Shah, A

    1995-10-01

    The genome is a dynamical system in which regulation is achieved by the algebraic logic of Boolean functions. A model of a webbed genetic network is presented. In this, all genes lie on interconnected loops, within which each can influence the others, forming the basis of a regulatory network. The normal proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes serve as gateways or switch points in the genetic circuitry, controlling the transition between different cell states. The model explains why multiple genes must be perturbed for the formation of a cancer.

  5. Dynamic model of gene regulation for the lac operon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Ben-Halim, Asma

    2011-03-01

    Gene regulatory network is a collection of DNA which interact with each other and with other matter in the cell. The lac operon is an example of a relatively simple genetic network and is one of the best-studied structures in the Escherichia coli bacteria. In this work we consider a deterministic model of the lac operon with a noise term, representing the stochastic nature of the regulation. The model is written in terms of a system of simultaneous first order differential equations with delays. We investigate an analytical and numerical solution and analyse the range of values for the parameters corresponding to a stable solution.

  6. Negative affect and drinking drivers: a review and conceptual model linking dissonance, efficacy and negative affect to risk and motivation for change.

    PubMed

    Wells-Parker, Elisabeth; Mann, Robert E; Dill, Patricia L; Stoduto, Gina; Shuggi, Rania; Cross, Ginger W

    2009-05-01

    This review summarizes evidence on negative affect among drinking drivers. Elevations in negative affect, including depressed mood, anxiety and hostility, have long been noted in convicted drinking drivers, and recent evidence suggests an association between negative affect and driving after drinking in the general population. Previous efforts to understand the significance of this negative affective state have ranged from suggestions that it may play a causal role in drinking driving to suggestions that it may interfere with response to treatment and remedial interventions. Recent studies have uncovered an important paradox involving negative affect among convicted drinking drivers (hereafter DUI offenders). DUI offenders with high levels of negative affect recidivated more frequently following a DUI program than did those reporting no or minimal negative affect. However, when a brief supportive motivational intervention was added to the program, offenders with high negative affect levels showed lower recidivism rates than did those with no or minimal negative affect. The review includes studies from the general literature on alcohol treatment in which the same negative affect paradox was reported. In an attempt to understand this paradox, we present a conceptual model involving well-established psychological processes, with a focus on salient discrepancy, the crucial component of cognitive dissonance. In this model, negative affect plays an important role in motivating both continued high-risk drinking as well as therapeutic change. This model suggests that links between motivational states and negative affective processes may be more complex than previously thought. Implications for intervention with DUI offenders are discussed.

  7. Grain setting defect1, Encoding a Remorin Protein, Affects the Grain Setting in Rice through Regulating Plasmodesmatal Conductance1[W

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Jinshan; Liu, Chang; Shen, Junhui; Li, Laigeng

    2014-01-01

    Effective grain filling is one of the key determinants of grain setting in rice (Oryza sativa). Grain setting defect1 (GSD1), which encodes a putative remorin protein, was found to affect grain setting in rice. Investigation of the phenotype of a transfer DNA insertion mutant (gsd1-Dominant) with enhanced GSD1 expression revealed abnormalities including a reduced grain setting rate, accumulation of carbohydrates in leaves, and lower soluble sugar content in the phloem exudates. GSD1 was found to be specifically expressed in the plasma membrane and plasmodesmata (PD) of phloem companion cells. Experimental evidence suggests that the phenotype of the gsd1-Dominant mutant is caused by defects in the grain-filling process as a result of the impaired transport of carbohydrates from the photosynthetic site to the phloem. GSD1 functioned in affecting PD conductance by interacting with rice ACTIN1 in association with the PD callose binding protein1. Together, our results suggest that GSD1 may play a role in regulating photoassimilate translocation through the symplastic pathway to impact grain setting in rice. PMID:25253885

  8. Stochastic model of transcription factor-regulated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Rajesh; Bose, Indrani

    2006-09-01

    We consider a stochastic model of transcription factor (TF)-regulated gene expression. The model describes two genes, gene A and gene B, which synthesize the TFs and the target gene proteins, respectively. We show through analytic calculations that the TF fluctuations have a significant effect on the distribution of the target gene protein levels when the mean TF level falls in the highest sensitive region of the dose-response curve. We further study the effect of reducing the copy number of gene A from two to one. The enhanced TF fluctuations yield results different from those in the deterministic case. The probability that the target gene protein level exceeds a threshold value is calculated with the knowledge of the probability density functions associated with the TF and target gene protein levels. Numerical simulation results for a more detailed stochastic model are shown to be in agreement with those obtained through analytic calculations. The relevance of these results in the context of the genetic disorder haploinsufficiency is pointed out. Some experimental observations on the haploinsufficiency of the tumour suppressor gene, Nkx 3.1, are explained with the help of the stochastic model of TF-regulated gene expression.

  9. Down-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 adversely affects the expression of Alzheimer's disease-relevant genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuchner, Thole; Schliebs, Reinhard; Perez-Polo, J Regino

    2005-10-01

    Beta-amyloid peptides play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, preventing beta-amyloid formation by inhibition of the beta site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 is considered as a potential strategy to treat AD. Cholinergic mechanisms have been shown to control amyloid precursor protein processing and the number of muscarinic M2-acetylcholine receptors is decreased in brain regions of patients with AD enriched with senile plaques. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of this M2 muscarinic receptor down-regulation by siRNA on total gene expression and on regulation of BACE1 in particular in SK-SH-SY5Y cells. This model system was used for microarray analysis after carbachol stimulation of siRNA-treated cells compared with carbachol stimulated, non-siRNA-treated cells. The same model system was used to elucidate changes at the protein level by using two-dimensional gels followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Taken together, the results indicate that the M2 acetylcholine receptor down-regulation in brains of patients with AD has important effects on the expression of several genes and proteins with major functions in the pathology of AD. This includes beta-secretase BACE1 as well as several modulators of the tau protein and other AD-relevant genes and proteins. Moreover, most of these genes and proteins are adversely affected against the background of AD.

  10. Cycling hypoxia affects cell invasion and proliferation through direct regulation of claudin1 / claudin7 expression, and indirect regulation of P18 through claudin7.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Jiang, Feifei; Jia, Xinshan; Lan, Jing; Guo, Hao; Li, Erran; Yan, Aihui; Wang, Yan

    2017-02-07

    Claudins (CLDNs), the major integral membrane proteins at tight junction, play critical roles in apical cell-to-cell adhesion, maintenance of epithelial polarity, and formation of impermeable barriers between epithelial cells.We investigated in this study the expression of CLDNs- Claudin1 (CLDN1) and Claudin7 (CLDN7), and their relation to tumor progression in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). CLDN7, rather than CLDN1, showed higher expression in both undifferentiated tumor tissue and the poorly differentiated CNE2 cells, compared with differentiated tissue and the highly differentiated CNE1 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of CLDN7 dramatically inhibited the metastasis and invasion of CNE2 cells suggesting that CLDN7 could act as a biomarker for NPC metastasis.Cycling hypoxia could induce significant changes in CLDN1 and CLDN7 expression in NPC cells. Genetics analysis demonstrated that CLDN1/CLDN7 were not only regulated directly by HIF1a but also affected each other through a feedback mechanism. CLDN7 acted as a bridge to promote HIF1a-induced P18 expression and cell differentiation. Taken together, our results provide evidence that adjusting the oxygenation time and cycles in NPC might be an effective method to prevent / delay the metastasis of poorly differentiated NPC cells.

  11. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  12. Using item response theory to investigate the structure of anticipated affect: do self-reports about future affective reactions conform to typical or maximal models?

    PubMed Central

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Lerakis, Manolis; Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we used item response theory (IRT) to examine whether effective predictions (anticipated affect) conforms to a typical (i.e., what people usually do) or a maximal behavior process (i.e., what people can do). The former, correspond to non-monotonic ideal point IRT models, whereas the latter correspond to monotonic dominance IRT models. A convenience, cross-sectional student sample (N = 1624) was used. Participants were asked to report on anticipated positive and negative affect around a hypothetical event (emotions surrounding the start of a new business). We carried out analysis comparing graded response model (GRM), a dominance IRT model, against generalized graded unfolding model, an unfolding IRT model. We found that the GRM provided a better fit to the data. Findings suggest that the self-report responses to anticipated affect conform to dominance response process (i.e., maximal behavior). The paper also discusses implications for a growing literature on anticipated affect. PMID:26441806

  13. Transforming Growth Factor β1/Smad4 Signaling Affects Osteoclast Differentiation via Regulation of miR-155 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongying; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Haiyu; Liu, Jianwen; Jin, Mengran; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)/Smad4 signaling plays a pivotal role in maintenance of the dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption. The microRNA miR-155 has been reported to exert a significant role in the differentiation of macrophage and dendritic cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether miR-155 regulates osteoclast differentiation through TGFβ1/Smad4 signaling. Here, we present that TGFβ1 elevated miR-155 levels during osteoclast differentiation through the stimulation of M-CSF and RANKL. Additionally, we found that silencing Smad4 attenuated the upregulation of miR-155 induced by TGFβ1. The results of luciferase reporter experiments and ChIP assays demonstrated that TGFβ1 promoted the binding of Smad4 to the miR-155 promoter at a site located in 454 bp from the transcription start site in vivo, further verifying that miR-155 is a transcriptional target of the TGFβ1/Smad4 pathway. Subsequently, TRAP staining and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that silencing Smad4 impaired the TGFβ1-mediated inhibition on osteoclast differentiation. Finally, we found that miR-155 may target SOCS1 and MITF to suppress osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that TGFβ1/Smad4 signaling affects osteoclast differentiation by regulation of miR-155 expression and the use of miR-155 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoclast-related diseases shows great promise. PMID:28359146

  14. Cell Number Regulator1 affects plant and organ size in maize: implications for crop yield enhancement and heterosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Dieter, Jo Ann; Zou, Jijun; Spielbauer, Daniel; Duncan, Keith E; Howard, Richard J; Hou, Zhenglin; Simmons, Carl R

    2010-04-01

    Genes involved in cell number regulation may affect plant growth and organ size and, ultimately, crop yield. The tomato (genus Solanum) fruit weight gene fw2.2, for instance, governs a quantitative trait locus that accounts for 30% of fruit size variation, with increased fruit size chiefly due to increased carpel ovary cell number. To expand investigation of how related genes may impact other crop plant or organ sizes, we identified the maize (Zea mays) gene family of putative fw2.2 orthologs, naming them Cell Number Regulator (CNR) genes. This family represents an ancient eukaryotic family of Cys-rich proteins containing the PLAC8 or DUF614 conserved motif. We focused on native expression and transgene analysis of the two maize members closest to Le-fw2.2, namely, CNR1 and CNR2. We show that CNR1 reduced overall plant size when ectopically overexpressed and that plant and organ size increased when its expression was cosuppressed or silenced. Leaf epidermal cell counts showed that the increased or decreased transgenic plant and organ size was due to changes in cell number, not cell size. CNR2 expression was found to be negatively correlated with tissue growth activity and hybrid seedling vigor. The effects of CNR1 on plant size and cell number are reminiscent of heterosis, which also increases plant size primarily through increased cell number. Regardless of whether CNRs and other cell number-influencing genes directly contribute to, or merely mimic, heterosis, they may aid generation of more vigorous and productive crop plants.

  15. Expanding a Model for Affective Development: Implications for an Activity Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Nancye E.

    One useful framework for understanding and articulating instructional design to change biased beliefs is the Martin and Reigeluth model for affective development, appearing in Volume II of Reigeluth's "Instructional-Design Theories and Models" (1999). Using this recently developed framework to examine a Web-based multimedia instructional program…

  16. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Students' Affective Characteristics Model across Gender Sub-Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…

  17. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Mental Models of the Environment: Are They Related to Environmental Affect and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2015-01-01

    A draw-and-explain task and questionnaire were used to explore Taiwanese undergraduate students' mental models of the environment and whether and how they relate to their environmental affect and behavioral commitment. We found that students generally held incomplete mental models of the environment, focusing on objects rather than on processes or…

  18. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A; Kuipers, Elizabeth E; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis.

  19. Psychological Mechanisms Mediating Effects Between Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms: The Role of Affect Regulation, Intrusive Trauma Memory, Beliefs, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Amy; Emsley, Richard; Freeman, Daniel; Bebbington, Paul; Garety, Philippa A.; Kuipers, Elizabeth E.; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests a causal role for trauma in psychosis, particularly for childhood victimization. However, the establishment of underlying trauma-related mechanisms would strengthen the causal argument. In a sample of people with relapsing psychosis (n = 228), we tested hypothesized mechanisms specifically related to impaired affect regulation, intrusive trauma memory, beliefs, and depression. The majority of participants (74.1%) reported victimization trauma, and a fifth (21.5%) met symptomatic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. We found a specific link between childhood sexual abuse and auditory hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.74, P = .018). This relationship was mediated by posttraumatic avoidance and numbing (OR = 1.48, SE = 0.19, P = .038) and hyperarousal (OR = 1.44, SE = 0.18, P = .045), but not intrusive trauma memory, negative beliefs or depression. In contrast, childhood emotional abuse was specifically associated with delusions, both persecutory (adjusted OR = 2.21, SE = 0.68, P = .009) and referential (adjusted OR = 2.43, SE = 0.74, P = .004). The link with persecutory delusions was mediated by negative-other beliefs (OR = 1.36, SE = 0.14, P = .024), but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, negative-self beliefs, or depression. There was no evidence of mediation for referential delusions. No relationships were identified between childhood physical abuse and psychosis. The findings underline the role of cognitive-affective processes in the relationship between trauma and symptoms, and the importance of assessing and treating victimization and its psychological consequences in people with psychosis. PMID:27460616

  20. Novel deletions affecting the MEG3-DMR provide further evidence for a hierarchical regulation of imprinting in 14q32.

    PubMed

    Beygo, Jasmin; Elbracht, Miriam; de Groot, Karel; Begemann, Matthias; Kanber, Deniz; Platzer, Konrad; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Vierzig, Anne; Green, Andrew; Heller, Raoul; Buiting, Karin; Eggermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The imprinted region on chromosome 14q32 harbors several maternally or paternally expressed genes as well as two DMRs (differentially methylated regions), the IG-DMR and the MEG3-DMR, which both act as imprinting control centers. Genetic aberrations affecting the imprinted gene cluster in 14q32 result in distinct phenotypes, known as maternal or paternal uniparental disomy 14 phenotypes (upd(14)mat, upd(14)pat). In both syndromes, three types of molecular alterations have been reported: uniparental disomy 14, deletions and epimutations. In contrast to uniparental disomy and epimutations, deletions affecting regulatory elements in 14q32 are associated with a high-recurrence risk. Based on two single deletion cases a functional hierarchy of the IG-DMR as a regulator for the methylation of the MEG3-DMR has been proposed. We have identified two novel deletions of maternal origin spanning the MEG3-DMR, but not the IG-DMR in patients with upd(14)pat syndrome, one de novo deletion of 165 kb and another deletion of 5.8 kb in two siblings. The 5.8 kb deletion was inherited from the phenotypically normal mother, who carries the deletion in a mosaic state on her paternal chromosome 14. The methylation at both DMRs was investigated by quantitative next generation bisulfite sequencing and revealed normal methylation patterns at the IG-DMR in all patients with the exception of certain CpG dinucleotides. Thus, we could confirm that deletions of the MEG3-DMR does not generally influence the methylation pattern of the IG-DMR, which strengthens the hypothesis of a hierarchical structure and distinct functional properties of the two DMRs.

  1. Autonomous regulation mode moderates the effect of actual physical activity on affective states: an ambulant assessment approach to the role of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Brand, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Studies have shown that physical activity influences affective states. However, studies have seldom depicted these associations in ongoing real-life situations, and there is no investigation showing that motivational states (i.e., more or less autonomously regulated) would moderate these effects in situ. To investigate the interaction of autonomous regulation and actual physical activity (aPA) with affective states, we use an ambulatory assessment approach. The participants were 44 university students (mean age: 26.2 ± 3.2 years). We assessed aPA through 24-hr accelerometry and affective states and autonomous regulation via electronic diaries. Palmtop devices prompted subjects every 45 min during a 14-hr daytime period. We performed hierarchical multilevel analyses. Both aPA and autonomous regulation significantly influenced affective states. The interaction was significant for two affects. The higher the volume of aPA and thereby the more autonomously regulated the preceding bout of aPA was, the more our participants felt energized (r = .16) but agitated (r = -.18).

  2. Molecular modelling approaches for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator studies.

    PubMed

    Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic disorders, caused by loss of function mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. CFTR is a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily and functions as an ATP-gated anion channel. This review summarises the vast majority of the efforts which utilised molecular modelling approaches to gain insight into the various aspects of CFTR protein, related to its structure, dynamic properties, function and interactions with other protein partners, or drug-like compounds, with emphasis to its relation to CF disease.

  3. Tamm-Horsfall protein regulates circulating and renal cytokines by affecting glomerular filtration rate and acting as a urinary cytokine trap.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; El-Achkar, Tarek M; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2012-05-11

    Although few organ systems play a more important role than the kidneys in cytokine catabolism, the mechanism(s) regulating this pivotal physiological function and how its deficiency affects systemic cytokine homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that elimination of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) expression from mouse kidneys caused a marked elevation of circulating IFN-γ, IL1α, TNF-α, IL6, CXCL1, and IL13. Accompanying this were enlarged spleens with prominent white-pulp macrophage infiltration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbated the increase of serum cytokines without a corresponding increase in their urinary excretion in THP knock-out (KO) mice. This, along with the rise of serum cystatin C and the reduced inulin and creatinine clearance from the circulation, suggested that diminished glomerular filtration may contribute to reduced cytokine clearance in THP KO mice both at the baseline and under stress. Unlike wild-type mice where renal and urinary cytokines formed specific in vivo complexes with THP, this "trapping" effect was absent in THP KO mice, thus explaining why cytokine signaling pathways were activated in renal epithelial cells in such mice. Our study provides new evidence implicating an important role of THP in influencing cytokine clearance and acting as a decoy receptor for urinary cytokines. Based on these and other data, we present a unifying model that underscores the role of THP as a major regulator of renal and systemic immunity.

  4. Factors affecting the entry of for-profit providers into a price regulated market for formal long-term care services: a case study from Japan.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Mutsumi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    While the distinct behaviors of for-profit and non-profit providers in the healthcare market have been compared in the economic literature, their choices regarding market entry and exit have only recently been debated. Since 2000, when public Long-Term Care Insurance was introduced in Japan, for-profit providers have been able to provide formal long-term homecare services. The aim of this study is to determine which factors have affected market entry of for-profit providers under price regulation and in competition with existing non-profit providers. We used nation-wide panel data from 2002 to 2010, aggregated at the level of local public insurers (n = 1557), a basic area unit of service provision. The number of for-profit providers per elderly population in the area unit was regressed against factors related to local demand and service costs using first-difference linear regression, a fixed effects model, and Tobit regression for robustness checking. Results showed that demand (the number of eligible care recipients) and cost factors (population density and minimum wage) significantly influenced for-profit providers' choice of market entry. These findings indicate that for-profit providers will strategically choose a local market for maximizing profit. We believe that price regulation should be redesigned to incorporate quality of care and market conditions, regardless of the profit status of the providers, to ensure equal access to efficient delivery of long-term care across all regions.

