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Sample records for affect reproductive function

  1. Metabolic stressors and signals differentially affect energy allocation between reproduction and immune function.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Cooper, Candace L; Demas, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Most free-living animals have finite energy stores that they must allocate to different physiological and behavioral processes. In times of energetic stress, trade-offs in energy allocation among these processes may occur. The manifestation of trade-offs may depend on the source (e.g., glucose, lipids) and severity of energy limitation. In this study, we investigated energetic trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems by experimentally limiting energy availability to female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, a compound that disrupts cellular utilization of glucose. We observed how glucoprivation at two levels of severity affected allocation to reproduction and immunity. Additionally, we treated a subset of these hamsters with leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a direct signal of available fat stores, in order to determine how increasing this signal of fat stores influences glucoprivation-induced trade-offs. We observed trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems and that these trade-offs depended on the severity of energy limitation and exogenous leptin signaling. The majority of the animals experiencing mild glucoprivation entered anestrus, whereas leptin treatment restored estrous cycling in these animals. Surprisingly, virtually all animals experiencing more severe glucoprivation maintained normal estrous cycling throughout the experiment; however, exogenous leptin resulted in lower antibody production in this group. These data suggest that variation in these trade-offs may be mediated by shifts between glucose and fatty acid utilization. Collectively, the results of the present study highlight the context-dependent nature of these trade-offs, as trade-offs induced by the same metabolic stressor can manifest differently depending on its intensity. PMID:25125082

  2. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, V.I.; Sokur, T.N.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. We have concentrated on two well-defined areas: the Chechersky district of the Gomel region in Belorussia and the Polessky district of the Kiev region in the Ukraine. A number of investigations were carried out on 688 pregnant women and their babies, and data were obtained from 7000 labor histories of the development of newborns for a period of 8 years (3 years before the accident and 5 years after it). Parameters examined included birth rate, thyroid pathology, extragenital pathology such as anemias, renal disorders, hypertension, and abnormalities in the metabolism of fats, complications of gestation, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, perinatal morbidity and mortality, stillbirths and early neonatal mortality, infections and inflammatory diseases, neurological symptoms and hemic disturbances in both mothers and infants, trophic anomalies, and biochemical and structural changes in the placenta. Several exogenous, complicating influences were also considered such as psycho-emotional factors, stress, lifestyle changes, and others caused directly by the hazardous situation and by its consequences such as treatment, removal from affected areas, etc. 9 figs.

  3. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mowry, Annelise V.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Sirman, Aubrey E.; Potts, Wayne K.; Hood, Wendy R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage. PMID:27537547

  4. Leptin and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Richard; Lents, Clay A

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue plays a dynamic role in whole-body energy homeostasis by acting as an endocrine organ. Collective evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and secretion of leptin. Developmental changes in these relationships are considered important for pubertal transition in reproductive function. Leptin augments secretion of gonadotropin hormones, which are essential for initiation and maintenance of normal reproductive function, by acting centrally at the hypothalamus to regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal activity and secretion. The effects of leptin on GnRH are mediated through interneuronal pathways involving neuropeptide-Y, proopiomelanocortin and kisspeptin. Increased infertility associated with diet induced obesity or central leptin resistance are likely mediated through the kisspeptin-GnRH pathway. Furthermore, Leptin regulates reproductive function by altering the sensitivity of the pituitary gland to GnRH and acting at the ovary to regulate follicular and luteal steroidogenesis. Thus leptin serves as a putative signal that links metabolic status with the reproductive axis. The intent of this review is to examine the biological role of leptin with energy metabolism, and reproduction. PMID:22980196

  5. Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J

    2001-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1994, leptin, a protein hormone synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue, has been shown to regulate feed intake in several species including sheep and pigs. Although a nimiety of information exists regarding the physiological role of leptin in rodents and humans, the regulation and action of leptin in domestic animals is less certain. Emerging evidence in several species indicates that leptin may also affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Leptin receptor mRNA is present in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus of several species, including sheep. In rats, effects of leptin on GnRH, LH and FSH secretion have been inconsistent, with leptin exhibiting both stimulatory and inhibitory action in vivo and in vitro. Evidence to support direct action of leptin at the level of the gonad indicates that the leptin receptor and its mRNA are present in ovarian tissue of several species, including cattle. These leptin receptors are functional, since leptin inhibits insulin-induced steroidogenesis of both granulosa and thecal cells of cattle in vitro. Leptin receptor mRNA is also found in the testes of rodents. As with the ovary, these receptors are functional, at least in rats, since leptin inhibits hCG-induced testosterone secretion by Leydig cells in vitro. During pregnancy, placental production of leptin may be a major contributor to the increase in maternal leptin in primates but not rodents. However, in both primates and rodents, leptin receptors exist in placental tissues and may regulate metabolism of the fetal-placental unit. As specific leptin immunoassays are developed for domestic animals, in vivo associations may then be made among leptin, body energy stores, dietary energy intake and reproductive function. This may lead to a more definitive role of leptin in domestic animal reproduction. PMID:11872320

  6. [A reproductive function in metallurgists].

    PubMed

    Egorova, A M

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the results of a complex investigation of a reproductive function including examination of semen and blood hormones in 100 metallurgists and 80 workers not engaged in metallurgy of ferrous metals (a control group) has shown that 44% metallurgists and 18.5% controls have pathology (p < 0.001). Metallurgists had more often agglutination, asthenozoospermia, increased semen viscosity, oligospermia, teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, male sterility than the control group (p < 0.001). Metallurgists have a moderate and high relative risk of reproduction function pathology (RR = 1.6-2.9). Urological pathology in metallurgists can be reduced after prophylactic programs. This proves the necessity of including urological examination and ultrasonic scanning in programs of regular check-up of metallurgists. PMID:19526877

  7. Prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Neil P; Bellingham, Michelle; Robinson, Jane E

    2016-07-01

    It is now well recognized that the gestational environment can have long-lasting effects not only on the life span and health span of an individual but also, through potential epigenetic changes, on future generations. This article reviews the "prenatal programming" of the neuroendocrine systems that regulate reproduction, with a specific focus on the lessons learned using ovine models. The review examines the critical roles played by steroids in normal reproductive development before considering the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous steroid hormones including androgens and estrogens, the effects of maternal nutrition and stress during gestation, and the effects of exogenous chemicals such as alcohol and environment chemicals. In so doing, it becomes evident that, to maximize fitness, the regulation of reproduction has evolved to be responsive to many different internal and external cues and that the GnRH neurosecretory system expresses a degree of plasticity throughout life. During fetal life, however, the system is particularly sensitive to change and at this time, the GnRH neurosecretory system can be "shaped" both to achieve normal sexually differentiated function but also in ways that may adversely affect or even prevent "normal function". The exact mechanisms through which these programmed changes are brought about remain largely uncharacterized but are likely to differ depending on the factor, the timing of exposure to that factor, and the species. It would appear, however, that some afferent systems to the GnRH neurons such as kisspeptin, may be critical in this regard as it would appear to be sensitive to a wide variety of factors that can program reproductive function. Finally, it has been noted that the prenatal programming of neuroendocrine reproductive function can be associated with epigenetic changes, which would suggest that in addition to direct effects on the exposed offspring, prenatal programming could have transgenerational effects on

  8. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  9. Reproductive functions in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D E

    1992-08-01

    This article reviews current knowledge about the effects of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes on ovulation, menstruation, sexuality, fertility, pregnancy and fetal-infant health. Eating disorders may result in failure to ovulate, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, reduced sex drive, infertility, hyperemesis gravidarum, low maternal weight gain in pregnancy, small babies for gestational date, low birth weight infants, increased neonatal morbidity and problems in infant feeding. The available information suggests that clinicians should inquire about nutritional intake, a history of eating disorders and weight reducing behaviours as part of the routine assessment of patients with the disorders of reproductive function listed above. If an eating disorder is discovered before conception, the woman should be encouraged to delay pregnancy until the eating disorder is treated and effectively under control. If the woman is pregnant, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce maternal and fetal complications. The infants of eating-disordered women should be carefully followed to ensure adequate nutritional intake. Problems in reproductive function related to eating disorders offer rich opportunities for multispecialty collaboration in primary and secondary prevention programmes directed toward both mother and infant. PMID:1389091

  10. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  11. Allopregnanolone as a Mediator of Affective Switching in Reproductive Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Reproductive mood disorders, including premenstrual dysphoria (PMD) and postpartum depression (PPD), are characterized by affective dysregulation that occurs during specific reproductive states. The occurrence of illness onset during changes in reproductive endocrine function has generated interest in the role of gonadal steroids in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders, yet the mechanisms by which the changing hormone milieu triggers depression in susceptible women remain poorly understood. Objectives This review focuses on one of the neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone – allopregnanolone (ALLO) – that acutely regulates neuronal function and may mediate affective dysregulation that occurs concomitant with changes in reproductive endocrine function. We describe the role of the ‘neuroactive’ steroids estradiol and progesterone in reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders to highlight the potential mechanisms by which ALLO might contribute to their pathophysiology. Finally, using existing data, we test the hypothesis that changes in ALLO levels may trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women. Results Although there is no reliable evidence that basal ALLO levels distinguish those with PMD or PPD from those without, existing animal models suggest potential mechanisms by which specific reproductive states may unmask susceptibility to affective dysregulation. Consistent with these models, initially euthymic women with PMD and those with a history of PPD show a negative association between depressive symptoms and circulating ALLO levels following progesterone administration. Conclusions Existing animal models and our own preliminary data suggest that ALLO may play an important role in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders by triggering affective dysregulation in susceptible women. PMID:24846476

  12. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.L.; Goldman, J.M.; Rehnberg, G.L.

    1986-12-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, the authors evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. They also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants.

  13. DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (ptgs2) were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg) titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRβ levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg), maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs,) and ovulation (ptgs2), deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans. PMID:20419165

  14. Environmental toxicants and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elissa W.P; Lie, Pearl P.Y; Li, Michelle W.M; Su, Linlin; Siu, Erica R; Yan, Helen H.N; Mannu, Jayakanthan; Mathur, Premendu P; Bonanomi, Michele; Silvestrini, Bruno; Mruk, Dolores D

    2011-01-01

    Environmental toxicants, such as cadmium and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruptors. In utero, perinatal or neonatal exposure of BPA to rats affect the male reproductive function, such as the blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. This effect of BPA on BTB integrity in immature rats is likely mediated via a loss of gap junction function at the BTB, failing to coordinate tight junction and anchoring junction function at the site to maintain the immunological barrier integrity. This in turn activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) downstream and an increase in protein endocytosis, destabilizing the BTB. The cadmium-induced disruption of testicular dysfunction is mediated initially via its effects on the occludin/ZO-1/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) complex at the BTB, causing redistribution of proteins at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, leading to the BTB disruption. The damaging effects of these toxicants to testicular function are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) downstream, which in turn perturbs the actin bundling and accelerates the actin-branching activity, causing disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-barrier function at the BTB and perturbing spermatid adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES, a testis-specific anchoring junction type) that leads to premature release of germ cells from the testis. However, the use of specific inhibitors against MAPK was shown to block or delay the cadmium-induced testicular injury, such as BTB disruption and germ cell loss. These findings suggest that there may be a common downstream p38 and/or Erk1/2 MAPK-based signaling pathway involving polarity proteins and actin regulators that is shared between different toxicants that induce male reproductive dysfunction. As such, the use of inhibitors and/or antagonists against specific MAPKs can possibly be used to “manage” the illnesses caused by these toxicants and/or “protect” industrial

  15. Pituitary function following treatment with reproductive toxins.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Rehnberg, G L

    1986-01-01

    Appropriate regulation of reproductive processes are dependent upon the integrity of pituitary function. In this selected review, we evaluate the evidence that certain environmental compounds exert their effect on reproductive function via a direct action on the pituitary gland. We also discuss examples of changes in pituitary hormone secretion that occur in response to changes in neuronal or gonadal control of the pituitary. A limited number of studies suggest that measures of pituitary hormone secretion provide an early and sensitive measure of a compound's potential effects on the reproductive system. However, the most striking aspect of this area is the sparse and inconsistent information describing pituitary function following exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:3830104

  16. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    PubMed

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation of worker

  17. Adult neurogenesis and reproductive functions in mammals.

    PubMed

    Migaud, Martine; Butruille, Lucile; Duittoz, Anne; Pillon, Delphine; Batailler, Martine

    2016-07-01

    During adulthood, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new cells and new neurons in particular. It is now well established that the birth of these new neurons occurs in well-described sites: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, as well as in other brain regions including the hypothalamus. In this review, we describe the canonical neurogenic niches and illustrate the functional relevance of adult-born neurons of each neurogenic niche in the reproductive physiology. More specifically, we highlight the effect of reproductive social stimuli on the neurogenic processes and conversely, the contributions of adult-born neurons to the reproductive physiology and behavior. We next review the recent discovery of a novel neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamus and the median eminence and the compelling evidence of the link existing between the new-born hypothalamic neurons and the regulation of metabolism. In addition, new perspectives on the possible involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of photoperiodic reproductive physiology in seasonal mammals are discussed. Altogether, the studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the potential role of neurogenesis in reproductive function and emphasize the importance of increasing our knowledge on the regulation processes and the physiological relevance of these adult-born neurons. This constitutes a necessary step toward a potential manipulation of these plasticity mechanisms. PMID:27177964

  18. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a possible bioindicator of epigenetic factors present in drinking water that may affect reproductive function: is chorion an issue?

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sales, M; García-Ximénez, F; Espinós, F J

    2015-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have been monitored in stream waters, raw and finished waters and wastewater effluents. Most of these contaminants, such as epigenetic substances, have been detected at very low levels. Unfortunately, their complete monitoring and/or removal are very difficult, given the increasing presence of new contaminants and due to analytical and economic considerations. For this reason, bioindicators are used as an alternative to monitor their presence. To this end, zebrafish is being used to assess certain contaminants in water quality studies. As our long-term aim is to determine if zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used to detect environmental epigenetic factors in drinking waters with effects on human reproduction, an initial question is whether the chorion could interfere with the possible action of epigenetic factors in two reproductive events: genital ridge formation and migration of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) to these genital ridges. In the first experiment, we attempted to partially degrade the chorion of mid blastula transition (MBT) embryos with pronase, with acceptable survival rates at 5 days post fertilisation (dpf), with the group exposed for 15 min giving the best survival results. As denuded early embryos require a specific culture medium, in the next experiment embryo survival was evaluated when they were cultured up to 5 dpf in drinking waters from six different sources. Results showed a negative effect on embryo survival at 5 dpf from several waters but not in others, thus distorting the survival outcomes. These results suggest using embryos with the chorion intact from the outset when drinking waters from different sources are to be tested. PMID:24598355

  19. Peptides: Basic determinants of reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Celik, Onder; Aydin, Suleyman; Celik, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Musa

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian reproduction is a costly process in terms of energy consumption. The critical information regarding metabolic status is signaled to the hypothalamus mainly through peripheral peptides from the adipose tissue and gastrointestinal tract. Changes in energy stores produce fluctuations in leptin, insulin, ghrelin and glucose signals that feedback mainly to the hypothalamus to regulate metabolism and fertility. In near future, possible effects of the nutritional status on GnRH regulation can be evaluated by measuring serum or tissue levels of leptin and ghrelin in patiens suffering from infertility. The fact that leptin and ghrelin are antagonistic in their effects on GnRH neurons, their respective agonistic and antagonistic roles make them ideal candidates to use instead of GnRH agonist and antagonist. Similarly, kisspeptin expressing neurons are likely to mediate the well-established link between energy balance and reproductive functions. Exogenous kisspeptin can be used for physiological ovarian hyperstimulation for in-vitro fertilization. Moreover, kisspeptin antagonist therapy can be used for the treatment of postmenapousal women, precocious puberty, PCOS, endometriosis and uterine fibroids. In this review, we will analyze the central mechanisms involved in the integration of metabolic information and their contribution to the control of the reproductive function. Particular attention will be paid to summarize the participation of leptin, kisspeptin, ghrelin, NPY, orexin, urocortin, VIP, insulin, galanin, galanin like peptide, oxytocin, agouti gene-related peptide, and POMC neurons in this process and their possible interactions to contribute to the metabolic control of reproduction. PMID:26074346

  20. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  1. Reproductive interference between Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria affects reproductive success in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Hettyey, Attila; Vági, Balázs; Kovács, Tibor; Ujszegi, János; Katona, Patrik; Szederkényi, Márk; Pearman, Peter B; Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that reproductive interference between heterospecifics can seriously affect individual fitness; support from field studies for such an effect has, however, remained scarce. We studied reproductive interference in 25 natural breeding ponds in an area where two ranid frogs, Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria, co-occur. The breeding seasons of the two species usually overlap and males of both species are often found in amplexus with heterospecific females, even though matings between heterospecifics produce no viable offspring. We estimated species abundance ratios based on the number of clutches laid and evaluated fertilization success. In ponds with low spatial complexity and a species abundance ratio biased towards R. temporaria, the average fertilization success of R. dalmatina eggs decreased, while this relationship was not detectable in spatially more complex ponds. Fertilization success of R. temporaria did not decrease with increasing relative numbers of heterospecifics. This asymmetry in fitness effects of reproductive interference may be attributed to R. temporaria males being more competitive in scramble competition for females than R. dalmatina males. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that in natural breeding populations of vertebrates interference among heterospecifics has the potential to substantially lower reproductive success at the population level, which may in turn affect population dynamics. PMID:25138258

  2. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  3. Kisspeptin: a novel regulator of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Dhillo, W S

    2008-08-01

    The UK and international neuroendocrine community was deeply shocked and saddened the unbelievably premature death of Michael Harbuz in Bristol in 2006. Mick was a superb friend and colleague, and played a huge part in the development and activities of the British Neuroendocrine Group/British Society for Neuroendocrinology (BSN), serving as both Membership Secretary and Treasurer between 1999 and 2004. Mick was a leader in the field of neuroendocrine-immune interactions, and brought a great deal of charisma, humour and ability to meetings and conferences. He was also a passionate and committed supporter of the progress of young researchers and of their participation in neuroendocrine events. He recognised that today's postgraduate students and postdoctoral research fellows are tomorrow's neuroendocrine researchers, be it in academia, the health services or industry. To recognise Mick's great commitment to and enthusiasm for postgraduate education both in the University of Bristol and in the BSN, we decided to honour and remember him by instituting the 'Michael Harbuz Young Investigator Prize Lecture' to be delivered annually. Dr Waljit Dhillo from Imperial College London was the inaugural recipient of this award, and presented his lecture at the Annual Meeting of the BSN in Nottingham in September 2007, upon which this review is based. Recent evidence demonstrates that the neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor, GPR54, have a fundamental role in initiating the onset of puberty and are important in regulating reproductive function. This review discusses the evidence available from animals and humans demonstrating that kisspeptin potently stimulates the release of gonadotrophins by stimulating the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and that a lack of kisspeptin or GPR54 results in reproductive failure. PMID:18510709

  4. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  5. Gonadal function and reproductive health in women with HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Yalamanchi, Swaytha; Dobs, Adrian; Greenblatt, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Most HIV infections among women occur early in reproductive life, which highlights the importance of understanding the impact of HIV on reproductive functions, and also the potential implications of reproductive function and aging on the course of HIV disease. HIV infection may influence reproductive biology via multiple mechanisms including: potential directs effects on HIV on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, implications of HIV-related immune dysfunction on reproductive biology, effects of antiretroviral treatments on reproductive functions and the impact of treatment related immune reconstitution on reproductive health. Ovarian function is a crucial component of reproductive biology in women, but standard assessment methods are of limited applicability to women with some chronic diseases, such as HIV. New antiretroviral treatments have the potential to increase the ease of conception planning, and to improve fertility. Drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral medications and hormonal contraceptives are potentially significant and merit careful provider attention. While HIV infection is not a major cause of infertility, high level viremia and low CD4 lymphocyte counts are associated with reduced fertility rates. Conception and pregnancy can now be achieved without transmission of HIV to sexual partner or new born, but complications of pregnancy may be more common in HIV infected women than uninfected women. PMID:25169564

  6. Reproductive function in male patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Di Mauro, M; Lo Presti, D; Mongioì, L M; Russo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and some of the main bio-functional spermatozoa parameters, serum gonadal hormones and didymo-epididymal ultrasound features in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). DM1 affects an increasing number of men of reproductive age. Diabetes may affect male reproduction by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, causing sexual dysfunction or disrupting male accessory gland function. However, data on spermatozoa parameters and other aspects of the reproductive function in these patients are scanty. Thirty-two patients with DM1 [27.0 (25.0-30.0 years)] and 20 age-matched fertile healthy men [28.0 (27.25-30.75 years)] were enrolled. Patients with diabetic neuropathy, other endocrine disorders or conditions known to alter spermatozoa parameters were excluded. Each subject underwent semen analysis, blood withdrawal for fasting and post-prandial glycaemia, hormonal analysis and didymo-epididymal ultrasound evaluation before and after ejaculation. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility [10.0 (7.0-12.75) vs. 45.0 (42.0-47.75) %; p < 0.01] and a higher percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal mitochondrial function than controls [47.0 (43.0-55.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-5.0) %; p < 0.01]. Patients also had greater post-ejaculatory diameters of cephalic [11.5 (10.2-13.6) vs. 6.0 (4.0-7.0) mm; p < 0.01] and caudal epididymis [5.5 (4.00-7.55) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0) mm; p < 0.01] compared to controls, suggesting a lack of the physiological post-ejaculation epididymal shrinkage. Correlation analysis suggested that progressive motility was associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.68; p < 0.01). The other parameters did not show any significant difference. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, impaired mitochondrial function and epididymal post-ejaculatory dysfunction. These findings may explain why patients with DM1 experience fertility

  7. Promoting Reproductive Options for HIV-Affected Couples in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Cohen, Craig R.; Murage, Alfred; Ong’ech, John; Kiarie, James; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    HIV-affected couples have unique challenges that require access to information and reproductive services which prevent HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and offspring while allowing couples to fulfill their reproductive goals. In high HIV prevalent regions of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-affected couples require multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) to enhance their reproductive healthcare options beyond contraception and prevention of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to include assistance in childbearing. The unique characteristics of the condom and its accepted use in conjunction with safer conception interventions allow HIV-serodiscordant couples an opportunity to maintain reproductive health, prevent HIV/STI transmission, and achieve their reproductive goals while timing conception. Rethinking the traditional view of the condom and incorporating a broader reproductive health perspective of HIV-affected couples into MPT methodologies will impact demand, acceptability, and uptake of these future technologies. PMID:25335844

  8. Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. Methods and Findings The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US$20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US$509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US$1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict. PMID:19513098

  9. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions. PMID:11070641

  10. Vasotocin and reproductive functions of the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Jurkevich, A; Grossmann, R

    2003-07-01

    The neurohypophyseal hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) combines both antidiuretic and reproductive activities. In the domestic chicken AVT produces assimetric effects on the reproductive functions of males and females. AVT synthesized in magnocellular diencephalic neurons is released into circulation in a highly coordinated manner contributing to the peripheral control of oviposition in hens. Conversely, parvocellular AVT cells located in the limbic system (bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST)) are quite different in their properties and, possible, functions. In domestic chickens these cells express AVT in a sexually dimorphic manner and are found solely in males. This sexually dimorphic part of the AVT system is sensitive to gonadal steroids. Experimental data demonstrated that AVT modulates different aspects of reproductive behavior including courtship vocalization and copulation. Sexual differentiation of these limbic vasotocinergic cells show striking correlation with sexual differentiation of masculine behavior. Evidences coming from physiological, anatomical and ethological studies suggest strong implication of the vasotocinergic system in the control of reproductive functions. PMID:12963102

  11. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  12. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  13. Circadian Regulation of Kisspeptin in Female Reproductive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Female reproductive functioning requires the precise temporal organization of numerous neuroendocrine events by a master circadian brain clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing result in pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. The present chapter provides an overview of the circadian control of female reproduction, underscoring the significance of kisspeptin as a key locus of integration for circadian and steroidal signaling necessary for the initiation of ovulation. PMID:23550016

  14. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  15. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    PubMed Central

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  16. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  17. Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists. PMID:23124333

  18. AGING AND RESPONSES TO TOXINS IN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female reproductive functions improve after puberty to reach a maximum within the first quarter of the lifespan of most mammals. hereafter, there are progressive declines with age leading in most mammalian species to a loss of fertility by midlife. The changes are complex and the...

  19. EFFECTS OF SELENIUM ON MALLARD DUCK REPRODUCTION AND IMMUNE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. Our objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of a...

  20. Circadian Control of Neuroendocrine Circuits Regulating Female Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Wilbur P.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.