  5. A Self-Regulation Model of Sexual Grooming.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Ian A

    2017-01-01

    A preparatory process is widely accepted to be a common feature in the perpetration of sexual offenses. Numerous commentators, however, have documented the difficulties in defining and understanding this process, given its transient nature and its specificity to this one form of criminal behavior. This theoretical review aims to provide a universal model of a grooming process for the achievement of illicit or illegal goals in which achievement requires the compliance or submission of another individual-one that can be applied both to the sexual offending process and beyond. First, an evaluation of three process models of grooming is conducted. Second, using a process of theory knitting, an integrated universal model of illicit grooming is developed. This model unites salient elements of the previous models while seeking to address their limitations. It is founded in control theory and self-regulation approaches to behavior, assumes a goal-directed protagonist, and comprises two distinct phases, namely, (1) a potentiality phase of rapport-building, incentivization, disinhibition, and security-management and (2) a disclosure phase in which goal-relevant information is introduced in a systematic and controlled manner in order to desensitize the target. Finally, the theoretical quality of the model is appraised, and its clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Modeling Systems-Level Regulation of Host Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, Juilee; Pilione, Mylisa; Kirimanjeswara, Girish; Harvill, Eric T; Albert, Réka

    2007-01-01

    Many pathogens are able to manipulate the signaling pathways responsible for the generation of host immune responses. Here we examine and model a respiratory infection system in which disruption of host immune functions or of bacterial factors changes the dynamics of the infection. We synthesize the network of interactions between host immune components and two closely related bacteria in the genus Bordetellae. We incorporate existing experimental information on the timing of immune regulatory events into a discrete dynamic model, and verify the model by comparing the effects of simulated disruptions to the experimental outcome of knockout mutations. Our model indicates that the infection time course of both Bordetellae can be separated into three distinct phases based on the most active immune processes. We compare and discuss the effect of the species-specific virulence factors on disrupting the immune response during their infection of naive, antibody-treated, diseased, or convalescent hosts. Our model offers predictions regarding cytokine regulation, key immune components, and clearance of secondary infections; we experimentally validate two of these predictions. This type of modeling provides new insights into the virulence, pathogenesis, and host adaptation of disease-causing microorganisms and allows systems-level analysis that is not always possible using traditional methods. PMID:17559300

  7. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Borbély, Alexander A; Daan, Serge; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Deboer, Tom

    2016-04-01

    In the last three decades the two-process model of sleep regulation has served as a major conceptual framework in sleep research. It has been applied widely in studies on fatigue and performance and to dissect individual differences in sleep regulation. The model posits that a homeostatic process (Process S) interacts with a process controlled by the circadian pacemaker (Process C), with time-courses derived from physiological and behavioural variables. The model simulates successfully the timing and intensity of sleep in diverse experimental protocols. Electrophysiological recordings from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) suggest that S and C interact continuously. Oscillators outside the SCN that are linked to energy metabolism are evident in SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals subjected to restricted feeding or methamphetamine administration, as well as in human subjects during internal desynchronization. In intact animals these peripheral oscillators may dissociate from the central pacemaker rhythm. A sleep/fast and wake/feed phase segregate antagonistic anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes in peripheral tissues. A deficiency of Process S was proposed to account for both depressive sleep disturbances and the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation. The model supported the development of novel non-pharmacological treatment paradigms in psychiatry, based on manipulating circadian phase, sleep and light exposure. In conclusion, the model remains conceptually useful for promoting the integration of sleep and circadian rhythm research. Sleep appears to have not only a short-term, use-dependent function; it also serves to enforce rest and fasting, thereby supporting the optimization of metabolic processes at the appropriate phase of the 24-h cycle.

  8. Thermodynamic state ensemble models of cis-regulation.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Marc S; Cohen, Barak A

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in computational biology is to develop models that accurately predict a gene's expression from its surrounding regulatory DNA. Here we present one class of such models, thermodynamic state ensemble models. We describe the biochemical derivation of the thermodynamic framework in simple terms, and lay out the mathematical components that comprise each model. These components include (1) the possible states of a promoter, where a state is defined as a particular arrangement of transcription factors bound to a DNA promoter, (2) the binding constants that describe the affinity of the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that occur in each state, and (3) whether each state is capable of transcribing. Using these components, we demonstrate how to compute a cis-regulatory function that encodes the probability of a promoter being active. Our intention is to provide enough detail so that readers with little background in thermodynamics can compose their own cis-regulatory functions. To facilitate this goal, we also describe a matrix form of the model that can be easily coded in any programming language. This formalism has great flexibility, which we show by illustrating how phenomena such as competition between transcription factors and cooperativity are readily incorporated into these models. Using this framework, we also demonstrate that Michaelis-like functions, another class of cis-regulatory models, are a subset of the thermodynamic framework with specific assumptions. By recasting Michaelis-like functions as thermodynamic functions, we emphasize the relationship between these models and delineate the specific circumstances representable by each approach. Application of thermodynamic state ensemble models is likely to be an important tool in unraveling the physical basis of combinatorial cis-regulation and in generating formalisms that accurately predict gene expression from DNA sequence.

  9. Regulation of Enzyme Activities in Drosophila: Genetic Variation Affecting Induction of Glucose 6-Phosphate and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenases in Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Bruce J.; Lucchesi, John C.; Laurie-Ahlberg, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The genetic basis of modulation by dietary sucrose of the enzyme activities glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) activities in third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated, using isogenic lines derived from wild populations. Considerable genetically determined variation in response was detected among lines that differed only in their third chromosome constitution. Comparison of crossreacting material between a responding and a nonresponding line showed that the G6PD activity variation is due to changes in G6PD protein level. These differences in responses are localized in the fat body, with 300 m m sucrose in the diet resulting in a sixfold stimulation of G6PD activity and a fourfold one of 6PGD in the line showing the strongest response. In this tissue, the responses of the two enzymes are closely correlated with one another. Using recombinant lines, we obtained data that suggested the existence of more than one gene on chromosome III involved in the regulation of G6PD in the fat body, and at least one of these genes affects the level of 6PGD as well. PMID:6416921

  10. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  11. FBXW7 and USP7 regulate CCDC6 turnover during the cell cycle and affect cancer drugs susceptibility in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Francesco; Poser, Ina; Visconti, Roberta; Ilardi, Gennaro; Paladino, Simona; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Guggino, Gianluca; Monaco, Roberto; Colecchia, David; Monaco, Guglielmo; Cerrato, Aniello; Chiariello, Mario; Denning, Krista; Claudio, Pier Paolo; Staibano, Stefania; Celetti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    CCDC6 gene product is a pro-apoptotic protein substrate of ATM, whose loss or inactivation enhances tumour progression. In primary tumours, the impaired function of CCDC6 protein has been ascribed to CCDC6 rearrangements and to somatic mutations in several neoplasia. Recently, low levels of CCDC6 protein, in NSCLC, have been correlated with tumor prognosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the variable levels of CCDC6 in primary tumors have not been described yet. We show that CCDC6 turnover is regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner. CCDC6 undergoes a cyclic variation in the phosphorylated status and in protein levels that peak at G2 and decrease in mitosis. The reduced stability of CCDC6 in the M phase is dependent on mitotic kinases and on degron motifs that are present in CCDC6 and direct the recruitment of CCDC6 to the FBXW7 E3 Ubl. The de-ubiquitinase enzyme USP7 appears responsible of the fine tuning of the CCDC6 stability, affecting cells behaviour and drug response. Thus, we propose that the amount of CCDC6 protein in primary tumors, as reported in lung, may depend on the impairment of the CCDC6 turnover due to altered protein-protein interaction and post-translational modifications and may be critical in optimizing personalized therapy. PMID:25885523

  12. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment

    PubMed Central

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot–human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a “baby” robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a “caregiver” to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two “idealized” robot profiles—a “needy” and an “independent” robot—in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the “stress” (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness—“responsive” and “non-responsive”—to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the “needy” and “independent” axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  13. Pregnancy affects FOS rhythms in brain regions regulating sleep/wake state and body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Jessica A; Smale, Laura; Nunez, Antonio A

    2012-10-22

    Circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology change substantially as female mammals undergo the transition from a non-pregnant to a pregnant state. Here, we examined the possibility that site-specific changes in brain regions known to regulate the sleep/wake cycle and body temperature might reflect altered rhythms in these overt functions. Specifically, we compared daily patterns of immunoreactive FOS in early pregnant and diestrous rats in the medial septum (MS), vertical and horizontal diagonal bands of Broca (VDB and HDB), perifornical lateral hypothalamus (LH), and ventrolateral, medial, and median preoptic areas (VLPO, MPA, and MnPO, respectively). In the pregnant animals, FOS expression was reduced and the daily rhythms of expression were lost or attenuated in the MS, VDB, and LH, areas known to support wakefulness, and in the MPA, a brain region that may coordinate sleep/wake patterns with temperature changes. However, despite the well-documented differences in sleep patterns between diestrous and pregnant rats, reproductive state did not affect FOS expression in the VLPO or MnPO, two brain regions in which FOS expression usually correlates with sleep. These data indicate that plasticity in sleep/wake patterns during early pregnancy may be driven by a reduction in wakefulness-promotion by the brain, rather than by an increase in sleep drive.

  14. Daily diaries and minority adolescents: random coefficient regression modeling of attributional style, coping, and affect.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Aldridge, Arianna A; Villodas, Feion

    2009-10-01

    Many researchers underscore the importance of coping in the daily lives of adolescents, yet very few studies measure this and related constructs at this level. Using a daily diary approach to stress and coping, the current study evaluated a series of mediational coping models in a sample of low-income minority adolescents (N = 89). Specifically, coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between attributional style (and dimensions) and daily affect. Using random coefficient regression modeling, the relationship between (a) the locus of causality dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of acceptance and humor as coping strategies; (b) the stability dimension and positive affect was completely mediated by the use of both problem-solving and positive thinking; and (c) the stability dimension and negative affect was partially mediated by the use of religious coping. In addition, the locus of causality and stability (but not globality) dimensions were also directly related to affect. However, the relationship between pessimistic explanatory style and affect was not mediated by coping. Consistent with previous research, these findings suggest that attributions are both directly and indirectly related to indices of affect or adjustment. Thus, attributions may not only influence the type of coping strategy employed, but may also serve as coping strategies themselves.

  15. Dynamic regulation of erythropoiesis: A computer model of general applicability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model for the control of erythropoiesis was developed based on the balance between oxygen supply and demand at a renal oxygen detector which controls erythropoietin release and red cell production. Feedback regulation of tissue oxygen tension is accomplished by adjustments of hemoglobin levels resulting from the output of a renal-bone marrow controller. Special consideration was given to the determinants of tissue oxygenation including evaluation of the influence of blood flow, capillary diffusivity, oxygen uptake and oxygen-hemoglobin affinity. A theoretical analysis of the overall control system is presented. Computer simulations of altitude hypoxia, red cell infusion hyperoxia, and homolytic anemia demonstrate validity of the model for general human application in health and disease.

  16. A bifactor model of negative affectivity: fear and distress components among younger and older youth.

    PubMed

    Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Ashley; Bernstein, Adam; Chorpita, Bruce F; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Nakamura, Brad

    2011-09-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C) is a 27-item youth-report measure of positive affectivity and negative affectivity. Using 2 large school-age youth samples (clinic-referred sample: N = 662; school-based sample: N = 911), in the present study, we thoroughly examined the structure of the PANAS-C NA and PA scales and fit a bifactor model to the PANAS-C NA items. Our exploratory factor analytic results demonstrated that negative affectivity is comprised of 2 main components-NA: Fear and NA: Distress-specifically among older youth. A bifactor model also evidenced the best model fit relative to a unidimensional and second-order factor structure of the PANAS-C NA items. The NA: Fear group factor evidenced significant correspondence with external criterion measures of anxiety. However, the original PANAS-C NA scale evidenced equal (and in some cases greater) correspondence with criterion measures of anxiety. We thus recommend continued usage and interpretation of the full PANAS-C NA scale despite the identification of the fear and distress group factors underlying general negative affectivity. The identification of these fear and distress group factors nonetheless suggest that negative affectivity may be comprised largely of a fear and distress component among older youth. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to better understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood development and informing the development of future treatments of negative emotions.

  17. A modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach to modeling customer satisfaction for affective design.

    PubMed

    Kwong, C K; Fung, K Y; Jiang, Huimin; Chan, K Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael

    2013-01-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of product development to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. A neural-fuzzy network approach has been attempted recently to model customer satisfaction for affective design and it has been proved to be an effective one to deal with the fuzziness and non-linearity of the modeling as well as generate explicit customer satisfaction models. However, such an approach to modeling customer satisfaction has two limitations. First, it is not suitable for the modeling problems which involve a large number of inputs. Second, it cannot adapt to new data sets, given that its structure is fixed once it has been developed. In this paper, a modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach is proposed to address the above mentioned limitations. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Validation tests were conducted and the test results indicated that: (1) the conventional Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) failed to run due to a large number of inputs; (2) the proposed dynamic neural-fuzzy model outperforms the subtractive clustering-based ANFIS model and fuzzy c-means clustering-based ANFIS model in terms of their modeling accuracy and computational effort.

  18. A Modified Dynamic Evolving Neural-Fuzzy Approach to Modeling Customer Satisfaction for Affective Design

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, C. K.; Fung, K. Y.; Jiang, Huimin; Chan, K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of product development to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. A neural-fuzzy network approach has been attempted recently to model customer satisfaction for affective design and it has been proved to be an effective one to deal with the fuzziness and non-linearity of the modeling as well as generate explicit customer satisfaction models. However, such an approach to modeling customer satisfaction has two limitations. First, it is not suitable for the modeling problems which involve a large number of inputs. Second, it cannot adapt to new data sets, given that its structure is fixed once it has been developed. In this paper, a modified dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy approach is proposed to address the above mentioned limitations. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Validation tests were conducted and the test results indicated that: (1) the conventional Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) failed to run due to a large number of inputs; (2) the proposed dynamic neural-fuzzy model outperforms the subtractive clustering-based ANFIS model and fuzzy c-means clustering-based ANFIS model in terms of their modeling accuracy and computational effort. PMID:24385884

  19. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  20. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Farb, Norman A.; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life. PMID:27087765

  1. Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Farb, Norman A; Goldin, Philippe; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-10-01

    Contemporary scholarship on mindfulness casts it as a form of purely non-evaluative engagement with experience. Yet, traditionally mindfulness was not intended to operate in a vacuum of dispassionate observation, but was seen as facilitative of eudaimonic mental states. In spite of this historical context, modern psychological research has neglected to ask the question of how the practice of mindfulness affects downstream emotion regulatory processes to impact the sense of meaning in life. To fill this lacuna, here we describe the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory, from which we derive a novel process model of mindful positive emotion regulation informed by affective science, in which mindfulness is proposed to introduce flexibility in the generation of cognitive appraisals by enhancing interoceptive attention, thereby expanding the scope of cognition to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience. This process is proposed to culminate in a deepened capacity for meaning-making and greater engagement with life.

  2. Modeling the Causal Regulation of Transversely Accelerated Ion (TAI) Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Zhang, B.; Schmitt, P.; Lotko, W.

    2013-12-01

    TAIs are generated by wave particle interactions driven by waves at temporal and spatial scales which are inaccessible in global coupled geospace models. So far attempts to include TAI outflows in global models have focused on the use of empirical correlations between observed outflow fluxes and various inputs such as DC Poynting flux, Alfvénic Poynting flux, and electron precipitation fluxes. These treatments ignore feedbacks between the outflow and the state of the ionosphere and assume the spatial and temporal distributions of the outflows are identical to those of their drivers. This work presents an alternative approach which can overcome these deficiencies while still being sufficiently computationally efficient to couple into a global modeling framework. TAIs are incorporated into a 3-D fluid model of the ionosphere and polar wind by modeling them as a separate fluid which obeys transport equations appropriate for monoenergetic conic distributions. The characteristics of the TAI outflow produced depend on the assumed transverse heating rates and the 'promotion rate' which connects the TAI fluid to the thermal O+ fluid. Using drivers extracted from runs of the Coupled Magnetosphere Ionosphere Thermosphere (CMIT) model, different strategies for causally regulating these free parameters are explored. The model can reproduce many of the observed features of TAI outflows but also exhibits physical attributes that empirical relationships alone miss. These characteristics include flux limiting of the outflow from below when intense outflow creates high-altitude cavities, time delays between the onset of transverse heating and the appearance of outflow, and spatial distributions of outflow which are different from the spatial distributions of the applied transverse heating and which depend on the ionospheric convection pattern.

  3. Predicting nitrogen loading with land-cover composition: how can watershed size affect model performance?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Watershed-wide land-cover proportions can be used to predict the in-stream non-point source pollutant loadings through regression modeling. However, the model performance can vary greatly across different study sites and among various watersheds. Existing literature has shown that this type of regression modeling tends to perform better for large watersheds than for small ones, and that such a performance variation has been largely linked with different interwatershed landscape heterogeneity levels. The purpose of this study is to further examine the previously mentioned empirical observation based on a set of watersheds in the northern part of Georgia (USA) to explore the underlying causes of the variation in model performance. Through the combined use of the neutral landscape modeling approach and a spatially explicit nutrient loading model, we tested whether the regression model performance variation over the watershed groups ranging in size is due to the different watershed landscape heterogeneity levels. We adopted three neutral landscape modeling criteria that were tied with different similarity levels in watershed landscape properties and used the nutrient loading model to estimate the nitrogen loads for these neutral watersheds. Then we compared the regression model performance for the real and neutral landscape scenarios, respectively. We found that watershed size can affect the regression model performance both directly and indirectly. Along with the indirect effect through interwatershed heterogeneity, watershed size can directly affect the model performance over the watersheds varying in size. We also found that the regression model performance can be more significantly affected by other physiographic properties shaping nitrogen delivery effectiveness than the watershed land-cover heterogeneity. This study contrasts with many existing studies because it goes beyond hypothesis formulation based on empirical observations and into hypothesis testing to

  4. A mutation in cnot8, component of the Ccr4-not complex regulating transcript stability, affects expression levels of developmental regulators and reveals a role of Fgf3 in development of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  5. A Mutation in cnot8, Component of the Ccr4-Not Complex Regulating Transcript Stability, Affects Expression Levels of Developmental Regulators and Reveals a Role of Fgf3 in Development of Caudal Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Peter; Löhr, Heiko B.; Driever, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    While regulation of the activity of developmental control genes at the transcriptional level as well as by specific miRNA-based degradation are intensively studied, little is known whether general cellular mechanisms controlling mRNA decay may contribute to differential stability of mRNAs of developmental control genes. Here, we investigate whether a mutation in the deadenylation dependent mRNA decay pathway may reveal differential effects on developmental mechanisms, using dopaminergic differentiation in the zebrafish brain as model system. In a zebrafish genetic screen aimed at identifying genes controlling dopaminergic neuron development we isolated the m1061 mutation that selectively caused increased dopaminergic differentiation in the caudal hypothalamus, while other dopaminergic groups were not affected. Positional cloning revealed that m1061 causes a premature stop codon in the cnot8 open reading frame. Cnot8 is a component of the Ccr4-Not complex and displays deadenylase activity, which is required for removal of the poly (A) tail in bulk mRNA turnover. Analyses of expression of developmental regulators indicate that loss of Cnot8 activity results in increased mRNA in situ hybridization signal levels for a subset of developmental control genes. We show that in the area of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic differentiation, mRNA levels for several components of the FGF signaling pathway, including Fgf3, FGF receptors, and FGF target genes, are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of FGF signaling or a mutation in the fgf3 gene can compensate the gain of caudal hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in cnot8m1061 mutants, indicating a role for Fgf3 in control of development of this dopaminergic population. The cnot8m1061 mutant phenotype provides an in vivo system to study roles of the Cnot8 deadenylase component of the mRNA decay pathway in vertebrate development. Our data indicate that attenuation of Cnot8 activity differentially affects mRNA levels of

  6. Including hydrological self-regulating processes in peatland models: Effects on peatmoss drought projections.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Metselaar, Klaas; Limpens, Juul; Teutschbein, Claudia; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; Berendse, Frank; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2017-02-15

    The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both processes. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on

  7. The Friend leukaemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1) transcription factor affects lupus nephritis development by regulating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Sato, S; Zhang, X K

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Friend leukaemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus in both human patients and murine models of lupus. Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lpr mice and New Zealand mixed (NZM)2410 mice, murine models of lupus, with decreased expression of Fli-1 had significantly prolonged survival and reduced nephritis. Lupus nephritis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients, and inflammatory cell infiltration plays a key role in the development of the disease. To study how the expression of Fli-1 affects the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the kidneys, we generated congenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic MRL/lpr mice. A significantly increased number of GFP-expressing inflammatory cells infiltrated the kidneys of wild-type MRL/lpr mice compared to Fli-1 heterozygous (Fli-1+/−) MRL/lpr mice after injection of GFP+ cells. Expression of inflammatory chemokine mRNA, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, was significantly lower in the kidneys from Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice compared to wild-type littermates. Numbers of infiltrated cells into the kidneys correlate with expression levels of CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, but not the titres of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in these mice. Significantly increased inflammatory cells from wild-type MRL/lpr mice infiltrated into kidneys compared to the cells from Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice. The chemotaxis of inflammatory cells from Fli-1+/− MRL/lpr mice towards each chemokine was decreased significantly compared to inflammatory cells from wild-type MRL/lpr mice in the transwell migration assay in vitro. Our results indicate that Fli-1 affects lupus nephritis development by regulating the expression of chemokines in the kidney and the migration of inflammatory cells. PMID:24580413

  8. The Friend leukaemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1) transcription factor affects lupus nephritis development by regulating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Zhang, X K

    2014-07-01

    The transcription factor Friend leukaemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus in both human patients and murine models of lupus. Murphy Roths large (MRL)/lpr mice and New Zealand mixed (NZM)2410 mice, murine models of lupus, with decreased expression of Fli-1 had significantly prolonged survival and reduced nephritis. Lupus nephritis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients, and inflammatory cell infiltration plays a key role in the development of the disease. To study how the expression of Fli-1 affects the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the kidneys, we generated congenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic MRL/lpr mice. A significantly increased number of GFP-expressing inflammatory cells infiltrated the kidneys of wild-type MRL/lpr mice compared to Fli-1 heterozygous (Fli-1(+/-)) MRL/lpr mice after injection of GFP(+) cells. Expression of inflammatory chemokine mRNA, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5, was significantly lower in the kidneys from Fli-1(+/-) MRL/lpr mice compared to wild-type littermates. Numbers of infiltrated cells into the kidneys correlate with expression levels of CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, but not the titres of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in these mice. Significantly increased inflammatory cells from wild-type MRL/lpr mice infiltrated into kidneys compared to the cells from Fli-1(+/-) MRL/lpr mice. The chemotaxis of inflammatory cells from Fli-1(+/-) MRL/lpr mice towards each chemokine was decreased significantly compared to inflammatory cells from wild-type MRL/lpr mice in the transwell migration assay in vitro. Our results indicate that Fli-1 affects lupus nephritis development by regulating the expression of chemokines in the kidney and the migration of inflammatory cells.

  9. Analysis on spatial transfer model of energy development layout and the ecological footprint affection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinfang

    2017-01-01

    Consider the global energy interconnection, the global is concentrating on carrying out clean energy alternative, which is mainly focusing on using the clean energy to take place of fossil energy, and change the global energy layout and ecological atmosphere condition. This research gives the energy spatial transfer model of energy development layout to analyse the global energy development layout condition and ecological affection. And it is a fast and direct method to analyse its energy usage process and environmental affection. The paper also gives out a system dynamics model of energy spatial transfer shows, which electric power transmission is better than original energy usage and transportation. It also gives the comparison of different parameters. The energy spatial transfer can affect the environment directly. Consider its three environmental factors, including energy saving, climate changing and conventional pollutant emission reduction, synthetic combine with the spatial transfer model, it can get the environmental change parameters, which showed that with the clean energy wide usage, the ecological footprint affection will be affected significantly.

  10. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  11. Modeling the Growth of Archaeon Halobacterium halobium Affected by Temperature and Light.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Cheng, Jay; Rose, Robert B; Classen, John J; Simmons, Otto D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop sigmoidal models, including three-parameter (Quadratic, Logistic, and Gompertz) and four-parameter models (Schnute and Richards) to simulate the growth of archaeon Halobacterium halobium affected by temperature and light. The models were statistically compared by using t test and F test. In the t test, confidence bounds for parameters were used to distinguish among models. For the F test, the lack of fit of the models was compared with the prediction error. The Gompertz model was 100 % accepted by the t test and 97 % accepted by the F test when the temperature effects were considered. Results also indicated that the Gompertz model was 94 % accepted by the F test when the growth of H. halobium was studied under varying light intensities. Thus, the Gompertz model was considered the best among the models studied to describe the growth of H. halobium affected by temperature or light. In addition, the biological growth parameters, including specific growth rate, lag time, and asymptote changes under Gompertz modeling, were evaluated.

  12. Population Validity for Educational Data Mining Models: A Case Study in Affect Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Baker, Ryan; Gowda, Sujith; Heffernan, Neil; Heffernan, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced research methods such as educational data mining (EDM) have allowed researchers to effectively model a broad range of constructs pertaining to the student, moving from traditional assessments of knowledge to assessment of engagement, meta-cognition, strategy and affect. The automated…

  13. Factors Affecting Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…

  14. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  15. Reactions to Stigmas among Canadian Students: Testing an Attribution-Affect-Help Judgment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menec, Verena H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    1998-01-01

    Tests Weiner's (Bernard) attribution-affect-help judgment model in the context of nine stigmas and ascribed each to either a controllable or uncontrollable factor. Finds that higher controllability was linked to greater anger and less pity, greater pity was predictive of a greater willingness to help, and anger did not predict help judgments. (CMK)

  16. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  17. Factors that Affect Synergies in Mergers, at Banking Sector: Simulation with a Dynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiannis, Triantafyllopoulos; Sakas, Damianos P.; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    This article examines the factors that affect the intended synergy following an M&A, as they have emerged from the study of the M&A's that have taken place as yet in the Bank Sector of an EU country. On the basis of quality research, dynamic simulation models have been created for two out of the five factors.

  18. Multiple Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subtypes in the Mouse Amygdala Regulate Affective Behaviors and Response to Social Stress.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Yann S; Fote, Gianna M; Blakeman, Sam; Cahuzac, Emma L M; Newbold, Sylvia A; Picciotto, Marina R

    2016-05-01

    Electrophysiological and neurochemical studies implicate cholinergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in behaviors related to stress. Both animal studies and human clinical trials suggest that drugs that alter nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity can affect behaviors related to mood and anxiety. Clinical studies also suggest that abnormalities in cholinergic signaling are associated with major depressive disorder, whereas pre-clinical studies have implicated both β2 subunit-containing (β2*) and α7 nAChRs in the effects of nicotine in models of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. We therefore investigated whether nAChR signaling in the amygdala contributes to stress-mediated behaviors in mice. Local infusion of the non-competitive non-selective nAChR antagonist mecamylamine or viral-mediated downregulation of the β2 or α7 nAChR subunit in the amygdala all induced robust anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in several mouse behavioral models. Further, whereas α7 nAChR subunit knockdown was somewhat more effective at decreasing anxiety-like behavior, only β2 subunit knockdown decreased resilience to social defeat stress and c-fos immunoreactivity in the BLA. In contrast, α7, but not β2, subunit knockdown effectively reversed the effect of increased ACh signaling in a mouse model of depression. These results suggest that signaling through β2* nAChRs is essential for baseline excitability of the BLA, and a decrease in signaling through β2 nAChRs alters anxiety- and depression-like behaviors even in unstressed animals. In contrast, stimulation of α7 nAChRs by acetylcholine may mediate the increased depression-like behaviors observed during the hypercholinergic state observed in depressed individuals.

  19. Differential Regulation of PDE5 Expression in Left and Right Ventricles of Feline Hypertrophy Models

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaoyin; Margulies, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though long known to affect smooth muscle biology, recent studies indicate that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is also expressed in myocardium. Recognizing that the regulation of PDE5 in hypertrophy is not well understood, we assessed the response of PDE5 expression and the level of cGMP-dependent kinase I (cGKI) in the left and right ventricles of feline hypertrophy models. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a cDNA library of feline aortic smooth muscle cells, we identified and cloned PDE5 cDNA for the first time in this species. The sequence shares 98% identity with its human orthologue at the amino acid level. E. coli expression of the cloned allele allowed selection of antibodies with appropriate specificity, facilitating the analysis of PDE5 expression in feline models created by selective proximal aortic (Ao) or pulmonary artery (PA) banding that resulted in hypertrophy of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively. We demonstrated that PDE5 expression responded differentially with a decreased expression in the LV and an increased expression in the RV in the Ao-banded model. Similarly, in the PA-banded model, LV showed reduced expression while the RV expression was unaltered. In addition, the expression of cGKI was significantly decreased in the RV of Ao-banded group, correlating inversely with the increase in PDE5 expression. Conclusions/Significance The differential regulation of PDE5 and cGKI expression suggests that the mechanisms involved in hypertrophy could be different in RV vs. LV. Reciprocal PDE5 and cGKI expression in the RV of Ao-banded model suggests functional significance for PDE5 up-regulation. PMID:21625548

  20. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6-17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors.

  1. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  2. The Use of Gestural Modes to Enhance Expressive Conducting at All Levels of Entering Behavior through the Use of Illustrators, Affect Displays and Regulators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the use of illustrators, affect displays and regulators, which I consider to be non-verbal communication categories through which conductors can employ a more varied approach to body use, gesture and non-verbal communication. These categories employ the use of a conductor's hands and arms, face, eyes and body in a way…

  3. Phosphorylation Affects DNA-Binding of the Senescence-Regulating bZIP Transcription Factor GBF1

    PubMed Central

    Smykowski, Anja; Fischer, Stefan M.; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Massive changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana during onset and progression of leaf senescence imply a central role for transcription factors. While many transcription factors are themselves up- or down-regulated during senescence, the bZIP transcription factor G-box-binding factor 1 (GBF1/bZIP41) is constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis leaf tissue but at the same time triggers the onset of leaf senescence, suggesting posttranscriptional mechanisms for senescence-specific GBF1 activation. Here we show that GBF1 is phosphorylated by the threonine/serine CASEIN KINASE II (CKII) in vitro and that CKII phosphorylation had a negative effect on GBF1 DNA-binding to G-boxes of two direct target genes, CATALASE2 and RBSCS1a. Phosphorylation mimicry at three serine positions in the basic region of GBF1 also had a negative effect on DNA-binding. Kinase assays revealed that CKII phosphorylates at least one serine in the basic domain but has additional phosphorylation sites outside this domain. Two different ckII α subunit1 and one α subunit2 T-DNA insertion lines showed no visible senescence phenotype, but in all lines the expression of the senescence marker gene SAG12 was remarkably diminished. A model is presented suggesting that senescence-specific GBF1 activation might be achieved by lowering the phosphorylation of GBF1 by CKII. PMID:27135347

  4. ERK2 protein regulates the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells without affecting their mobilization and differentiation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Carcamo-Orive, Ivan; Tejados, Naiara; Delgado, Jesus; Gaztelumendi, Ainhoa; Otaegui, David; Lang, Valerie; Trigueros, Cesar

    2008-05-01

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC), derived mainly from adult bone marrow, are valuable models for the study of processes involved in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. As the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) signalling pathway is a major contributor to cellular growth, differentiation and survival, we have studied the functions of this kinase in hMSC activity. Ablation of ERK2 gene expression (but not ERK1) by RNA interference significantly reduced proliferation of hMSC. This reduction was due to a defect in Cyclin D1 expression and subsequent arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. hMSC growth is enhanced through culture medium supplementation with growth factors (GFs) such as Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) or Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). However, these supplements could not rescue the defect observed after ERK2 knockdown, suggesting a common signalling pathway used by these GFs for proliferation. In contrast, ERK1/2 may be dissociated from chemotactic signalling induced by the same GFs. Additionally, hMSCs were capable of differentiating into adipocytes even in the absence of either ERK1 or ERK2 proteins. Our data show that hMSCs do not require cell division to enter the adipogenic differentiation process, indicating that clonal amplification of these cells is not a critical step. However, cell-cell contact seems to be an essential requirement to be able to differentiate into mature adipocytes.

  5. A self-regulation resource model of self-compassion and health behavior intentions in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Fuschia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested a self-regulation resource model (SRRM) of self-compassion and health-promoting behavior intentions in emerging adults. The SRRM posits that positive and negative affect in conjunction with health self-efficacy serve as valuable self-regulation resources to promote health behaviors. Methods An online survey was completed by 403 emerging adults recruited from the community and a Canadian University in late 2008. Multiple meditation analyses with bootstrapping controlling for demographics and current health behaviors tested the proposed explanatory role of the self-regulation resource variables (affect and self-efficacy) in linking self-compassion to health behavior intentions. Results Self-compassion was positively associated with intentions to engage in health-promoting behaviors. The multiple mediation model explained 23% of the variance in health behavior intentions, with significant indirect effects through health self-efficacy and low negative affect. Conclusion Interventions aimed at increasing self-compassion in emerging adults may help promote positive health behaviors, perhaps through increasing self-regulation resources. PMID:26844074

  6. Accuracy of travel time distribution (TTD) models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, and model and tracer selection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yong; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Landon, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical models of the travel time distribution (TTD) from a source area to a sample location are often used to estimate groundwater ages and solute concentration trends. The accuracies of these models are not well known for geologically complex aquifers. In this study, synthetic datasets were used to quantify the accuracy of four analytical TTD models as affected by TTD complexity, observation errors, model selection, and tracer selection. Synthetic TTDs and tracer data were generated from existing numerical models with complex hydrofacies distributions for one public-supply well and 14 monitoring wells in the Central Valley, California. Analytical TTD models were calibrated to synthetic tracer data, and prediction errors were determined for estimates of TTDs and conservative tracer (NO3−) concentrations. Analytical models included a new, scale-dependent dispersivity model (SDM) for two-dimensional transport from the watertable to a well, and three other established analytical models. The relative influence of the error sources (TTD complexity, observation error, model selection, and tracer selection) depended on the type of prediction. Geological complexity gave rise to complex TTDs in monitoring wells that strongly affected errors of the estimated TTDs. However, prediction errors for NO3− and median age depended more on tracer concentration errors. The SDM tended to give the most accurate estimates of the vertical velocity and other predictions, although TTD model selection had minor effects overall. Adding tracers improved predictions if the new tracers had different input histories. Studies using TTD models should focus on the factors that most strongly affect the desired predictions.

  7. An investigation of a quantum probability model for the constructive effect of affective evaluation.

    PubMed

    White, Lee C; Barqué-Duran, Albert; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2016-01-13

    The idea that choices can have a constructive effect has received a great deal of empirical support. The act of choosing appears to influence subsequent preferences for the options available. Recent research has proposed a cognitive model based on quantum probability (QP), which suggests that whether or not a participant provides an affective evaluation for a positively or negatively valenced stimulus can also be constructive and so, for example, influence the affective evaluation of a second oppositely valenced stimulus. However, there are some outstanding methodological questions in relation to this previous research. This paper reports the results of three experiments designed to resolve these questions. Experiment 1, using a binary response format, provides partial support for the interaction predicted by the QP model; and Experiment 2, which controls for the length of time participants have to respond, fully supports the QP model. Finally, Experiment 3 sought to determine whether the key effect can generalize beyond affective judgements about visual stimuli. Using judgements about the trustworthiness of well-known people, the predictions of the QP model were confirmed. Together, these three experiments provide further support for the QP model of the constructive effect of simple evaluations.

  8. An attachment insecurity model of negative affect among women seeking treatment for an eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Kowal, John; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Virley, Barbara; Bissada, Hany

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of attachment insecurity in a clinical sample of 268 eating disordered women. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, BMI, perceived pressure to diet, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect were assessed. A heterogeneous sample of treatment seeking women with a diagnosed eating disorder completed psychometric tests prior to receiving treatment. The data were analysed using structural equation modeling. Fit indices indicated that the hypothesized model fit adequately to the data. Although cross-sectional in nature, the data suggested that attachment insecurity may lead to negative affect. As well, attachment insecurity may lead to body dissatisfaction, which in turn may lead to restrained eating among women with eating disorders. Attachment insecurity could be a possible vulnerability factor for the development of eating disorder symptoms among women.

  9. The DEDEPRO[TM] Model for Regulating Teaching and Learning: Recent Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesus; Justicia, Fernando Justicia

    2007-01-01

    Research on "self-regulated learning" has evolved from classic models focused exclusively on the student and the learning process, to models which take into consideration the context or the teaching process, as an element which can stimulate self-regulation in students. The DEDEPRO[TM] model is offered as a model of the latter type,…

  10. Attention bias in youth: associations with youth and mother's depressive symptoms moderated by emotion regulation and affective dynamics during family interactions.

    PubMed

    Connell, Arin M; Patton, Emily; Klostermann, Susan; Hughes-Scalise, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential role of attention bias for emotional stimuli as a possible cognitive risk factor for depression in youth. However, differences in youth emotion regulation or maternal affect may moderate the association between maternal and youth depression and youth attention biases. The current study investigated the relationship between maternal and youth depressive symptoms and youth (aged 11-17 years) attention bias for sad and happy faces in 59 mother-youth dyads, examining whether positive and negative maternal affect observed during structured interaction tasks or youth emotion regulation tendencies moderated associations between maternal and youth depression and attention biases. Youth suppression interacted with maternal and youth depression to predict sad attentional biases in youth, while maternal positive affect interacted with maternal depression to predict happy attention biases in youth.