    2012-01-01

    Female reproduction requires the precise temporal organization of interacting, estradiol-sensitive neural circuits that converge to optimally drive hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis functioning. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus coordinates reproductively relevant neuroendocrine events necessary to maximize reproductive success. Likewise, in species where periods of fertility are brief, circadian oversight of reproductive function ensures that estradiol-dependent increases in sexual motivation coincide with ovulation. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing (e.g., through rotating shift work, night shift work, poor sleep hygiene) lead to pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. Despite the well-established roles for the circadian system in female reproductive functioning, the specific neural circuits and neurochemical mediators underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Most work to date has focused on the direct and indirect communication from the SCN to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in control of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. However, the same clock genes underlying circadian rhythms at the cellular level in SCN cells are also common to target cell populations of the SCN, including the GnRH neuronal network. Exploring the means by which the master clock synergizes with subordinate clocks in GnRH cells and its upstream modulatory systems represents an exciting opportunity to further understand the role of endogenous timing systems in female reproduction. Herein we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding interactions between the circadian timing system and estradiol-sensitive neural circuits driving GnRH secretion and the preovulatory LH surge. PMID:22661968

  1. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Sonja V; Rueda, Carolina; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Visser, Marcel E

    2011-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues from sprouting vegetation and the consequent abundance of invertebrate prey, although dependent on temperature, may provide supplementary environmental cues per se. This hypothesis was investigated in breeding pairs of great tits kept in outdoor aviaries. In spring, experimental pairs were provided with access to leafing birch branches and caterpillars as a visual food cue, while control pairs were provided with non-leafing branches. Observations were made on the onset of laying and on concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) at regular intervals to monitor changes in reproductive function. The onset of egg laying was not advanced by the presence of leafing branches and caterpillars. LH concentrations increased during the course of the study, but phenological cues did not affect plasma LH levels in females and males. Early spring vegetation, such as the leafing of birch branches, and the appearance of caterpillar prey do not appear to play a significant role in fine-tuning the onset of egg laying in great tits. PMID:21993796

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W.M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that male reproductive function is modulated via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The MAPK cascade is involved in numerous male reproductive processes, including spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and activation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, before fertilization of the oocyte. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in this rapidly developing field regarding the role of MAPK in male reproduction in animal models and in human spermatozoa in vitro. This research will facilitate the design of future studies in humans, although much work is needed before this information can be used to manage male infertility and environmental toxicant-induced testicular injury in men, such as blood–testis-barrier disruption. PMID:19303360

  3. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  4. Clonal Patch Size and Ramet Position of Leymus chinensis Affected Reproductive Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive allocation is critically important for population maintenance and usually varies with not only environmental factors but also biotic ones. As a typical rhizome clonal plant in China's northern grasslands, Leymus chinensis usually dominates the steppe communities and grows in clonal patches. In order to clarify the sexual reproductive allocation of L. chinensis in the process of the growth and expansion, we selected L. chinensis clonal patches of a range of sizes to examine the reproductive allocation and allometric growth of the plants. Moreover, the effects of position of L. chinensis ramets within the patch on their reproductive allocation were also examined. Clonal patch size and position both significantly affected spike biomass, reproductive tiller biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio. From the central to the marginal zone, both the spike biomass and reproductive tiller biomass displayed an increasing trend in all the five patch size categories except for reproductive tiller biomass in 15–40m2 category. L. chinensis had significantly larger SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio in marginal zone than in central zone of clonal patches that are larger than 15 m2 in area. Regression analysis showed that the spike biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio were negatively correlated with clonal patch size while patch size showed significantly positive effect on SEED/SPIKE biomass ratio, but the reproductive tiller biomass and SEED/TILLER biomass ratio were not dependent on clonal patch size. The relationships between biomass of spike and reproductive tiller, between mature seed biomass and spike biomass and between mature seed biomass and reproductive tiller biomass were significant allometric for all or some of patch size categories, respectively. The slopes of all these allometric relationships were significantly different from 1. The allometric growth of L. chinensis is patch size-dependent. This finding will be helpful for developing appropriate practices for

  5. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  6. Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery on Female Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, William C.; Gnatuk, Carol L.; Estes, Stephanie J.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Meadows, Juliana W.; Kesner, James S.; Krieg, Edward F.; Rogers, Ann M.; Haluck, Randy S.; Cooney, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Reproductive function may improve after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms and time-related changes are unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether ovulation frequency/quality as well as associated reproductive parameters improve after Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery. Design: This was a prospective cohort study that enrolled female subjects from 2005 to 2008 with study visits at baseline and then 1, 3, 6, 12, and up to 24 months after surgery. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic health center. Patients: Twenty-nine obese, reproductive-aged women not using confounding medications participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was integrated levels of urinary progestin (pregnanediol 3-glururonide) from daily urinary collections at 12 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were changes in vaginal bleeding, other biometric, hormonal, ultrasound, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measures, and Female Sexual Function Index. Results: Ninety percent of patients with morbid obesity had ovulatory cycles at baseline, and the ovulatory frequency and luteal phase quality (based on integrated pregnanediol 3-glururonide levels) were not modified by bariatric surgery. The follicular phase was shorter postoperatively [6.5 d shorter at 3 months and 7.9–8.9 d shorter at 6–24 months (P < 0.01)]. Biochemical hyperandrogenism improved, largely due to an immediate postoperative increase in serum SHBG levels(P < 0.01), with no change in clinical hyperandrogenism (sebum production, acne, hirsutism). Bone density was preserved, contrasting with a significant loss of lean muscle mass and fat (P < 0.001), reflecting preferential abdominal fat loss (P < 0.001). Female sexual function improved 28% (P = 0.02) by 12 months. Conclusions: Ovulation persists despite morbid obesity and the changes from bypass surgery. Reproductive function after surgery is characterized by a shortened follicular phase and improved

  7. Structure and Function of the Reproductive System of Aplysia kurodai

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Hoon; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Lee, Young-Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated structure and function of the reproductive system in Aplysia kurodai by means of anatomical, histological, and histochemical observation. Reproductive system of this species is consisted of ovotestis, small hermaphroditic duct, ampulla, accessory genital mass and large hermaphroditic duct. The ovotestis is composed of a large number of follicles, and both oocytes and spermatocytes matured in the same follicle. The small hermaphroditic duct is a single tube and contains a swelling, the ampulla, which functions as a storage organ for endogenous sperm and an oviduct. The accessory genital mass is connected to both the small and large hermaphroditic duct, and consisted of three glands: albumen, membrane (winding) and mucus gland. The albumen gland is consisted of granular cells producing basophilic and neutral mucopolysaccharides. The membrane and mucus gland are consisted of granular cells producing acidophilc and sulfated mucopolysaccharides. The large hermaphroditic duct is a single tubular gonoduct linking the accessory genital mass to the common genital aperture but is consisted of two parallel compartments. Internally, these two compartments are incompletely divided by internal septum or fold, which are called as the red hemiduct and white hemiduct, respectively. The red hemiduct functions as an oviduct and the white hemiduct functions as a copulatory duct. The reproductive system of A. kurodai is externally comprised a single tube, i.e., monaulic type. However, internal structure of duct is incompletely divided into oviduct and copulatory duct, i.e., the oodiaulic type. PMID:26973971

  8. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  9. Soy, phyto-oestrogens and male reproductive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Cederroth, Christopher R; Auger, Jacques; Zimmermann, Céline; Eustache, Florence; Nef, Serge

    2010-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by the effects of endocrine disruptors on reproduction. Soy and soy-derived products contain isoflavones that mimic the actions of oestrogens and may exert adverse effects on male fertility. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding the potential detrimental effects of soy and phyto-oestrogens on male reproductive function and fertility in humans and animals. Overall, there are some indications that phyto-oestrogens, alone or in combination with other endocrine disruptors, may alter reproductive hormones, spermatogenesis, sperm capacitation and fertility. However, these results must be interpreted with care, as a result of the paucity of human studies and as numerous reports did not reveal any adverse effects on male reproductive physiology. Further investigation is needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn. In the meantime, caution would suggest that perinatal phyto-oestrogen exposure, such as that found in infants feeding on soy-based formula, should be avoided. PMID:19919579

  10. Oviduct structure and function and reproductive modes in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wake, M H; Dickie, R

    The structure and function of the oviducts of members of the three Orders of the Class Amphibia (Anura, frogs and toads; Urodela, salamanders and newts; Gymnophiona, caecilians) are well described for only a few species. Further, the majority of such descriptions relate only to temperate species that breed in water, lay their eggs there, and have free-living larvae, the presumed ancestral condition of oviparity. Many species of amphibians have derived reproductive modes. Such modes include breeding terrestrially and arboreally, making foam nests, parental transport of eggs and/or tadpoles, direct development (copulating on land, laying the eggs in terrestrial sites, fully metamorphosed juveniles hatching, obviating the free-living larval stage). Other derived modes are ovoviviparity (developing embryos retained in the oviducts, born at a diversity stages of development, no maternal nutrition in addition to yolk) and viviparity (oviductal retention of developing young, maternal nutrition after yolk is resorbed, young born as fully metamorphosed juveniles). The amphibian oviduct is regionally differentiated to secrete varying numbers of layers of material around each egg, which function in fertilization, etc.; it is responsive to endocrine output and environmental mediation during the reproductive cycle; and it maintains developing embryos in some members of all three orders, some with oviductal epithelial secretion of nutrients. However, little is known of the structure-function relationships of the oviduct in species with derived reproductive modes. A comparison of oviduct morphology, function, endocrinology, ecology and phylogeny in amphibians with diverse reproductive modes suggests a number of highly productive avenues of investigation. PMID:9803536

  11. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  12. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    PubMed

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production. PMID:17803646

  13. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  14. Aging and male reproductive function: a mitochondrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Amaral, Alexandra; Ramalho-Santos, Joao

    2013-01-01

    Researching the effects of aging in the male reproductive system is not trivial. Not only are multiple changes at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels involved, but any findings must be discussed with variable individual characteristics, as well as with lifestyle and environmental factors. Age-related changes in the reproductive system include any aspect of reproductive function, from deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, to effects on testicular stem cells, defects in testicular architecture and spermatogenesis, or sperm with decreased functionality. Several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely regarding the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. However, oxidative stress is not the only process involved in mitochondrial-related aging; mitochondrial energy metabolism, changes in mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial-dependent testosterone production are also important. Crucially, all these issues are likely interdependent. We will review evidence that suggests that mitochondria constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:23277044

  15. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  16. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Supriya; Verma, Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there. PMID:26949084

  17. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (μg mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  18. Food supplementation and testosterone interact to influence reproductive behavior and immune function in Sceloporus graciosus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mayté; French, Susannah S; Demas, Gregory E; Martins, Emília P

    2010-02-01

    The energetic resources in an organism's environment are essential for executing a wide range of life-history functions, including immunity and reproduction. Most energetic budgets, however, are limited, which can lead to trade-offs among competing functions. Increasing reproductive effort tends to decrease immunity in many cases, and increasing total energy via supplemental feedings can eliminate this effect. Testosterone (T), an important regulator of reproduction, and food availability are thus both potential factors regulating life-history processes, yet they are often tested in isolation of each other. In this study, we considered the effect of both food availability and elevated T on immune function and reproductive behavior in sagebrush lizards, Sceloporus graciosus, to assess how T and energy availability affect these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated diet (via supplemental feedings) and T (via dermal patches) in males from a natural population. We determined innate immune response by calculating the bacterial killing capability of collected plasma exposed to Escherichia coli ex vivo. We measured reproductive behavior by counting the number of courtship displays produced in a 20-min sampling period. We observed an interactive effect of food availability and T-patch on immune function, with food supplementation increasing immunity in T-patch lizards. Additionally, T increased courtship displays in control food lizards. Lizards with supplemental food had higher circulating T than controls. Collectively, this study shows that the energetic state of the animal plays a critical role in modulating the interactions among T, behavior and immunity in sagebrush lizards and likely other species. PMID:19800885

  19. Genetically Determined Dosage of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Affects Male Reproductive Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Ẑilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Ausmees, Kristo; Matuleviĉius, Valentinas; Tsarev, Igor; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Context: The detailed role of FSH in contributing to male testicular function and fertility has been debated. We have previously identified the association between the T-allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; G/T, −211 bp from the mRNA start) and significantly reduced male serum FSH. Objective: In the current study, the T-allele carriers of the FSHB −211 G/T single nucleotide polymorphism represented a natural model for documenting downstream phenotypic consequences of insufficient FSH action. Design and Subjects: We genotyped rs10835638 in the population-based Baltic cohort of young men (n = 1054; GG carriers, n = 796; GT carriers, n = 244; TT carriers, n = 14) recruited by Andrology Centres in Tartu, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and Kaunas, Lithuania. Marker-trait association testing was performed using linear regression (additive, recessive models) adjusted by age, body mass index, smoking, and recruitment center. Results: Serum hormones directly correlated with the T-allele dosage of rs10835638 included FSH (additive model, P = 1.11 × 10−6; T-allele effect, −0.41 IU/liter), inhibin-B (P = 2.16 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −14.67 pg/ml), and total testosterone (P = 9.30 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −1.46 nmol/liter). Parameters altered only among TT homozygotes were reduced testicular volume (recessive model, P = 1.19 × 10−4; TT genotype effect, −9.47 ml) and increased serum LH (P = 2.25 × 10−2; TT genotype effect, 1.07 IU/liter). The carrier status of rs10835638 alternative genotypes did not affect sperm motility and morphology, calculated free testosterone, serum SHBG, and estradiol concentrations. Conclusion: We showed for the first time that genetically determined low FSH may have wider downstream effects on the male reproductive system, including impaired testes development, altered testicular hormone levels (inhibin-B, total testosterone, LH), and affected male reproductive potential. PMID:21733993

  20. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  1. Effects of selenium accumulation on reproductive functions in Brassica juncea and Stanleya pinnata.

    PubMed

    Prins, Christine N; Hantzis, Laura J; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for many organisms, but is also a toxin and environmental pollutant at elevated levels. Due to its chemical similarity to sulphur, most plants readily take up and assimilate Se. Se accumulators such as Brassica juncea can accumulate Se between 0.01% and 0.1% of dry weight (DW), and Se hyperaccumulators such as Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaeae) contain between 0.1% and 1.5% DW of Se. While Se accumulation offers the plant a variety of ecological benefits, particularly protection from herbivory, its potential costs are still unexplored. This study examines the effects of plant Se levels on reproductive functions. In B. juncea, Se concentrations >0.05-0.1% caused decreases in biomass, pollen germination, individual seed and total seed weight, number of seeds produced, and seed germination. In S. pinnata there was no negative effect of increased Se concentration on pollen germination. In cross-pollination of B. juncea plants with different Se levels, both the maternal and paternal Se level affected reproduction, but the maternal Se concentration had the most pronounced effect. Interestingly, high-Se maternal plants were most efficiently pollinated by Se-treated paternal plants. These data provide novel insights into the potential reproductive costs of Se accumulation, interactive effects of Se in pollen grains and in the pistil, and the apparent evolution of physiological tolerance mechanisms in hyperaccumulators to avoid reproductive repercussions. PMID:21841173

  2. Adiponectin and the control of female reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Palin, Marie-France; Bordignon, V Vilceu; Murphy, Bruce D

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundant protein secreted by the white adipose tissue. It circulates at high levels in the bloodstream and its serum concentration is inversely correlated with body fat mass. The wide distribution of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin) in peripheral tissues and organs allows adiponectin to exert pleiotropic effects on whole-body metabolism. Besides its well-known antidiabetic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, accumulating evidence suggests a direct role for adiponectin in reproductive tissues. The mammalian ovary and the ovarian follicle express AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and treating pig granulosa cells with adiponectin induces changes characteristic of the periovulatory period. Moreover, additive effects are observed between adiponectin and insulin in induction of granulosa cell gene expression, thus suggesting that adiponectin actions on the ovary may be mediated through its insulin-sensitizing effects. Adiponectin receptors are also detected in the uterus. In women, higher AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expression was observed during the mid-secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, suggesting that adiponectin is implicated in the endometrial changes in preparation for embryo implantation. Adiponectin receptors are found in oocytes and early developing pig, rabbit, and mice embryos, and it has been demonstrated that adiponectin can increase the success of porcine embryo development to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Moreover, adiponectin concentration is two to three times greater in human fetal circulation and in umbilical cord blood, compared to adult plasma. This further indicates a role for adiponectin in fetal growth. It has been further suggested that adipose-derived and locally produced adiponectin may act as a key neuromodulator of reproductive functions. For example, the inhibition of LH and GnRH release from rat pituitary and hypothalamic cells following treatment with adiponectin provides evidence that

  3. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  4. Hippocampal morphology is differentially affected by reproductive experience in the mother.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy and mothering result in a number of hormonal, neurological, and behavioral changes that are necessary to ensure reproductive success. With subsequent reproductive experience (multiparity and mothering), further neurological and behavioral changes may result. Recent research has shown that previous motherhood enhances both hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and long-term potentiation (LTP); together with decreases in hippocampus volumes during pregnancy it is suggested that the hippocampus is affected by pregnancy and/or mothering. The present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of reproductive experience (nulli, primi-, and multiparity and mothering) on dendritic morphology in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Brains were stained with a modified version of the single-section Golgi impregnation technique, and dendritic length, number of branch points, and spine density was analyzed for apical and basal regions of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Primiparity and/or mothering resulted in dendritic remodeling in both the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions, and multiparity resulted in enhanced spine density in the basal CA1 region, which was positively correlated with number of male pups in a litter. These findings point to the effect of reproductive experience and offspring on plasticity in the hippocampus, an area not traditionally associated with motherhood. PMID:16216005

  5. Arabidopsis CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 Functions Independently of the SOS Pathway during Reproductive Development in Saline Conditions1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven E.; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of sodium in soil (saline conditions) negatively affects plant growth and development. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) functions to remove sodium from the cytosol during vegetative development preventing its accumulation to toxic levels. In this pathway, the SOS3 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) calcium sensors interact with the SOS2 protein kinase to activate sodium/proton exchange at the plasma membrane (SOS1) or vacuolar membrane. To determine if the same pathway functions during reproductive development in response to salt, fertility was analyzed in wild type and the SOS pathway mutants grown in saline conditions. In response to salt, CBL10 functions early in reproductive development before fertilization, while SOS1 functions mostly after fertilization when seed development begins. Neither SOS2 nor SOS3 function in reproductive development in response to salt. Loss of CBL10 function resulted in reduced anther dehiscence, shortened stamen filaments, and aborted pollen development. In addition, cbl10 mutant pistils could not sustain the growth of wild-type pollen tubes. These results suggest that CBL10 is critical for reproductive development in the presence of salt and that it functions in different pathways during vegetative and reproductive development. PMID:26979332

  6. Caterpillar biomass depends on temperature and precipitation, but does not affect bird reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöll, Eva Maria; Ohm, Judith; Hoffmann, Konstantin Frank; Hille, Sabine Marlene

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes in phenological events appear as temperatures are increasing: In deciduous forests bud burst, hatching of herbivorous caterpillars, egg laying and nestling time of birds when feeding chicks on caterpillars, may differentially shift into early season and alter synchronization. If timing of bird reproduction has to match with short periods of food availability, phenological mismatch could negatively affect reproductive success. Using a unique empirical approach along an altitudinal temperature gradient, we firstly asked whether besides temperature, also precipitation and leaf phenology interplay and affect caterpillar biomass, since impacts of rainfall on caterpillars have been largely neglected so far. Secondly, we asked whether abundance of caterpillars and thereby body mass of great tit nestlings, which are mainly fed with caterpillars, vary along the altitudinal temperature gradient. We demonstrated that next to temperature also precipitation and leaf phenology affected caterpillar biomass. In our beech forest, even along altitudes, caterpillars were available throughout the great tit breeding season but in highly variable amounts. Our findings revealed that although timing of leaf phenology and great tit breeding season were delayed with decreasing temperature, caterpillars occurred synchronously and were not delayed according to altitude. However, altitude negatively affected caterpillar biomass, but body mass of fledglings at high altitude sites was not affected by lower amounts of caterpillar biomass. This might be partially outweighed by larger territory sizes in great tits.

  7. Effects of garlic fractions consumption on male reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Imen; Nahdi, Afef; Atig, Fatma; Kouidhi, Wided; Amri, Mohamed; Mokni, Mehrzia; May, Ahmed El; May, Michèle El

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have focused on the preventive and curative effects of garlic (Allium sativum), particularly on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, its impacts on the male reproductive system have not been clearly defined. In this study, the effect of chronic consumption of two garlic fractions was tested: one soluble in water (aqueous solution obtained by grinding and centrifugation) and the other one precipitated by ethanol (alcoholic precipitate obtained by precipitation of the aqueous solution), on different variables of male rats' reproductive functions. These two fractions were targeted to try to identify the nature of the active garlic compounds responsible for the different modifications observed on testicular parameters. The observation of seminiferous tubules of rats treated with garlic fractions showed an increased number of tubules deprived of spermatozoa. In addition, garlic fractions induced apoptosis of testicular germ cells (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick-end labeling [TUNEL] approach) and a decrease of serum testosterone levels and seminiferous tubule DNA concentrations. In summary, our histological and molecular results suggest that one or several substances, soluble in water and precipitated by alcohol, impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:23297714

  8. Paternal fenvalerate exposure influences reproductive functions in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

  9. Ovarian function, reproduction, and later operations following adnexal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ranney, B; Chastain, D

    1978-05-01

    Among 3102 patients who had major gynecologic operations, only 223 (7.18%) needed adnexal operations during which reproductive potential was preserved. Operations involved ovaries (156), tubes (55), and embryologic cysts (32). After recovery 53.69% of these patients had viable babies (64.46% of patients under age 30). Patients were examined up to 28 years after operations, an average 11.32 years. When last examined. most patients still retained physiologic evidence of ovarian hormonal function; 20 patients had passed through spontaneous menopause, at an average age of 49.4 years. Fifty-two patients needed subsequent pelvic operations, but only 7 for possibly related conditions (4 repeat tubal pregnancies and 3 cyst-adenomas). All but one twisted adnexal mass, with gangrene, originated as a paramesonephric duct cyst. Seventeen adnexal operations were associated with pregnancy: 15 mothers had healthy babies, and 2 aborted. Details concerning numbers and characteristics of specific lesions are included in the paper. PMID:652198

  10. Does the inclusion of protease inhibitors in the insemination extender affect rabbit reproductive performance?

    PubMed

    Casares-Crespo, L; Vicente, J S; Talaván, A M; Viudes-de-Castro, M P

    2016-03-15

    The bioavailability of buserelin acetate when added to the seminal dose appears to be determined by the activity of the existing aminopeptidases. Thus, the addition of aminopeptidase inhibitors to rabbit semen extenders could be a solution to decrease the hormone degradation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the protease activity inhibition on rabbit semen quality parameters and reproductive performance after artificial insemination. Seminal quality was not affected by the incubation with protease inhibitors, being the values of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity not significantly different between the protease inhibitors and the control group. In addition, seminal plasma aminopeptidase activity was inhibited in a 55.1% by the protease inhibitors. On the other hand, regarding the effect of protease inhibitors on reproductive performance, our results showed that the presence of protease inhibitors affected the prolificacy rate (9.2 ± 0.26 and 9.3 ± 0.23 vs. 8.2 ± 0.22 total born per litter for negative control, positive control, and aminopeptidase inhibitors group, respectively; P < 0.05), having this group one kit less per delivery. We conclude that the addition of a wide variety of protease inhibitors in the rabbit semen extender negatively affects prolificacy rate. Therefore, the development of new extenders with specific aminopeptidase inhibitors would be one of the strategies to increase the bioavailability of GnRH analogues without affecting the litter size. PMID:26639641

  11. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  12. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  13. Zearalenone impairs the male reproductive system functions via inducing structural and functional alterations of sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, WangLong; Pan, ShunYe; Wang, Guangguang; Wang, Ya Jun; Liu, Qing; Gu, JianHong; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xue Zhong; Liu, Zong Ping; Bian, Jian Chun

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ZEA on the cytoskeletal structure, and factors specifically expressed by Sertoli cells. Primary Sertoli cells from rats aged 18-21 days were exposed to increasing ZEA concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 μg mL(-1)) for 24 h. The results of immunofluorescence showed disruption of α-tubulin filaments and F-actin bundles, and damage to the nucleus of Sertoli cells on exposure to ZEA. In the control group, the protein level expression of androgen-binding protein (ABP), transferrin, vimentin, N-cadherin, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were decreased significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01). The mRNA levels of ABP, transferrin, vimentin, N-cadherin, and FSHR varied significantly in the experimental group (p<0.05). The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated a significant decrease in the levels of inhibin-β and transferrin in the cultural supernatants (p<0.05). Additionally, the ultrastructural analysis indicated the absence of mitochondria and Golgi apparatus, and presence of vacuoles in the cytoplasm. These findings showed that ZEA treatment can damage the cytoskeletal structure and affect specific secretory functions of Sertoli cells, which may be an underlying cause of ZEA-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26851377

  14. Functional Amino Acids in Growth, Reproduction, and Health12

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guoyao

    2010-01-01

    Amino acids (AA) were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or nonessential for animals and humans based on nitrogen balance or growth. A key element of this classification is that all nonessential AA (NEAA) were assumed to be synthesized adequately in the body as substrates to meet the needs for protein synthesis. Unfortunately, regulatory roles for AA in nutrition and metabolism have long been ignored. Such conceptual limitations were not recognized until recent seminal findings that dietary glutamine is necessary for intestinal mucosal integrity and dietary arginine is required for maximum neonatal growth and embryonic survival. Some of the traditionally classified NEAA (e.g. glutamine, glutamate, and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine and they, along with glycine, regulate neurological function. Among essential AA (EAA), much emphasis has been placed on leucine (which activates mammalian target of rapamycin to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit proteolysis) and tryptophan (which modulates neurological and immunological functions through multiple metabolites, including serotonin and melatonin). A growing body of literature leads to a new concept of functional AA, which are defined as those AA that regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, lactation, and reproduction of organisms. Both NEAA and EAA should be considered in the classic “ideal protein” concept or formulation of balanced diets to maximize protein accretion and optimize health in animals and humans. PMID:22043449

  15. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus newmani (Copepoda: Calanoida) is deleteriously affected by diatom blooms A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Pierson, James J.; Leising, Andrew W.