  11. miR-342-3p affects hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation via regulating NF-κB pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Yubao

    2015-02-13

    Recent research indicates that non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) help regulate basic cellular processes in many types of cancer cells. We hypothesized that overexpression of miR-342-3p might affect proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. After confirming overexpression of miR-342-3p with qRT-PCR, MTT assay showed that HCC cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by miR-342-3p, and that it significantly decreased BrdU-positive cell proliferation by nearly sixfold. Searching for targets using three algorithms we found that miR-342-3p is related to the NF-κB pathway and luciferase assay found that IKK-γ, TAB2 and TAB3 are miR-342-3p target genes. Results of western blot on extracted nuclear proteins of HepG2 and HCT-116 cells showed that miR-342-3p reduced and miR-342-3p-in increased p65 nuclear levels and qRT-PCR found that NF-κB pathway downstream genes were downregulated by miR-342-3p and upregulated by miR-342-3p-in, confirming that miR-342 targets NF-κB pathway. Overexpression of Ikk-γ, TAB2 and TAB3 partially rescued HCC cells proliferation inhibited by miR-342-3p. Using the GSE54751 database we evaluated expression from 10 HCC samples, which strongly suggested downregulation of miR-342-3p and we also found inverse expression between miR-342-3p and its targets IKK-γ, TAB2 and TAB3 from 71 HCC samples. Our results show that miR-342-3p has a significant role in HCC cell proliferation and is suitable for investigation of therapeutic targets. - Highlights: • MiR-342-3p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. • MiR-342-3p targets IKK-γ, TAB2 and TAB3 genes. • MiR-342-3p downregulates NF-kB signaling pathway. • MiR-342-3p is downregulated in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma samples. • The expression of miR-342-3p and its target gene is inversely related.

  12. 75 FR 41084 - Amendments to Regulations Regarding Major Life-Changing Events Affecting Income-Related Monthly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... those described in 20 CFR 418.1205 to be major life-changing events. In addition, under our current... beneficiary's spouse cannot direct the loss of income-producing property. While our current regulations state...-changing event under our current regulations. To ensure that Medicare Part B beneficiaries who experience...

  13. Decreasing the mitochondrial synthesis of malate in potato tubers does not affect plastidial starch synthesis, suggesting that the physiological regulation of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase is context dependent.

    PubMed

    Szecowka, Marek; Osorio, Sonia; Obata, Toshihiro; Araújo, Wagner L; Rohrmann, Johannes; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2012-12-01

    Modulation of the malate content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit by altering the expression of mitochondrially localized enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle resulted in enhanced transitory starch accumulation and subsequent effects on postharvest fruit physiology. In this study, we assessed whether such a manipulation would similarly affect starch biosynthesis in an organ that displays a linear, as opposed to a transient, kinetic of starch accumulation. For this purpose, we used RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of fumarase in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the tuber-specific B33 promoter. Despite displaying similar reductions in both fumarase activity and malate content as observed in tomato fruit expressing the same construct, the resultant transformants were neither characterized by an increased flux to, or accumulation of, starch, nor by alteration in yield parameters. Since the effect in tomato was mechanistically linked to derepression of the reaction catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, we evaluated whether the lack of effect on starch biosynthesis was due to differences in enzymatic properties of the enzyme from potato and tomato or rather due to differential subcellular compartmentation of reductant in the different organs. The results are discussed in the context both of current models of metabolic compartmentation and engineering.

  14. Nonlinear software sensor for monitoring genetic regulation processes with noise and modeling errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Torres, L. A.; Rosu, H. C.; Argüello, G.; Collado-Vides, J.

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear control techniques by means of a software sensor that are commonly used in chemical engineering could be also applied to genetic regulation processes. We provide here a realistic formulation of this procedure by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise, which is usually found in experimental data. Besides, we include model errors, meaning that we assume we do not know the nonlinear regulation function of the process. In order to illustrate this procedure, we employ the Goodwin dynamics of the concentrations [B. C. Goodwin, Temporal Oscillations in Cells (Academic, New York, 1963)] in the simple form recently applied to single gene systems and some operon cases [H. De Jong, J. Comput. Biol. 9, 67 (2002)], which involves the dynamics of the mRNA, given protein and metabolite concentrations. Further, we present results for a three gene case in coregulated sets of transcription units as they occur in prokaryotes. However, instead of considering their full dynamics, we use only the data of the metabolites and a designed software sensor. We also show, more generally, that it is possible to rebuild the complete set of nonmeasured concentrations despite the uncertainties in the regulation function or, even more, in the case of not knowing the mRNA dynamics. In addition, the rebuilding of concentrations is not affected by the perturbation due to the additive white Gaussian noise and also we managed to filter the noisy output of the biological system.

  15. [Baroreflex sensitivity: diagnostic importance, methods of determination and a model of baroreflex blood-pressure regulation].

    PubMed

    Svacinová, J; Moudr, J; Honzíková, N

    2013-01-01

    Baroreflex regulation of blood pressure primarily moderates its fluctuations and also affects mean blood pressure. Heart rate baroreflex sensitivity is described as changes of the inter-beat interval induced by a change of blood pressure of 1 mmHg (BRS). BRS is decreased in many cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiac failure, etc.). Decreased BRS in disposed individuals, especially after myocardial infarction, increases the risk of sudden cardiac death. Therefore, early diagnosis of BRS decrease gains in importance. This article describes different methods of determination of baroreflex sensitivity. The methods are based on evaluation of the spontaneous fluctuation of heart rate and blood pressure (spectral, sequential or nonlinear methods), or of primary changes of blood pressure induced by a vasoactive substance or a physiological manoeuvre and corresponding changes of cardiac intervals (Valsalva manoeuvre, phenylephrine administration). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages resulting from a different difficulty of calculation or from inclusion of different deviations in the results, which are not directly linked with baroreflex. Baroreflex regulating total peripheral resistance is less described. A mathematical model of baroreflex blood pressure regulation by fluctuation of heart rate and peripheral resistance is presented in this paper.

  16. Nonlinear software sensor for monitoring genetic regulation processes with noise and modeling errors.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Junquera, V; Torres, L A; Rosu, H C; Argüello, G; Collado-Vides, J

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear control techniques by means of a software sensor that are commonly used in chemical engineering could be also applied to genetic regulation processes. We provide here a realistic formulation of this procedure by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise, which is usually found in experimental data. Besides, we include model errors, meaning that we assume we do not know the nonlinear regulation function of the process. In order to illustrate this procedure, we employ the Goodwin dynamics of the concentrations [B. C. Goodwin, (Academic, New York, 1963)] in the simple form recently applied to single gene systems and some operon cases [H. De Jong, J. Comput. Biol. 9, 67 (2002)], which involves the dynamics of the mRNA, given protein and metabolite concentrations. Further, we present results for a three gene case in coregulated sets of transcription units as they occur in prokaryotes. However, instead of considering their full dynamics, we use only the data of the metabolites and a designed software sensor. We also show, more generally, that it is possible to rebuild the complete set of nonmeasured concentrations despite the uncertainties in the regulation function or, even more, in the case of not knowing the mRNA dynamics. In addition, the rebuilding of concentrations is not affected by the perturbation due to the additive white Gaussian noise and also we managed to filter the noisy output of the biological system.

  17. Concrete modelling for expertise of structures affected by alkali aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Grimal, E.; Sellier, A.; Multon, S.; Le Pape, Y.; Bourdarot, E.

    2010-04-15

    Alkali aggregate reaction (AAR) affects numerous civil engineering structures and causes irreversible expansion and cracking. In order to control the safety level and the maintenance cost of its hydraulic dams, Electricite de France (EDF) must reach better comprehension and better prediction of the expansion phenomena. For this purpose, EDF has developed a numerical model based on the finite element method in order to assess the mechanical behaviour of damaged structures. The model takes the following phenomena into account: concrete creep, the stress induced by the formation of AAR gel and the mechanical damage. A rheological model was developed to assess the coupling between the different phenomena (creep, AAR and anisotropic damage). Experimental results were used to test the model. The results show the capability of the model to predict the experimental behaviour of beams subjected to AAR. In order to obtain such prediction, it is necessary to take all the phenomena occurring in the concrete into consideration.

  18. Acupuncture alleviates the affective dimension of pain in a rat model of inflammatory hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Meng, Xianze; Li, Aihui; Xin, Jiajia; Berman, Brian M.; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Rui-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Although studies demonstrate that electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates the sensory dimension of pain, they have not addressed EA’s effect on the affective dimension. An inflammatory pain rat model, produced by a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) injection into the hind paw, was combined with a conditioned place avoidance (CPA) test to determine EA’s effects and its underpinning mechanism on the affective dimension of pain. CFA-injected rats showed place aversion, i.e. the affective dimension of pain, by spending less time in a pain-paired compartment after conditioning than before, while saline-injected rats did not. CFA rats given EA treatment at GB30 before a postconditioning test showed no aversion to the pain-paired compartment, indicating that EA inhibited the affective response. Intra-rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) administration of a κ-, but not μ-opioid receptor antagonist, blocked EA action. These data demonstrate that EA activates opioid receptors in the rACC to inhibit the affective dimension of pain. PMID:21695393

  19. [Greenhouse tomato transpiration and its affecting factors: correlation analysis and model simulation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong-Zhe; Li, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Sun, San-Jie; Chen, Kai-Li

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the correlations between the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato and the related affecting factors such as total leaf area per plant, soil relative moisture content, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation under different treatments of supplementary irrigation. A regression model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato was established. There existed significant linear correlations between the daily transpiration and the test affecting factors, and the affecting factors had complicated mutual effects. Soil relative moisture content was the main decision factor of the transpiration, with the decision coefficient being 27.4%, and daily minimum relative humidity was the main limiting factor, with the decision coefficient being -119.7%. The square value of the regression coefficient (R2) between the predicted and measured tomato daily transpiration was 0.81, root mean squared error (RMSE) was 68.52 g, and relative prediction error (RE) was 19.4%, suggesting that the regression model established by using the main affecting factors selected through path analysis could better simulate the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato.

  20. Examining the Factors Affecting PDA Acceptance among Physicians: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Basak, Ecem; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Calisir, Fethi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the intention to use personal digital assistant (PDA) technology among physicians in Turkey using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A structural equation-modeling approach was used to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to use PDA technology. The data were collected from 339 physicians in Turkey. Results indicated that 71% of the physicians' intention to use PDA technology is explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. On comparing both, the perceived ease of use has the strongest effect, whereas the effect of perceived enjoyment on behavioral intention to use is found to be insignificant. This study concludes with the recommendations for managers and possible future research.

  1. Using representations in geometry: a model of students' cognitive and affective performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaoura, Areti

    2014-05-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs in mathematics, as a dimension of the affective domain, are related with students' performance on solving tasks and mainly on overcoming cognitive obstacles. The present study investigated the interrelations of cognitive performance on geometry and young students' self-efficacy beliefs about using representations for solving geometrical tasks. The emphasis was on confirming a theoretical model for the primary-school and secondary-school students and identifying the differences and similarities for the two ages. A quantitative study was developed and data were collected from 1086 students in Grades 5-8. Confirmatory factor analysis affirmed the existence of a coherent model of affective dimensions about the use of representations for understanding the geometrical concepts, which becomes more stable across the educational levels.

  2. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty.

  3. Bioelectrical regulation of cell cycle and the planarian model system.

    PubMed

    Barghouth, Paul G; Thiruvalluvan, Manish; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2015-10-01

    Cell cycle regulation through the manipulation of endogenous membrane potentials offers tremendous opportunities to control cellular processes during tissue repair and cancer formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which biophysical signals modulate the cell cycle remain underappreciated and poorly understood. Cells in complex organisms generate and maintain a constant voltage gradient across the plasma membrane known as the transmembrane potential. This potential, generated through the combined efforts of various ion transporters, pumps and channels, is known to drive a wide range of cellular processes such as cellular proliferation, migration and tissue regeneration while its deregulation can lead to tumorigenesis. These cellular regulatory events, coordinated by ionic flow, correspond to a new and exciting field termed molecular bioelectricity. We aim to present a brief discussion on the biophysical machinery involving membrane potential and the mechanisms mediating cell cycle progression and cancer transformation. Furthermore, we present the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a tractable model system for understanding principles behind molecular bioelectricity at both the cellular and organismal level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  4. Bioelectrical Regulation of Cell Cycle and the Planarian Model System

    PubMed Central

    Barghouth, Paul G.; Thiruvalluvan, Manish; Oviedo, Néstor J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation through the manipulation of endogenous membrane potentials offers tremendous opportunities to control cellular processes during tissue repair and cancer formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which biophysical signals modulate the cell cycle remain underappreciated and poorly understood. Cells in complex organisms generate and maintain a constant voltage gradient across the plasma membrane known as the transmembrane potential. This potential, generated through the combined efforts of various ion transporters, pumps and channels, is known to drive a wide range of cellular processes such as cellular proliferation, migration and tissue regeneration while its deregulation can lead to tumorigenesis. These cellular regulatory events, coordinated by ionic flow, correspond to a new and exciting field termed molecular bioelectricity. We aim to present a brief discussion on the biophysical machinery involving membrane potential and the mechanisms mediating cell cycle progression and cancer transformation. Furthermore, we present the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a tractable model system for understanding principles behind molecular bioelectricity at both the cellular and organismal level. PMID:25749155

  5. bHLH142 regulates various metabolic pathway-related genes to affect pollen development and anther dehiscence in rice.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Khurana, Reema; Malik, Naveen; Badoni, Saurabh; Parida, Swarup K; Kapoor, Sanjay; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-06

    Apposite development of anther and its dehiscence are important for the reproductive success of the flowering plants. Recently, bHLH142, a bHLH transcription factor encoding gene of rice has been found to show anther-specific expression and mutant analyses suggest its functions in regulating tapetum differentiation and degeneration during anther development. However, our study on protein level expression and gain-of-function phenotype revealed novel aspects of its regulation and function during anther development. Temporally dissimilar pattern of bHLH142 transcript and polypeptide accumulation suggested regulation of its expression beyond transcriptional level. Overexpression of bHLH142 in transgenic rice resulted in indehiscent anthers and aborted pollen grains. Defects in septum and stomium rupture caused anther indehiscence while pollen abortion phenotype attributed to abnormal degeneration of the tapetum. Furthermore, RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of tetrad and mature pollen stage anthers of wild type and bHLH142(OE)plants suggested that it might regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell wall modification, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cell death-related genes during rice anther development. Thus, bHLH142 is an anther-specific gene whose expression is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional/translational levels. It plays a role in pollen maturation and anther dehiscence by regulating expression of various metabolic pathways-related genes.

  6. bHLH142 regulates various metabolic pathway-related genes to affect pollen development and anther dehiscence in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Khurana, Reema; Malik, Naveen; Badoni, Saurabh; Parida, Swarup K.; Kapoor, Sanjay; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Apposite development of anther and its dehiscence are important for the reproductive success of the flowering plants. Recently, bHLH142, a bHLH transcription factor encoding gene of rice has been found to show anther-specific expression and mutant analyses suggest its functions in regulating tapetum differentiation and degeneration during anther development. However, our study on protein level expression and gain-of-function phenotype revealed novel aspects of its regulation and function during anther development. Temporally dissimilar pattern of bHLH142 transcript and polypeptide accumulation suggested regulation of its expression beyond transcriptional level. Overexpression of bHLH142 in transgenic rice resulted in indehiscent anthers and aborted pollen grains. Defects in septum and stomium rupture caused anther indehiscence while pollen abortion phenotype attributed to abnormal degeneration of the tapetum. Furthermore, RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of tetrad and mature pollen stage anthers of wild type and bHLH142OEplants suggested that it might regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell wall modification, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cell death-related genes during rice anther development. Thus, bHLH142 is an anther-specific gene whose expression is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional/translational levels. It plays a role in pollen maturation and anther dehiscence by regulating expression of various metabolic pathways-related genes. PMID:28262713

  7. A quantitative and dynamic model for plant stem cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Geier, Florian; Lohmann, Jan U; Gerstung, Moritz; Maier, Annette T; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Plants maintain pools of totipotent stem cells throughout their entire life. These stem cells are embedded within specialized tissues called meristems, which form the growing points of the organism. The shoot apical meristem of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana is subdivided into several distinct domains, which execute diverse biological functions, such as tissue organization, cell-proliferation and differentiation. The number of cells required for growth and organ formation changes over the course of a plants life, while the structure of the meristem remains remarkably constant. Thus, regulatory systems must be in place, which allow for an adaptation of cell proliferation within the shoot apical meristem, while maintaining the organization at the tissue level. To advance our understanding of this dynamic tissue behavior, we measured domain sizes as well as cell division rates of the shoot apical meristem under various environmental conditions, which cause adaptations in meristem size. Based on our results we developed a mathematical model to explain the observed changes by a cell pool size dependent regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, which is able to correctly predict CLV3 and WUS over-expression phenotypes. While the model shows stem cell homeostasis under constant growth conditions, it predicts a variation in stem cell number under changing conditions. Consistent with our experimental data this behavior is correlated with variations in cell proliferation. Therefore, we investigate different signaling mechanisms, which could stabilize stem cell number despite variations in cell proliferation. Our results shed light onto the dynamic constraints of stem cell pool maintenance in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis in different environmental conditions and developmental states.

  8. The diminishing criterion model for metacognitive regulation of time investment.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Rakefet

    2014-06-01

    According to the Discrepancy Reduction Model for metacognitive regulation, people invest time in cognitive tasks in a goal-driven manner until their metacognitive judgment, either judgment of learning (JOL) or confidence, meets their preset goal. This stopping rule should lead to judgments above the goal, regardless of invested time. However, in many tasks, time is negatively correlated with JOL and confidence, with low judgments after effortful processing. This pattern has often been explained as stemming from bottom-up fluency effects on the judgments. While accepting this explanation for simple tasks, like memorizing pairs of familiar words, the proposed Diminishing Criterion Model (DCM) challenges this explanation for complex tasks, like problem solving. Under the DCM, people indeed invest effort in a goal-driven manner. However, investing more time leads to increasing compromise on the goal, resulting in negative time-judgment correlations. Experiment 1 exposed that with word-pair memorization, negative correlations are found only with minimal fluency and difficulty variability, whereas in problem solving, they are found consistently. As predicted, manipulations of low incentives (Experiment 2) and time pressure (Experiment 3) in problem solving revealed greater compromise as more time was invested in a problem. Although intermediate confidence ratings rose during the solving process, the result was negative time-confidence correlations (Experiments 3, 4, and 5), and this was not eliminated by the opportunity to respond "don't know" (Experiments 4 and 5). The results suggest that negative time-judgment correlations in complex tasks stem from top-down regulatory processes with a criterion that diminishes with invested time.

  9. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William A.; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects—some good and some bad—on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM). Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes. PMID:27187319

  10. The role of affective experience in work motivation: Test of a conceptual model

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; BARTUNEK, JEAN M.; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this paper was to contribute to understanding of the crucial role of emotion in work motivation by testing a conceptual model developed by Seo, Barrett, and Bartunek (2004) that predicted the impacts of core affect on three behavioral outcomes of work motivation, generative-defensive orientation, effort, and persistence. We tested the model using an Internet-based investment simulation combined with an experience sampling procedure. Consistent with the predictions of the model, pleasantness was positively related to all three of the predicted indices. For the most part, these effects occurred indirectly via its relationships with expectancy, valence, and progress judgment components. Also as predicted by the model, activation was directly and positively related to effort. PMID:21785527

  11. Comparing Models for Generating a System of Activation and Inhibition of Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of activation and negative affect on self-regulation. The activation factors are self-determination, disengagement, initiative, and persistence while negative affect is composed of worry, anxiety, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. Separate measures were used for each factor and administered to…

  12. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  13. Have changes to meat and poultry food safety regulation in Australia affected the prevalence of Salmonella or of salmonellosis?

    PubMed

    Sumner, John; Raven, Geoff; Givney, Rod

    2004-04-15

    During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. However, in the 5 years since regulatory changes took full effect, rates of salmonellosis have not decreased (surveillance and reporting systems have remained unchanged). Using statistics gathered by the National Enteric Pathogens Surveillance Scheme, an attempt was made to link Salmonella serovars isolated from meat and poultry with those causing salmonellosis. Two periods were studied, 1993/1994, before regulations were introduced, and 2000/2001, when regulations should be having an effect. For red meat, the same serovars were prominent among the top 10 isolates both before and after regulation, and there was little linkage with salmonelloses. For poultry, frequently isolated serovars differed pre- and post-regulation, however, in both periods there was some linkage between serovars isolated from poultry and those causing salmonelloses. Using published and unpublished survey data, it was concluded that there had been improvements in microbiological quality of red meat and poultry over the same timeframe as regulatory changes. That these improvements apparently have not carried through to reduced case-rates for salmonellosis may be due to numerous causes, including lack of control in the food processing, food service and home sectors. The present paper illustrates difficulties faced by governments in measuring public health outcomes of changes to food hygiene regulation.

  14. An evaluation of the stress-negative affect model in explaining alcohol use: the role of components of negative affect and coping style.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah Siodmok; Cheong, JeeWon; Manuck, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    The stress-negative affect model for alcohol use was examined. The mediating roles of different components of negative affect were tested in the context of coping style. Data from 1,057 drinking adults (Mage = 44.45) and 352 drinking college students (Mage = 19.07) collected during 2001-2005 and in 2010, respectively, were examined separately. Participants completed self-administered measures of alcohol use, coping strategies, negative life events, and negative affect. A structural equation modeling framework detected stress-related drinking only in the adult sample. Sadness, anger, and guilt were significant mediators and the significant pathways differed based on coping style. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  15. The diageotropica mutation and synthetic auxins differentially affect the expression of auxin-regulated genes in tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Mito, N; Bennett, A B

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutation, diageotropica (dgt), on the accumulation of mRNA corresponding to tomato homologs of three auxin-regulated genes, LeAux, LeSAUR, and Lepar, was examined. The dgt mutation inhibited the induction of LeAux and LeSAUR mRNA accumulation by naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) but had no effect on NAA-induced Lepar mRNA accumulation. The effect of two synthetic auxins, NAA and 3,7-dichloro-8-quinoline carboxylic acid (quinclorac), on the accumulation of LeAux, LeSAUR, and Lepar mRNA was also examined. Quinclorac induced the expression of each of the auxin-regulated genes, confirming its proposed mode of herbicidal action as an auxin-type herbicide. Concentrations of quinclorac at least 100-fold higher than NAA were required to induce LeAux and LeSAUR mRNA accumulation to similar levels, whereas Lepar mRNA accumulation was induced by similar concentrations of NAA and quinclorac. Collectively, these data suggest the presence of two auxin-dependent signal transduction pathways: one that regulates LeSAUR and LeAux mRNA accumulation and is interrupted by the dgt mutation and a second that regulates Lepar mRNA accumulation and is not defective in dgt tomato hypocotyls. These two auxin-regulated signal transduction pathways can be further discriminated by the action of two synthetic auxins, NAA and quinclorac. PMID:7480327

  16. Down-regulation of BK channel expression in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Otalora, Luis F; Hernandez, Eder F; Arshadmansab, Massoud F; Francisco, Sebastian; Willis, Michael; Ermolinsky, Boris; Zarei, Masoud; Knaus, Hans-Guenther; Garrido-Sanabria, Emilio R

    2008-03-20

    In the hippocampus, BK channels are preferentially localized in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals including mossy fibers where they are thought to play an important role regulating excessive glutamate release during hyperactive states. Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK, MaxiK, Slo) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of genetic epilepsy. However, the role of BK channels in acquired mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) remains unknown. Here we used immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), Western immunoblotting and RT-PCR to investigate the expression pattern of the alpha-pore-forming subunit of BK channels in the hippocampus and cortex of chronically epileptic rats obtained by the pilocarpine model of MTLE. All epileptic rats experiencing recurrent spontaneous seizures exhibited a significant down-regulation of BK channel immunostaining in the mossy fibers at the hilus and stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. Quantitative analysis of immunofluorescence signals by LSCM revealed a significant 47% reduction in BK channel immunofluorescent signals in epileptic rats when compared to age-matched non-epileptic control rats. These data correlate with a similar reduction in BK channel protein levels and transcripts in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data indicate a seizure-related down-regulation of BK channels in chronically epileptic rats. Further functional assays are necessary to determine whether altered BK channel expression is an acquired channelopathy or a compensatory mechanism affecting the network excitability in MTLE. Moreover, seizure-mediated BK down-regulation may disturb neuronal excitability and presynaptic control at glutamatergic terminals triggering exaggerated glutamate release and seizures.

  17. Mental Imagery, Impact, and Affect: A Mediation Model for Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Dickert, Stephan; Kleber, Janet; Västfjäll, Daniel; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the puzzling phenomena in philanthropy is that people can show strong compassion for identified individual victims but remain unmoved by catastrophes that affect large numbers of victims. Two prominent findings in research on charitable giving reflect this idiosyncrasy: The (1) identified victim and (2) victim number effects. The first of these suggests that identifying victims increases donations and the second refers to the finding that people’s willingness to donate often decreases as the number of victims increases. While these effects have been documented in the literature, their underlying psychological processes need further study. We propose a model in which identified victim and victim number effects operate through different cognitive and affective mechanisms. In two experiments we present empirical evidence for such a model and show that different affective motivations (donor-focused vs. victim-focused feelings) are related to the cognitive processes of impact judgments and mental imagery. Moreover, we argue that different mediation pathways exist for identifiability and victim number effects. PMID:26859848

  18. Nitric oxide affects ERK signaling through down-regulation of MAP kinase phosphatase levels during larval development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Ercolesi, Elena; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis larval development and metamorphosis require a complex interplay of events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, MAP kinases (ERK, JNK) and caspase-3 activation. We have previously shown that NO levels affect the rate of metamorphosis, regulate caspase activity and promote an oxidative stress pathway, resulting in protein nitration. Here, we report that NO down-regulates MAP kinase phosphatases (mkps) expression affecting positively ERK signaling. By pharmacological approach, we observed that the reduction of endogenous NO levels caused a decrease of ERK phosphorylation, whereas increasing levels of NO induced ERK activation. We have also identified the ERK gene network affected by NO, including mpk1, mpk3 and some key developmental genes by quantitative gene expression analysis. We demonstrate that NO induces an ERK-independent down-regulation of mkp1 and mkp3, responsible for maintaining the ERK phosphorylation levels necessary for transcription of key metamorphic genes, such as the hormone receptor rev-erb and the van willebrand protein vwa1c. These results add new insights into the role played by NO during larval development and metamorphosis in Ciona, highlighting the cross-talk between different signaling pathways.

  19. Heterogeneous processes affecting metal ion transport in the presence of organic ligands: Reactive transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Cetin

    2007-04-01

    The development of models to accurately simulate metal ion transport through saturated systems under variable chemical conditions, e.g., in systems containing organic ligands (L) such as natural organic matter (NOM), has two essential aspects: (1) establishing the ability to simulate metal ion sorption to aquifer solids over a range of metal/ligand ratios; and (2) to incorporate this ability to simulate metal speciation over a range in chemical conditions (e.g., pH, ligand activity) into mass transport models. Modeling approaches to evaluate metal ion sorption and transport in the presence of NOM include: (1) isotherm-based transport models, and (2) multicomponent (MC) transport models. The accuracy of transport models depends on how well the chemical interactions affecting metal ion transport in the presence of organic ligands (e.g., metal/ligand complexation) are described in transport equations. The isotherm-based transport models often fail to accurately describe metal ion transport in the presence of NOM since these models treat NOM as a single solute despite the fact that NOM is a multicomponent mixture of subcomponents with different chemical and polyfunctional behavior. On the other hand, the calculations presented in this study suggest that a multicomponent reactive transport model, in conjunction with a mechanistic modeling approach for the description of metal ion binding by NOM in a manner conducive to the application of surface complexation modeling (SCM), can effectively be used as an important predictive tool in simulating metal ion sorption and transport under variable chemical conditions in the presence of NOM.

  20. Toward an Integrated Model of Capsule Regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Brian C.; Skowyra, Michael L.; Spencer, Sarah J.; Gish, Stacey R.; Williams, Matthew; Held, Elizabeth P.; Brent, Michael R.; Doering, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes serious human disease in immunocompromised populations. Its polysaccharide capsule is a key virulence factor which is regulated in response to growth conditions, becoming enlarged in the context of infection. We used microarray analysis of cells stimulated to form capsule over a range of growth conditions to identify a transcriptional signature associated with capsule enlargement. The signature contains 880 genes, is enriched for genes encoding known capsule regulators, and includes many uncharacterized sequences. One uncharacterized sequence encodes a novel regulator of capsule and of fungal virulence. This factor is a homolog of the yeast protein Ada2, a member of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex that regulates transcription of stress response genes via histone acetylation. Consistent with this homology, the C. neoformans null mutant exhibits reduced histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. It is also defective in response to a variety of stress conditions, demonstrating phenotypes that overlap with, but are not identical to, those of other fungi with altered SAGA complexes. The mutant also exhibits significant defects in sexual development and virulence. To establish the role of Ada2 in the broader network of capsule regulation we performed RNA-Seq on strains lacking either Ada2 or one of two other capsule regulators: Cir1 and Nrg1. Analysis of the results suggested that Ada2 functions downstream of both Cir1 and Nrg1 via components of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. To identify direct targets of Ada2, we performed ChIP-Seq analysis of histone acetylation in the Ada2 null mutant. These studies supported the role of Ada2 in the direct regulation of capsule and mating responses and suggested that it may also play a direct role in regulating capsule-independent antiphagocytic virulence factors. These results validate our experimental approach to dissecting capsule

  1. Changing head model extent affects finite element predictions of transcranial direct current stimulation distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indahlastari, Aprinda; Chauhan, Munish; Schwartz, Benjamin; Sadleir, Rosalind J.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In this study, we determined efficient head model sizes relative to predicted current densities in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Approach. Efficiency measures were defined based on a finite element (FE) simulations performed using nine human head models derived from a single MRI data set, having extents varying from 60%-100% of the original axial range. Eleven tissue types, including anisotropic white matter, and three electrode montages (T7-T8, F3-right supraorbital, Cz-Oz) were used in the models. Main results. Reducing head volume extent from 100% to 60%, that is, varying the model’s axial range from between the apex and C3 vertebra to one encompassing only apex to the superior cerebellum, was found to decrease the total modeling time by up to half. Differences between current density predictions in each model were quantified by using a relative difference measure (RDM). Our simulation results showed that {RDM} was the least affected (a maximum of 10% error) for head volumes modeled from the apex to the base of the skull (60%-75% volume). Significance. This finding suggested that the bone could act as a bioelectricity boundary and thus performing FE simulations of tDCS on the human head with models extending beyond the inferior skull may not be necessary in most cases to obtain reasonable precision in current density results.

  2. Possible contributions of skin pigmentation and vitamin D in a polyfactorial model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Tanner, Susan; Kimlin, Michael G

    2014-11-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a polyfactorial and polygenetic disorder that involves biological and psychological sub-mechanisms that differentially involve depression, seasonality, circadian rhythms, retinal sensitivity, iris pigmentation, sleep factors, and the neurotransmitters involved with these systems. Within the framework of the polyfactorial conceptualization of SAD, we review the possible contributions of vitamin D3 with respect to the aforementioned sub-mechanisms. We hypothesize that rather than functioning primarily as a proximal or direct sub-mechanism in the etiology of SAD, vitamin D likely functions in a more foundational and regulative role in potentiating the sub-mechanisms associated with the depressive and seasonality factors. There are several reasons for this position: 1. vitamin D levels fluctuate in the body seasonally, with a lag, in direct relation to seasonally-available sunlight; 2. lower vitamin D levels have been observed in depressed patients (as well as in patients with other psychiatric disorders) compared to controls; 3. vitamin D levels in the central nervous system affect the production of both serotonin and dopamine; and 4. vitamin D and vitamin D responsive elements are found throughout the midbrain regions and are especially concentrated in the hypothalamus, a region that encompasses the circadian timing systems and much of its neural circuitry. We also consider the variable of skin pigmentation as this may affect levels of vitamin D in the body. We hypothesize that people with darker skin pigmentation may experience greater risks for lower vitamin D levels that, especially following their migration to regions of higher latitude, could contribute to the emergence of SAD and other psychiatric and physical health problems.

  3. An investigation of factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values based on the system dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets.

  4. Peer Lecturing as Project-Based Learning: Blending Socio-Affective Influences with Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seroussi, Dominique-Esther; Sharon, Rakefet

    2017-01-01

    As a contribution to the efforts to understand the influence of peer presence on self-regulated learning, this paper studies students' reaction to a project-based activity, the final product of which was a scientific communication to peers. In this activity, "peer lecturing," the students formulate a question on a topic linked to the…

  5. Mutation in cysteine bridge domain of the gamma-subunit affects light regulation of the ATP synthase in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chloroplast ATP synthase functions to synthesize ATP from ADP and free phosphate coupled by the electrochemical potential across the thylakoid membrane in the light. The light-dependent regulation of ATP synthase activity is carried out in part through redox modulation of a cysteine bridge in CF...

  6. MADS-box transcription factor OsMADS25 regulates root development through affection of nitrate accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyan; Liu, Yihua; Zhang, Aidong; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Huang, Linli; Ali, Imran; Liu, Yu; Forde, Brian G; Gan, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factors are vital regulators participating in plant growth and development process and the functions of most of them are still unknown. ANR1 was reported to play a key role in controlling lateral root development through nitrate signal in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 is one of five ANR1-like genes in Oryza Sativa and belongs to the ANR1 clade. Here we have investigated the role of OsMADS25 in the plant's responses to external nitrate in Oryza Sativa. Our results showed that OsMADS25 protein was found in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm. Over-expression of OsMADS25 significantly promoted lateral and primary root growth as well as shoot growth in a nitrate-dependent manner in Arabidopsis. OsMADS25 overexpression in transgenic rice resulted in significantly increased primary root length, lateral root number, lateral root length and shoot fresh weight in the presence of nitrate. Down-regulation of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice exhibited significantly reduced shoot and root growth in the presence of nitrate. Furthermore, over-expression of OsMADS25 in transgenic rice promoted nitrate accumulation and significantly increased the expressions of nitrate transporter genes at high rates of nitrate supply while down-regulation of OsMADS25 produced the opposite effect. Taken together, our findings suggest that OsMADS25 is a positive regulator control lateral and primary root development in rice.

  7. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... during an emergency or other situations? 222.23 Section 222.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.23 How does this... within the Associate Administrator's decision to approve the quiet zone in accordance with section...

  8. Mathematical model for glucose regulation in the whole-body system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyuk; Han, Kyungreem; Choi, MooYoung

    2012-01-01

    The human body needs continuous and stable glucose supply for maintaining its biological functions. Stable glucose supply comes from the homeostatic regulation of the blood glucose level, which is controlled by various glucose consuming or producing organs. Therefore, it is important to understand the whole-body glucose regulation mechanism. In this article, we describe various mathematical models proposed for glucose regulation in the human body, and discuss the difficulty and limitation in reproducing real processes of glucose regulation.

  9. Nonparametric Hammerstein model based model predictive control for heart rate regulation.

    PubMed

    Su, Steven W; Huang, Shoudong; Wang, Lu; Celler, Branko G; Savkin, Andrey V; Guo, Ying; Cheng, Teddy

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel nonparametric model based model predictive control approach for the regulation of heart rate during treadmill exercise. As the model structure of human cardiovascular system is often hard to determine, nonparametric modelling is a more realistic manner to describe complex behaviours of cardiovascular system. This paper presents a new nonparametric Hammerstein model identification approach for heart rate response modelling. Based on the pseudo-random binary sequence experiment data, we decouple the identification of linear dynamic part and input nonlinearity of the Hammerstein system. Correlation analysis is applied to acquire step response of linear dynamic component. Support Vector Regression is adopted to obtain a nonparametric description of the inverse of input static nonlinearity that is utilized to form an approximate linear model of the Hammerstein system. Based on the established model, a model predictive controller under predefined speed and acceleration constraints is designed to achieve safer treadmill exercise. Simulation results show that the proposed control algorithm can achieve optimal heart rate tracking performance under predefined constraints.