    2005-11-01

    Copepod secondary production has traditionally been linked to the spring diatom bloom in temperate and high latitudes, but laboratory studies have recently challenged this view and have shown either reduced fecundity or viability of offspring when copepods were fed high concentrations of - mostly unialgal - diatoms. However, field evidence that diatoms affect copepod reproduction is still scarce. We analyzed the reproductive response of a common, small calanoid copepod of the boreal Pacific, Pseudocalanus newmani, to spring diatom blooms in Dabob Bay, a semi-enclosed fjord of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abundance patterns, egg production rates, egg hatching success, and naupliar viability of the egg-carrying copepod were examined between February and early May in the years 2002-2004. The population underwent strong variations in abundance during both years, with high abundance of all stages from February to mid-March, but dramatically decreasing individual numbers later in spring. A recovery to higher numbers occurred in July. While egg production rates were independent of chlorophyll concentrations, the reproductive success of P. newmani was negatively affected by certain phytoplankton bloom conditions. Hatching success and - more markedly - naupliar survival were reduced following peaks of Thalassiosira species that were producing anti-mitotic aldehydes, but were high during periods when phytoplankton blooms were more diverse or dominated by other prey taxa including diatoms. As a consequence, recruitment of the naupliar population was considerably affected by the Thalassiosira blooms. This study shows for the first time that the so-called diatom effect operates in nature when all prerequisites - (1) high concentration of aldehyde producers, (2) few prey alternatives, and (3) feeding of copepods on these algae - are given. However, the effect was transient in Dabob Bay and may be so in other pelagic ecosystems. It remains to discern the potential sources of

  16. Food availability affects onset of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Mangel, Marc; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment on the onset of reproduction and reproductive performance (productivity at first breeding) in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska. Birds were born and raised in nests with supplemented food (‘fed’) or unsupplemented control nests (‘unfed’), and later recruited into either fed or unfed nests. Fed chicks grew faster than unfed chicks, and males grew faster than females. Birds were more likely to reproduce at younger ages when recruiting into fed nests. Faster growth during development tended to increase age at recruitment in all individuals. Social rank of individuals also affected age at recruitment: B-chicks recruited earlier than A-chicks and singletons recruited later than A- and B-chicks. Productivity increased with the age at recruitment and growth rate as chick, but much of the variability remained unexplained. We conclude that results of this study at least partially support predictions of life-history theory: younger age at first breeding for kittiwakes that experienced suboptimal natal conditions, as well as greater productivity of early recruiting kittiwakes that grew in control nests compared with those that grew in food-supplemented nests. PMID:23576791

  17. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. PMID:22380551

  18. [Effect of the long term administration of bromantan on the reproductive function in rats].

    PubMed

    Khamidova, T V; Bugaeva, L I; Morozov, I S; Spasov, A A

    2000-01-01

    Bromantan is a new psychostimulator possessing actoprotector properties. The drug was administered to rats over two months (males) and two weeks (females) at a daily dose of 30 and 200-mg/kg, and the reproduction function parameters were monitored. Then the experimental animals were coupled and the embryonal characteristics of the breed were determined. Upon termination of the drug administration, the functional state of sperm and the morphology of gonads were studied again. It was found that bromantan (30 mg/kg) unreliably decreases the absolute amount of sperm in males. In females, the drug did not affect the ovary weight coefficient and increased the gestation index. After termination of the drug administration, the ovary weight coefficient increased. Bromantan affected neither the fertilizing capacity of male and female gametes nor the embryonal characteristics of the breed. PMID:10934594

  19. How mental stress affects endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Nakanishi-Toda, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. PMID:21947555

  20. Evidence that elevated water temperature affects the reproductive physiology of the European bullhead Cottus gobio.

    PubMed

    Dorts, Jennifer; Grenouillet, Gaël; Douxfils, Jessica; Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N M; Milla, Sylvain; Silvestre, Frédéric; Kestemont, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the average water temperature and alter the ecology and physiology of several organisms including fish species. To examine the effects of increased water temperature on freshwater fish reproduction, adult European bullhead Cottus gobio of both genders were maintained under three temperature regimes (T1: 6-10, T2: 10-14 and T3: 14-18°C) and assessed for gonad development (gonadosomatic index-GSI and gonad histology), sex steroids (testosterone-T, 17β-estradiol-E2 and 11-ketotestosterone-11-KT) and vitellogenin (alkali-labile phosphoprotein phosphorus-ALP) dynamics in December, January, February and March. The results indicate that a 8°C rise in water temperature (T3) deeply disrupted the gonadal maturation in both genders. This observation was associated with the absence of GSI peak from January to March, and low levels of plasma sex steroids compared with T1-exposed fish. Nevertheless, exposure to an increasing temperature of 4°C (T2) appeared to accelerate oogenesis with an early peak value in GSI and level of plasma T recorded in January relative to T1-exposed females. In males, the low GSI, reduced level of plasma 11-KT and the absence of GSI increase from January to March support the deleterious effects of increasing water temperature on spermatogenesis. The findings of the present study suggest that exposure to elevated temperatures within the context of climate warming might affect the reproductive success of C. gobio. Specifically, a 4°C rise in water temperature affects gametogenesis by advancing the spawning, and a complete reproductive failure is observed at an elevated temperature of 8°C. PMID:21638008

  1. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microcystins (MCs) are able to exert negative effects on the reproductive system of fish. However, few data are actually available on the effects of MC-LR on the reproductive system of female fish. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to 2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1) of MC-LR for 21 d, and its effects on oogenesis, sex hormones, transcription of genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and reproduction were investigated for the first time. It was observed that egg production significantly declined at ⩾ 10 μg L(-1) MC-LR. MC-LR exposure to zebrafish increased the concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) at 10 μg L(-1) level, whereas concentrations of E2, VTG and testosterone declined at 50 μg L(-1) MC-LR. The transcriptions of steroidogenic pathway gene (cyp19a, cyp19b, 17βhsd, cyp17 and hmgra) changed as well after the exposure and corresponded well with the alterations of hormone levels. A number of intra- and extra-ovarian factors, such as gnrh3, gnrhr1, fshβ, fshr, lhr, bmp15, mrpβ, ptgs2 and vtg1 which regulate oogenesis, were significantly changed with a different dose-related effect. Moreover, MC-LR exposure to female zebrafish resulted in decreased fertilization and hatching rates, and may suggest the possibility of trans-generational effects of MC-LR exposure. The results demonstrate that MC-LR could modulate endocrine function and oogenesis, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance in female zebrafish. These data suggest there is a risk for aquatic population living in MC polluted areas. PMID:25014902

  2. Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local inhibition of gonadal activity by glucocorticoids. As the latter has not been tested in birds yet, we tested if corticosterone directly inhibits ovarian steroid synthesis under in vitro conditions. We hypothesized that degradation of corticosterone by follicular cells impairs their ability to synthesize reproductive hormones due to either inhibition of enzymes or competition for common co-factors. Therefore, we first established whether follicles degrade corticosterone. Follicular tissue was harvested from freshly euthanized laying hens and incubated with radiolabelled corticosterone. Radioactive metabolites were visualized and quantified by autoradiography. Follicles converted corticosterone in a time-dependent manner into metabolites with a higher polarity than corticosterone. The predominant metabolite co-eluted with 20β-dihydrocorticosterone. Other chicken tissues mostly formed the same metabolite when incubated with corticosterone. In a second experiment, follicles were incubated with either progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone. Corticosterone was added in increasing dosages up to 1000 ng per ml medium. Corticosterone did not inhibit the conversion of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone into a number of different metabolites, including 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone. In conclusion, avian tissues degrade corticosterone mostly to 20β-dihydrocorticosterone and even high corticosterone dosages do not affect follicular hormone production under in vitro conditions. PMID:23333751

  3. Energy-containing beverages: reproductive hormones and ovarian function in the BioCycle Study123

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Perkins, Neil J; Ye, Aijun; Zhang, Cuilin J; Stanford, Joseph B; Porucznik, Christina A; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Energy-containing beverages are widely consumed among premenopausal women, but their association with reproductive hormones is not well understood. Objective: The objective was to assess the association of energy-containing beverages, added sugars, and total fructose intake with reproductive hormones among ovulatory cycles and sporadic anovulation in healthy premenopausal women. Design: Women (n = 259) in the BioCycle Study were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles; they provided fasting blood specimens during up to 8 visits/cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls/cycle. Results: Women who consumed ≥1 cup (1 cup = 237 mL) sweetened soda/d had 16.3% higher estradiol concentrations compared with women who consumed less sweetened soda (86.5 pg/mL compared with 74.4 pg/mL, P = 0.01) after adjustment for age, BMI, race, dietary factors, and physical activity. Similarly elevated estradiol concentrations were found for ≥1 cup cola/d and noncola soda intake. Neither artificially sweetened soda nor fruit juice intake ≥1 cup/d was significantly associated with reproductive hormones. Added sugar above the average US woman's intake (≥73.2 g/d) or above the 66th percentile in total fructose intake (≥41.5 g/d) was associated with significantly elevated estradiol but not consistently across all models. No associations were found between beverages, added sugars, or total fructose intake and anovulation after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Even at moderate consumption amounts, sweetened soda is associated with elevated follicular estradiol concentrations among premenopausal women but does not appear to affect ovulatory function. Further research into the mechanism driving the association between energy-containing beverages and reproductive hormones, and its potential implications for women's health, is warranted. PMID:23364018

  4. Disruption of amylase genes by RNA interference affects reproduction in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Huvet, Arnaud; Béguel, Jean-Philippe; Cavaleiro, Nathalia Pereira; Thomas, Yoann; Quillien, Virgile; Boudry, Pierre; Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Fabioux, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Feeding strategies and digestive capacities can have important implications for variation in energetic pathways associated with ecological and economically important traits, such as growth or reproduction in bivalve species. Here, we investigated the role of amylase in the digestive processes of Crassostrea gigas, using in vivo RNA interference. This approach also allowed us to investigate the relationship between energy intake by feeding and gametogenesis in oysters. Double-stranded (ds)RNA designed to target the two α-amylase genes A and B was injected in vivo into the visceral mass of oysters at two doses. These treatments caused significant reductions in mean mRNA levels of the amylase genes: -50.7% and -59% mRNA A, and -71.9% and -70.6% mRNA B in 15 and 75 µg dsRNA-injected oysters, respectively, relative to controls. Interestingly, reproductive knock-down phenotypes were observed for both sexes at 48 days post-injection, with a significant reduction of the gonad area (-22.5% relative to controls) and germ cell under-proliferation revealed by histology. In response to the higher dose of dsRNA, we also observed reductions in amylase activity (-53%) and absorption efficiency (-5%). Based on these data, dynamic energy budget modeling showed that the limitation of energy intake by feeding that was induced by injection of amylase dsRNA was insufficient to affect gonadic development at the level observed in the present study. This finding suggests that other driving mechanisms, such as endogenous hormonal modulation, might significantly change energy allocation to reproduction, and increase the maintenance rate in oysters in response to dsRNA injection. PMID:25883379

  5. Lectin-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for reproductive improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Semen ejaculates contain heterogeneous sperm populations that can jeopardize male fertility. Recent development of nanotechnology in physiological systems may have applications in reproductive biology. Here, we used magnetic nanoparticles as a novel strategy for sperm purification to imp...

  6. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  7. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-03-22

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of 'environmental sex determination'. PMID:17251109

  8. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of ‘environmental sex determination’. PMID:17251109

  9. Factors affecting reproductive success in three entomophilous orchid species in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Vojtkó, Anna E; Sonkoly, Judit; Lukács, Balázs András; Molnár V, Attila

    2015-06-01

    The reproductive success of orchids is traditionally estimated by determining the fruit-set of individuals. Here, we investigated both the fruit and the seed production of three orchid species and the factors that may affect individual fruit-set, like pollination strategy, individual traits or the annual amount of precipitation. The species [Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soó, Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P. F. Hunt & Summerhayes and Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. M. Richard] were studied in three consecutive years (2010-2012) in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. All three species were proved to be non-autogamous by a bagging experiment. Data analyses showed significant differences between seed numbers but not between fruit-sets of species. There was no statistical difference in individual reproductive success between wet and dry years, however, the effect of the annual amount of precipitation is significant on the population level. Comparison of published fruit-set data revealed accordance with our results in P. bifolia, but not in D. sambucina and D. majalis. We assume that the surprisingly high fruit-set values of the two Dactylorhiza species may be due to the fact that the pollination crisis reported from Western European countries is not an actual problem in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. PMID:26081278

  10. Second-Hand Eating? Maternal perception of the food environment affects reproductive investment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Tonia S.; Gainer, Renee; Dohm, Erik D.; Johnson, Maria S.; Wyss, J. Michael; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little information exists on how perception of the food (or ‘energetic’) environment affects body composition and reproductive investment. We test the hypothesis that female mice, who are themselves consuming standard chow diets, but who are exposed to conspecifics eating a rich “cafeteria diet”, will exhibit altered weight gain and reproductive investment. Design and Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were raised on a cafeteria diet. At maturity, subjects were switched to a standard chow diet and their cage-mate was assigned to consume either a cafeteria diet (treatment, n=20), or standard chow (control, n=20). Subjects were mated, and pups raised to weaning. Subjects and pups were analyzed for body composition. Results Treatment had no discernable effect on dam body weight or composition, but caused pups to have lower body weight (p=0.036), and less fat mass (p=0.041). We found a nearly significant treatment effect on ‘time to successful reproduction’ (avg. 55 vs. 44 days) likely due to increased failed first pregnancies (14/19 versus 8/19, p=0.099). Conclusions These data indicate that perceived food environment (independent of the diet actually consumed) can produce small pups with less body fat, and possibly induce difficulties in pregnancy for dams. Replication and mechanistic studies should follow. PMID:25864567

  11. Disrupting Immune Regulation Incurs Transient Costs in Male Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Belloni, Virginia; Sorci, Gabriele; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Guerreiro, Romain; Bellenger, Jérôme; Faivre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Immune protection against pathogenic organisms has been shown to incur costs. Previous studies investigating the cost of immunity have mostly focused on the metabolic requirements of immune maintenance and activation. In addition to these metabolic costs, the immune system can induce damage to the host if the immune response is mis-targeted or over-expressed. Given its non-specific nature, an over-expressed inflammatory response is often associated with substantial damage for the host. Here, we investigated the cost of an over-expressed inflammatory response in the reproductive function of male mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally blocked the receptors of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in male mice exposed to a mild inflammatory challenge, with each treatment having an appropriate control group. The experiment was conducted on two age classes, young (3 month old) and old (15 month old) mice, to assess any age-related difference in the cost of a disrupted immune regulation. We found that the concomitant exposure to an inflammatory insult and the blockade of IL-10 induced a reduction in testis mass, compared to the three other groups. The frequency of abnormal sperm morphology was also higher in the group of mice exposed to the inflammatory challenge but did not depend on the blockade of the IL-10. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that immune regulation confers protection against the risk of inflammation-induced infertility during infection. They also suggest that disruption of the effectors involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response can have serious fitness consequences even under mild inflammatory insult and benign environmental conditions. PMID:24400103

  12. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  13. Alloparenting experience affects future parental behavior and reproductive success in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Mathieu, Denise; Griffin, Luana; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the function of alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. We examined whether alloparental experience as juveniles enhanced later parental care and reproductive success in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a cooperatively breeding rodent. Juveniles cared for one litter of siblings (1EX), two litters of siblings (2EX) or no siblings (0EX). As adults, these individuals were mated to other 0EX, 1EX or 2EX voles, yielding seven different pair combinations, and we recorded measures of parental behaviors, reproductive success, and pup development. As juveniles, individuals caring for siblings for the first time were more alloparental; and as adults, 0EX females paired with 0EX males spent more time in the nest with their pups. Taken together, these results suggest that inexperienced animals spend more time in infant care. As parents, 1EX males spent more time licking their pups than 2EX and 0EX males. Pups with either a 1EX or 2EX parent gained weight faster than pups with 0EX parents during certain developmental periods. While inexperienced animals may spend more time in pup care, long-term benefits of alloparenting may become apparent in the display of certain, particularly important parental behaviors such as licking pups, and in faster weight gain of offspring. PMID:19732810

  14. Metals and female reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P; Banerjee, R; Nath, S; Das, S; Banerjee, S

    2015-07-01

    Research into occupational exposure of metals and consequences of reproductive systems has made imperative scientific offerings in the preceding few decades. Early research works focused on possible effects on the reproductive functions rather than the complete reproductive health of the woman. Later, it was realized that metals, as reproductive toxins, may also induce hormonal changes affecting other facets of reproductive health such as the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and fertility. Concern is now shifting from considerations for the pregnant woman to the entire spectrum of occupational health threats and thus reproductive health among women. PMID:25425549

  15. Sexual and Reproductive Function in Spinal Cord Injury and Spinal Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Theodore H.; Grabel, Zachary; DePasse, J. Mason; Palumbo, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health is important quality of life outcomes, which can have a major impact on patient satisfaction. Spinal pathology arising from trauma, deformity, and degenerative disease processes may be detrimental to sexual and reproductive function. Furthermore, spine surgery may impact sexual and reproductive function due to post-surgical mechanical, neurologic, and psychological factors. The aim of this paper is to provide a concise evidence-based review on the impact that spine surgery and pathology can have on sexual and reproductive function. A review of published literature regarding sexual and reproductive function in spinal injury and spinal surgery patients was performed. We have found that sexual and reproductive dysfunction can occur due to numerous etiological factors associated with spinal pathology. Numerous treatment options are available for those patients, depending on the degree of dysfunction. Spine surgeons and non-operative healthcare providers should be aware of the issues surrounding sexual and reproductive function as related to spine pathology and spine surgery. It is important for spine surgeons to educate their patients on the operative risks that spine surgery encompasses with regard to sexual dysfunction, although current data examining these topics largely consists of level IV data. PMID:26605025

  16. Sexual and Reproductive Function in Spinal Cord Injury and Spinal Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Albright, Theodore H; Grabel, Zachary; DePasse, J Mason; Palumbo, Mark A; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-09-28

    Sexual and reproductive health is important quality of life outcomes, which can have a major impact on patient satisfaction. Spinal pathology arising from trauma, deformity, and degenerative disease processes may be detrimental to sexual and reproductive function. Furthermore, spine surgery may impact sexual and reproductive function due to post-surgical mechanical, neurologic, and psychological factors. The aim of this paper is to provide a concise evidence-based review on the impact that spine surgery and pathology can have on sexual and reproductive function. A review of published literature regarding sexual and reproductive function in spinal injury and spinal surgery patients was performed. We have found that sexual and reproductive dysfunction can occur due to numerous etiological factors associated with spinal pathology. Numerous treatment options are available for those patients, depending on the degree of dysfunction. Spine surgeons and non-operative healthcare providers should be aware of the issues surrounding sexual and reproductive function as related to spine pathology and spine surgery. It is important for spine surgeons to educate their patients on the operative risks that spine surgery encompasses with regard to sexual dysfunction, although current data examining these topics largely consists of level IV data. PMID:26605025

  17. EFFECTS OF ORAL EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE ON FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, the distribution, metabolism and reproductive toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) administered by the oral route to female rats were examined. The distribution study with 14C-TCE indicated that relatively high levels of radioactivity accumulated in the ovary...

  18. EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influences of trichloroethylene (TCE) on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, information was obtained on the distribution and metabolism of TCE. At 100 days of age, male rats were allowed to copulate with ovariectomize...

  19. [Effect of ladasten on reproduction function in male rats].

    PubMed

    Khamidova, T V; Chigirinskiĭ, Iu L; Morozov, I S

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ladasten (bromantan) on the development of emotional stress and reproduction activity was studied in male rats. Ladasten administration led to restoration of the stress-violated orientational reactions and body weight, activation of the spermatogenesis (increase in the number and mobility of spermatozoas), normalization of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoas, and reduction in the loss of embryos. PMID:16047676

  20. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  1. Beyond the metabolic role of ghrelin: a new player in the regulation of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Muccioli, Giampiero; Lorenzi, Teresa; Lorenzi, Maria; Ghè, Corrado; Arnoletti, Elisa; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Castellucci, Mario; Gualillo, Oreste; Meli, Rosaria

    2011-12-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide, discovered by Kojima et al. (1999) [55] as a result of the search for an endogenous ligand interacting with the "orphan receptor" GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a). Ghrelin is composed of 28 aminoacids and is produced mostly by specific cells of the stomach, by the hypothalamus and hypophysis, even if its presence, as well as that of its receptors, has been demonstrated in many other tissues, not least in gonads. Ghrelin potently stimulates GH release and participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis, increasing food intake, decreasing energy output and exerting a lipogenetic effect. Furthermore, ghrelin influences the secretion and motility of the gastrointestinal tract, especially of the stomach, and, above all, profoundly affects pancreatic functions. Despite of these previously envisaged activities, it has recently been hypothesized that ghrelin regulates several aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology. In conclusion, ghrelin not only cooperates with other neuroendocrine factors, such as leptin, in the modulation of energy homeostasis, but also has a crucial role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. In the current review we summarize the main targets of this gastric peptide, especially focusing on the reproductive system. PMID:22074955

  2. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  3. Effects of sediment remediation on reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Sol, S.Y.; Lomax, D.P.; Myers, M.S.; Collier, T.K.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor, near Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, WA is currently designated as an EPA Superfund site because of high levels of creosote-derived PAHs in the sediments. In 1986--88, the authors conducted a series of studies evaluating reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor. These studies showed that only about 60% of adult female sole from the Eagle Harbor site entered vitellogenesis, in comparison to 80--90% of females of comparable age and size from minimally contaminated Puget Sound sites. Eagle Harbor fish also exhibited reduced spawning success and lowered egg viability in comparison to fish from unpolluted sites. Both types of reproductive function were associated with depressed plasma levels of reproductive steroids (e.g. 17-B estradiol) in Eagle Harbor fish. In September of 1993 the EPA began placement of a cap of uncontaminated sediment over the most contaminated portions of Eagle Harbor, as a means of providing clean habitat for benthic organisms and reducing risk from the contaminants contained in the sediments. Since the time of capping, the authors have been monitoring reproductive development in English sole and related benthic flatfish to determine whether this restoration will result in improved reproductive success in the resident flatfish of Eagle Harbor. Preliminary results indicate that the proportion of maturing females has increased to approximately 75%. Other reproductive parameters, including plasma steroid hormone concentration and ovarian atresia, are currently being assessed. Nonetheless, the initial data suggest that sediment remediation is associated with improved reproductive function in Eagle Harbor bottom fish.

  4. Roles of ghrelin and leptin in the control of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Reproductive function in mammals, defined as the capacity to generate viable male and female gametes, and to support pregnancy and lactation selectively in the female, is sensitive to the metabolic state of the organism. This contention, long assumed on the basis of intuitive knowledge, became formulated on a scientific basis only recently, with the identification of a number of neuroendocrine signals which crucially participate in the joint control of energy balance and reproduction. A paradigmatic example in this context is the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin; a satiety factor which signals the amount of body energy (fat) stores not only to the circuits controlling food intake but also to a number of neuroendocrine axes, including the reproductive system. More recently, the reproductive dimension of another metabolic hormone, namely the orexigenic stomach-secreted peptide, ghrelin, has been disclosed by observations on its putative roles in the control of gonadal function and gonadotropin secretion. Of note, leptin and ghrelin have been proposed to act as reciprocal regulators of energy homeostasis. However, their potential interplay in the control of reproduction remains largely unexplored. Based on the comparison of the biological actions of leptin and ghrelin at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, reviewed in detail herein, we propose that, through concurrent or antagonistic actions, the leptin-ghrelin pair is likely to operate also as modulator of different reproductive functions, thereby contributing to the physiological integration of reproduction and energy balance. PMID:17851226

  5. Copper-induced changes in reproductive functions: in vivo and in vitro effects.

    PubMed

    Roychoudhury, S; Nath, S; Massanyi, P; Stawarz, R; Kacaniova, M; Kolesarova, A

    2016-03-14

    The goal of this study is to summarize the current knowledge on the effects of one of the essential metals, copper (Cu) on the reproductive system. The development of past four decades addressing effects of Cu on reproductive organs is reviewed. The most relevant data obtained from in vivo and in vitro experiments performed on humans and other mammals, including effects of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) on the reproductive functions are presented. Short term Cu administration has been found to exert deleterious effect on intracellular organelles of rat ovarian cells in vivo. In vitro administration in porcine ovarian granulosa cells releases insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), steroid hormone progesterone (P(4)), and induces expression of peptides related to proliferation and apoptosis. Adverse effect of Cu on male reproductive functions has been indicated by the decrease in spermatozoa parameters such as concentration, viability and motility. Copper nanoparticles are capable of generating oxidative stress in vitro thereby leading to reproductive toxicity. Toxic effect of CuNPs has been evident more in male mice than in females. Even though further investigations are necessary to arrive at a definitive conclusion, Cu notably influences the reproductive functions by interfering with both male and female reproductive systems and also hampers embryo development in dose-dependent manner. PMID:26596322

  6. Synergies between assisted reproduction technologies and functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Loi, Pasqualino; Toschi, Paola; Zacchini, Federica; Ptak, Grazyna; Scapolo, Pier A; Capra, Emanuele; Stella, Alessandra; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Williams, John L

    2016-01-01

    This review, is a synopsis of advanced reproductive technologies in farm animals, including the discussion of their limiting factors as revealed by the study of offspring derived from embryos produced in vitro and through cloning. These studies show that the problems of epigenetic mis-programming, which were reported in the initial stages of assisted reproduction, still persist. The importance of whole-genome analyses, including the methylome and transcriptome, in improving embryo biotechnologies in farm animals, are discussed. Genome editing approaches for the improvement of economically-relevant traits in farm animals are also described. Efficient farm animal embryo biotechnologies, including cloning and the most recent technologies such as genome editing, will effectively complement the latest strategies to accelerate genetic improvement of farm animals. PMID:27481215

  7. Influence of Reproductive Aging of the Cow on Luteal Function and Period 1 mRNA Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In rodents, disruption of the circadian clock genes results in increased incidence of anovulation, irregular estrous cycles, decreased luteal function, and accelerated reproductive ageing. In cattle, reproductive ageing is associated with decreased numbers of follicles in the ovary, decreased lutea...

  8. Reproductive allocation in plants as affected by elevated carbon dioxide and other environmental changes: a synthesis using meta-analysis and graphical vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianzhong; Taub, Daniel R; Jablonski, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction is an important life history trait that strongly affects dynamics of plant populations. Although it has been well documented that elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere greatly enhances biomass production in plants, the overall effect of elevated CO2 on reproductive allocation (RA), i.e., the proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive structures, is little understood. We combined meta-analysis with graphical vector analysis to examine the overall effect of elevated CO2 on RA and how other environmental factors, such as low nutrients, drought and elevated atmospheric ozone (O3), interacted with elevated CO2 in affecting RA in herbaceous plants. Averaged across all species of different functional groups and environmental conditions, elevated CO2 had little effect on RA (-0.9%). RA in plants of different reproductive strategies and functional groups, however, differed in response to elevated CO2. For example, RA in iteroparous wild species decreased by 8%, while RA in iteroparous crops increased significantly (+14%) at elevated CO2. RA was unaffected by CO2 in plants grown with no stress or in low-nutrient soils. RA decreased at elevated CO2 and elevated O3, but increased in response to elevated CO2 in drought-stressed plants, suggesting that elevated CO2 could ameliorate the adverse effect of drought on crop production to some extent. Our results demonstrate that elevated CO2 and other global environmental changes have the potential to greatly alter plant community composition through differential effects on RA of different plant species and thus affect the dynamics of natural and agricultural ecosystems in the future. PMID:25537120

  9. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  10. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  11. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  12. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  13. Novel function of LHFPL2 in female and male distal reproductive tract development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rong; Dudley, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital reproductive tract anomalies could impair fertility. Female and male reproductive tracts are developed from Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts, respectively, involving initiation, elongation and differentiation. Genetic basis solely for distal reproductive tract development is largely unknown. Lhfpl2 (lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 2) encodes a tetra-transmembrane protein with unknown functions. It is expressed in follicle cells of ovary and epithelial cells of reproductive tracts. A spontaneous point mutation of Lhfpl2 (LHFPL2G102E) leads to infertility in 100% female mice, which have normal ovarian development, ovulation, uterine development, and uterine response to exogenous estrogen stimulation, but abnormal upper longitudinal vaginal septum and lower vaginal agenesis. Infertility is also observed in ~70% mutant males, which have normal mating behavior and sperm counts, but abnormal distal vas deferens convolution resulting in complete and incomplete blockage of reproductive tract in infertile and fertile males, respectively. On embryonic day 15.5, mutant Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts have elongated but their duct tips are enlarged and fail to merge with the urogenital sinus. These findings provide a novel function of LHFPL2 and a novel genetic basis for distal reproductive tract development; they also emphasize the importance of an additional merging phase for proper reproductive tract development. PMID:26964900

  14. Novel function of LHFPL2 in female and male distal reproductive tract development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rong; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital reproductive tract anomalies could impair fertility. Female and male reproductive tracts are developed from Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts, respectively, involving initiation, elongation and differentiation. Genetic basis solely for distal reproductive tract development is largely unknown. Lhfpl2 (lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 2) encodes a tetra-transmembrane protein with unknown functions. It is expressed in follicle cells of ovary and epithelial cells of reproductive tracts. A spontaneous point mutation of Lhfpl2 (LHFPL2(G102E)) leads to infertility in 100% female mice, which have normal ovarian development, ovulation, uterine development, and uterine response to exogenous estrogen stimulation, but abnormal upper longitudinal vaginal septum and lower vaginal agenesis. Infertility is also observed in ~70% mutant males, which have normal mating behavior and sperm counts, but abnormal distal vas deferens convolution resulting in complete and incomplete blockage of reproductive tract in infertile and fertile males, respectively. On embryonic day 15.5, mutant Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts have elongated but their duct tips are enlarged and fail to merge with the urogenital sinus. These findings provide a novel function of LHFPL2 and a novel genetic basis for distal reproductive tract development; they also emphasize the importance of an additional merging phase for proper reproductive tract development. PMID:26964900

  15. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  16. Prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects reproductive outcomes in female mice.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Sarah; Rattan, Saniya; Brehm, Emily; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal DEHP exposure affects female reproduction. To test this hypothesis, pregnant female CD-1 mice were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DEHP (20 μg/kg/day-750 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 11-birth. Pups were counted, weighed, and sexed at birth, ovaries were subjected to evaluations of follicle numbers on postnatal days (PNDs) 8 and 21, and fertility was evaluated at 3-9 months. The results indicate that prenatal DEHP exposure increased male-to-female ratio compared to controls. Prenatal DEHP exposure also increased preantral follicle numbers at PND 21 compared to controls. Further, 22.2% of the 20 μg/kg/day treated animals took longer than 5 days to get pregnant at 3 months and 28.6% of the 750 mg/kg/day treated animals lost some of their pups at 6 months. Thus, prenatal DEHP exposure alters F1 sex ratio, increases preantral follicle numbers, and causes some breeding abnormalities. PMID:25765777

  17. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-04-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  18. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  19. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  20. The value of eutherian-marsupial comparisons for understanding the function of glucocorticoids in female mammal reproduction.

    PubMed

    Fanson, Kerry V; Parrott, Marissa L

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Chronic stress is known to inhibit female reproductive function. Consequently, it is often assumed that glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations should be negatively correlated with reproductive success because of the role they play in stress physiology. In contrast, a growing body of evidence indicates that GCs play an active role in promoting reproductive function. It is precisely because GCs are so integral to the entire process that disruptions to adrenal activity have negative consequences for reproduction. The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the increasing evidence showing that increases in adrenal activity are important for healthy female reproduction. Furthermore, we outline several hypotheses about the functional role(s) that GCs may play in mediating reproduction and argue that comparative studies between eutherian and marsupial mammals, which exhibit some pronounced differences in reproductive physiology, may be particularly useful for testing different hypotheses about the functional role of GCs in reproduction. Much of our current thinking about GCs and reproduction comes from research involving stress-induced levels of GCs and has led to broad assumptions about the effects of GCs on reproduction. Unfortunately, this has left a gaping hole in our knowledge about basal GC levels and how they may influence reproductive function, thereby preventing a broader understanding of adrenal physiology and obscuring potential solutions for reproductive dysfunction. PMID:26065733

  1. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  2. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    PubMed Central

    Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M.; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  3. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were 'good' prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  4. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  5. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  6. ANDROGENS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS AFFECT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND PLAY BEHAVIOR IN THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In mammals, exposure to androgens early in development is essential for masculinization of the male reproductive phenotype. Male fetuses exposed to antiandrogens during perinatal life are permanently demasculinized in their morphology and physiology, whereas exposure to...

  7. Does iron deficiency anemia affect olfactory function?

    PubMed

    Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dizdar, Denizhan; Develioglu, Omer; Topak, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study found a negative effect of IDA on olfactory function. IDA leads to a reduction in olfactory function, and decreases in hemoglobin levels result in further reduction in olfactory function. Objective This study examined the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on olfactory function. Method The study enrolled 50 IDA patients and 50 healthy subjects. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test. The diagnosis of IDA was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Patients with IDA had a significantly lower threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) value, and a lower threshold compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of smell selectivity values. PMID:26963317

  8. Developmental Exposure to Ethinylestradiol Affects Reproductive Physiology, the GnRH Neuroendocrine Network and Behaviors in Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Martini, Mariangela; Duittoz, Anne H.; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2), the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR) or pharmacological (PHARMACO) doses [0.1 and 1 μg/kg (body weight)/day respectively], from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs. PMID:26696819

  9. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrators (body snatchers). I quantify growth, reproductive effort, and expected extrinsic mortality for several species that, despite being different species, use the same species' phenotype for growth and survival. These are eight trematode parasitic castrators—the individuals of which infect and take over the bodies of the same host species—and their uninfected host, the California horn snail. Results As predicted, across species, growth decreased with increased extrinsic mortality, while reproductive effort increased with increased extrinsic mortality. The trematode parasitic castrator species (operating stolen host bodies) that were more likely to be killed by dominant species allocated less to growth and relatively more to current reproduction than did species with greater life expectancies. Both genders of uninfected snails fit into the patterns observed for the parasitic castrator species, allocating as much to growth and to current reproduction as expected given their probability of reproductive death (castration by trematode parasites). Additionally, species differences appeared to represent species-specific adaptations, not general plastic responses to local mortality risk. Conclusions Broadly, this research illustrates that parasitic castrator guilds can allow unique comparative tests discerning the forces promoting adaptive evolution. The specific findings of this study support the hypothesis that extrinsic mortality influences species differences in growth and reproduction

  10. Duration reproduction: lossy integration and effects of sensory modalities, cognitive functioning, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Peter; Wittmann, Marc; Wackermann, Jirí

    2012-10-01

    The "dual klepsydra model" (DKM) of internal time representation successfully models duration reproduction data, but relations between the DKM-based parameter kappa ("loss rate") and procedural variables (presentation modality) or individual characteristics (cognitive indices, age, sex) remained as yet unexplored. For that purpose, were-analyzed data from an earlier time reproduction study (N = 100), using visually or acoustically presented intervals of 1-5 sec. duration. Typical values of parameter kappa were approximately 0.03-0.04 sec.(-1), corresponding to relaxation times of internal "lossy integrators" of approximately 30 sec. Significant effects of presentation modality (smaller kappa values for the visual reproduction task) and of age (greater kappa in acoustic reproduction with increasing age) were observed. Cognitive variables (working memory, general fluid reasoning, attention) and sex of participants were not associated with kappa. Cognitive functions seem to play only a minor, if any, role at the level of time representation addressed by the DKM. PMID:23265003

  11. Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Russell, Andrew F

    2012-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been studied intensively to understand the associations between physiological stress and reproductive skew in animal societies. However, we have little appreciation of the range of either natural levels within and among individuals, or the associations among dominance status, reproductive rate and GCs levels during breeding. To address these shortcomings, we examined variation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGC) during breeding periods in free-ranging female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over 11 years. The vast majority of variation in fGC levels was found within breeding events by the same female (~87%), with the remaining variation arising among breeding events and among females. Concentrations of fGC generally tripled as pregnancy progressed. However, females with a high reproductive rate, defined as those conceiving within a month following parturition (mean = 9 days postpartum), showed significant reductions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition. Despite these reductions, females with a high reproductive rate had higher fGC levels at conception of the following litter than those breeding at a low rate. After controlling for the higher reproductive rate of dominants, we found no association between levels of fGC and either age or dominance status. Our results suggest that one should be cautious about interpreting associations between dominance status, reproductive skew and GCs levels, without knowledge of the natural variation in GCs levels within and among females. PMID:22210199

  12. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  13. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. PMID:26673934

  14. HORMONAL CONTROL OF OVARIAN FUNCTION FOLLOWING CHLOROTRIAZINE EXPOSURE: EFFECT ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION AND MAMMARY GLAND TUMOR DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hormonal Control of Ovarian Function Following Chlorotriazine Exposure: Effect on Reproductive Function and Mammary Gland Tumor Development.

    Ralph L. Cooper, Susan C. Laws, Michael G. Narotsky, Jerome M. Goldman, and Tammy E. Stoker

    Abstract
    The studies review...

  15. The role of early life nutrition in programming of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Chadio, S; Kotsampasi, B

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that the concept of programming can also be applied to reproductive development and function, representing an ever expanding research area. Recently issues such as peri- or even preconceptional nutrition, transgenerational effects and underlying mechanisms have received considerable attention. The present chapter presents the existed evidence and reviews the available data from numerous animal and human studies on the effects of early life nutritional environment on adult reproductive function. Specific outcomes depend on the severity, duration and stage of development when nutritional perturbations are imposed, while sex-specific effects are also manifested. Apart from undernutrition, effects of relative overnutrition as well as the complex interactions between pre- and postnatal nutrition is of high importance, especially in the context of our days obesity epidemic. Mechanisms underlying reproductive programming are yet unclear, but may include a role for epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modulation of critical genes involved in the control of reproductive function and potential intergenerational effects represent an exciting area of interdisciplinary research toward the development of new nutritional approaches during pre- and postnatal periods to ensure reproductive health in later life. PMID:24847686

  16. Breast cancer in young women and its impact on reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, M.; Peate, M.; Saunders, C.M.; Friedlander, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, and 12% of breast cancer occurs in women 20–34 years. Survival from breast cancer has significantly improved, and the potential late effects of treatment and the impact on quality of life have become increasingly important. Young women constitute a minority of breast cancer patients, but commonly have distinct concerns and issues compared with older women, including queries regarding fertility, contraception and pregnancy. Further, they are more likely than older women to have questions regarding potential side effects of therapy and risk of relapse or a new primary. In addition, many will have symptoms associated with treatment and they present a management challenge. Reproductive medicine specialists and gynaecologists commonly see these women either shortly after initial diagnosis or following adjuvant therapy and should be aware of current management of breast cancer, the options for women at increased genetic risk, the prognosis of patients with early stage breast cancer and how adjuvant systemic treatments may impact reproductive function. METHODS No systematic literature search was done. The review focuses on the current management of breast cancer in young women and the impact of treatment on reproductive function and subsequent management. With reference to key studies and meta-analyses, we highlight controversies and current unanswered questions regarding patient management. RESULTS Chemotherapy for breast cancer is likely to negatively impact on reproductive function. A number of interventions are available which may increase the likelihood of future successful pregnancy, but the relative safety of these interventions is not well established. For those who do conceive following breast cancer, there is no good evidence that pregnancy is detrimental to survival. We review current treatment; effects on reproductive function; preservation of fertility; contraception

  17. Reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river endemic stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae: Anatomical and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    del Mar Pedreros-Sierra, Tania; Arrieta-Prieto, Dagoberto M; Mejía-Falla, Paola A

    2016-05-01

    We studied anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of females of the Magdalena river stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae using microscopic and macroscopic analysis of each organ. Although the reproductive tract was fully functional on both side, the left organs possibly have a greater contribution to reproductive success, because left ovary and uterus were more developed and had higher number of oocytes and embryos, respectively, than the right ones. This species has histotrophic viviparity given by the presence of uterine trophonemata and by glandular character in pregnant and postpartum females. We suggest that the epigonal organ is involved in the degradation of components of atretic follicles and the embryos begin to develop surrounded by a gelatinous tertiary envelope produced by the oviducal gland. This latter organ is composed by three zones in mature females, club, papillary, and baffle zone, as described for other elasmobranchs. From the anatomical observations, a maturity scale comprising six sexual maturity stages (Immature I, Immature II, early mature, pregnant, post-partum, and regenerating) was established for female P. magdalenae, and it can be useful as basis for reproductive studies of other potamotrygonid species. Finally, we propose a continuous reproductive cycle for P. magdalenae. PMID:26968745

  18. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  19. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  20. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  1. Benzyl isothiocyanate affects development, hatching and reproduction of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) applied at micromolar doses decreased Heterodera glycines J2 movement, H. glycines hatching, and reproduction of H. glycines on soybean, Glycine max. Direct exposure of J2 to 30 microM BITC caused an immediate decrease (17%; P < 0.05) in J2 movement relative to 1% methan...

  2. Within-species reproductive costs affect the asymmetry of satyrization in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A; David, J R

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how species interactions influence their distribution and evolution is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Theory suggests that asymmetric reproductive interference, in which one species induces higher reproductive costs on another species, may be more important in delimiting species boundaries than interspecific competition over resources. However, the underlying mechanisms of such asymmetry remain unclear. Here, we test whether differences in within-species reproductive costs determine the between-species asymmetry of costs using three allopatric Drosophila species belonging to the melanogaster subgroup. Our results support this hypothesis, especially in a pair of insular species. Males of one species that induce costs to their conspecific females led to a 5-fold increase of heterospecific females mortality with dead flies bearing spectacular large melanized wounds on their genitalia. Males of the other species were harmful neither to their conspecific nor heterospecific females. Comparative studies of within-species reproductive costs may therefore be a valuable tool for predicting between-species interactions and community structures. PMID:26538290

  3. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  4. Social Variables Affecting Mate Preferences, Copulation and Reproductive Outcome in a Pack of Free-Ranging Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  5. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafazzo, Simona; Bonanni, Roberto; Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  6. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C F; García, M B; Ehlers, B K

    2013-05-01

    Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40 maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low water availability even among geographically close populations. PMID:23621367

  7. How does childhood socioeconomic hardship affect reproductive strategy? Pathways of development

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Mark S.; Sear, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In high‐income populations, evidence suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage early in life is correlated with reproductive strategy. Children growing up in unfavorable rearing environments tend to experience earlier sexual maturity and first births. Earlier first births may be associated with higher fertility, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and larger family size have rarely been tested. The pathways through which early disadvantage influences reproduction are unknown. We test whether physiological factors link childhood adversity to age at first birth and total children. Methods Using data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a 1947 British birth cohort, we developed path models to identify possible physiological traits linking childhood socioeconomic status, and poor housing standards, to two reproductive outcomes: age at first birth and total children. We explored birth weight, weight gain after birth, childhood illnesses, body mass index at age 9, age at menarche, and adult height as possible mediators. Results We found direct, negative effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and housing on age at first birth, and of housing on fertility. Although we found links between childhood disadvantage and menarche and height, neither of these were significantly correlated with either reproductive outcome. Age at first birth completely mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and total fertility, which we believe has not been empirically demonstrated before. Conclusions While there are some links between childhood adversity and child health, we find little evidence that physiological pathways, such as child health and growth, link early childhood adversity to reproductive outcomes in this relatively well‐nourished population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:356–363, 2016. © 2015 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26407916

  8. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Schulster, Michael; Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, testosterone and estrogen have been considered to be male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a critical role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for modulating libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptors, as well as aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen, are abundant in brain, penis, and testis, organs important for sexual function. In the brain, estradiol synthesis is increased in areas related to sexual arousal. In addition, in the penis, estrogen receptors are found throughout the corpus cavernosum with high concentration around neurovascular bundles. Low testosterone and elevated estrogen increase the incidence of erectile dysfunction independently of one another. In the testes, spermatogenesis is modulated at every level by estrogen, starting with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by the Leydig, Sertoli, and germ cells, and finishing with the ductal epithelium, epididymis, and mature sperm. Regulation of testicular cells by estradiol shows both an inhibitory and a stimulatory influence, indicating an intricate symphony of dose-dependent and temporally sensitive modulation. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the overall contribution of estradiol to male sexual function by looking at the hormone's effects on erectile function, spermatogenesis, and libido. PMID:26908066

  9. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Schulster, Michael; Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, testosterone and estrogen have been considered to be male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a critical role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for modulating libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptors, as well as aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen, are abundant in brain, penis, and testis, organs important for sexual function. In the brain, estradiol synthesis is increased in areas related to sexual arousal. In addition, in the penis, estrogen receptors are found throughout the corpus cavernosum with high concentration around neurovascular bundles. Low testosterone and elevated estrogen increase the incidence of erectile dysfunction independently of one another. In the testes, spermatogenesis is modulated at every level by estrogen, starting with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by the Leydig, Sertoli, and germ cells, and finishing with the ductal epithelium, epididymis, and mature sperm. Regulation of testicular cells by estradiol shows both an inhibitory and a stimulatory influence, indicating an intricate symphony of dose-dependent and temporally sensitive modulation. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the overall contribution of estradiol to male sexual function by looking at the hormone's effects on erectile function, spermatogenesis, and libido. PMID:26908066

  10. EFFECTS OF METAM SODIUM ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN THE FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metam sodium (MS) is a soil fumigant and Category III pesticide with a relatively low toxicity in mammals. But, there is some indication that it can impair rodent reproductive function. In ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats, a single ip injection was reported to block the lute...

  11. EFFECTS OF 3 WEEK EXPOSURES TO METAM SODIUM ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN THE FEMALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metam sodium (MS) is a soil fumigant and Category III pesticide with a relatively low toxicity in mammals. But, there is some indication that it can impair rodent reproductive function. In ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats, a single ip injection was reported to block the lute...

  12. EFFECTS OF 3 WEEK EXPOSURES ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN THE FEMALE RAT TO METAM SODIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metam sodium (MS) is a soil fumigant and Category III pesticide with a relatively low toxicity in mammals. But, there is some indication that it can impair rodent reproductive function. In ovariectomized, estradiol-primed rats, a single ip injection was reported to block the lute...

  13. Ovarian function and reproductive outcomes of female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and the strategies to preserve their fertility.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Guzel, Yılmaz; Aksoy, Senai; Aydin, Elvin; Urman, Bulent

    2015-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune systemic disease that mainly affects women of reproductive age. Emerging data from recent molecular studies show us that estrogen hormone plays a central role in the development of this disease. By acting via its cognate receptors ERα and ERβ expressed on immune cells, estrogen can modulate immune function in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Interestingly, estrogen may also evoke autoimmune responses after binding to B lymphocytes leading to the generation of high-affinity autoantibodies and proinflammatory cytokines (so-called estrogen-induced autoimmunity). Unfortunately, reproductive function of young female patients with this disease is commonly compromised by different pathophysiologic processes. First, ovarian reserve is diminished even in the presence of mild disease suggesting a direct impact of the disease itself on ovarian function possibly due to ovarian involvement in the form of autoimmune oophoritis. Second, SLE patients with severe manifestations of the disease are treated with alkylating chemotherapy agent cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide and other drugs of alkylating category have the highest gonadotoxicity. Therefore, SLE patients exposed to cyclophosphamide have a much higher risk of developing infertility and premature ovarian failure than do the counterparts who are treated with other less toxic treatments. Third, the functions of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis are perturbed by chronic inflammatory state. And finally adverse pregnancy outcomes are more commonly observed in SLE patients such as fetal loss, preterm birth, intrauterine fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia-eclampsia, and fetal congenital heart block. We aimed in this review article to provide the readers an update on how estrogen hormone closely interacts with and induces lupus-prone changes in the immune system. We also discuss ovarian function and other reproductive outcomes in SLE patients

  14. CRF-Like Diuretic Hormone Negatively Affects Both Feeding and Reproduction in the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Dillen, Senne; Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Diuretic hormones (DH) related to the vertebrate Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) have been identified in diverse insect species. In the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, the CRF-like DH (CRF/DH) is localized in the same neurosecretory cells as the Ovary Maturating Parsin (OMP), a neurohormone that stimulates oocyte growth, vitellogenesis and hemolymph ecdysteroid levels in adult female locusts. In this study, we investigated whether CRF-like DH can influence feeding and reproduction in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. We identified two highly similar S. gregaria CRF-like DH precursor cDNAs, each of which also encodes an OMP isoform. Alignment with other insect CRF-like DH precursors shows relatively high conservation of the CRF/DH sequence while the precursor region corresponding to OMP is not well conserved. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that the precursor transcripts mainly occur in the central nervous system and their highest expression level was observed in the brain. Injection of locust CRF/DH caused a significantly reduced food intake, while RNAi knockdown stimulated food intake. Therefore, our data indicate that CRF-like DH induces satiety. Furthermore, injection of CRF/DH in adult females retarded oocyte growth and caused lower ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph and ovaries, while RNAi knockdown resulted in opposite effects. The observed effects of CRF/DH may be part of a wider repertoire of neurohormonal activities, constituting an integrating control system that affects food intake and excretion, as well as anabolic processes like oocyte growth and ecdysteroidogenesis, following a meal. Our discussion about the functional relationship between CRF/DH and OMP led to the hypothesis that OMP may possibly act as a monitoring peptide that can elicit negative feedback effects. PMID:22363645

  15. Changes in Tree Reproductive Traits Reduce Functional Diversity in a Fragmented Atlantic Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Girão, Luciana Coe; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2007-01-01

    Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits) and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems) in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots). As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated). The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments-pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals-and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores) for pollination systems (−30.3%), floral types (−23.6%), and floral sizes (−20.8%) in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and greatly

  16. Reproductive effort reduces long-term immune function in breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    PubMed Central

    Ardia, Daniel R; Schat, Karel A; Winkler, David W

    2003-01-01

    We examined whether strategies of reproductive allocation may reduce long-term immunocompetence through the effects of manipulated effort on secondary or acquired immunity. We tested whether increased reproductive effort leads to reduced immune function and survival by manipulating brood size in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and exposing breeding females to a primary and secondary exposure of sheep red blood cells to elicit a humoral immune response. Females raising enlarged broods produced fewer secondary antibodies than did females raising control or reduced broods. Most importantly, individuals with high secondary responses were more likely to survive to breed 3 years after brood manipulations, suggesting that differences in disease susceptibility may be caused by trade-offs in reproductive allocation. We also found that individual quality, measured by clutch initiation date, mediated the effects of brood manipulations, with higher-quality birds showing a greater ability to deal with increases in effort. PMID:12964994