  10. Evaluating how species niche modelling is affected by partial distributions with an empirical case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero, Miguel A.; Sillero, Neftalí

    2016-11-01

    Ecological niche models (ENMs) will successfully identify a species' ecological niche, provided that important assumptions are fulfilled, namely environment equilibrium and niche equality across the distribution. Violations may seriously affect ENM reliability, leading to erroneous biogeographic conclusions and inappropriate conservation prioritisation. We evaluate the robustness of ENMs against incomplete knowledge of distribution with a real example, the threatened Iberian lizard Podarcis carbonelli, whose distribution was gradually discovered over a long time period. We used several ENM methods for presence-only data (Maxent, ENFA, Bioclim, and Domain) to infer the realised ecological niche at two spatial resolutions (1 km and 200 m). The distribution data were split into four partial datasets corresponding to separate subranges: Central System (CS); Viseu-Aveiro (VA); Atlantic coast (AC); and Doñana (DO). We then accumulated the datasets following the species discovery sequence: CS + VA, CS + VA + AC, and CS + VA + AC + DO. Niche equivalence and similarity between partial models were compared using Ecospat. ENMs were strongly affected by the violation of niche equilibrium; only the VA subrange forecasts the complete species range. ENMs were also sensitive to the violation of niche equality: only VA models were similar to the Iberian model, altitude being the most important variable followed by annual precipitation, maximum temperature in July, and annual radiation. When the ENMs were applied only to the first subrange discovered (CS), only the VA area was predicted, while the other subranges might have remained unknown, thus compromising conservation strategies. As assumptions of niche equilibrium and equality were violated, likely owing to the species' ecological multimodality, the models generated were biased and of limited predictive value. ENMs are useful tools in biogeography and conservation, but only if their basal assumptions are achieved. Partial

  11. A Review of Models of the Human Temperature Regulation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-18

    34The Role of Skin in Negative Feedback Regulation of Eccrine Sweating ." International Journal of Bio.meteorology, Vol. 11, pp. 93-107, 1967. 74...stimulates a control center, which produces an opposing controlling action, shivering, sweating , or vasomotor action, which then modifies the regulated...of heat conductance and sweating during exposure to heat are controversial. Some researcher- claimed that temperature regulatory mechanisms are

  12. SGK1 affects RAN/RANBP1/RANGAP1 via SP1 to play a critical role in pre-miRNA nuclear export: a new route of epigenomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Dattilo, Vincenzo; D’Antona, Lucia; Talarico, Cristina; Capula, Mjriam; Catalogna, Giada; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Schenone, Silvia; Roperto, Sante; Bianco, Cataldo; Perrotti, Nicola; Amato, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1) controls cell transformation and tumor progression. SGK1 affects mitotic stability by regulating the expression of RANBP1/RAN. Here, we demonstrate that SGK1 fluctuations indirectly modify the maturation of pre-miRNAs, by modulating the equilibrium of the RAN/RANBP1/RANGAP1 axis, the main regulator of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. The levels of pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs were assessed by qRT-PCR, in total extracts and after differential nuclear/cytoplasmic extraction. RANBP1 expression is the limiting step in the regulation of SGK1-SP1 dependent nuclear export. These results were validated in unrelated tumor models and primary human fibroblasts and corroborated in tumor-engrafted nude mice. The levels of pri-miRNAs, DROSHA, DICER and the compartmental distribution of XPO5 were documented. Experiments using RANGTP conformational antibodies confirmed that SGK1, through RANBP1, decreases the level of the GTP-bound state of RAN. This novel mechanism may play a role in the epigenomic regulation of cell physiology and fate. PMID:28358001

  13. Using the WTO/TBT enquiry point to monitor tendencies in the regulation of environment, health, and safety issues affecting the chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pio Borges Menezes, Rodrigo; Maria de Souza Antunes, Adelaide

    2005-04-01

    The growing importance of technical regulation affecting the use and sale of chemical products is a topic of interest not only for the chemical industry, but also for governments, nongovernmental organizations, consumers, and interested communities. The results of such regulation on behalf of the environment, health and safety of individuals, as well as its economic effects on industrial activity, are well understood in the United States and recently in the European Union. In less developed countries, however, the general level of public understanding of these issues is still minimal. It is common knowledge that the so-called "regulatory asymmetry" between countries at different levels of development contributes to the establishment of technical barriers to trade. Such asymmetries, however, also have other impacts: the displacement of polluting industrial sectors to countries which have less demanding regulations, the concentration of unsafe and harmful environmental conditions in certain parts of the globe, and the competitive disadvantage for industries located in countries where control is more rigid. This study analyses information on a wide range of technical regulations issued by World Trade Organization (WTO) members, and focuses on those regulations that affect the chemical industry. This information is available through the WTO Enquiry Points, organizations created in each country to administrate the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT). This article consists of an analysis of 4,301 notifications of technical regulations by WTO member states in the 7-year period following the establishment of the WTO in 1995. Starting from this mass of information, 585 notifications that affect the circulation or use of chemical products were isolated. Of this group, 71% refer to only 15 countries. This group of notifications was further classified according to their motivation (the environment, health, safety), by the type of product affected (medications, fuels

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Corrosion Rate Prediction Models Utilized for Reinforced Concrete Affected by Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siamphukdee, Kanjana; Collins, Frank; Zou, Roger

    2013-06-01

    Chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes of premature deterioration in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Given the high maintenance and replacement costs, accurate modeling of RC deterioration is indispensable for ensuring the optimal allocation of limited economic resources. Since corrosion rate is one of the major factors influencing the rate of deterioration, many predictive models exist. However, because the existing models use very different sets of input parameters, the choice of model for RC deterioration is made difficult. Although the factors affecting corrosion rate are frequently reported in the literature, there is no published quantitative study on the sensitivity of predicted corrosion rate to the various input parameters. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters for nine selected corrosion rate prediction models. Three different methods of analysis are used to determine and compare the sensitivity of corrosion rate to various input parameters: (i) univariate regression analysis, (ii) multivariate regression analysis, and (iii) sensitivity index. The results from the analysis have quantitatively verified that the corrosion rate of steel reinforcement bars in RC structures is highly sensitive to corrosion duration time, concrete resistivity, and concrete chloride content. These important findings establish that future empirical models for predicting corrosion rate of RC should carefully consider and incorporate these input parameters.

  15. Modeling physicochemical interactions affecting in vitro cellular dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials: application to nanosilver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Leo, Bey Fen; Royce, Steven G.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Schwander, Stephan; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-10-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess unique characteristics affecting their interactions in biological media and biological tissues. Systematic investigation of the effects of particle properties on biological toxicity requires a comprehensive modeling framework which can be used to predict ENM particokinetics in a variety of media. The Agglomeration-diffusion-sedimentation-reaction model (ADSRM) described here is stochastic, using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to study the evolution of nanoparticles in biological media, as they interact with each other and with the media over time. Nanoparticle diffusion, gravitational settling, agglomeration, and dissolution are treated in a mechanistic manner with focus on silver ENMs (AgNPs). The ADSRM model utilizes particle properties such as size, density, zeta potential, and coating material, along with medium properties like density, viscosity, ionic strength, and pH, to model evolving patterns in a population of ENMs along with their interaction with associated ions and molecules. The model predictions for agglomeration and dissolution are compared with in vitro measurements for various types of ENMs, coating materials, and incubation media, and are found to be overall consistent with measurements. The model has been implemented for an in vitro case in cell culture systems to inform in vitro dosimetry for toxicology studies, and can be directly extended to other biological systems, including in vivo tissue sub-systems by suitably modifying system geometry.

  16. Dendritic diameters affect the spatial variability of intracellular calcium dynamics in computer models

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Haroon; Roome, Christopher J.; Nedelescu, Hermina; Chen, Weiliang; Kuhn, Bernd; De Schutter, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in understanding calcium dynamics in dendrites, both experimentally and computationally. Many processes influence these dynamics, but in dendrites there is a strong contribution of morphology because the peak calcium levels are strongly determined by the surface to volume ratio (SVR) of each branch, which is inversely related to branch diameter. In this study we explore the predicted variance of dendritic calcium concentrations due to local changes in dendrite diameter and how this is affected by the modeling approach used. We investigate this in a model of dendritic calcium spiking in different reconstructions of cerebellar Purkinje cells and in morphological analysis of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We report that many published models neglect diameter-dependent effects on calcium concentration and show how to implement this correctly in the NEURON simulator, both for phenomenological pool based models and for implementations using radial 1D diffusion. More detailed modeling requires simulation of 3D diffusion and we demonstrate that this does not dissipate the local concentration variance due to changes of dendritic diameter. In many cases 1D diffusion of models of calcium buffering give a good approximation provided an increased morphological resolution is implemented. PMID:25100945

  17. Statistical model selection for better prediction and discovering science mechanisms that affect reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Morzinski, Jerome; Blecker, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-19

    Understanding the impact of production, environmental exposure and age characteristics on the reliability of a population is frequently based on underlying science and empirical assessment. When there is incomplete science to prescribe which inputs should be included in a model of reliability to predict future trends, statistical model/variable selection techniques can be leveraged on a stockpile or population of units to improve reliability predictions as well as suggest new mechanisms affecting reliability to explore. We describe a five-step process for exploring relationships between available summaries of age, usage and environmental exposure and reliability. The process involves first identifying potential candidate inputs, then second organizing data for the analysis. Third, a variety of models with different combinations of the inputs are estimated, and fourth, flexible metrics are used to compare them. As a result, plots of the predicted relationships are examined to distill leading model contenders into a prioritized list for subject matter experts to understand and compare. The complexity of the model, quality of prediction and cost of future data collection are all factors to be considered by the subject matter experts when selecting a final model.

  18. Statistical model selection for better prediction and discovering science mechanisms that affect reliability

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Morzinski, Jerome; Blecker, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-19

    Understanding the impact of production, environmental exposure and age characteristics on the reliability of a population is frequently based on underlying science and empirical assessment. When there is incomplete science to prescribe which inputs should be included in a model of reliability to predict future trends, statistical model/variable selection techniques can be leveraged on a stockpile or population of units to improve reliability predictions as well as suggest new mechanisms affecting reliability to explore. We describe a five-step process for exploring relationships between available summaries of age, usage and environmental exposure and reliability. The process involves first identifying potential candidatemore » inputs, then second organizing data for the analysis. Third, a variety of models with different combinations of the inputs are estimated, and fourth, flexible metrics are used to compare them. As a result, plots of the predicted relationships are examined to distill leading model contenders into a prioritized list for subject matter experts to understand and compare. The complexity of the model, quality of prediction and cost of future data collection are all factors to be considered by the subject matter experts when selecting a final model.« less

  19. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  20. [The approaches in the discovery of antidepressants using affective disorder models].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa; Murasawa, Hiroyasu; Kamei, Junzo

    2003-04-01

    With the recent appearance of SSRI and SNRI, medication options with respect to depression have broadened. However, patients displaying clear improvement with existing antidepressants still do not exceed about 60 percent of total patients. New types of therapeutic agent development are currently required. Conditions for the determination of new antidepressants are: 1) instantaneous medications displaying a high level of antidepressant action in the early stages of treatment and 2) medications displaying efficacy with respect to patients that are therapy-resistant. However, drug discovery using new animal models is critical as part of drug development of these types of antidepressants in addition to models used in the past such as the forced swim test. We adopted two animal models (olfactory bulbectomy model and conditioned fear stress (CFS) model) developed for pharmacological evaluation of antidepressants. It has been well known that olfactory bulbectomied rats display extreme emotional response (aggressiveness and anxiety). However the improvement of this response occurs following chronic but not acute antidepressant treatment. Thus, we used this model to evaluate the period of the manifestation of antidepressant action. Mice exhibited a marked suppression of motility when they were returned to the same environment in which they had previously received an electric foot shock. Thus, it is suggested that the CFS stress model may be a useful model for therapy-resistant depression due to the fact that motor suppression is not readily attenuated by antidepressant treatment. In this report, we provide an overview of the approaches in the discovery of new antidepressants using these affective disorder models.

  1. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  2. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807

  3. miR-34a regulates HDAC1 expression to affect the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting-Yi; Xie, Hong-Jian; Li, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Fei; Gou, Xiang-Nan; Li, Du-Juan; Shi, Yu-Jie; Ding, Yan-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    miR-34a is an important molecule that can inhibit the tumor growth. This study aimed to investigate the functional role of miR-34a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and explore the interaction between miR-34a and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). RT-qPCR was employed to detect the mRNA expression of miR-34a and HDAC1 in 60 HCC tissues. Results showed miR-34a expression in HCC tissues was significantly lower than in normal tissues (P<0.05), but HDAC1 expression in HCC tissues was markedly higher than in normal tissues (P<0.05). In addition, miR-34a expression was negatively related to HDAC1 expression. miR-34a mimic was transfected into HCC cell lines (HepB3 and HepG2). CCK8 assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry showed miR-34a over-expression could inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells and induce their apoptosis. Western blotting indicated miR-34a over-expression down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, procaspase-3, procaspase-9 and c-Myc, but up-regulate p21 expression. Bioinformatics analysis indicated HDAC1 was a target gene of miR-34a. Dual Luciferase Reporter Gene Assay and retrieval assay showed miR-34a could act at the 3’UTR of HDAC1 gene to regulate its expression. Thus, miR-34a may inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells and induce their apoptosis via regulating HDAC1 expression. Our findings provide evidence for the diagnosis and therapeutic target of HCC. PMID:28123637

  4. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  5. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by manipulation of dietary selenium affects the triglyceride concentration in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Andreas S; Klomann, Sandra D; Wolf, Nicole M; Schneider, Sandra; Schmidt, Rupert; Spielmann, Julia; Stangl, Gabriele; Eder, Klaus; Pallauf, Josef

    2008-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key enzyme in the counter-regulation of insulin signaling and in the stimulation of fatty acid synthesis. Selenium (Se), via the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), is involved in the removal of H(2)O(2) and organic peroxides, which are critical compounds in the modulation of PTP1B activity via glutathionylation. Our study with growing rats investigated how the manipulation of dietary Se concentration influences the regulation of PTP1B and lipogenic effects mediated by PTP1B. Weanling albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10. The negative control group (NC) was fed a Se-deficient diet for 8 wk. Rats in groups Se75 and Se150 received diets supplemented with 75 or 150 microg Se/kg. Se supplementation of the rats strongly influenced expression and activity of the selenoenzymes cytosolic GPx, plasma GPx, phospholipidhydroperoxide GPx, and cytosolic TrxR, and liver PTP1B. Liver PTP1B activity was significantly higher in groups Se75 and Se150 than in the NC group and this was attributed to a lowered inhibition of the enzyme by glutathionylation. The increased liver PTP1B activity in groups Se75 and Se150 resulted in 1.1- and 1.4-fold higher liver triglyceride concentrations than in the NC rats. The upregulation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and of fatty acid synthase, 2 PTP1B targets, provided a possible explanation for the lipogenic effect of PTP1B due to the manipulation of dietary Se. We therefore conclude that redox-regulated proteins, such as PTP1B, represent important interfaces between dietary antioxidants such as Se and the regulation of metabolic processes.

  6. Impramine, fluoxetine and clozapine differently affected reactivity to positive and negative stimuli in a model of motivational anhedonia in rats.

    PubMed

    Scheggi, S; Pelliccia, T; Ferrari, A; De Montis, M G; Gambarana, C

    2015-04-16

    Anhedonia is a relevant symptom in depression and schizophrenia. Chronic stress exposure induces in rats escape deficit, disrupts the dopaminergic response to palatable food and the competence to acquire sucrose self-administration (SA), thus configuring a possible model of motivational anhedonia. Repeated lithium administration reverts stress effects and brings back to control values the breaking point (BP) score, a measure of reward motivation. In this study, we tested on this model two antidepressants, imipramine and fluoxetine, and two antipsychotics, haloperidol and clozapine. The dopaminergic response to sucrose consumption was studied in non food-deprived rats in terms of dopamine D1 receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS). More specifically, we studied the modifications in dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32,000 (DARPP-32) phosphorylation pattern following sucrose consumption. Fluoxetine reverted the escape deficit and showed no effects on dopaminergic response and sucrose SA. Imipramine reverted sucrose SA and dopamine response deficit in half of the rats and the escape deficit in all animals. Haloperidol did not affect stress-induced deficits. Clozapine-treated rats recovered the dopaminergic response to sucrose consumption and the competence to acquire sucrose SA, although they still showed the escape deficit, thus confirming that motivation toward reward may be dissociated from that to punishment escape. These results indicate that imipramine or fluoxetine are not endowed with a rapid onset antianhedonic effect. On the other hand, clozapine treatment showed a motivational antianhedonic activity similar to that observed after lithium treatment.

  7. VLN2 Regulates Plant Architecture by Affecting Microfilament Dynamics and Polar Auxin Transport in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengyang; Xie, Yurong; Guo, Xiuping; Sheng, Peike; Wang, Juan; Wu, Chuanyin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental and dynamic cytoskeleton network, microfilaments (MFs) are regulated by diverse actin binding proteins (ABPs). Villins are one type of ABPs belonging to the villin/gelsolin superfamily, and their function is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant defective in VILLIN2 (VLN2), which exhibits malformed organs, including twisted roots and shoots at the seedling stage. Cellular examination revealed that the twisted phenotype of the vln2 mutant is mainly caused by asymmetrical expansion of cells on the opposite sides of an organ. VLN2 is preferentially expressed in growing tissues, consistent with a role in regulating cell expansion in developing organs. Biochemically, VLN2 exhibits conserved actin filament bundling, severing and capping activities in vitro, with bundling and stabilizing activity being confirmed in vivo. In line with these findings, the vln2 mutant plants exhibit a more dynamic actin cytoskeleton network than the wild type. We show that vln2 mutant plants exhibit a hypersensitive gravitropic response, faster recycling of PIN2 (an auxin efflux carrier), and altered auxin distribution. Together, our results demonstrate that VLN2 plays an important role in regulating plant architecture by modulating MF dynamics, recycling of PIN2, and polar auxin transport. PMID:26486445

  8. Phase and frequency locking in the model of cardiovascular system baroreflectory regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishbulatov, Yurii M.; Karavaev, Anatoly S.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.

    2016-04-01

    We proposed the model of cardiovascular system which describes the sinus rhythm, autonomic regulation of heart and arterial vessels, baroreflex, arterial pressure and respiration process. The model included a self-oscillating loop of regulation of mean arterial pressure. It was shown that suggested model more accurately simulated the spectral and statistical characteristics of heart rate variability signal in comparison with the model proposed earlier by Seidel and Herzel.

  9. Assessing future expectations and the two-dimensional model of affect in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Corno, Giulia; Molinari, Guadalupe; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2017-03-01

    Future-directed thinking has been described as part of two underlying systems that integrate dimensions of affect, motivational systems, orientation to the future, and future expectations, which are initiated at the cognitive, affective, biological, behavioral, and motivational levels. The main aim of the present study is to test the two underlying frameworks model and explore future expectations in a general Italian-speaking population (N=345). Therefore, the second aim of the present paper is to confirm the factorial structure of the Subjective Probability Task (SPT; MacLeod et al., 1996), a questionnaire designed to assess specific positive and negative orientations towards the future. Results showed that the SPT has good psychometric properties and it is a reliable instrument to assess future-directed thinking. Moreover, our findings confirmed the role of future expectancies as cognitive correlates of depression and anxiety. Differently from previous studies (Clark and Watson, 1991; MacLeod et al., 1996), our results did not confirm that depression was characterized by low positive affect. We believe this paper contributes to the understanding of future expectancies and their relation with anxiety and depression, and will help to expand the availability of an instrument to assess future directed thinking.

  10. Stanniocalcin-1 Protects a Mouse Model from Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Affecting ROS-Mediated Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dajun; Shang, Huiping; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). However, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. STC-1 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas most ROS-mediated pathways are associated with ischemic injury. Therefore, to explore the mechanism, the effects of STC-1 on ROS-medicated pathways were studied. Non-traumatic vascular clamps were used to establish RIRI mouse models. The serum levels of STC-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon (IFN) γ, P53, and capase-3 were measured by ELISA kits. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by fluorescence spectrofluorometer. All these molecules changed significantly in a RIRI model mouse when compared with those in a sham control. Kidney cells were isolated from sham and model mice. STC-1 was overexpressed or knockout in these kidney cells. The molecules in ROS-medicated pathways were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results showed that STC-1 is an effective ROS scavenger. The serum levels of STC-1, MDA and SOD activity were increased while the serum levels of IL-6, iIFN-γ, P53, and capase-3 were decreased in a model group when compared with a sham control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of STC-1,p53, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (p-MEKK-1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), IkB kinase (p-IKK), nuclear factor (NF) κB, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) and caspase-3 changed significantly in kidney cells isolated from a RIRI model when compared to those isolated from a sham control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, STC-1 overexpression or silence caused significant changes of the levels of these ROS-mediated molecules. Therefore, STC-1 maybe improve anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis activities by affecting ROS-mediated pathways, especially the phospho-modifications of the respective proteins, resulting in the increase of SOD and

  11. Regulation of the proliferation of colon cancer cells by compounds that affect glycolysis, including 3-bromopyruvate, 2-deoxyglucose and biguanides.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael A; Qureshi, Mehreen S; Buxhoeveden, Michael; Gengel, Nicolette; Kleinschmit, Jessica; Desbordes, Charles

    2013-02-01

    In previous studies performed by our group, we observed that 2-deoxyglucose blocked the acidification of the medium used for culture of colon cancer cells caused by incubation with biguanides and it had an additive inhibitory effect on growth. In the present work, we found that 3-bromopyruvate can also prevent the lowering of pH caused by biguanide treatment. 3-Bromopyruvate inhibited colonic cancer cell proliferation, but the effect was not always additive to that of biguanides and an additive effect was more notable in combined treatment with 3-bromopyruvate and 2-deoxyglucose. The induction of alkaline phosphatase activity by butyrate was not consistently affected by combination with other agents that modified glucose metabolism. The drug combinations that were examined inhibited proliferation of wild-type and p53-null cells and affected colonic cancer lines with different growth rates.