  17. Functional Significance of GnRH and Kisspeptin, and Their Cognate Receptors in Teleost Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Gopurappilly, Renjitha; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2012-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic transmembrane proteins found in all living organisms. Their versatility and roles in several physiological processes make them the single largest family of drug targets. Comparative genomic studies using various model organisms have provided useful information about target receptors. The similarity of the genetic makeup of teleosts to that of humans and other vertebrates aligns with the study of GPCRs. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents a critical step in the reproductive process through its cognate GnRH receptors (GnRHRs). Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its cognate GPCR, GPR54 (=kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R), have recently been identified as a critical signaling system in the control of reproduction. The Kiss1/Kiss-R system regulates GnRH release, which is vital to pubertal development and vertebrate reproduction. This review highlights the physiological role of kisspeptin-Kiss-R signaling in the reproductive neuroendocrine axis in teleosts through the modulation of GnRH release. Moreover, we also review the recent developments in GnRHR and Kiss-R with respect to their structural variants, signaling mechanisms, ligand interactions, and functional significance. Finally, we discuss the recent progress in identifying many teleost GnRH-GnRHR and kisspeptin-Kiss-R systems and consider their physiological significance in the control of reproduction. PMID:23482509

  18. Effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is consistently associated with various diseases and subsequent death among children, adult, and elderly people worldwide. Motor vehicle exhaust contributes to a large proportion of the air pollution present. The motor vehicle exhaust systems emit a variety of toxic components, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several epidemiological studies and laboratory studies have demonstrated that these components are potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, and endocrine disrupting agents. However, their impact on male reproductive function and associated proteins is not very clear. Therefore, a comprehensive review on the effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins is needed to better understand the risks of exhaust exposure for men. We found that motor vehicle exhaust can cause harmful effects on male reproductive functions by altering organ weights, reducing the spermatozoa qualities, and inducing oxidative stress. Remarkably, motor vehicle exhaust exposure causes significant changes in the expression patterns of proteins that are key components involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis. In conclusion, this review helps to describe the risks of vehicle exhaust exposure and its relationship to potential adverse effects on the male reproduction system. PMID:25329744

  19. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  20. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased α1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp <0.5), (5) good reproductive tract health [normal uterine scan at d 45 pp; clear vaginal mucus discharge at first ovulation and at d 45 pp; resumed ovarian cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period (≥ d 35 pp)], and (6) adequate diet (to ensure increased glutathione peroxidase in wk 2 and 3 and increased magnesium in wk 4). Risk factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp

  1. A Single Hot Event That Does Not Affect Survival but Decreases Reproduction in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Extremely hot events (usually involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures in summer) are expected to increase in frequency in temperate regions under global warming. The impact of these events is generally overlooked in insect population prediction, since they are unlikely to cause widespread mortality, however reproduction may be affected by them. In this study, we examined such stress effects in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. We simulated a single extreme hot day (maximum of 40°C lasting for 3, 4 or 5 h) increasingly experienced under field conditions. This event had no detrimental effects on immediate mortality, copulation duration, mating success, longevity or lifetime fecundity, but stressed females produced 21% (after 3 or 4 h) fewer hatched eggs because of a decline in the number and hatching success of eggs laid on the first two days. These negative effects on reproduction were no longer evident in the following days. Male heat exposure led to a similar but smaller effect on fertile egg production, and exposure extended pre-mating period in both sexes. Our results indicate that a single hot day can have detrimental effects on reproduction, particularly through maternal effects on egg hatching, and thereby influence the population dynamics of diamondback moth. PMID:24116081

  2. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  3. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  4. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  5. Preservation of neuroendocrine control of reproductive function despite severe undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Miller, K K; Grinspoon, S; Gleysteen, S; Grieco, K A; Ciampa, J; Breu, J; Herzog, D B; Klibanski, A

    2004-09-01

    than in the amenorrheic group (41.8 +/- 3.7 vs. 30.8 +/- 2.3 nmol/liter; P = 0.02). There were only minor differences in severity of eating disorder symptomatology, as measured by the Eating Disorders Inventory, and where differences were observed, eumenorrheic subjects manifested more severe symptomatology than amenorrheic subjects. Mean BMD at the posterior-anterior and lateral spine were low in both groups, but were higher in patients with eumenorrhea than in those with amenorrhea [posterior-anterior spine T-score, -0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. -1.9 +/- 0.1 (P < 0.0001); lateral spine T-score, -1.2 +/- 0.1 vs. -2.3 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.0001)]. In contrast, preservation of menstrual function was not protective at the total hip (total hip T-score, -0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. -1.1 +/- 0.1; P = 0.27), trochanter, or femoral neck. In summary, patients with eumenorrhea had more body fat and higher serum leptin levels than their amenorrheic counterparts of similar weight. Moreover, reduced bone density was observed in both groups, but was less severe at the spine, but not the hip, in women with undernutrition and preserved menstrual function than in amenorrheic women of similar weight. Therefore, fat mass may be important for preservation of normal menstrual function in severely undernourished women, and this may be in part mediated through leptin secretion. In addition, nutritional intake and normal hormonal function may be independent contributors to maintenance of trabecular bone mass in low-weight women. PMID:15356043

  6. [The separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium intoxication on rat reproductive function].

    PubMed

    Tyshko, N V; Seliaskin, K E; Mel'nik, E A; Pashorina, V A; Zhminchenko, V M

    2012-01-01

    The publication presents investigation evaluated of separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium (Cd2+) intoxication on rat reproductive function. The experi-ments were performed on 280 adult and 890 offspring of Wistar rats. Reproductive function was estimated by fertility study, prenatal and postnatal development of offspring. The separate and combined effects of and cadmium intoxication during the mating period and pregnancy had no effect on fertility and fecundity of rats, pre-and postimplantation loss, the survival of offspring, and not caused the abnormal development of skeleton and internal organs. However, in prenatal ontogeny of this effect was manifested by lower body weight and fetal growth, postnatal - underdevelopment of rat pups in all morphological and functional studied parameters and increasing number of stillbirths in the offspring. PMID:22642163

  7. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Juliana; Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of "high-quality" queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and "low-quality" queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone ("QMP") components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the "queen-specific" developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting that other external

  8. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response

    PubMed Central

    Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of “high-quality” queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and “low-quality” queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone (“QMP”) components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the “queen-specific” developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting

  9. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success. 

  10. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  11. Factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the outer banks of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Shiloh A.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. We evaluated survival with respect to nesting island, year, time of season, brood age, distance to tide (m), presence of off-road vehicles and proximity of foraging habitat. The daily nest survival (mean 0.981, standard error [SE] 0.002) was affected by year and island, and declined over the nesting season. Mammals were responsible for 54% of identified nest failures. Daily brood survival (mean 0.981, SE 0.002) varied by island and increased non-linearly with age, with highest mortality in the seven days after hatching. Model results indicate direct access to foraging sites has a positive effect on brood survival, whereas presence of off-road vehicles has a negative effect. We studied chick behavior and survival using radio telemetry and direct observation and found that vehicles caused mortality and affected behavior and resource use by oystercatcher chicks. We identified the source of mortality for 37 radio-tagged chicks. Six (16%) were killed by vehicles, 21 (57%) by predators, and 10 (27%) by exposure and starvation. From 1995 to 2008, 25 additional oystercatcher chicks were found dead, 13 (52%) killed by vehicles. Chicks on beaches closed to vehicles used beach and intertidal zones more frequently than chicks on beaches open to vehicles. Chick predators included Great Horned Owls Bubo virginianus, Fish Crows Corvus ossifragus, cats Felis catus, mink Mustela vison, raccoons Procyon lotor, and ghost crabs Ocypode albicans. The factors affecting reproductive success differed between the incubation and chick-rearing stages.  Management actions that influence chick survival will have a larger effect on total productivity than actions affecting nest survival.

  12. Social functioning and age across affective and non-affective psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Both non-affective and affective psychoses are associated with deficits in social functioning across the course of the illness. However, it is not clear how social functioning varies among diagnostic groups as a function of age. The current study examined the relationship between social functioning and age in schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD). We found that individuals with PBD had the highest functioning while individuals with SZ had the poorest. The functioning of individuals with SZA fell in between the other groups. We also found that older ages were associated with poorer functioning. Although there was not a significant diagnostic group by age interaction, visual inspection of our data suggests a subtly steeper trajectory of decline in PBD. These results indicate that a decline in social functioning with may be an important area of unmet need in treatment across psychotic disorders. PMID:25503785

  13. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  14. Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María; Mejías, José; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function. PMID:26697222

  15. Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María; Mejías, José; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function. PMID:26697222

  16. Are Environmental Levels of Bisphenol A Associated with Reproductive Function in Fertile Men?

    PubMed Central

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Redmon, J. Bruce; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Wang, Christina; Sparks, Amy; Thurston, Sally W.; Liu, Fan; Swan, Shanna H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function. Objectives We investigated the relationships between environmental BPA exposure and reproductive parameters, including semen quality and male reproductive hormones, in prospectively recruited fertile men. Methods Participants (n = 375) were partners of pregnant women who participated in the Study for Future Families in four U.S. cities, and all of the men provided blood, semen, and urine samples. BPA was measured in urine. Serum samples were analyzed for reproductive hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, inhibin B, estradiol, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the free androgen index (FAI). Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Pearson correlations were used for unadjusted analyses, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine associations controlling for age, body mass index, smoking, ethnicity, urinary creatinine concentration, time of sample collection, and duration of abstinence. Results After multivariate adjustment, we observed no significant associations between any semen parameter and urinary BPA concentration. However, a significant inverse association was found between urinary BPA concentration and FAI levels and the FAI/LH ratio, as well as a significant positive association between BPA and SHBG. Conclusions Our results suggest that, in fertile men, exposure to low environmental levels of BPA may be associated with a modest reduction in markers of free testosterone, but any effects on reproductive function are likely to be small, and of uncertain clinical significance. PMID:20494855

  17. Prenatal or lactational exposure of male rats to lead acetate. Effect on reproductive function

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreux-Manlay, A.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Coffigny, H.; Masse, R.; Soufir, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant which has received much attention, partly because of the particular sensitivity of children to this element. As regards the consequences of exposure to lead during fetal life or childhood, epidemiological studies have so far focused on its neuropsychological effects and little is known about the consequences of fetal or childhood exposure for reproduction. With respect to animals, the reproductive toxicity of lead in males exposed during prenatal life or the suckling period has only been considered in a few studies. Four such studies concerned the rat, the most current model of lead toxicity for male reproduction; two of studies considered the long term effects (i.e. during adulthood) of moderate in utero lead exposure, another covered the prenatal and neonatal periods and focused on the possible impact of lead intoxication on steriodogenesis before weaning, while the remaining study dealt with pituitary hormone level at the end of lead gavage in newborns. None of these investigations compared the effects of exposure during prenatal life to those of exposure via lactation, or the early effects (at about weaning time) to the long-term consequences during adulthood. Because of the paucity of data on these points, we conducted two experiments: in one, rats were exposed to lead prenatally, and in the other via maternal milk. In both cases male reproductive function at weaning and adulthood was examined. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. DESTAF: a database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Adam S; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sagar, Sunil; Seshadri, Sundararajan V; Schaefer, Ulf; Kamau, Allan A; Christoffels, Alan; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database. DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. PMID:22198179

  19. The effects of exercise on pubertal progression and reproductive function in girls.

    PubMed

    Warren, M P

    1980-11-01

    To determine whether a significant energy drain during adolescence had a significant effect on puberty and normal reproductive function, 15 ballet dancers, aged 13--15 yr, who maintained a high level of physical activity from early adolescence were followed for 4.0 yr. Menarche was remarkably delayed in this group, occurring at a mean of 15.4 yr, significantly different (P < 0.01) from normal controls (12.5 yr) and normal music students (12.6 yr). In 2 dancers aged 18 yr, primary amenorrhea has persisted. While premenarchial, all of the dancers had varying breast development (Tanner stages 2--4) and low to low normal gonadotropin levels, normal PRL and T4 levels, and normal skull x-rays. The dancers' mean body weight and calculated body fat were significantly less than in controls (P < 0.05). The progression of sexual development and the onset of menarche correlated in 10 or 15 subjects with a decrease in exercise and/or injury causing forced rest of at least 2-month duration. During this interval, weight gain was minimal or absent, with no significant change in body composition. A significant dichotomy in the order of pubertal development was also noted; while breast development and menarche were delayed, pubic hair development was not affected. Reversion to the amenorrheic state occurred in 11 of 13 patients with a return to exercise without a change in weight. In conclusion, energy drain may have an important modulatory effect on the hypothalamic pituitary set point at puberty and, in combination with low body weight, may prolong the prepubertal state and induce amenorrhea. PMID:6775000

  20. Relationship between the somatic cell count in milk and reproductive function in peripartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    ISOBE, Naoki; IWAMOTO, Chihiro; KUBOTA, Hirokazu; YOSHIMURA, Yukinori

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the somatic cell count (SCC) in milk on reproductive performance, such as pregnancy status in the prepartum period and ovarian function in the postpartum period, in dairy cows. Blood samples were collected every week from one month prepartum to parturition in order to measure the concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2α (PGFM), estrone sulfate (E1S) and progesterone. Milk samples were collected three times per week in both the prepartum (for one month before the dry period) and postpartum periods (for 3 months immediately after parturition) to measure the SCC. Progesterone was also determined in the whole milk of postpartum cows to define the day of the first ovulation. In the prepartum period, the maximum SCC negatively correlated with the pregnancy period (r = –0.77), but not the calf birth weight. Positive and negative correlations were observed between the average SCC and PGFM or progesterone concentrations in plasma, respectively (r = 0.84 or –0.92, respectively), at 39 weeks of pregnancy. In the postpartum period, a correlation was observed between the day of the first ovulation and both the average and maximum SCC (r = –0.74 and –0.75, respectively), whereas days open was not related to the SCC. These results suggest that a high SCC in the prepartum period may advance parturition by increasing PGF2α and decreasing progesterone and that the first ovulation in the postpartum period was affected by a high SCC. PMID:25196356

  1. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  2. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees

    PubMed Central

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  3. Gonadal steroids and affective symptoms during in vitro fertilization: implication for reproductive mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Aharonov, Inbar; Ben Avi, Irit; Schreiber, Shaul; Amit, Ami; Weizman, Abraham; Azem, Foad

    2011-07-01

    Gonadal steroids (GSs) have been associated with the onset of a number of reproductive-related mood disorders in women, in which fluctuating or unstable hormonal levels are postulated to act as the trigger for the destabilization of mood. There is, however, rather limited direct clinical evidence that can link rapidly changing GS levels with the induction of mood symptoms. We aimed to study the effect of controlled and rapid GS fluctuations on mood in an in vivo model. Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (n=108) were assessed for depression and anxiety levels on 3 time points: during a low estradiol and progesterone baseline, during a gonadotropin stimulated estradiol-dominant phase, and after embryo transfer, during a progesterone-dominant low estrogen phase. Plasma levels for estrogen and progesterone were drawn on these time points. Symptoms of depression and anxiety significantly increased from baseline to the high estradiol levels but were not correlated with estrogen. The sharp drop from high estradiol levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to low levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly correlated with rising depression scores. The rise in progesterone levels from low levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to high levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly and inversely correlated with depression scores. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the role of estrogen in reproductive-related mood disorders involves an abrupt and precipitous drop in its plasma level that can precipitate negative mood states. This finding has implications on the treatment of GS-related mood disorders. PMID:21106297

  4. Expression and function of transient receptor potential channels in the female bovine reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Ghavideldarestani, Maryam; Atkin, Stephen L; Leese, Henry J; Sturmey, Roger G

    2016-07-15

    The epithelium lining the oviduct is critical for early reproductive events, many of which are mediated via intracellular calcium ions. Despite this, little is known about the regulation of calcium homeostasis in the oviductal epithelium. Epithelial transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) modulate calcium flux in other tissues, and their expression and functional regulation have therefore been examined using the bovine oviduct as a model for the human. The effects of FSH, LH, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone on TRPCs expression and intracellular calcium flux were determined. Transient receptor potential channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 were expressed in the bovine reproductive tract, and their gene expression varied throughout the estrous cycle. In more detailed studies undertaken on TRPC1 and 6, we show that protein expression varied through the estrus cycle; specifically, 17β-estradiol, FSH, and LH individually and in combination upregulated TRPC1 and 6 expression in cultured bovine oviduct epithelial cells although progesterone antagonized these effects. Functional studies showed changes in calcium mobilization in bovine oviduct epithelial cells were dependent on TRPCs. In conclusion, TRPC1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are present in the epithelium lining the bovine oviduct, and TRPC1 and 6 vary through the estrous cycle suggesting an important role in early reproductive function. PMID:27001231

  5. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  6. Female mice with loss-of-function ITCH display an altered reproductive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Stermer, Angela R; Myers, Jessica L; Murphy, Caitlin J; Di Bona, Kristin R; Matesic, Lydia; Richburg, John H

    2016-02-01

    Major progress in deciphering the role of the E3 ligase, ITCH, in animal physiology has come from the generation and identification of Itch loss-of-function mutant mice (itchy). Mutant mice display an autoimmune-like phenotype characterized by chronic dermatitis, which has been attributed to increased levels of ITCH target proteins (e.g. transcription factors JUNB and CJUN) in T cells. Autoimmune disorders also exist in humans with Itch frameshift mutations resulting in loss of functional ITCH protein. Recent phenotypic analysis of male itchy mice revealed reduced sperm production, although cross breeding experiments showed no difference in litter size when male itchy mice were bred to wild type females. However, a reduction in litter sizes did occur when itchy females were bred to wild type males. Based on these results, characterization of female reproductive function in itchy mice was performed. Developmental analysis of fetuses at gestational day 18.5, cytological evaluation of estrous cyclicity, histopathological analysis of ovaries, and protein analysis were used to investigate the itchy reproductive phenotype. Gross skeletal and soft tissue analysis of gestational day 18.5 itchy fetuses indicated no gross developmental deformities. Itchy females had reduced implantation sites, decreased corpora lutea, and increased estrous cycle length due to increased number of days in estrus compared to controls. Alterations in the expression of prototypical ITCH targets in the ovaries were not indicated, suggesting that an alteration in an as yet defined ovary-specific ITCH substrate or interaction with the altered immune system likely accounts for the disruption of female reproduction. This report indicates the importance of the E3 ligase, ITCH, in female reproduction. PMID:26515141

  7. Key Factors Affecting Reproductive Success of Thoroughbred Mares and Stallions on a Commercial Stud Farm.

    PubMed

    Lane, E A; Bijnen, Mlj; Osborne, M; More, S J; Henderson, Isf; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate factors contributing to fertility of thoroughbred mares, data from 3743 oestrous periods of 2385 mares were collected on a large thoroughbred farm in Ireland. Fourteen stallions (mean age 8.3 years; range 4-15 years) had bred 2385 mares (mean age 9.4 years; range 3-24 years). Maiden mares accounted for 12%, mares with a foal at foot for 64%, and barren, slipped or rested mares for 24% of the total. The mean pregnancy rate per cycle was 67.8% (68.6% in year 1 and 66.9% in year 2). Backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to develop two models to evaluate mare factors, including mare age, reproductive status, month of foaling, dystocia, month of cover, foal heat, cycle number, treatments, walk-in status and stallion factors including stallion identity, stallion age, shuttle status, time elapsed between covers and high stallion usage on the per cycle pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. Old age (p < 0.001) and cover within 20 days post-partum (p < 0.003) were associated with lowered pregnancy rates. High mare age (p < 0.05) and barren, slipped or rested reproductive status (p = 0.05) increased the likelihood of pregnancy loss. Uterine inflammation or infection, if appropriately treated, did not affect fertility. Only high usage of stallions (used more than 21 times in previous week) was associated with lowered (p = 0.009) pregnancy rates. However, shuttle stallions were more likely to have increased (p = 0.035) pregnancy survival, perhaps reflecting a bias in stallion selection. In conclusion, mare age exerted the greatest influence on fertility; nonetheless, thoroughbreds can be effectively managed to achieve high reproductive performance in a commercial setting. PMID:26815482

  8. Nodavirus Colonizes and Replicates in the Testis of Gilthead Seabream and European Sea Bass Modulating Its Immune and Reproductive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Arizcun, Marta; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Bandín, Isabel; Olveira, José G.; Patel, Sonal; Cuesta, Alberto; Chaves-Pozo, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are threatening pathogens for fish aquaculture. Some of them are transmitted through gonad fluids or gametes as occurs with nervous necrosis virus (NNV). In order to be transmitted through the gonad, the virus should colonize and replicate inside some cell types of this tissue and avoid the subsequent immune response locally. However, whether NNV colonizes the gonad, the cell types that are infected, and how the immune response in the gonad is regulated has never been studied. We have demonstrated for the first time the presence and localization of NNV into the testis after an experimental infection in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), a very susceptible and an asymptomatic host fish species, respectively. Thus, we localized in the testis viral RNA in both species using in situ PCR and viral proteins in gilthead seabream by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that males might also transmit the virus. In addition, we were able to isolate infective particles from the testis of both species demonstrating that NNV colonizes and replicates into the testis of both species. Blood contamination of the tissues sampled was discarded by completely fish bleeding, furthermore the in situ PCR and immunocytochemistry techniques never showed staining in blood vessels or cells. Moreover, we also determined how the immune and reproductive functions are affected comparing the effects in the testis with those found in the brain, the main target tissue of the virus. Interestingly, NNV triggered the immune response in the European sea bass but not in the gilthead seabream testis. Regarding reproductive functions, NNV infection alters 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone production and the potential sensitivity of brain and testis to these hormones, whereas there is no disruption of testicular functions according to several reproductive parameters. Moreover, we have also studied the NNV infection of the testis in vitro to

  9. Effect of antimicrobial Peptide, nisin, on the reproductive functions of rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K V R; Gupta, S M; Aranha, C C

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that naturally occurring peptide, Nisin possess antibacterial activity and did not interfere with rabbit vaginal mucosa. In this study, the reproductive toxicity of the Nisin in male rats was evaluated. Rats were fed orally with Nisin (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks. No treatment related mortality was observed. The body weight gain, food consumption and serum biochemical parameters were at par with the control group. Histomorphology of the selected reproductive (testis, epididymis, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicle) and nonreproductive (liver and kidney) tissues was observed to be normal. There was no treatment-related increase or decrease in the expression of testis-specific genes (c-Kit, GATA-1, and HILS-1) and the activity levels of epididymal α-glucosidase, ventral prostate alkaline phosphatase (AlP), liver alanine aminotransferase (AlAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). Fructose and lactic acid levels in the seminal vesicles also remained unchanged. These studies suggest that Nisin did not affect the normal physiology of these organs. In addition, no adverse effects were observed on the reproductive performance of Nisin-treated male rats and their offspring. In conclusion, the current studies support our earlier studies, which demonstrated suitability of Nisin as a safe and effective microbicide. PMID:23738116

  10. Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide, Nisin, on the Reproductive Functions of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. V. R; Gupta, S. M.; Aranha, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that naturally occurring peptide, Nisin possess antibacterial activity and did not interfere with rabbit vaginal mucosa. In this study, the reproductive toxicity of the Nisin in male rats was evaluated. Rats were fed orally with Nisin (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks. No treatment related mortality was observed. The body weight gain, food consumption and serum biochemical parameters were at par with the control group. Histomorphology of the selected reproductive (testis, epididymis, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicle) and nonreproductive (liver and kidney) tissues was observed to be normal. There was no treatment-related increase or decrease in the expression of testis-specific genes (c-Kit, GATA-1, and HILS-1) and the activity levels of epididymal α-glucosidase, ventral prostate alkaline phosphatase (AlP), liver alanine aminotransferase (AlAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). Fructose and lactic acid levels in the seminal vesicles also remained unchanged. These studies suggest that Nisin did not affect the normal physiology of these organs. In addition, no adverse effects were observed on the reproductive performance of Nisin-treated male rats and their offspring. In conclusion, the current studies support our earlier studies, which demonstrated suitability of Nisin as a safe and effective microbicide. PMID:23738116

  11. Maternally transferred dioxin-like compounds can affect the reproductive success of European eel.

    PubMed

    Foekema, Edwin M; Kotterman, Michiel; de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-01-01

    Reported concentrations of dioxin-like compounds accumulated in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) were used to perform a risk assessment for eel larval survival, taking into account a modeled amplification of tissue concentrations with a factor of 1.33 during spawning migration. The calculated concentrations of dioxin-like compounds finally deposited in the eggs were compared with the internal effect concentrations for survival of early life stages of the European eel; these concentrations, by lack of experimental data, were estimated from a sensitivity distribution based on literature data by assuming that eel larvae are among the 10% most sensitive teleost fish species. Given concentrations of dioxin-like contaminants and assuming a relatively high sensitivity, it can be expected that larvae from eggs produced by eel from highly contaminated locations in Europe will experience increased mortality as a result of maternally transferred dioxin-like contaminants. As historical persistent organic pollutant concentrations in eel tissue were higher, this impact must have been stronger in the past. Potential effects of other compounds or effects on the migration, condition, and fertility of the parental animals were not taken into account. It is important to further study the overall impact of contaminants on the reproductive success of the European eel as this may have been underestimated until now. PMID:26223357

  12. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  13. An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

  14. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  15. Social, but not photoperiodic, influences on reproductive function in male Peromyscus aztecus.

    PubMed

    Demas, G E; Nelson, R J

    1998-02-01

    Nontropical rodents rely on environmental factors to restrict breeding to a specific time of the year. Among these factors, photoperiod appears to be the primary environmental cue used for predicting optimal breeding conditions. The purpose of the present study was to characterize reproductive function, as well as photoperiodic and social responsiveness in male Peromyscus aztecus, which occupy low-latitude, high-altitude habitats. In experiment 1, adult male P. aztecus were individually housed in either long (16L:8D) or short days (8L:16D) for 10 wk. Short-day mice did not differ from long-day mice on any reproductive or nonreproductive parameter. Comparisons to related Peromyscus species suggested that relative reproductive organ size and function were reduced in both long- and short-day males. Because ad libitum food and water were available, we reasoned that males in both photoperiodic conditions lacked social stimuli. To test this hypothesis, adult male P. aztecus were housed in long days either individually or with a female conspecific in experiment 2. Mice housed with females had significantly larger relative paired testes and epididymal masses, and higher testicular sperm counts and serum testosterone levels compared to those of individually housed mice. Taken together, these results suggest that social factors may play a more prominent role than photoperiod in stimulating reproductive development in laboratory-housed P. aztecus. These results are consistent with the results found for other low-latitude rodent species and suggest that P. aztecus uses a flexible rather than obligatory breeding strategy. PMID:9475393

  16. Positive selection neighboring functionally essential sites and disease-implicated regions of mammalian reproductive proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reproductive proteins are central to the continuation of all mammalian species. The evolution of these proteins has been greatly influenced by environmental pressures induced by pathogens, rival sperm, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Positive selection has been demonstrated in many of these proteins with particular focus on primate lineages. However, the mammalia are a diverse group in terms of mating habits, population sizes and germ line generation times. We have examined the selective pressures at work on a number of novel reproductive proteins across a wide variety of mammalia. Results We show that selective pressures on reproductive proteins are highly varied. Of the 10 genes analyzed in detail, all contain signatures of positive selection either across specific sites or in specific lineages or a combination of both. Our analysis of SP56 and Col1a1 are entirely novel and the results show positively selected sites present in each gene. Our findings for the Col1a1 gene are suggestive of a link between positive selection and severe disease type. We find evidence in our dataset to suggest that interacting proteins are evolving in symphony: most likely to maintain interacting functionality. Conclusion Our in silico analyses show positively selected sites are occurring near catalytically important regions suggesting selective pressure to maximize efficient fertilization. In those cases where a mechanism of protein function is not fully understood, the sites presented here represent ideal candidates for mutational study. This work has highlighted the widespread rate heterogeneity in mutational rates across the mammalia and specifically has shown that the evolution of reproductive proteins is highly varied depending on the species and interacting partners. We have shown that positive selection and disease are closely linked in the Col1a1 gene. PMID:20149245

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  18. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  19. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17α-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic progesterones and estrogens are broadly used bioactive pharmaceutical agents and have been detected in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the combined reproductive effects of megestrol acetate (MTA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to MTA (33, 100 or 333 ng/L), EE2 (10 ng/L) or a mixture of both (MTA + EE2: 33 + 10, 100 + 10 or 333 + 10 ng/L) for 21 days. Results demonstrated that egg production was significantly reduced by exposure to 10 ng/L EE2, but not MTA. However, a combined exposure to MTA and EE2 caused further reduction of fish fecundity compared to EE2 exposure alone, suggesting an additive effect on egg production when EE2 is supplemented with MTA. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in the females and 11-ketotestosterone in the males were significantly decreased in the groups exposed to EE2 or MTA alone compared with the solvent control, and the plasma concentrations of the three hormones were further reduced in the co-exposure groups relative to the MTA exposure group, but not the EE2 exposure group. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects on plasma concentrations in the co-exposures were predominantly caused by EE2. Furthermore, exposure to MTA and EE2 (alone or in combination) led to histological alterations in the ovaries (decreased vitellogenic/mature oocytes), but not in the testes. This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. PMID:27038209

  20. Developmental Methoxychlor Exposure Affects Multiple Reproductive Parameters and Ovarian: Folliculogenesis and Gene Expression in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post-coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis. PMID:18848953

  1. Effect of reproductive status changes on family functioning and well-being of mothers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Paikoff, R L; Brooks-gunn, J; Carlton-ford, S

    1991-05-01

    The effects of mother and daughter reproductive changes on maternal perceptions regarding the family are assessed. Mother and daughter reproductive status changes were examined in terms of their effects on family relations and mother and daughter well-being. Controls were made for mother and daughter age and heaviness. 144 mothers (37-59 years) and daughters (14-18 years) were selected from a study of white, middle to upper middle income families in large Eastern metropolitan areas. Mothers were typically well educated and employed and from 2-parent homes; 50% were 1st born. Moos' Family Environment Scale was used to measure family functioning; other measures included daughter's age at menarche, mother's menstrual status, the Ponderal index of mother and daughter heaviness, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, an abbreviated version of the Eating Attitudes Test, and Satisfaction with Body Parts scale of Padin, Lerner and Spiro. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed after agreement to participate was confirmed by phone. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effect of menstrual status controlling for age on family cohesion or conflict, and the effect of perception of family cohesion or conflict on well-being. Factor-covariate interactions were tested for, and none were found based on the Bonferroni procedure. The cross-sectional results show that early adolescent maturation is not related to increases in family conflict compared with on-time or late maturers, in contrast to Hill's study results. There was no link between perceptions of family conflict on the well-being of mother or daughter. Family cohesion was important to mother and daughter well-being, but was not associated with mother's reproductive status or daughter's reproductive timing. For mothers, the effect was on depression and body image. For daughters, the most important variable was maternal perceptions of family cohesion for all measures of well-being. Daughters

  2. Offspring pay sooner, parents pay later: experimental manipulation of body mass reveals trade-offs between immune function, reproduction and survival

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Life-history theory predicts that organisms trade off survival against reproduction. However, the time scales on which various consequences become evident and the physiology mediating the cost of reproduction remain poorly understood. Yet, explaining not only which mechanisms mediate this trade-off, but also how fast or slow the mechanisms act, is crucial for an improved understanding of life-history evolution. We investigated three time scales on which an experimental increase in body mass could affect this trade-off: within broods, within season and between years. We handicapped adult skylarks (Alauda arvensis) by attaching extra weight during first broods to both adults of a pair. We measured body mass, immune function and return rates in these birds. We also measured nest success, feeding rates, diet composition, nestling size, nestling immune function and recruitment rates. Results When nestlings of first broods fledged, parent body condition had not changed, but experimental birds experienced higher nest failure. Depending on the year, immune parameters of nestlings from experimental parents were either higher or lower than of control nestlings. Later, when parents were feeding their second brood, the balance between self-maintenance and nest success had shifted. Control and experimental adults differed in immune function, while mass and immune function of their nestlings did not differ. Although weights were removed after breeding, immune measurements during the second brood had the capacity to predict return rates to the next breeding season. Among birds that returned the next year, body condition and reproductive performance a year after the experiment did not differ between treatment groups. Conclusions We conclude that the balance between current reproduction and survival shifts from affecting nestlings to affecting parents as the reproductive season progresses. Furthermore, immune function is apparently one physiological mechanism involved

  3. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  4. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  5. Sublethal effects of antibiosis resistance on the reproductive biology of two spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria spp.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Paola A; Miller, María F; Cardona, Cesar; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo; Montoya, James

    2008-04-01

    Several greenhouse experiments were used to measure how high levels of antibiosis resistance to nymphs in two interspecific Brachiaria (brachiariagrass) hybrids affect life history parameters of the spittlebugs Aeneolamia varia (F.) and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand), two of the most important spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria production in Colombia. The A. varia-resistant hybrid CIAT 36062, the Z. carbonaria-resistant hybrid SX01NO/0102, and the susceptible accession CIAT 0654 were used to compare the effect of all possible combinations of food sources for nymphs and adults. Calculation of growth indexes showed a significant impact of antibiosis resistance on the biology of immature stages of both species. Median survival times of adults feeding on resistant genotypes did not differ from those recorded on the susceptible genotype, suggesting that factors responsible for high mortality of nymphs in the resistant hybrids did not affect adult survival. Rearing nymphs of A. varia on CIAT 36062 and of Z. carbonaria on SX01NO/0102 had deleterious sublethal effects on the reproductive biology of resulting adult females. It is concluded that high nymphal mortality and subsequent sublethal effects of nymphal antibiosis on adults should have a major impact on the demography of the two spittlebug species studied. PMID:18459425

  6. Erectile function and male reproduction in men with spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, F; Karakitsios, K; Tsounapi, P; Tsambalas, S; Loutradis, D; Kanakas, N; Watanabe, N T; Saito, M; Miyagawa, I; Sofikitis, N

    2010-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) in men results in defects in erectile function, ejaculatory process and male reproductive potential. There are alterations in the capacity of men with SCI to achieve reflexogenic, psychogenic and nocturnal erections. The sexual function in different stages after SCI and the types of erections depend mainly on the completeness of the injury and the level of neurological damage. Furthermore, most of the SCI men demonstrate defects concerning the entrance of semen into the posterior urethra and the expulsion of the semen through the penile urethra and the urethral orifice. In addition, SCI men develop defects in the secretory function of the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and the male accessory genital glands. The overall result is a decreased quality of the semen is recovered either with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or with electroejaculation. Nowadays the therapeutic andrological approach of SCI men focuses on achievement of erectile function, recovery of spermatozoa and assisted reproductive technology. The first line of therapy recommended for infertility in SCI men is collection of semen via PVS with concomitant evaluation of total motile sperm yields for assisted conception which may include intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Patients failing PVS may be referred for electroejaculation or surgical sperm retrieval. PMID:20500744

  7. Perceived stress, reproductive hormones, and ovulatory function: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Ahrens, Katherine A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Kissell, Kerri A.; Prasad, Ankita; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress has been shown to suppress ovulation in experimental models, but its effect on human reproduction at the population level is unclear. Methods Healthy women (n=259), aged 18–44 years from Western New York, were followed for two menstrual cycles (2005–2007). Women completed daily perceived stress assessments, a 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) up to four times each cycle, and a 14-item PSS at baseline. Mixed model analyses were used to assess effects of stress on log reproductive hormone concentrations and sporadic anovulation. Results High versus low daily stress was associated with lower estradiol (-9.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI)= -15.6% to -3.0%), free estradiol (-10.4% [-16.5% to -3.9%]), and LH (-14.8% = [-21.3% to -7.7%]), and higher FSH (6.2% [2.0% to 10.5%]) after adjusting for age, race, percent body fat, depression score, and time-varying hormones and vigorous exercise. High versus low daily stress was also associated with lower luteal progesterone (-10.4% [-19.7% to -0.10%]) and higher odds of anovulation (adjusted OR = 2.2 [95% CI=1.0 to 4.7]). For each unit increase in daily stress level, women had a 70% higher odds of an anovulatory episode (OR=1.7 [1.1 to 2.4]). Similar but attenuated results were found for the association between the PSS-4 and reproductive hormones, while null findings were found for the baseline PSS. Conclusion Daily perceived stress does appear to interfere with menstrual cycle function among women with no known reproductive disorders, warranting further research to explore potential population-level impacts and causal biologic mechanisms. PMID:25643098

  8. Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular Morphology and Reproductive Function in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function. PMID:23300682

  9. Sexual reproduction is the default mode in apomictic Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, in which two dominant loci function to enable apomixis.

    PubMed

    Koltunow, Anna M G; Johnson, Susan D; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Wilson, Saira; Fletcher, Pam; Ito, Kanae; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Fehrer, Judith; Bicknell, Ross A

    2011-06-01

    Asexual seed formation, or apomixis, in the Hieracium subgenus Pilosella is controlled by two dominant independent genetic loci, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP). We examined apomixis mutants that had lost function in one or both loci to establish their developmental roles during seed formation. In apomicts, sexual reproduction is initiated first. Somatic aposporous initial (AI) cells differentiate near meiotic cells, and the sexual pathway is terminated as AI cells undergo mitotic embryo sac formation. Seed initiation is fertilization-independent. Using a partially penetrant cytotoxic reporter to inhibit meioisis, we showed that developmental events leading to the completion of meiotic tetrad formation are required for AI cell formation. Sexual initiation may therefore stimulate activity of the LOA locus, which was found to be required for AI cell formation and subsequent suppression of the sexual pathway. AI cells undergo nuclear division to form embryo sacs, in which LOP functions gametophytically to stimulate fertilization-independent embryo and endosperm formation. Loss of function in either locus results in partial reversion to sexual reproduction, and loss of function in both loci results in total reversion to sexual reproduction. Therefore, in these apomicts, sexual reproduction is the default reproductive mode upon which apomixis is superimposed. These loci are unlikely to encode genes essential for sexual reproduction, but may function to recruit the sexual machinery at specific time points to enable apomixis. PMID:21418351

  10. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  11. [Functional morphology of recently discovered telocytes inside the female reproductive system].

    PubMed

    Božíková, S; Urban, L; Kajanová, M; Béder, I; Pohlodek, K; Varga, I

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of telocytes has become an important and key challenge in past few years. These cells are interstitial cells extending very long cytoplasmic processes named telopodes, by which they create functional networks in the interstitium of different organs. Telocytes are considered to be connective tissue elements that create contacts among each other, but they also function as intercellular structures, functionally connected with cells of the immune system, neurons and smooth muscle cells. Telocytes can be found also in the different parts of female reproductive system with functions and purpose, which is summarized in our overview. Telocytes regulate for example peristaltic movements in fallopian tubes. The decrease of their number (due to inflammatory disease or endometriosis) causes impairment in transport through fallopian tubes which may result in sterility or tubal gravidity. In uterus they regulate contraction of myometrial smooth muscle (blood expulsion in menstrual phase, childbirth) as well as they contribute in immunological care during embryo implantation. Telocytes probably control also the involution of uterus after delivery. Their function in vagina has not been yet clearly defined; they probably take part in slow muscle contraction movement during sexual intercourse. In mammary glands some scientists suppose their function in control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, that is why, they may play a role in carcinogenesis. In placenta they probably monitor and regulate flow of blood in vessels of chorionic villi and they may be responsible also for etiopathogenesis of pre-eclampsy. All these mentioned functions of telocytes are only in the level of hypothesis and have been published recently. New research and studies will try to answer the questions whether telocytes play a key role in these processes. Our review we completed with some original microphotographs of telocytes in different organs of female reproductive system. PMID:26982062

  12. Phenotypic plasticity in growth and fecundity induced by strong population fluctuations affects reproductive traits of female fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Juha; Urpanen, Olli; Keskinen, Tapio; Huuskonen, Hannu; Sarvala, Jouko; Valkeajärvi, Pentti; Marjomäki, Timo J

    2016-02-01

    Fish are known for their high phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental variability, and this is particularly pronounced among salmonids in the Northern Hemisphere. Resource limitation leads to trade-offs in phenotypic plasticity between life-history traits related to the reproduction, growth, and survival of individual fish, which have consequences for the age and size distributions of populations, as well as their dynamics and productivity. We studied the effect of plasticity in growth and fecundity of vendace females on their reproductive traits using a series of long-term incubation experiments. The wild parental fish originated from four separate populations with markedly different densities, and hence naturally induced differences in their growth and fecundity. The energy allocation to somatic tissues and eggs prior to spawning served as a proxy for total resource availability to individual females, and its effects on offspring survival and growth were analyzed. Vendace females allocated a rather constant proportion of available energy to eggs (per body mass) despite different growth patterns depending on the total resources in the different lakes; investment into eggs thus dictated the share remaining for growth. The energy allocation to eggs per mass was higher in young than in old spawners and the egg size and the relative fecundity differed between them: Young females produced more and smaller eggs and larvae than old spawners. In contrast to earlier observations of salmonids, a shortage of maternal food resources did not increase offspring size and survival. Vendace females in sparse populations with ample resources and high growth produced larger eggs and larvae. Vendace accommodate strong population fluctuations by their high plasticity in growth and fecundity, which affect their offspring size and consequently their recruitment and productivity, and account for their persistence and resilience in the face of high

  13. [Early and Delayed Effects of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Reproductive Function and Functional Status of the Offspring of Experimental Animals].

    PubMed

    Shibkova, D Z; Shilkova, T V; Ovchinnikova, A V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experimental research was to study the impact of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) on the reproductive function of male and female mice of CBA in 2 models of exposure, as well as on the morphofunctional state of progeny of irradiated animals. It was found that RF EMF under conditions of repeated short-term exposures (within 5 days for 10 minutes at PES 1.2 mW/cm2) affects the course of pregnancy in female mice, the number of litters, fertility and preservation of offspring, morphometric characteristics of the offspring of experimental animals at different models of irradiation (exposure of animals to RF EMF prior to mating and during pregnancy). PMID:26863782

  14. Is reproductive ageing controlled by the brain?

    PubMed

    Gore, Andrea C

    2007-08-01

    Female reproductive function is controlled by complex interactions of the brain, pituitary gland and ovary. Each of these organs produces unique hormones, and each hormone acts upon the other organs to affect a response. Differentiating the causes and the consequences of reproductive senescence in mammals is thus a 'chicken and egg' puzzle. Surprisingly, recent evidence indicates a more important role for the brain in the initiation and transition to reproductive senescence. PMID:17620108

  15. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  16. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  17. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  18. Phthalate esters affect maturation and function of primate testis tissue ectopically grafted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Bondareva, Alla; Tang, Lin; Avelar, Gleide F.; Coyle, Krysta M.; Modelski, Mark; Alpaugh, Whitney; Conley, Alan; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; França, Luiz R; Meyers, Stuart; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Di-n-Butyl (DBP) and Di-(2-EthylHexyl) (DEHP) phthalates can leach from daily-use products resulting in environmental exposure. In male rodents, phthalate exposure results in reproductive effects. To evaluate effects on the immature primate testis, testis fragments from 6-month-old rhesus macaques were grafted subcutaneously to immune-deficient mice, which were exposed to 0, 10, or 500 mg/kg of DBP or DEHP for 14 weeks or 28 weeks (DBP only). DBP exposure reduced the expression of key steroidogenic genes, indicating that Leydig cell function was compromised. Exposure to 500 mg/kg impaired tubule formation and germ cell differentiation and reduced numbers of spermatogonia. Exposure to 10 mg/kg did not affect development, but reduced Sertoli cell number and resulted in increased expression of inhibin B. Exposure to DEHP for 14 week also affected steroidogenic genes expression. Therefore, long-term exposure to phthalate esters affected development and function of the primate testis in a time and dosage dependent manner. PMID:25450860

  19. The Physiological Role of Arcuate Kisspeptin Neurons in the Control of Reproductive Function in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beale, K.E.; Kinsey-Jones, J.S.; Gardiner, J.V.; Harrison, E.K.; Thompson, E.L.; Hu, M.H.; Sleeth, M.L.; Sam, A.H.; Greenwood, H.C.; McGavigan, A.K.; Dhillo, W.S.; Mora, J.M.; Li, X.F.; Franks, S.; Bloom, S.R.; O'Byrne, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin plays a pivotal role in pubertal onset and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya are located in 2 major populations: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). These nuclei are believed to play functionally distinct roles in the control of reproduction. The anteroventral periventricular nucleus population is thought to be critical in the generation of the LH surge. However, the physiological role played by the ARC kisspeptin neurons remains to be fully elucidated. We used bilateral stereotactic injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC of adult female rats to investigate the physiological role of kisspeptin neurons in this nucleus. Female rats with kisspeptin knockdown in the ARC displayed a significantly reduced number of both regular and complete oestrous cycles and significantly longer cycles over the 100-day period of the study. Further, kisspeptin knockdown in the ARC resulted in a decrease in LH pulse frequency. These data suggest that maintenance of ARC-kisspeptin levels is essential for normal pulsatile LH release and oestrous cyclicity. PMID:24424033

  20. [Bioactive Effect of the Preparation Biostyl on the Reproductive Function of Different Genotypes of American Mink].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Zemljanitskajia, E I; Rasputina, O V; Naumkin, I V; Trapezova, L I

    2016-01-01

    The different role of coat color mutations in the American mink on the per os effect of the biologically active preparation Biostyl was shown. The number of kits per female was the same in all control genotypes, including Standard (+/+ +/+), sapphire (a/a p/p), and lavender (a/a m/m): 4.4 ± 0.4, 4.4 ± 0.5, and 4.3 ± 0.5, respectively. Experimental groups of these genotypes have shown a great contrast among each other: stimulation of the reproductive function was 5.2 ± 0.3 in Standard minks, while suppression of the reproductive function was 3.8 ± 0.6, and 2.3 ± 0.5 in the double recessive mutants sapphire and lavender, respectively. The differentiation in body mass between experimental and control newborn Standard kits was not revealed. A significant decrease in the body mass of newborn experimental sapphire kits as compared to control group in a sex-specific manner was registered. PMID:27183801

  1. GABAergic regulation of the HPA and HPG axes and the impact of stress on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Camille Melón, Laverne; Maguire, Jamie

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes are regulated by GABAergic signaling at the level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, respectively. Under basal conditions, activity of CRH and GnRH neurons are controlled in part by both phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), respectively. For CRH neurons, this tonic GABAergic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic, δ subunit-containing GABAARs. Similarly, a THIP-sensitive tonic GABAergic current has been shown to regulate GnRH neurons, suggesting a role for δ subunit-containing GABAARs; however, this remains to be explicitly demonstrated. GABAARs incorporating the δ subunit confer neurosteroid sensitivity, suggesting a potential role for neurosteroid modulation in the regulation of the HPA and HPG axes. Thus, stress-derived neurosteroids may contribute to the impact of stress on reproductive function. Interestingly, excitatory actions of GABA have been demonstrated in both CRH neurons at the apex of control of the HPA axis and in GnRH neurons which mediate the HPG axis, adding to the complexity for the role of GABAergic signaling in the regulation of these systems. Here we review the effects that stress has on GnRH neurons and HPG axis function alongside evidence supporting GABAARs as a major interface between the stress and reproductive axes. PMID:26690789

  2. Optical properties of functional composite silver nanoparticles and their potential use in reproductive medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrvatka, Vasyl J.; Slyvchuk, Yurij I.; Rozgoni, Ivan I.; Gevkan, Ivan I.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.

    2013-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles are promising product of nanotechnology with attractive physicochemical and biological properties. The main aim of the study was to investigate optical properties of functional silver nanoparticles with different composite agents: polyvinylpyrrolidone, bovine serum albumin, hyaluronan and to explore their potential using in reproductive medicine. The date obtained in the study showed that surface modification of nanoparticles leads to change of their optical, physicochemical and biological properties. The optical properties of silver nanoparticles display, that AgNPs with PVP and BSA is most stable in PBS than AgNPs with HA. However the absorption curves after 120 hours of storage show, that AgNPs-HA were the most stable in ethanol. Results show, that silver nanoparticles did not effect on sperm viability and motility, but cause a changes of some biochemical parameters of conditioned medium, particular increase the concentration of triglycerides, activity of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and decrease the activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase after 3 h of in vitro cultivation at 37°C. According to our latest data AgNPs with HA have a less toxic effect on biological processes in rabbits sperm compared with AgNPs with PVP and BSA. Nevertheless all functional composites of silver nanoparticles at the concentration of 0.1 μg/mL have no toxic effect on spermatozoa and can be successfully applied in reproductive medicine at low concentrations as signal enhancers, optical sensors, and biomarkers.