  12. Principles of miRNA-Target Regulation in Metazoan Models

    PubMed Central

    Doxakis, Epaminondas

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are key post-transcriptional regulators that silence gene expression by direct base pairing to target sites of RNAs. They have a wide variety of tissue expression patterns and are differentially expressed during development and disease. Their activity and abundance is subject to various levels of control ranging from transcription and biogenesis to miR response elements on RNAs, target cellular levels and miR turnover. This review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on the regulation of miR activity and concludes with novel non-canonical functions that have recently emerged. PMID:23965954

  13. Inertial forces affect fluid front displacement dynamics in a pore-throat network model.

    PubMed

    Moebius, Franziska; Or, Dani

    2014-08-01

    The seemingly regular and continuous motion of fluid displacement fronts in porous media at the macroscopic scale is propelled by numerous (largely invisible) pore-scale abrupt interfacial jumps and pressure bursts. Fluid fronts in porous media are characterized by sharp phase discontinuities and by rapid pore-scale dynamics that underlie their motion; both attributes challenge standard continuum theories of these flow processes. Moreover, details of pore-scale dynamics affect front morphology and subsequent phase entrapment behind a front and thereby shape key macroscopic transport properties of the unsaturated zone. The study presents a pore-throat network model that focuses on quantifying interfacial dynamics and interactions along fluid displacement fronts. The porous medium is represented by a lattice of connected pore throats capable of detaining menisci and giving rise to fluid-fluid interfacial jumps (the study focuses on flow rate controlled drainage). For each meniscus along the displacement front we formulate a local inertial, capillary, viscous, and hydrostatic force balance that is then solved simultaneously for the entire front. The model enables systematic evaluation of the role of inertia and boundary conditions. Results show that while displacement patterns are affected by inertial forces mainly by invasion of throats with higher capillary resistance, phase entrapment (residual saturation) is largely unaffected by inertia, limiting inertial effects on hydrological properties behind a front. Interfacial jump velocities are often an order of magnitude larger than mean front velocity, are strongly dependent on geometrical throat dimensions, and become less predictable (more scattered) when inertia is considered. Model simulations of the distributions of capillary pressure fluctuations and waiting times between invasion events follow an exponential distribution and are in good agreement with experimental results. The modeling approach provides insights

  14. Review of uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions of space debris evolutionary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolado-Perez, J. C.; Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik-I in 1957, the amount of space debris in Earth's orbit has increased continuously. Historically, besides abandoned intact objects (spacecraft and orbital stages), the primary sources of space debris in Earth's orbit were (i) accidental and intentional break-ups which produced long-lasting debris and (ii) debris released intentionally during the operation of launch vehicle orbital stages and spacecraft. In the future, fragments generated by collisions are expected to become a significant source as well. In this context, and from a purely mathematical point of view, the orbital debris population in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) should be intrinsically unstable, due to the physics of mutual collisions and the relative ineffectiveness of natural sink mechanisms above~700 km. Therefore, the real question should not be "if", but "when" the exponential growth of the space debris population is supposed to start. From a practical point of view, and in order to answer the previous question, since the end of the 1980's several sophisticated long-term debris evolutionary models have been developed. Unfortunately, the predictions performed with such models, in particular beyond a few decades, are affected by considerable uncertainty. Such uncertainty comes from a relative important number of variables that being either under the partial control or completely out of the control of modellers, introduce a variability on the long-term simulation of the space debris population which cannot be captured with standard Monte Carlo statistics. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss many of the uncertainty sources affecting the long-term predictions done with evolutionary models, in order to serve as a roadmap for the uncertainty and the statistical robustness analysis of the long-term evolution of the space debris population.

  15. Deconstructing empathy: Neuroanatomical dissociations between affect sharing and prosocial motivation using a patient lesion model.

    PubMed

    Shdo, Suzanne M; Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Gola, Kelly A; Mielke, Clinton J; Sukhanov, Paul V; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2017-02-14

    Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). Informants completed the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale's Sensitivity to the Expressive Behavior of Others (RSMS-EX) subscale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index's Empathic Concern (IRI-EC) subscale describing the typical empathic behavior of the participants in daily life. Using regression modeling of the voxel based morphometry of T1 brain scans prepared using SPM8 DARTEL-based preprocessing, we isolated the variance independently contributed by the affect sharing and the prosocial motivation elements of empathy as differentially measured by the two scales. We found that the affect sharing component uniquely correlated with volume in right>left medial and lateral temporal lobe structures, including the amygdala and insula, that support emotion recognition, emotion generation, and emotional awareness. Prosocial motivation, in contrast, involved structures such as the nucleus accumbens (NaCC), caudate head, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which suggests that an individual must maintain the capacity to experience reward, to resolve ambiguity, and to inhibit their own emotional experience in order to effectively engage in spontaneous altruism as a component of their empathic response to others.

  16. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J. M.; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO. PMID:25806008

  17. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Analysis of Factors Affecting Its Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Bruce A.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station Water Processor Assembly to form a complete water recovery system for future missions. A preliminary chemical process simulation was previously developed using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM), but it could not simulate thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. This paper describes modifications to the ACM simulation of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version can be used to model thermal startup and predicts the total energy consumption of the CDS. The simulation has been validated for both NaC1 solution and pretreated urine feeds and no longer requires retuning when operating parameters change. The simulation was also used to predict how internal processes and operating conditions of the CDS affect its performance. In particular, it is shown that the coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric heat pump used to provide heating and cooling for the CDS is the largest factor in determining CDS efficiency. Intrastage heat transfer affects CDS performance indirectly through effects on the coefficient of performance.

  18. Alternative Polyadenylation of Human Bocavirus at Its 3′ End Is Regulated by Multiple Elements and Affects Capsid Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Sujuan; Zhang, Junmei; Chen, Zhen; Xu, Huanzhou; Wang, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alternative processing of human bocavirus (HBoV) P5 promoter-transcribed RNA is critical for generating the structural and nonstructural protein-encoding mRNA transcripts. The regulatory mechanism by which HBoV RNA transcripts are polyadenylated at proximal [(pA)p] or distal [(pA)d] polyadenylation sites is still unclear. We constructed a recombinant HBoV infectious clone to study the alternative polyadenylation regulation of HBoV. Surprisingly, in addition to the reported distal polyadenylation site, (pA)d, a novel distal polyadenylation site, (pA)d2, which is located in the right-end hairpin (REH), was identified during infectious clone transfection or recombinant virus infection. (pA)d2 does not contain typical hexanucleotide polyadenylation signal, upstream elements (USE), or downstream elements (DSE) according to sequence analysis. Further study showed that HBoV nonstructural protein NS1, REH, and cis elements of (pA)d were necessary and sufficient for efficient polyadenylation at (pA)d2. The distance and sequences between (pA)d and (pA)d2 also played a key role in the regulation of polyadenylation at (pA)d2. Finally, we demonstrated that efficient polyadenylation at (pA)d2 resulted in increased HBoV capsid mRNA transcripts and protein translation. Thus, our study revealed that all the bocaviruses have distal poly(A) signals on the right-end palindromic terminus, and alternative polyadenylation at the HBoV 3′ end regulates its capsid expression. IMPORTANCE The distal polyadenylation site, (pA)d, of HBoV is located about 400 nucleotides (nt) from the right-end palindromic terminus, which is different from those of bovine parvovirus (BPV) and canine minute virus (MVC) in the same genus whose distal polyadenylation is located in the right-end stem-loop structure. A novel polyadenylation site, (pA)d2, was identified in the right-end hairpin of HBoV during infectious clone transfection or recombinant virus infection. Sequence analysis showed that (pA)d2

  19. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Ensheng; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Weile; Wang, Han; Hayes, Daniel J; McGuire, A. David; Hastings, Alan; Schimel, David

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  20. Multistate modeling of habitat dynamics: Factors affecting Florida scrub transition probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Duncan, B.W.; Stolen, Eric D.; Carter, G.M.; Hunt, D.K.; Drese, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Many ecosystems are influenced by disturbances that create specific successional states and habitat structures that species need to persist. Estimating transition probabilities between habitat states and modeling the factors that influence such transitions have many applications for investigating and managing disturbance-prone ecosystems. We identify the correspondence between multistate capture-recapture models and Markov models of habitat dynamics. We exploit this correspondence by fitting and comparing competing models of different ecological covariates affecting habitat transition probabilities in Florida scrub and flatwoods, a habitat important to many unique plants and animals. We subdivided a large scrub and flatwoods ecosystem along central Florida's Atlantic coast into 10-ha grid cells, which approximated average territory size of the threatened Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a management indicator species. We used 1.0-m resolution aerial imagery for 1994, 1999, and 2004 to classify grid cells into four habitat quality states that were directly related to Florida Scrub-Jay source-sink dynamics and management decision making. Results showed that static site features related to fire propagation (vegetation type, edges) and temporally varying disturbances (fires, mechanical cutting) best explained transition probabilities. Results indicated that much of the scrub and flatwoods ecosystem was resistant to moving from a degraded state to a desired state without mechanical cutting, an expensive restoration tool. We used habitat models parameterized with the estimated transition probabilities to investigate the consequences of alternative management scenarios on future habitat dynamics. We recommend this multistate modeling approach as being broadly applicable for studying ecosystem, land cover, or habitat dynamics. The approach provides maximum-likelihood estimates of transition parameters, including precision measures, and can be used to assess

  1. A coupled mechanical and chemical damage model for concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatelli, Rossella; Comi, Claudia; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2013-11-15

    To model the complex degradation phenomena occurring in concrete affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR), we formulate a poro-mechanical model with two isotropic internal variables: the chemical and the mechanical damage. The chemical damage, related to the evolution of the reaction, is caused by the pressure generated by the expanding ASR gel on the solid concrete skeleton. The mechanical damage describes the strength and stiffness degradation induced by the external loads. As suggested by experimental results, degradation due to ASR is considered to be localized around reactive sites. The effect of the degree of saturation and of the temperature on the reaction development is also modeled. The chemical damage evolution is calibrated using the value of the gel pressure estimated by applying the electrical diffuse double-layer theory to experimental values of the surface charge density in ASR gel specimens reported in the literature. The chemo-damage model is first validated by simulating expansion tests on reactive specimens and beams; the coupled chemo-mechanical damage model is then employed to simulate compression and flexure tests results also taken from the literature. -- Highlights: •Concrete degradation due to ASR in variable environmental conditions is modeled. •Two isotropic internal variables – chemical and mechanical damage – are introduced. •The value of the swelling pressure is estimated by the diffuse double layer theory. •A simplified scheme is proposed to relate macro- and microscopic properties. •The chemo-mechanical damage model is validated by simulating tests in literature.

  2. Principles of microRNA Regulation Revealed Through Modeling microRNA Expression Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Budach, Stefan; Heinig, Matthias; Marsico, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Extensive work has been dedicated to study mechanisms of microRNA-mediated gene regulation. However, the transcriptional regulation of microRNAs themselves is far less well understood, due to difficulties determining the transcription start sites of transient primary transcripts. This challenge can be addressed using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) whose regulatory effects represent a natural source of perturbation of cis-regulatory elements. Here we used previously published cis-microRNA-eQTL data for the human GM12878 cell line, promoter predictions, and other functional annotations to determine the relationship between functional elements and microRNA regulation. We built a logistic regression model that classifies microRNA/SNP pairs into eQTLs or non-eQTLs with 85% accuracy; shows microRNA-eQTL enrichment for microRNA precursors, promoters, enhancers, and transcription factor binding sites; and depletion for repressed chromatin. Interestingly, although there is a large overlap between microRNA eQTLs and messenger RNA eQTLs of host genes, 74% of these shared eQTLs affect microRNA and host expression independently. Considering microRNA-only eQTLs we find a significant enrichment for intronic promoters, validating the existence of alternative promoters for intragenic microRNAs. Finally, in line with the GM12878 cell line derived from B cells, we find genome-wide association (GWA) variants associated to blood-related traits more likely to be microRNA eQTLs than random GWA and non-GWA variants, aiding the interpretation of GWA results. PMID:27260304

  3. A Model for Self-Regulated Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen S.; Bunker, Ellen L.

    2009-01-01

    The role of learner autonomy and self-regulated learning in distance education has received much attention. The application of these concepts impacts course design and, potentially, learner achievement. In the case of distance language learning, course designers must consider not only how to help learners gain communicative competence but also…

  4. PU.1 affects proliferation of the human acute myeloid leukemia U937 cell line by directly regulating MEIS1

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JING; ZHANG, XIAOFENG; WANG, YUHUA; GUAN, YINGHUI

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 is a member of the ETS family, which is expressed in a wide variety of hematopoietic lineages. Accumulating evidence has indicated that PU.1 plays a key role in hematopoiesis, and reduced expression of PU.1 leads to the pathogenesis of human myeloid leukemia. As a multi-functional factor, PU.1 is also required for mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) stem cell potential and the development of MLL. However, the function of PU.1 in human non-MLL leukemia and its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, PU.1 siRNA was demonstrated to efficiently inhibit the transcription level of oncogene MEIS1 in the human acute myeloid non-MLL leukemia U937 cell line. In addition, PU.1, as a positive regulator of MEIS1, performed a crucial role in maintaining cell proliferation. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and luciferase reporter assay, previously unexplored evidence that PU.1 activated the MEIS1 promoter through a conserved binding motif in vitro and in vivo was further defined. Overall, the present study provides insight into the molecular mechanism of the contribution of PU.1 to the pathogenesis of non-MLL U937 cells, which is mediated by direct regulation of MEIS1 transcription. The present data reveal the possibility of developing an alternative therapy for non-MLL leukemia by targeting PU.1-mediated MEIS1 gene activation. PMID:26622774

  5. Knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 affects ischaemia-induced astrocyte activation and glial scar formation.

    PubMed

    Cheon, So Yeong; Cho, Kyoung Joo; Song, Juhyun; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2016-04-01

    Reactive astrocytes play an essential role in determining the tissue response to ischaemia. Formation of a glial scar can block the neuronal outgrowth that is required for restoration of damaged tissue. Therefore, regulation of astrocyte activation is important; however, the mediator of this process has not been fully elucidated. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is an early responder to oxidative stress, and plays a pivotal role in the intracellular signalling pathway of apoptosis, inflammation, and differentiation. To confirm whether ASK1 mediates astrocyte activation and leads to glial scar formation after cerebral ischaemia, we conducted in vivo and in vitro experiments. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, and astrocyte cultures were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation. After silencing of ASK1 , astrocyte-associated genes were downregulated, as seen with the use of microarrays. The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level was decreased, and correlated with the reduction in the ASK1 level. In astrocytes, reduction in the ASK1 level decreased the activity of the p38 pathway, and the levels of transcription factors for GFAP and GFAP transcripts after hypoxia. In the chronic phase, ASK1 depletion reduced glial scar formation and conserved neuronal structure, which may lead to better functional recovery. These data suggest that ASK1 may be an important mediator of ischaemia-induced astrocyte activation and scar formation, and could provide a potential therapeutic target for treatment after ischaemic stroke.

  6. Regulation of PMP22 mRNA by G3BP1 affects cell proliferation in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Regulation of mRNAs is one way to control protein levels and thereby important cellular processes such as growth, invasion and apoptosis. G3BPs constitute a family of mRNA-binding proteins, shown to be overexpressed in several cancer types, including breast, colon and pancreas cancer. G3BP has been reported to both stabilize and induce degradation of specific mRNAs. Results Here, we show that G3BP1, but not G3BP2, supports proliferation of several breast cancer cell lines. Global gene expression analyses of G3BP1- and G3BP2-depleted cells indicate that primarily G3BP1, and much less G3BP2, influences mRNA expression levels. Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) was one gene that was significantly influenced by G3BP1 depletion which led to a 2–3 fold increased expression. Depletion of PMP22 resulted in increased proliferation and the G3BP1-mediated effect on proliferation was not seen upon PMP22-depletion. Conclusions This indicates a novel role for G3BP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in breast cancer cells, perhaps via a regulatory effect on PMP22 expression. PMID:24321297

  7. Baroreceptor mediated blood pressure regulation is not affected during dose dependent inhibition of prostatic contractions by terazosin.

    PubMed

    Pawar, A; Fahim, M

    2004-10-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), common in aging males is often treated with alpha1-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists. In view of known hypotensive effect of most of the alpha1-AR antagonists, this work examined the effect of a selected alpha1-AR antagonist, terazosin on the baroreceptor mediated regulation of blood pressure. The three doses of terazosin (10, 100, 300 microg/kg body weight) used in anesthetized dogs inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the prostatic contractions and rise in blood pressure induced by phenylphrine. Impairment of arterial baroreflex, an important neural regulatory mechanism for the maintenance of normal arterial pressure, by alpha1-AR antagonist (prazosin) has been suggested in an earlier study. Hence, the effects of terazosin in doses 10, 100 and 300 microg/kg on baroreflex sensitivity (calculated as the ratio of heart rate change to acute increase in blood pressure by phenylephrine) were investigated. Terazocin did not produce any change in the baroreflex sensitivity. Therefore, in the absence of any adverse effect on the baroreceptor mediated regulation of the blood pressure, terazosin can be treated as a safer drug for the symptomatic treatment of BPH.

  8. Modeling Heterogeneity in Momentary Interpersonal and Affective Dynamic Processes in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Scott, Lori N.; Beeney, Joseph E.; Lazarus, Sophie A.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a diagnosis defined by impairments in several dynamic processes (e.g., interpersonal relating, affect regulation, behavioral control). Theories of BPD emphasize that these impairments appear in specific contexts, and emerging results confirm this view. At the same time, BPD is a complex construct that encompasses individuals with heterogeneous pathology. These features—dynamic processes, situational specificity, and individual heterogeneity—pose significant assessment challenges. In the current study, we demonstrate assessment and analytic methods that capture both between-person differences and within-person changes over time. Twenty-five participants diagnosed with BPD completed event-contingent, ambulatory assessment protocols over 21 days. We used p-technique factor analyses to identify person-specific psychological structures consistent with clinical theories of personality. Five exemplar cases are selected and presented in detail to showcase the potential utility of these methods. The presented cases' factor structures reflect not only heterogeneity but also suggest points of convergence. The factors also demonstrated significant associations with important clinical targets (self-harm, interpersonal violence). PMID:27317561

  9. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  10. Regulation of transcription of the RNA splicing factor hSlu7 by Elk-1 and Sp1 affects alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Alberstein, Moti; Amit, Maayan; Vaknin, Keren; O'Donnell, Amanda; Farhy, Chen; Lerenthal, Yaniv; Shomron, Noam; Shaham, Ohad; Sharrocks, Andrew D; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Ast, Gil

    2007-11-01

    Alternative splicing plays a major role in transcriptome diversity and plasticity, but it is largely unknown how tissue-specific and embryogenesis-specific alternative splicing is regulated. The highly conserved splicing factor Slu7 is involved in 3' splice site selection and also regulates alternative splicing. We show that Slu7 has a unique spatial pattern of expression among human and mouse embryonic and adult tissues. We identified several functional Ets binding sites and GC-boxes in the human Slu7 (hSlu7) promoter region. The Ets and GC-box binding transcription factors, Elk-1 and Sp1, respectively, exerted opposite effects on hSlu7 transcription: Sp1 protein enhances and Elk-1 protein represses transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Sp1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Sp1 by RNA interference (RNAi) repressed hSlu7 expression. Elk-1 protein bound to the hSlu7 promoter in vivo, and depletion of Elk-1 by RNAi caused an increase in the endogenous level of hSlu7 mRNA. Further, depletion of either Sp1 or Elk-1 affected alternative splicing. Our results provide indications of a complex transcription regulation mechanism that controls the spatial and temporal expression of Slu7, presumably allowing regulation of tissue-specific alternative splicing events.