  3. Functional characterization of an apple apomixis-related MhFIE gene in reproduction development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Dong, Qing-Long; Sun, Chao; Wang, Qing-Lian; You, Chun-Xiang; Yao, Yu-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2012-04-01

    The products of the FIS genes play important regulatory roles in diverse developmental processes, especially in seed formation after fertilization. In this study, a FIS-class gene MhFIE was isolated from apple. It encoded a predicted protein highly similar to polycomb group (PcG) protein FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE). MhFIE functioned as an Arabidopsis FIE homologue, as indicated by functional complementation experiment using Arabidopsis fie mutant. In addition, BiFC assay showed that MhFIE protein interacted with AtCLF. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis ectopically expressing MhFIE produced less APETALA3 (AtAP3) and AGAMOUS (AtAG) transcripts than WT control, and therefore exhibited abnormal flower, seed development. These results suggested that polycomb complex including FIE and CLF proteins played an important role in reproductive development by regulating the expression of its downstream genes. In addition, it was found that MhFIE constitutively expressed in various tissues tested. Its expression levels were lower in apomictic apple species than the sexual reproductive species, suggested it was possibly involved into apomixis in apple. Furthermore, the hybrids of tea crabapple generated MhFIE transcripts at different levels. The parthenogenesis capacity was negatively correlated with MhFIE expression level in these hybrids. These results suggested that MhFIE was involved into the regulation of flower development and apomixis in apple. PMID:22325871

  4. Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity on Metabolic Parameters and Reproductive Function in Female Ossabaw Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Taibl, Jessica N; Clark, Sherrie G; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Sturek, Michael; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the effect of an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet on metabolic parameters and reproductive function in female Ossabaw minipigs. Cycling sows were fed a hypercaloric, high-fat, high-cholesterol, and high-fructose diet (obese, n = 4) or a control diet (control, n = 5) for 13 mo. During the final 4 mo, ovarian ultrasonography was done, blood was collected, and weights and measures were taken. Pigs then underwent ovarian stimulation. Cycle length and androstenedione, total testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin, fructosamine, lipid, and glucose levels were measured. In addition, adipose tissue aromatase gene expression was assessed. As compared with control pigs, obese pigs were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; had elevated total cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels, and demonstrated abdominal adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue of obese pigs, as compared with control pigs, showed increased aromatase gene expression. Obese pigs had longer estrous cycles, higher serum androstenedione, and higher luteal phase serum luteinizing hormone, compared with control pigs. During the luteal phase, obese pigs had more medium, ovulatory, and cystic ovarian follicles, whereas control pigs had more small ovarian follicles. When fed an excess-calorie, high-fat, high-cholesterol, high-fructose diet, female Ossabaw minipigs develop obesity, metabolic syndrome, and abnormal reproductive function. This animal model may be applicable to studies of the effects of obesity on fertility in women. PMID:24512960

  5. Peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in young women with childhood onset weight problems.

    PubMed

    Chikvaidze, N; Kristesashvili, J; Gegechkori, M

    2014-10-01

    The risks of reproductive problems are higher in underweight and overweight or obese women, especially in case of rapid weight gain or loss. But evidence is inconsistent especially in relation to the effect of age of body weight changes. The aim of the study was detection of peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in underweight and overweight/obese females with childhood thinness or childhood obesity. 103 young females (48 - with low BMI, 55 - with high BMI) with different reproductive problems were examined prospectively. In all investigated patients full clinical examination was held, including body mass index (BMI), type of body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio), age of body weight changes, assessment of hirsutism, acne, stretch marks and hyperpigmentation, menstrual disturbances and fertility problems were recorded and gynecological ultrasound was performed. There was no difference established according to the age of menarche and types of menstrual disturbances between the groups of low BMI and high BMI females (p>.05). The correlation was established between the onset of menstrual disruption and progression of changes in body mass (R=.448, p=.005). Hirsutism, stretch marks and acantosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation) were exhibited significantly more frequently in the patients with high BMI (p<.05), whilst distribution of acne was almost the same in the study groups (p>.05). 74.5% of overweight and obese patients had upper body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.8), whilst underweight patients had mostly equal (66.7%) or lower body fat distribution (31.3%) (p=.000). Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) was the most frequent in overweight and obese patients, whilst non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) and ovarian dysfunction prevailed in the underweight females (p<.05). Infertility was mostly observed in patients with high BMI (p<.05). In conclusion, the peculiarities of sexual development

  6. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  7. The Arabidopsis DSO/ABCG11 transporter affects cutin metabolism in reproductive organs and suberin in roots.

    PubMed

    Panikashvili, David; Shi, Jian Xin; Bocobza, Samuel; Franke, Rochus Benni; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2010-05-01

    Apart from its significance in the protection against stress conditions, the cuticular cover is essential for proper development of the diverse surface structures formed on aerial plant organs. This layer mainly consists of a cutin matrix, embedded and overlaid with cuticular waxes. Following their biosynthesis in epidermal cells, cutin and waxes were suggested to be exported across the plasma membrane by ABCG-type transporters such as DSO/ABCG11 to the cell wall and further to extracellular matrix. Here, additional aspects of DSO/ABCG11 function were investigated, predominantly in reproductive organs, which were not revealed in the previous reports. This was facilitated by the generation of a transgenic DSO/ABCG11 silenced line (dso-4) that displayed relatively subtle morphological and chemical phenotypes. These included altered petal and silique morphology, fusion of seeds, and changes in levels of cutin monomers in flowers and siliques. The dso-4 phenotypes corresponded to the strong DSO/ABCG11 gene expression in the embryo epidermis as well as in the endosperm tissues of the developing seeds. Moreover, the DSO/ABCG11 protein displayed polar localization in the embryo protoderm. Transcriptome analysis of the dso-4 mutant leaves and stems showed that reduced DSO/ABCG11 activity suppressed the expression of a large number of cuticle-associated genes, implying that export of cuticular lipids from the plasma membrane is a rate-limiting step in cuticle metabolism. Surprisingly, root suberin composition of dso-4 was altered, as well as root expression of two suberin biosynthetic genes. Taken together, this study provides new insights into cutin and suberin metabolism and their role in reproductive organs and roots development. PMID:20035035

  8. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  9. Ultrastructure and functional morphology of the female reproductive organs in Protodrilus (Polychaeta, Annelida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nordheim, Henning

    1991-12-01

    The morphology and function of the female reproductive organs in 6 Protodrilus species are investigated by light- and transmission electron microscopy. Possible ways in which spermatozoa may enter the female coelom after leaving the spermatophore are discussed for species with and without special female reception organs. Only female P. rubropharyngeus and P. flavocapitatus have “dorsal organs” for spermatophore reception. The structure and function of these organs are described, as well as those of the oviduct found in 3 of the species investigated. The possible phylogenetic origin of gonoducts and different modes of oviposition within the genus are discussed. Finally, the high taxonomic significance of female traits such as dorsal organs, oviducts, cocoon glands and lateral ciliary rows in this genus is stressed.

  10. Anticancer treatment and fertility: Effect of therapeutic modalities on reproductive system and functions.

    PubMed

    Vassilakopoulou, Maria; Boostandoost, Erfaneh; Papaxoinis, George; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault; Khayat, David; Psyrri, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The significant improvement of cancer treatments entailed a longer life in cancer survivors and raised expectations for higher quality of life with minimized long-term toxicity. Infertility and gonadal dysfunction are adverse effects of anticancer therapy or may be related to specific tumors. In female cancer survivors, premature ovarian failure is common after antineoplastic treatments resulting in infertility and other morbidities related to oestrogen deficiency such as osteoporosis. In male cancer survivors, infertility and persistent a zoospermia is a more common long-term adverse effect than hypogonadism because germ cells are more sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy than leydig cells. Gonadal toxicity and compromise of reproductive functions will be more efficiently prevented and treated if addressed before treatment initiation. This review focuses on these issues in young cancer survivors of childbearing age, where methods of protecting or restoring endocrine function and fertility need to be considered. PMID:26481950

  11. The regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Andrew; Divall, Sara; Wu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian reproductive hormone axis regulates gonadal steroid hormone levels and gonadal function essential for reproduction. The neuroendocrine control of the axis integrates signals from a wide array of inputs. The regulatory pathways important for mediating these inputs have been the subject of numerous studies. One class of proteins that have been shown to mediate metabolic and growth signals to the CNS includes Insulin and IGF-1. These proteins are structurally related and can exert endocrine and growth factor like action via related receptor tyrosine kinases. The role that insulin and IGF-1 play in controlling the hypothalamus and pituitary and their role in regulating puberty and nutritional control of reproduction has been studied extensively. This review summarizes the in vitro and in vivo models that have been used to study these neuroendocrine structures and the influence of these growth factors on neuroendocrine control of reproduction. PMID:24929098

  12. Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

  13. CO2 and fertility affect growth and reproduction but not susceptibility to aphids in field grown Solanum ptycanthum

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    In general, C3 annual plants respond positively in terms of growth, reproduction and biomass accrued when grown under elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, most studies documenting this response have been conducted in growth chambers where plants can be reared under conditions free form environmental stressors such as nutrient and water constraints, UV exposure and damage from pests. During the 1993 fieldseason, I grew 200 individuals of Solanum ptycanthum in an array of 10 outdoor, open-topped CO2 enclosures (5 @ 700 ppm CO2) at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI. Half of the plants were grown in a 50;50 mix of native C-horizon soil and topsoil (low fertility); the other half were grown in 100% topsoil (high-fertility). Plants were censused throughout the growing season for flower and fruit production, growth rate and degree of infestation of aphids. Fertility and CO2 both significantly affected production of flowers and fruits, but only fertility was significantly related to vegetative growth. Aphid infestation varied significantly among enclosures, but was not related to CO2 or fertility.

  14. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. PMID:26332268

  15. The effect of physical activity across the menstrual cycle on reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Katherine A.; Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Schliep, Karen C.; Perkins, Neil J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between physical activity (PA) across the menstrual cycle and reproductive function. Methods The BioCycle Study (2005–2007) followed 259, healthy premenopausal women not using hormonal contraceptives for up to two menstrual cycles (N=509 cycles). Serum leptin, estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone were measured five to eight times per cycle. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of past-week PA (measured four times during each cycle) on hormone levels. Past-week PA was categorized into tertiles based on metabolic equivalent [MET]-h/week (cut-points were 15.3 and 35.7). Risk ratios for sporadic anovulation were estimated using generalized linear models. Analyses adjusted for habitual PA (assessed at baseline), body mass index, race, age, and perceived stress. Linear mixed models used inverse probability weights to control for concurrent reproductive hormones and caloric intake. Results High past-week PA was inversely associated with leptin (−6.6%, 95% confidence interval [−10.6, −2.5]) and luteal phase progesterone (−22.1% [−36.2, −4.7]) as compared with low past-week PA. High past-week PA was not significantly associated with sporadic anovulation (adjusted risk ratio=1.5 [0.6, 3.4]). Conclusions High levels of PA were modestly associated with changes in select hormones, but not sporadic anovulation among moderate to highly active premenopausal women. PMID:24345590

  16. Color Enhancement in Endoscopic Images Using Adaptive Sigmoid Function and Space Variant Color Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Wahid, Khan A

    2015-01-01

    Modern endoscopes play an important role in diagnosing various gastrointestinal (GI) tract related diseases. The improved visual quality of endoscopic images can provide better diagnosis. This paper presents an efficient color image enhancement method for endoscopic images. It is achieved in two stages: image enhancement at gray level followed by space variant chrominance mapping color reproduction. Image enhancement is achieved by performing adaptive sigmoid function and uniform distribution of sigmoid pixels. Secondly, a space variant chrominance mapping color reproduction is used to generate new chrominance components. The proposed method is used on low contrast color white light images (WLI) to enhance and highlight the vascular and mucosa structures of the GI tract. The method is also used to colorize grayscale narrow band images (NBI) and video frames. The focus value and color enhancement factor show that the enhancement level in the processed image is greatly increased compared to the original endoscopic image. The overall contrast level of the processed image is higher than the original image. The color similarity test has proved that the proposed method does not add any additional color which is not present in the original image. The algorithm has low complexity with an execution speed faster than other related methods. PMID:26089969

  17. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms. PMID:26373946

  18. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low–normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation. PMID:23274392

  19. Heat-stress-induced metabolic changes and altered male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yuanlong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lei, Zhihai; Ping, Jihui; Liu, Jiajian; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Cuicui; Jin, Mengmeng; Li, Xiang; Li, Xiaoliang; Chen, Shaoqiu; Lv, Yingfang; Gao, Yingdong; Jia, Wei; Su, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Heat stress can cause systemic physiological and biochemical alterations in living organisms. In reproductive systems, heat stress induces germ cell loss and poor quality semen. However, until now, little has been known about such a complex regulation process, particularly in the perspective of metabolism. In this study, serum, hypothalamus, and epididymis samples derived from male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats being exposed to high environmental temperature (40 °C) 2 h per day for 7 consecutive days were analyzed using metabonomics strategies based on GC/TOFMS. Differentially expressed metabolites reveal that the energy metabolism, amino acid neurotransmitters, and monoamine neurotransmitters pathways are associated with heat stress, in accordance with changes of the three upstream neuroendocrine system pathways in the SNS (sympathetic adrenergic system), hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), and hypothalamic pituitary testis axis (HPT) axis. Many of these metabolites, especially in the epididymis, were found to be up-regulated, presumably due to a self-preserving action to resist the environmental hot irritation to maintain normal functioning of the male reproductive system. PMID:25607524

  20. Effects of immunization against LHRH and treatment with trenbolone acetate on reproductive function of beef bulls and steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the ability of trenbolone acetate (TBA) administered in tandem with LHRH immunization to suppress reproductive function in beef bulls and (2) to examine the effects of LHRH and androgen (TBA) signaling on pituitary function. In order to address thes...

  1. Functional significance of preserved affect recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Johannesen, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Affect recognition (AR) is a core component of social information processing, thus may be critical to understanding social behavior and functioning in broader aspects of daily living. Deficits in AR are well documented in schizophrenia, however, there is also evidence that many individuals with schizophrenia perform AR tasks at near-normal levels. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the functional significance of AR deficits in schizophrenia by comparing subgroups with normal-range and impaired AR performance on proxy and interviewer-rated measures of real-world functioning. Schizophrenia outpatients were classified as normal-range (N=17) and impaired (N=31) based on a logistic cut point in the sample distribution of BLERT scores, referenced to a normative sample of healthy control subjects (N=56). The derived schizophrenia subgroups were then compared on proxy (UCSD, UPSA, SSPA, MMAA) and interviewer-rated (QLS, ILSS) measures of functioning, as well as battery of neurocognitive tests. Initial analyses indicated superior MMAA and QLS performance in the near-normal AR subgroup. Covariate analyses indicated that group differences in neurocognition fully mediated the observed associations between AR and MMAA and attenuated the observed relationships between AR classification and QLS. These results support three main conclusions. First, AR, like many other domains of psychopathology studied in schizophrenia, is preserved in select subgroups. Second, there is a positive relationship between AR performance and functional outcome measures. Third, neurocognition appears to mediate the relationship between AR and measures of functioning. PMID:20202689

  2. Brca1 Mutations Enhance Mouse Reproductive Functions by Increasing Responsiveness to Male-Derived Scent

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Pike, Malcolm C.; Wu, Nancy; Lin, Yvonne G.; Mucowski, Sara; Punj, Vasu; Tang, Yuan; Yen, Hai-Yun; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Enbom, Elena; Austria, Theresa; Widschwendter, Martin; Maxson, Robert; Dubeau, Louis

    2015-01-01

    We compared the gene expression profiles of ovarian granulosa cells harboring either mutant or wild type Brca1 to follow up on our earlier observation that absence of a functional Brca1 in these important regulators of menstrual/estrous cycle progression leads to prolongation of the pre-ovulatory phase of the estrous cycle and to increased basal levels of circulating estradiol. Here we show that ovarian granulosa cells from mice carrying a conditional Brca1 gene knockout express substantially higher levels of olfactory receptor mRNA than granulosa cells from wild type littermates. This led us to hypothesize that reproductive functions in mutant female mice might be more sensitive to male-derived scent than in wild type female mice. Indeed, it is well established that isolation from males leads to complete cessation of mouse estrous cycle activity while exposure to olfactory receptor ligands present in male urine leads to resumption of such activity. We found that Brca1-/- female mice rendered anovulatory by unisexual isolation resumed ovulatory activity more rapidly than their wild type littermates when exposed to bedding from cages where males had been housed. The prime mediator of this increased responsiveness appears to be the ovary and not olfactory neurons. This conclusion is supported by the fact that wild type mice in which endogenous ovaries had been replaced by Brca1-deficient ovarian transplants responded to male-derived scent more robustly than mutant mice in which ovaries had been replaced by wild type ovarian transplants. Our findings not only have important implications for our understanding of the influence of olfactory signals on reproductive functions, but also provide insights into mechanisms whereby genetic risk factors for breast and extra uterine Müllerian carcinomas may influence menstrual activity in human, which is itself an independent risk factor for these cancers. PMID:26488398

  3. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  4. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  5. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): an 8-year reevaluation of testicular function and reproductive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Potashnik, G.; Yanai-Inbar, I.

    1987-02-01

    The current study summarizes an 8-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance in 15 workers with dibromochloropropane (DBCP)-induced azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Recovery of spermatogenesis was observed in four oligozoospermic and three azoospermic men whose plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was normal during the whole period. A marked increase in FSH and luteinizing hormone concentrations above the upper limit of normal was found in the azoospermic workers who did not recover. No significant changes in FSH concentrations were detected in both recovered and nonrecovered oligozoospermic men. Testosterone levels of all patients were normal at all times. Paternal exposure to DBCP was not associated with increased risk of fetal malformations or spontaneous abortion.

  6. Successful Reproduction Requires the Function of Arabidopsis YELLOW STRIPE-LIKE1 and YELLOW STRIPE-LIKE3 Metal-Nicotianamine Transporters in Both Vegetative and Reproductive Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, H.; Chiecko, J; Punshon, T; Lanzirotti, A; Lahner, B; Salt, D; Walker, E

    2010-01-01

    Several members of the Yellow Stripe-Like (YSL) family of proteins are transporters of metals that are bound to the metal chelator nicotianamine or the related set of mugineic acid family chelators known as phytosiderophores. Here, we examine the physiological functions of three closely related Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) YSL family members, AtYSL1, AtYSL2, and AtYSL3, to elucidate their role(s) in the allocation of metals into various organs of Arabidopsis. We show that AtYSL3 and AtYSL1 are localized to the plasma membrane and function as iron transporters in yeast functional complementation assays. By using inflorescence grafting, we show that AtYSL1 and AtYSL3 have dual roles in reproduction: their activity in the leaves is required for normal fertility and normal seed development, while activity in the inflorescences themselves is required for proper loading of metals into the seeds. We further demonstrate that the AtYSL1 and AtYSL2 proteins, when expressed from the AtYSL3 promoter, can only partially rescue the phenotypes of a ysl1ysl3 double mutant, suggesting that although these three YSL transporters are closely related and have similar patterns of expression, they have distinct activities in planta. In particular, neither AtYSL1 nor AtYSL2 is able to functionally complement the reproductive defects exhibited by ysl1ysl3 double mutant plants.

  7. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success. PMID:23163395

  8. Effect of agropesticides use on male reproductive function: a study on farmers in Djutitsa (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Manfo, Faustin Pascal Tsagué; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Déchaud, Henri; Tchana, Angéle Nkouatchoua; Nantia, Edouard Akono; Zabot, Marie-Thérèse; Pugeat, Michel

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of agropesticides on male reproductive function in farmers in Djutitsa (West Cameroon). To this end, 47 farmers in Djutitsa were asked questions on their health status and pesticide use in agriculture. Thereafter, their blood samples were collected for assessment of sex hormones including serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androstenedione, testosterone, as well as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Their serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were also measured. Thirty seven men not exposed to agropesticides were recruited as control group. Fifty six pesticides containing 25 active substances were currently used by farmers enrolled in our study, and most of their symptoms were related to spread/use of these chemicals. Compared to the control group, there was no significant difference in FSH, LH, SHBG, estradiol, and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) levels. Farmers had significantly lower serum testosterone (20.93 ± 1.03 nM vs. 24.32 ± 1.32 nM; P < 0.05) and higher androstenedione level (3.83 ± 0.20 nM vs. 2.80 ± 0.15 nM; P < 0.001). Their serum free testosterone as well as bioavailable testosterone were unchanged, while estradiol/testosterone and androstenedione/testosterone ratios were significantly increased (0.45 ± 0.03% vs. 0.33 ± 0.02%; P < 0.01 and 12.26 ± 3.64 vs 19.31 ± 6.82; P < 0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that male farmers of Djutitsa (West Cameroon) are exposed to agropesticides due to improper protective tool, and this exposure may impair their reproductive function through inhibition of testosterone synthesis; probably by inhibition of testicular 17β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD3) and induction of aromatase (CYP19). PMID:22707221

  9. How does temperature affect the function of tissue macrophages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages create a major danger signal following injury or infection and upon activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn help to generate febrile conditions. Thus, like other cells of the body, tissue macrophages are often exposed to naturally occurring elevations in tissue temperature during inflammation and fever. However, whether macrophages sense and respond to temperature changes in a specific manner which modulates their function is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of temperatures on macrophage function, and summarize the possible underlying molecular mechanisms which have been identified. Mild, physiological range hyperthermia has been shown to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in regulating macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and at the meeting presentation, we will show new data demonstrating that hyperthermia can indeed exert both positive and negative signals to macrophages. While some thermal effects are correlated with the induction of heat shock factors/heat shock proteins, overall it is not clear how mild hyperthermia can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We also summarize data which shows that hyperthermia can affect other macrophage effector functions, including the anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Overall, these studies may help us to better understand the immunological role of tissue temperature and may provide important information needed to maximize the application of heat in the treatment of various diseases including cancer.

  10. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    PubMed

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  11. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  12. Plant functional traits mediate reproductive phenology and success in response to experimental warming and snow addition in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Dorji, Tsechoe; Totland, Orjan; Moe, Stein R; Hopping, Kelly A; Pan, Jianbin; Klein, Julia A

    2013-02-01

    Global climate change is predicted to have large impacts on the phenology and reproduction of alpine plants, which will have important implications for plant demography and community interactions, trophic dynamics, ecosystem energy balance, and human livelihoods. In this article we report results of a 3-year, fully factorial experimental study exploring how warming, snow addition, and their combination affect reproductive phenology, effort, and success of four alpine plant species belonging to three different life forms in a semiarid, alpine meadow ecosystem on the central Tibetan Plateau. Our results indicate that warming and snow addition change reproductive phenology and success, but responses are not uniform across species. Moreover, traits associated with resource acquisition, such as rooting depth and life history (early vs. late flowering), mediate plant phenology, and reproductive responses to changing climatic conditions. Specifically, we found that warming delayed the reproductive phenology and decreased number of inflorescences of Kobresia pygmaea C. B. Clarke, a shallow-rooted, early-flowering plant, which may be mainly constrained by upper-soil moisture availability. Because K. pygmaea is the dominant species in the alpine meadow ecosystem, these results may have important implications for ecosystem dynamics and for pastoralists and wildlife in the region. PMID:23504784

  13. Oxidative stress and bioindicators of reproductive function in pulp and paper mill effluent exposed white sucker.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Ken D; McMaster, Mark E; Pryce, Andrea C; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Portt, Cam B; Hewitt, L Mark; MacLean, Dan D; Van Der Kraak, Glen J

    2003-07-01

    This study investigates oxidative stress and bioindicators of reproductive function in wild white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from environments receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharges in northern Ontario. Samples were collected over an eight-year period adjacent to three pulp and paper mills using a variety of processing and bleaching techniques. Fish collected downstream of pulp and paper mills within the Moose River basin exhibited elevated hepatic and gonadal 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the presence of which is indicative of oxidative stress in these tissues. Within the Jackfish Bay system, exposure to pulp and paper mill effluent did not elevate hepatic or gonadal TBARS. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A activity (CYP1A) and fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FAO) activities were frequently increased in livers of Moose River basin fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent, while lower activities of both enzymes were found within fish from the Jackfish Bay system. This suggests that oxidative stress may be related to CYP1A and FAO activities. Within the Moose River system, increases in measures of oxidative stress (TBARS, FAO) were generally coincident with decreased levels of 17 beta-estradiol; however, testosterone was often lower in Jackfish Bay system fish without any commensurate changes in oxidative stress. The suite of reproductive and oxidative stress parameters measured in this study varied between seasons and mills suggesting responses to effluent are dynamic and effects are complicated by different receiving environments. The relationship between gonad size, gonadal oxidative stress, and circulating plasma steroids remains unclear. PMID:12730610

  14. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina M; Salazar, Celia; Jensen, Erik; Ruiz, Paula A; Tiznado, William; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 (∙-) production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  15. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function. PMID:24728609

  16. In vivo effects of environmental concentrations of produced water on the reproductive function of polar cod (Boreogadus saida).

    PubMed

    Geraudie, P; Nahrgang, J; Forget-Leray, J; Minier, C; Camus, L

    2014-01-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling processes generate operational discharges such as produced water (PW), a complex mixture of seawater with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylphenols (AP). Some of these compounds may interact with the endocrine system of marine organisms and alter reproductive functions. In this study, polar cod were exposed for up to 28 d to a mixture of PAH, alkylated PAH, and AP simulating the composition of North Sea PW, at low and high concentrations (1:2000 and 1:1000 dilution of the original concentrate, respectively). Potential adverse effects of PW on polar cod physiology were investigated through biomarkers of biotransformation (hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase [EROD] activity and bile PAH metabolites), endocrine disruption (plasma vitellogenin [VTG] levels and sex steroid concentrations), and gonad histology. Plasma sexual steroid levels in fish were not markedly affected by PW exposure, while higher plasma VTG concentrations were measured in females exposed to the high PW treatment for 7 and 28 d. In males exposed to the higher PW concentration, inhibition of spermatogenesis was observed after 28 d in addition to increase of melano-macrophage occurrence in testis. Females exposed to the high PW treatment for 21 d showed a significant increase of atresia incidence. Finally, a significant decrease in oocyte number was observed in high PW exposed female ovaries after 28 d of exposure. PMID:24754392

  17. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  18. Parallel assessment of male reproductive function in workers and wild rats exposed to pesticides in banana plantations in Guadeloupe

    PubMed Central

    Multigner, Luc; Kadhel, Philippe; Pascal, Michel; Huc-Terki, Farida; Kercret, Henri; Massart, Catherine; Janky, Eustase; Auger, Jacques; Jégou, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that reproductive abnormalities are increasing in frequency in both human population and among wild fauna. This increase is probably related to exposure to toxic contaminants in the environment. The use of sentinel species to raise alarms relating to human reproductive health has been strongly recommended. However, no simultaneous studies at the same site have been carried out in recent decades to evaluate the utility of wild animals for monitoring human reproductive disorders. We carried out a joint study in Guadeloupe assessing the reproductive function of workers exposed to pesticides in banana plantations and of male wild rats living in these plantations. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed to assess semen quality and reproductive hormones in banana workers and in men working in non-agricultural sectors. These reproductive parameters were also assessed in wild rats captured in the plantations and were compared with those in rats from areas not directly polluted by humans. Results No significant difference in sperm characteristics and/or hormones was found between workers exposed and not exposed to pesticide. By contrast, rats captured in the banana plantations had lower testosterone levels and gonadosomatic indices than control rats. Conclusion Wild rats seem to be more sensitive than humans to the effects of pesticide exposure on reproductive health. We conclude that the concept of sentinel species must be carefully validated as the actual nature of exposure may varies between human and wild species as well as the vulnerable time period of exposure and various ecological factors. PMID:18667078

  19. Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J.M.; Gurrola, G.B.; Valdivia, H.H.F.; Possani, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na+-, K+- and Ca++-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na+-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K+-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca++-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells. PMID:23891887

  20. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. )

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  1. Do local adaptation and the reproductive tactic of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affect offspring metabolic capacities?