  11. EphrinB2 Affects Apical Constriction in Xenopus Embryos and is Regulated by ADAM10 and Flotillin-1

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yon Ju; Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Mood, Kathleen; Cho, Hee-Jun; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Winterbottom, Emily; Cousin, Hèléne; Daar, Ira O.

    2014-01-01

    The Eph/ephrin signaling pathways have a critical function in cell adhesion and repulsion, and thus play key roles in various morphogenetic events during development. Here we show that a decrease in ephrinB2 protein causes neural tube closure defects during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Such a decrease in ephrinB2 protein levels is observed upon the loss of flotillin-1 scaffold protein, a newly identified ephrinB2-binding partner. This dramatic decline in ephrinB2 protein levels upon the absence of flotillin-1 expression is specific, and is partly the result of an increased susceptibility to cleavage by the metalloprotease ADAM10. These findings indicate that flotillin-1 regulates ephrinB2 protein levels through ADAM10, and is required for appropriate neural tube morphogenesis in the Xenopus embryo. PMID:24662724

  12. EphrinB2 affects apical constriction in Xenopus embryos and is regulated by ADAM10 and flotillin-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yon Ju; Hwang, Yoo-Seok; Mood, Kathleen; Cho, Hee-Jun; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Winterbottom, Emily; Cousin, Hélène; Daar, Ira O.

    2014-03-01

    The Eph/ephrin signalling pathways have a critical function in cell adhesion and repulsion, and thus play key roles in various morphogenetic events during development. Here we show that a decrease in ephrinB2 protein causes neural tube closure defects during Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Such a decrease in ephrinB2 protein levels is observed on the loss of flotillin-1 scaffold protein, a newly identified ephrinB2-binding partner. This dramatic decline in ephrinB2 protein levels on the absence of flotillin-1 expression is specific, and is partly the result of an increased susceptibility to cleavage by the metalloprotease ADAM10. These findings indicate that flotillin-1 regulates ephrinB2 protein levels through ADAM10, and is required for appropriate neural tube morphogenesis in the Xenopus embryo.

  13. Ego depletion--is it all in your head? implicit theories about willpower affect self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Dweck, Carol S; Walton, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    Much recent research suggests that willpower--the capacity to exert self-control--is a limited resource that is depleted after exertion. We propose that whether depletion takes place or not depends on a person's belief about whether willpower is a limited resource. Study 1 found that individual differences in lay theories about willpower moderate ego-depletion effects: People who viewed the capacity for self-control as not limited did not show diminished self-control after a depleting experience. Study 2 replicated the effect, manipulating lay theories about willpower. Study 3 addressed questions about the mechanism underlying the effect. Study 4, a longitudinal field study, found that theories about willpower predict change in eating behavior, procrastination, and self-regulated goal striving in depleting circumstances. Taken together, the findings suggest that reduced self-control after a depleting task or during demanding periods may reflect people's beliefs about the availability of willpower rather than true resource depletion.

  14. Regulation of lead toxicity by heat shock protein 90 (daf-21) is affected by temperature in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunbiao; Xu, Songbai; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yanhui; Guo, Tai L

    2014-06-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, stress resistance can be regulated by dauer formation (daf) genes. In the present study, regulation of heavy metal lead (Pb) toxicity by the 90-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp90; daf-21) was investigated in both wild-type C. elegans and daf-21/Hsp90 mutants by focusing on the effects of varied temperatures below (15°C) or above (25 and 30°C) the presumptive optimum growth temperature (20°C). More acute toxicity of Pb, indicated by the 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50), was observed in wild-type adults than in the daf-21 mutant adults at 15, 20 and 25°C; however, the daf-21 mutant adults showed more sensitivity at 30°C. Enhanced Pb sensitivity (e.g., decrease LC50) in both types of C. elegans was observed with both increased and decreased temperatures when compared to that at 20°C. Additional examined endpoints included time course of toxicity at LC50s, pharyngeal pumping, reproduction, life span, and Hsp90 expression. Collective results showed that temperatures both above and below 20°C exacerbated Pb toxicity, and that the protein level of daf-21/Hsp90 was one of the most sensitive indicators of Pb toxicity in wild-type C. elegans, while pharyngeal pumping was more Pb sensitive in daf-21 mutants. Therefore, the expression of daf-21/Hsp90 has apparent utility for the prediction and assessment of Pb-induced toxicity in nematodes. Further, the stress responses related to Hsp90 expression in C. elegans may have considerable potential as sensitive biomarkers for the monitoring of environmental Pb contamination.

  15. An Affect-Centered Model of the Psyche and its Consequences for a New Understanding of Nonlinear Psychodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciompi, Luc

    At variance with a purely cognitivistic approach, an affect-centered model of mental functioning called `fractal affect-logic' is presented on the basis of current emotional-psychological and neurobiological research. Functionally integrated feeling-thinking-behaving programs generated by action appear in this model as the basic `building blocks' of the psyche. Affects are understood as the essential source of energy that mobilises and organises both linear and nonlinear affective-cognitive dynamics, under the influence of appropriate control parameters and order parameters. Global patterns of affective-cognitive functioning form dissipative structures in the sense of Prigogine, with affect-specific attractors and repulsors, bifurcations, high sensitivity for initial conditions and a fractal overall structure that may be represented in a complex potential landscape of variable configuration. This concept opens new possibilities of understanding normal and pathological psychodynamics and sociodynamics, with numerous practical and theoretical implications.

  16. Discovery of Transcriptional Targets Regulated by Nuclear Receptors Using a Probabilistic Graphical Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mikyung; Huang, Ruili; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcriptional regulators that play vital roles in key biological processes such as growth, differentiation, metabolism, reproduction, and morphogenesis. Disruption of NRs can result in adverse health effects such as NR-mediated endocrine disruption. A comprehensive understanding of core transcriptional targets regulated by NRs helps to elucidate their key biological processes in both toxicological and therapeutic aspects. In this study, we applied a probabilistic graphical model to identify the transcriptional targets of NRs and the biological processes they govern. The Tox21 program profiled a collection of approximate 10 000 environmental chemicals and drugs against a panel of human NRs in a quantitative high-throughput screening format for their NR disruption potential. The Japanese Toxicogenomics Project, one of the most comprehensive efforts in the field of toxicogenomics, generated large-scale gene expression profiles on the effect of 131 compounds (in its first phase of study) at various doses, and different durations, and their combinations. We applied author-topic model to these 2 toxicological datasets, which consists of 11 NRs run in either agonist and/or antagonist mode (18 assays total) and 203 in vitro human gene expression profiles connected by 52 shared drugs. As a result, a set of clusters (topics), which consists of a set of NRs and their associated target genes were determined. Various transcriptional targets of the NRs were identified by assays run in either agonist or antagonist mode. Our results were validated by functional analysis and compared with TRANSFAC data. In summary, our approach resulted in effective identification of associated/affected NRs and their target genes, providing biologically meaningful hypothesis embedded in their relationships.

  17. Hypoxia transiently affects skeletal muscle hypertrophy in a functional overload model.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Koulmann, Nathalie; Simler, Nadine; Meunier, Adélie; Serrurier, Bernard; Chapot, Rachel; Peinnequin, Andre; Beaudry, Michèle; Bigard, Xavier

    2012-03-01

    Hypoxia induces a loss of skeletal muscle mass, but the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia could impair skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload (Ov). To test this hypothesis, plantaris muscles were overloaded during 5, 12, and 56 days in female rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (5,500 m), and then, we examined the responses of specific signaling pathways involved in protein synthesis (Akt/mTOR) and breakdown (atrogenes). Hypoxia minimized the Ov-induced hypertrophy at days 5 and 12 but did not affect the hypertrophic response measured at day 56. Hypoxia early reduced the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream targets P70(S6K) and rpS6, but it did not affect the phosphorylation levels of Akt and 4E-BP1, in Ov muscles. The role played by specific inhibitors of mTOR, such as AMPK and hypoxia-induced factors (i.e., REDD1 and BNIP-3) was studied. REDD1 protein levels were reduced by overload and were not affected by hypoxia in Ov muscles, whereas AMPK was not activated by hypoxia. Although hypoxia significantly increased BNIP-3 mRNA levels at day 5, protein levels remained unaffected. The mRNA levels of the two atrogenes MURF1 and MAFbx were early increased by hypoxia in Ov muscles. In conclusion, hypoxia induced a transient alteration of muscle growth in this hypertrophic model, at least partly due to a specific impairment of the mTOR/P70(S6K) pathway, independently of Akt, by an undefined mechanism, and increased transcript levels for MURF1 and MAFbx that could contribute to stimulate the proteasomal proteolysis.

  18. Modifying the affective behavior of preschoolers with autism using in-vivo or video modeling and reinforcement contingencies.

    PubMed

    Gena, Angeliki; Couloura, Sophia; Kymissis, Effie

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to modify the affective behavior of three preschoolers with autism in home settings and in the context of play activities, and to compare the effects of video modeling to the effects of in-vivo modeling in teaching these children contextually appropriate affective responses. A multiple-baseline design across subjects, with a return to baseline condition, was used to assess the effects of treatment that consisted of reinforcement, video modeling, in-vivo modeling, and prompting. During training trials, reinforcement in the form of verbal praise and tokens was delivered contingent upon appropriate affective responding. Error correction procedures differed for each treatment condition. In the in-vivo modeling condition, the therapist used modeling and verbal prompting. In the video modeling condition, video segments of a peer modeling the correct response and verbal prompting by the therapist were used as corrective procedures. Participants received treatment in three categories of affective behavior--sympathy, appreciation, and disapproval--and were presented with a total of 140 different scenarios. The study demonstrated that both treatments--video modeling and in-vivo modeling--systematically increased appropriate affective responding in all response categories for the three participants. Additionally, treatment effects generalized across responses to untrained scenarios, the child's mother, new therapists, and time.

  19. Parvalbumin Interneurons of Central Amygdala Regulate the Negative Affective States and the Expression of Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone During Morphine Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Shen, Minjie; Jiang, Changyou

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is a crucial component of the neuronal circuitry mediating aversive emotion. Its role in the negative affective states during drug withdrawal includes changes in opioidergic, GABAergic, and corticotropin-releasing factor neurotransmission. However, the modulation of the neurobiological interconnectivity in the CeA and its effects in the negative reinforcement of drug dependents are poorly understood. Method: We performed electrophysiological recordings to assess the membrane excitability of parvalbumin (PV)+ interneurons in the CeA during chronic morphine withdrawal. We tested the morphine withdrawal–induced negative affective states, such as the aversive (assessed by conditioned place aversion), anxiety (assessed by elevated plus maze), and anhedonic-like (assessed by saccharin preference test) behaviors, as well as the mRNA level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) via optogenetic inhibition or activation of PV+ interneurons in the CeA. Result: Chronic morphine withdrawal increased the firing rate of CeA PV+ interneurons. Optogenetic inhibition of the activity of CeA PV+ interneurons attenuated the morphine withdrawal–induced negative affective states, such as the aversive, anxiety, and anhedonic-like behaviors, while direct activation of CeA PV+ interneurons could trigger those negative affective-like behaviors. Optogenetic inhibition of the CeA PV+ interneurons during the morphine withdrawal significantly attenuated the elevated CRH mRNA level in the CeA. Conclusion: The activity of PV+ interneurons in the CeA was up-regulated during chronic morphine withdrawal. The activation of PV+ interneurons during morphine withdrawal was crucial for the induction of the negative emotion and the up-regulation of CRH mRNA levels in the CeA. PMID:27385383

  20. An evaluation of affect and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Deaver, Cristine M; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Smyth, Joshua; Meidinger, Amy; Crosby, Ross

    2003-09-01

    The affect regulation model of binge eating suggests that binge eating occurs because it provides momentary relief from negative affect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in affect during binge eating to evaluate the merits of this model. Participants were young adult women from a midwestern university. Binge eaters recorded their level of pleasantness using the affect grid at 2-minute intervals before, during, and after binge eating episodes and regular meals. Controls recorded in a similar manner during meals. The results showed a different pattern of affect for binge eaters during binge eating episodes and normal meals and for binge eaters and controls at normal meals. The results support the affect regulation model of binge eating and suggest that binge eating is negatively reinforced because it produces momentary relief from negative affect.

  1. Identification of Patients Affected by Mitral Valve Prolapse with Severe Regurgitation: A Multivariable Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Songia, Paola; Chiesa, Mattia; Alamanni, Francesco; Tremoli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Background. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common cause of severe mitral regurgitation. Besides echocardiography, up to now there are no reliable biomarkers available for the identification of this pathology. We aim to generate a predictive model, based on circulating biomarkers, able to identify MVP patients with the highest accuracy. Methods. We analysed 43 patients who underwent mitral valve repair due to MVP and compared to 29 matched controls. We assessed the oxidative stress status measuring the oxidized and the reduced form of glutathione by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) plasma levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The combination of these biochemical variables was used to implement several logistic regression models. Results. Oxidative stress levels and OPG concentrations were significantly higher in patients compared to control subjects (0.116 ± 0.007 versus 0.053 ± 0.013 and 1748 ± 100.2 versus 1109 ± 45.3 pg/mL, respectively; p < 0.0001). The best regression model was able to correctly classify 62 samples out of 72 with accuracy in terms of area under the curve of 0.92. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a strong association between OPG and oxidative stress status in patients affected by MVP with severe regurgitation. PMID:28261377

  2. How does pollination mutualism affect the evolution of prior self-fertilization? A model.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Clotilde; Dufay, Mathilde; Billiard, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The mode of pollination is often neglected regarding the evolution of selfing. Yet the distribution of mating systems seems to depend on the mode of pollination, and pollinators are likely to interfere with selfing evolution, since they can cause strong selective pressures on floral traits. Most selfing species reduce their investment in reproduction, and display smaller flowers, with less nectar and scents (referred to as selfing syndrome). We model the evolution of prior selfing when it affects both the demography of plants and pollinators and the investment of plants in pollination. Including the selfing syndrome in the model allows to predict several outcomes: plants can evolve either toward complete outcrossing, complete selfing, or to a stable mixed-mating system, even when inbreeding depression is high. We predict that the evolution to high prior selfing could lead to evolutionary suicides, highlighting the importance of merging demography and evolution in models. The consequence of the selfing syndrome on plant-pollinator interactions could be a widespread mechanism driving the evolution of selfing in animal-pollinated taxa.

  3. The 'affect tagging and consolidation' (ATaC) model of depression vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Marcus O; Pennington, Kyla; Durrant, Simon J

    2017-02-15

    Since the 1960's polysomnographic sleep research has demonstrated that depressive episodes are associated with REM sleep alterations. Some of these alterations, such as increased REM sleep density, have also been observed in first-degree relatives of patients and remitted patients, suggesting that they may be vulnerability markers of major depressive disorder (MDD), rather than mere epiphenomena of the disorder. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that depression is also associated with heightened amygdala reactivity to negative emotional stimuli, which may also be a vulnerability marker for MDD. Several models have been developed to explain the respective roles of REM sleep alterations and negatively-biased amygdala activity in the pathology of MDD, however the possible interaction between these two potential risk-factors remains uncharted. This paper reviews the roles of the amygdala and REM sleep in the encoding and consolidation of negative emotional memories, respectively. We present our 'affect tagging and consolidation' (ATaC) model, which argues that increased REM sleep density and negatively-biased amygdala activity are two separate, genetically influenced risk-factors for depression which interact to promote the development of negative memory bias - a well-known cognitive vulnerability marker for depression. Predictions of the ATaC model may motivate research aimed at improving our understanding of sleep dependent memory consolidation in depression aetiology.

  4. A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

    2012-03-01

    A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments.

  5. How baryonic feedback processes can affect dark matter halos: a stochastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundlich, J.; El-Zant, A.; Combes, F.

    2016-12-01

    Feedback processes from stars and active galactic nuclei result in gas density fluctuations which can contribute to `heating' dark matter haloes, decrease their density at the center and hence form more realistic `cores' than the steep `cusps' predicted by cold dark matter (CDM) simulations. We present a theoretical model deriving this effect from first principles: stochastic density variations in the gas distribution perturb the gravitational potential and hence affect the halo particles. We analytically derive the velocity dispersion imparted to the CDM particles and the corresponding relaxation time, and further perform numerical simulations to show that the assumed process can indeed lead to the formation of a core in an initially cuspy halo within a timescale comparable to the derived relaxation time. This suggests that feedback-induced cusp-core transformations observed in hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation may be understood and parametrized in relatively simple terms.

  6. Stress management affects outcomes in the pathophysiology of an endometriosis model.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Caroline B; Cruz, Myrella L; Hernández, Siomara; Thompson, Kenira J; Bayona, Manuel; Flores, Idhaliz

    2015-04-01

    We have previously shown detrimental effects of stress in an animal model of endometriosis. We now investigated whether the ability to control stress can affect disease parameters. Endometriosis was surgically induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats before exposing animals to a controllable (submerged platform) or uncontrollable (no platform) swim stress protocol. Corticosterone levels and fecal pellet numbers were measured as an indicator of stress. Uncontrollable stress increased the number and size of the endometriotic cysts. Rats receiving uncontrollable stress had higher anxiety than those exposed to controllable stress or no stress and higher corticosterone levels. Uncontrollable stressed rats had more colonic damage and uterine cell infiltration compared to no stress, while controllable stress rats showed less of an effect. Uncontrollable stress also increased both colonic and uterine motility. In summary, the level of stress controllability appears to modulate the behavior and pathophysiology of endometriosis and offers evidence for evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  7. Journey as destination: a recovery model for families affected by concurrent disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Caroline P; Skinner, W J Wayne

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a study offering peer support and education to members of families affected by concurrent disorders (CD). This article is an analysis of the qualitative data from a mixed methods study. Using constructivist grounded theory, we analyzed semistructured interviews with participants, with half attending a 12-week support group and reading weekly workbook assignments, and the others receiving the workbook only and being interviewed 3 months later. We developed a model that describes family journeys into, through, and beyond CD, involving three phases connected by two transitional constructs. Preoccupation with the unresolved CD of an ill family member characterized the journey into and through illness, the first two phases, whereas renewal characterized the passage from illness to journeying on toward recovery. Participants had strong comments about health care providers and the service system, and spoke of the need for self-care, empowerment, support, and inclusion.

  8. A systematic experim