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Marquilly, C; Guderley, H

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an iteroparous, anadromous species that exhibits some of the greatest within-population variability in size and age at maturity of all vertebrates. In the conditional reproductive strategy of salmonids, the male reproductive tactic expressed is believed to depend on an individual male's status relative to others in the population and therefore depends on his capacity to attain a physiological threshold, the exact nature of which is unknown. Although the threshold is influenced by local biotic and abiotic conditions, it is likely to be under genetic control. Our study examined whether the early growth, muscle metabolic capacities, routine metabolic rate, and spontaneous swimming of salmon alevins reared in laboratory conditions varied with the population of origin, maternal investment, and the paternal reproductive tactic. Our experimental design allowed us to establish that neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the physiological capacities of alevins. The strong influence of the mother on alevin metabolic capacities suggests that the bioenergetic differences in metabolic capacities, realized metabolic rates, and activity levels that could eventually dictate the reproductive tactic of male offspring may originate in maternal effects. PMID:20350165

  2. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  3. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  4. Relationships between intrauterine infusion of N-acetylcysteine, equine endometrial pathology, neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Gores-Lindholm, Alicia R; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Causey, Robert; Hitchborn, Anna; Fayrer-Hosken, Richard A; Kruger, Marius; Vandenplas, Michel L; Flores, Paty; Ahlschwede, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Persistent endometritis in the mare is associated with hypersecretion of mucus by endometrial epithelium and migration of neutrophils into the uterine lumen. This study examines the relationships between N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a mucolytic agent with anti-inflammatory properties, and endometrial architecture, serum neutrophil function, post-breeding therapy, and reproductive performance of NAC-treated mares in a clinical setting. In study 1, endometrial biopsies from mares receiving intrauterine saline (fertile-control, n = 6) or 3.3% NAC (fertile-treatment, n = 6; barren-treatment, n = 10) were evaluated by histology and image analysis. In study 2, phagocytic activity of serum-derived neutrophils was measured after adding 0.5% or 3% NAC. In study 3, pregnancy rates of repeat breeders (n = 44) receiving an intrauterine infusion of 3.3% NAC 24-36 hours before mating (group 1) was recorded, as was first cycle of the season pregnancy rates of reproductively normal mares (group 2, n = 85), and mares treated for bacterial endometritis the cycle before mating (group 3, n = 25). Intrauterine NAC did not adversely affect endometrial histology. Extracellular mucus thickness and staining intensity were reduced in fertile-treatment mares (P < 0.03). Neutrophil function was inhibited by 3% NAC solution, but not by 0.5% NAC (P < 0.05). In study 3, for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, the first-cycle pregnancy rates were 77%, 74%, and 56%, and early embryonic death rates were 15%, 13%, and 7%. In group 2 mares treated with uterine lavage and oxytocin post-mating, the pregnancy rate was 89% (39/44), whereas in mares treated with uterine lavage and 1 g ceftiofur, it was 60% (24/40). Of the oxytocin-treated mares, 18% (8/44) had ≥ 1 cm of intrauterine fluid or marked uterine edema, whereas 80% (32/40) of the antibiotic-treated mares did. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of a 3.3% solution of NAC was not irritating and inhibited the oxidative burst of neutrophils. Repeat

  5. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S. )

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function.

  6. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  7. Histopathology of growth anomaly affecting the coral, Montipora capitata: implications on biological functions and population viability.

    PubMed

    Burns, John H R; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1-93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8-67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2-29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8-46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7-49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  8. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:20702747

  9. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, P.; Blackburne, H.; Dixon, L.; Dobbs, B.; Eglinton, T.; Ing, A.; Mulder, R.; Porter, R.J.; Wakeman, C.; Frizelle, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and

  10. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P; Blackburne, H; Dixon, L; Dobbs, B; Eglinton, T; Ing, A; Mulder, R; Porter, R J; Wakeman, C; Frizelle, F A

    2015-11-01

    Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and 40.0 (P

  11. Factors affecting reproductive success and life history parameters of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from three host-associated populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentative releases of native natural enemies are viable strategies for suppression of crop pests. Appropriate mass rearing and release strategies rely on a thorough understanding of the reproductive biology of the natural enemy. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of parasitoid source ...

  12. Dehydration-stress affects vegetative reproduction and transcriptome profiles in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed that infests mainly range, recreational and right-of-way lands in the great plains of the US and Canada. Although spread occurs by both seeds and roots, the perennial nature of leafy spurge is attributed to vegetative reproduction from an abundance of under...

  13. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. PMID:25565366

  14. Evaluation of quantitative trait loci affecting intramuscular fat and reproductive traits in pigs using marker-assisted introgression.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Ohnishi, C; Kikuchi, T; Kohira, K; Egawa, S; Terai, S; Nakamura, T; Arata, S; Komatsuda, A; Uemoto, Y

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an experimental backcross (BC) between Chinese Meishan pigs and commercial Duroc pigs. We performed marker-assisted introgression of two QTL for intramuscular fat (IMF) content (IMF population) and three QTL for reproductive traits (reproduction population) from a donor Meishan pig into a recipient Duroc pig. At the fourth BC generation of the IMF population and third BC generation of the reproduction population, carrier animals were selected for the production of animals homozygous for the QTL. Our previous studies have shown that the presence of a Meishan allele on the IMF QTL is associated with low IMF values, and the Meishan allele on the reproductive QTL is associated with large litters. In this study, the presence of a Duroc allele at the IMF QTL on SSC9 resulted in a 0.27% increase in IMF (additive effect = 0.27 ± 0.08), whereas the presence of a Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 resulted in a 0.34% increase in IMF (additive effect = -0.34 ± 0.09). The presence of the Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 thus had the opposite effect to our previous studies, that is, increased IMF. In the reproduction population, we observed no differences between the genotypes of the three QTL in regard to number of corpora lutea or litter size. Marker-assisted introgression at these QTL is thus unlikely to result in an associated increase in litter size. These results show that it is possible to introgress alleles from other breeds into a selection population using molecular markers; any unexpected results might be associated with the genetic background. PMID:25099662

  15. High contaminant loads in Lake Apopka's riparian wetland disrupt gene networks involved in reproduction and immune function in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Prucha, Melinda S; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Kroll, Kevin J; Conrow, Roxanne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Lake Apopka (FL, USA) has elevated levels of some organochlorine pesticides in its sediments and a portion of its watershed has been designated a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. This study assessed reproductive endpoints in Florida largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) after placement into experimental ponds adjacent to Lake Apopka. LMB collected from a clean reference site (DeLeon Springs) were stocked at two periods of time into ponds constructed in former farm fields on the north shore of the lake. LMB were stocked during early and late oogenesis to determine if there were different effects of contamination on LMB that may be attributed to their reproductive stage. LMB inhabiting the ponds for ~4months had anywhere from 2 to 800 times higher contaminant load for a number of organochlorine pesticides (e.g. p, p'-DDE, methoxychlor) compared to control animals. Gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin were not different between reproductively-stage matched LMB collected at reference sites compared to those inhabiting the ponds. However, plasma 17β-estradiol was lower in LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds compared to ovary stage-matched LMB from the St. Johns River, a site used as a reference site. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to reproduction (granulosa function, oocyte development), endocrine function (steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis), and immune function (T cell suppression, leukocyte accumulation) were differentially expressed in the ovaries of LMB placed into the ponds. These data suggest that (1) LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds showed disrupted reproduction and immune responses and that (2) gene expression profiles provided site-specific information by discriminating LMB from different macro-habitats. PMID:27397556

  16. Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Flaws, Jodi A; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2016-05-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention in female reproductive health due to its widespread toxic effects. Although BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In this study, we addressed the effect of prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA on embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Our studies revealed that treatment of mice with BPA led to improper endometrial epithelial and stromal functions thus affecting embryo implantation and establishment of pregnancy. Upon further analyses, we found that the expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) and its downstream target gene, HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2), was markedly suppressed in BPA-exposed uterine tissues. Previous studies have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor and the MAPK signaling pathways and inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, we observed that down-regulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with enhanced activation of fibroblast growth factor and MAPK signaling in the epithelium, thus contributing to aberrant proliferation and lack of uterine receptivity. Further, the differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. In summary, our studies revealed that chronic exposure to BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:27022677

  17. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  18. Prenatal di-n-butyl phthalate exposure alters reproductive functions at adulthood in male rats.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Sreenivasula Reddy, Pamanji

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the reproductive health in adult male rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during embryonic development. Pregnant rats were injected with DBP and F1 male rats were weaned and on postnatal day 100, used for mating with normal cycling females to assess reproductive performance. After completion of cohabitation period, rats were analyzed for other reproductive end points. Transplacental exposure to DBP significantly decreased fertility in adult male rats. Prenatal exposure to DBP significantly decreased sperm density, number of motile sperms, viable sperms, and hypoosmotic swelling tail coiled sperms with an increase in morphological abnormalities in sperms. Testicular steroidogenic enzyme activity levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats exposed to DBP during embryonic development. In conclusion, transplacental exposure to DBP impairs male reproductive performance by decreasing steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. PMID:22489061

  19. Hydrosalpinx functional surgery or salpingectomy? The importance of hydrosalpinx fluid in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Mandakini; Mirge, Aparna; Hasabe, Reshma

    2009-01-01

    The first IVF baby, Louise Brown, was born in a natural cycle IVF of a woman who had bilateral tubal block making IVF the only option for having a child. The last 3 decades has seen astounding progress in the field of ART. Today thanks to ART, tubal disease and tubal factor infertility is easily overcome. The accepted theory today is that the hydrosalpinx fluid plays a causative role in the reduced pregnancy rate with ART. It is well known that the success of ART for patients with tubal disease with hydrosalpinx is reduced by half compared with patients without hydrosalpinx. Ideal would be removal of a hydrosalpinx by laparoscopic salpingectomy to improve pregnancy rates. However in some cases this is not feasible due to dense pelvic adhesions making access difficult. In such cases it is recommended that even de-linking the tube from the uterus would help in improving the ART outcome. There is suggestion that sonographically visible hydrosalpinges and those affected bilaterally have a poorer prognosis than those seen incidentally at laparoscopy. While there is clinical evidence supporting the causative role of the fluid itself, there is a lack of knowledge as to how the fluid exerts its negative effects. It is generally believed that the fluid holds a key position in impairing implantation potential. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of identifying hydrosalpinges and its association with reduced fertility outcome using assisted reproductive technologies. Here we have discussed the different options available for the same, and highlighted the current modes of treatment. PMID:22442504

  20. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  1. [Methodological problems of studying and evaluating the effect of environmental pollution on the reproductive function of women and on the population increase].

    PubMed

    Golubev, I R; Mamatsashvili, M I; Kuntsevich, I E; Osipova, E M

    1982-04-01

    One of the longterm effects of environmental pollution is disturbance of embryonal development. If the embryo is adversely affected at the moment of conception and immediately thereafter, this can have an adverse impact on the individual's whole life. We know that lead, mercury, and some other industrial pollutants affect the reproductive function of women. Also antimony, which has been shown to cause premature birth and stillbirth. Manganese, thallium, and fluorine also adversely affect pregnancy. Our investigation was done on the women, aged 18-35, living near a metallurgical plant. We compared the monthly measurements of contamination of the air with sulphur gas, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxides, with the course of pregnancy of the women living in the area. The results demonstrated an unfavorable impact of these contaminants on the women. We then formulated a program for a 2nd stage of investigation, in an area with lead contamination. We investigated: a highly urbanized administrative center, a contemporary industrial city, and some surrounding villages. In the 1st 2 cases the lead contamination was due to industrial contamination; in the last case it was due to the use of certain chemicals in hail protection. The lead content was measured in the air, water, soil, and food products. The women investigated were 20-30 years of age during 1st pregnancies; we also investigated the children during the 1st 2 years of life. The materials were processed in the traditional way, constructing empirical curves and then selecting appropriate functions for analysis. This will enable a quantitative estimate of the impact of environmental pollution on reproductive function to be obtained. PMID:7095473

  2. Evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of traditionally managed Sheko cattle in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bayou, E; Haile, A; Gizaw, S; Mekasha, Y

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of Ethiopia Sheko cattle and to assess non-genetic factors affecting their performance in their home tract as a step towards designing sustainable cattle conservation and improvement strategy. All the growth traits considered in the study were significantly affected by all non-genetic factors considered except for the fixed effects of Agro ecological zones (AEZs) and season of birth which were not significant for post weaning daily gain. Calving interval (CI) and days open (DO) were significantly influenced by AEZs, season and dam parity. Cows that calved in lowland had shorter CI and DO than cows which calved in midland. Cows that calved in short rainy season had Short CI and DO than those calved during dry season or long rainy season. Cows which calved for the first time had the longest CI and DO from the other parities whereas cows on their fifth parity had the shortest CI and DO. AEZ significantly affected lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL), but not significant on daily milk yield (DMY) and 305 days yield (305DY). Season was significant on all milk traits considered except DMY. Parity effect was significant on LMY and 305DY, whereas DMY and LL were not affected. The non-genetic factors had significant effects for all of the reproductive; and many of the growth and milk performance traits considered and hence will need to be considered in cattle breed improvement program. PMID:26543703

  3. Moisture source and diet affect development and reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two predatory anthocorids from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  4. Moisture Source and Diet affect Development and Reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two Predatory Anthocorids from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; Clercq, Patrick De

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  5. Functional morphology of venous structures associated with the male and female reproductive systems in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Rommel, S A; Pabst, D A; McLellan, W A

    2001-12-01

    The reproductive organs of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are surrounded by thermogenic locomotory muscles and insulating fat. Manatees are reported to maintain core body temperatures of 35.6 degrees -36.4 degrees C, temperatures known to interfere with production and maturation of viable sperm in terrestrial mammals. We describe two novel venous plexuses associated with the manatee epididymis. Each epididymis is located in a hypogastric fossa at the caudolateral extremity of the abdominal cavity. Each hypogastric fossa is lined by an inguinal venous plexus that receives cooled blood from a superficial thoracocaudal plexus. We conclude that male manatees may prevent hyperthermic insult to their reproductive tissues by feeding cooled superficial blood to venous plexuses deep within their bodies. Female manatees also possess hypogastric fossae and venous structures similar to those found in male manatees. The ovaries, uterine tubes, and distal tips of the uterine horns are located in the hypogastric fossae. We suggest that the thermovascular structures we describe also prevent hypothermic insult to female manatee reproductive tissues. The venous structures in manatees are functionally similar to structures associated with reproductive thermoregulation in cetaceans and phocid seals. Thus, these thermovascular structures appear to be convergent morphological adaptations that occur in three clades of diving mammals with independent evolutionary histories. PMID:11745089

  6. Immunization of dogs with recombinant GnRH-1 suppresses the development of reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Xijie; Jiang, Shudong; Li, Fubao; Zhang, Yunhai; Zhang, Xiaorong; Li, Yunsheng; Zhou, Jie; Fang, Fugui

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of active immunization using recombinant GnRH-I protein on reproductive function in dogs. Six male and six female dogs were randomly assigned to either a control group or an immunization group (n = 3 males or 3 females/group). Dogs (aged 16 weeks) were immunized against GnRH-I with a maltose-binding protein-gonadotropin-releasing hormone I hexamer generated by recombinant DNA technology. Blood samples were taken at 4-week intervals after immunization. The serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol and anti-GnRH-I antibodies were determined by RIA and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that active immunization with recombinant GnRH-I increased the serum levels of anti-GnRH antibodies (P < 0.05) and reduced the serum concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.05) and estradiol (P < 0.05) as compared with the controls. At 28 weeks of age, testes and ovaries were taken surgically for morphologic evaluation. Histologic studies performed on testicular and ovarian tissues revealed clear signs of atrophy in the recombinant GnRH-I-immunized dogs and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the weights and sizes of paired testes and ovaries in the treated dogs. Microscopically, spermatogonia were visible, but no spermatids and spermatozoa were detected in the seminiferous tubules. Neither early antral nor antral follicles were found in the immunized group. These results demonstrate that recombinant GnRH-I is an effective immunogen in dogs. PMID:25468551

  7. The neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor regulates leptin-mediated control of energy homeostasis and reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Pralong, François P; Gonzales, Christine; Voirol, Marie-Jeanne; Palmiter, Richard D; Brunner, Hans-R; Gaillard, Rolf C; Seydoux, Josiane; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2002-05-01

    The orexigenic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a central role in the hypothalamic control of food intake and energy balance. NPY also exerts an inhibition of the gonadotrope axis that could be important in the response to poor metabolic conditions. In contrast, leptin provides an anorexigenic signal to centrally control the body needs in energy. Moreover, leptin contributes to preserve adequate reproductive functions by stimulating the activity of the gonadotrope axis. It is of interest that hypothalamic NPY represents a primary target of leptin actions. To evaluate the importance of the NPY Y1 and Y5 receptors in the downstream pathways modulated by leptin and controlling energy metabolism as well as the activity of the gonadotrope axis, we studied the effects of leptin administration on food intake and reproductive functions in mice deficient for the expression of either the Y1 or the Y5 receptor. Furthermore, the role of the Y1 receptor in leptin resistance was determined in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice bearing a null mutation in the NPY Y1 locus. Results point to a crucial role for the NPY Y1 receptor in mediating the NPY pathways situated downstream of leptin actions and controlling food intake, the onset of puberty, and the maintenance of reproductive functions. PMID:11978737

  8. Effect of DDT and MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) on reproduction of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L

    SciTech Connect

    Woin, P.; Broenmark, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Reproduction is the single most important function in the life cycle of an organism. Successful reproduction determines fitness of organisms. The inability of an organism to complete any one stage of the reproductive process severely reduces its lifetime reproductive success. Disruptions in the reproduction will ultimately affect the abundance and distribution of the species. Therefore, laboratory tests of long-term impact of sublethal pollutant concentrations on organisms preferably is done on the reproductive success. Pollutants of diverse structure may affect the reproductive system which is sensitive to toxic agents. Certain pollutants, notably the organochlorine compounds, have been shown to affect the male and female reproductive systems. The authors have studied the effect of sublethal concentrations of DDT and the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the reproductive output of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis under a 2-mon exposure period.

  9. Gastric Bypass Surgery but not Caloric Restriction Improves Reproductive Function in Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Frank, Aaron P; Zechner, Juliet F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-02-01

    In women, obesity is associated with decrements in reproductive health that are improved with weight loss. Due to the difficulty of maintaining weight loss through lifestyle interventions, surgical interventions have become popular treatments for obesity. We examined how weight loss induced by Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) or calorie restriction impacted expression of hypothalamic genes related to energy intake and reproduction. RYGB and calorie restriction induced equivalent weight loss; however, expression of the anorexigenic melanocortin pathway decreased only in calorie restricted mice. Serum estradiol concentrations were lower in calorie restricted mice relative to RYGB during proestrous, suggesting that RYGB maintained normal estrous cycling. Thus, the effects of RYGB for female mice, and possibly humans, extend beyond weight loss to include enhanced reproductive health. PMID:26667161

  10. Digestive Organ in the Female Reproductive Tract Borrows Genes from Multiple Organ Systems to Adopt Critical Functions

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Small, Brandon S.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer

  11. The motile and invasive capacity of human endometrial stromal cells: implications for normal and impaired reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Weimar, Charlotte H E; Macklon, Nick S; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Brosens, Jan J; Gellersen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mechanisms underlying early reproductive loss in the human are beginning to be elucidated. The migratory and invasive capacity of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) is increasingly recognized to contribute to the intense tissue remodelling associated with embryo implantation, trophoblast invasion and endometrial regeneration. In this review, we examine the signals and mechanisms that control ESC migration and invasion and assess how deregulation of these cell functions contributes to common reproductive disorders. METHODS The PubMed database was searched for publications on motility and invasiveness of human ESCs in normal endometrial function and in reproductive disorders including implantation failure, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), endometriosis and adenomyosis, covering the period 2000-2012. RESULTS Increasing evidence suggests that implantation failure and RPL involve abnormal migratory responses of decidualizing ESCs to embryo and trophoblast signals. Numerous reports indicate that endometriosis, as well as adenomyosis, is associated with increased basal and stimulated invasiveness of ESCs and their progenitor cells, suggesting a link between a heightened menstrual repair response and the formation of ectopic implants. Migration and invasiveness of ESCs are controlled by a complex array of hormones, growth factors, chemokines and inflammatory mediators, and involve signalling through Rho GTPases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. CONCLUSIONS Novel concepts are extending our understanding of the key functions of ESCs in effecting tissue repair imposed by cyclic menstruation and parturition. Migration of decidualizing ESCs also serves to support blastocyst implantation and embryo selection through discriminate motile responses directed by embryo quality. Targeting regulatory molecules holds promise for developing new strategies for the treatment of reproductive disorders such as endometriosis and

  12. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function in individuals with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Isojärvi, Jouko I T; Taubøll, Erik; Herzog, Andrew G

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and the reproductive system have complex interactions. Fertility is lower in both men and women with epilepsy than in the general population. Moreover, reproductive endocrine disorders are more common among patients with epilepsy than among the population in general. These disorders have been attributed both to epilepsy itself and to use of AEDs. The use of the liver enzyme-inducing AEDs phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine increases serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations in both men and women with epilepsy. Over time, the increase in serum SHBG levels leads to diminished bioactivity of testosterone and estradiol, which may result in diminished potency in men and menstrual disorders in some women, and thus to reduced fertility. Liver enzyme-inducing AEDs also reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives. Valproic acid medication may have effects on serum androgen concentrations and it reduces serum follicle stimulating hormone levels in men with epilepsy. However, the clinical significance of valproic acid-related reproductive endocrine changes in men is unknown. On the other hand, in women, use of valproic acid appears to be associated with a frequent occurrence of reproductive endocrine disorders characterised by polycystic changes in the ovaries, high serum testosterone concentrations (hyperandrogenism) and menstrual disorders. These disorders are especially common among women who have gained weight during valproic acid treatment. There are some discrepancies regarding the reported occurrence of reproductive endocrine disorders in women taking valproic acid for epilepsy. However, most studies also including patients receiving valproic acid for other reasons than epilepsy, and studies in different non-epileptic animal models, have shown an association between valproic acid medication and hyperandrogenism and related reproductive endocrine disorders. From a practical point of view

  13. How Does Religious Affiliation Affect Women’s Attitudes Toward Reproductive Health Policy? Implications for the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Elizabeth W.; Hall, Kelli Stidham; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Background Supreme Court cases challenging the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandate for employer-provided reproductive health care have focused on religiously based opposition to coverage. Little is known about women’s perspectives on such reproductive health policies. Study Design Data were drawn from the Women’s Health Care Experiences and Preferences survey, a randomly selected, nationally representative sample of 1078 US women age 18–55. We examined associations between religious affiliation and attitudes toward employer-provided insurance coverage of contraception and abortion services, and the exclusion of religious institutions from this coverage. We used chi-square and multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Respondents self-identified as Baptist (18%), Protestant (Other Mainline, 17%), Catholic (17%), Other Christian (20%), Religious, Non-Christian (7%) or no affiliation (21%). Religious affiliation was associated with proportions of agreement for contraception (p = 0.03), abortion (p <0.01), and religious exclusion (p <0.01) policies. In multivariable models, differences in the odds of agreement varied across religious affiliations and frequency of service attendance. For example, compared to non-affiliated women, Baptists and Other Nondenominational Christians (but not Catholics) had lower odds of agreement with employer coverage of contraception (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.1 and OR 0.57, CI 0.4–0.9, respectively); women who attended services weekly or more than weekly had lower odds of agreement (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.3–0.8 and OR 0.33, CI 0.2–0.6, respectively), compared to less frequent attenders. Conclusions Recent religiously motivated legal challenges to employer-provided reproductive health care coverage may not represent the attitudes of many religious women. PMID:25727764

  14. The Effects of Pyridaben Pesticide on the Histomorphometric, Hormonal Alternations and Reproductive Functions of BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi Manas, Ghodrat; Hasanzadeh, Shapour; Parivar, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The adverse effects of pyridaben on reproductive system in male animals are not well established. This study was designed to elucidate how pyridaben can effects the histomorphometric, hormonal alternations and reproductive functions of BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: For this study, 80 adult and apparently healthy male BALB/c mice were divided into three groups Viz, control, test group 1 and test group 2. Test groups 1 and 2 were received the toxin at doses of 53 mg/kg. BW, and 212 mg/kg. BW, respectively. The experiment period for both groups was 10, 25 and 45 days. Results: The levels of FSH, LH and testosterone were significantly (P<0.05) decreased on the dose and time dependant means. The levels of the ROS and NOS were significantly (P<0.05) increased in all test groups. The percent body weight gains significantly (P<0.05) reduced, whereas weights significantly (P<0.05) increased in test groups in a dose and time dependant manner. The histomorphometric and stereologic findings, including diameters of somniferous tubules, thickness of somniferous tubules epithelium, the leydig's cell distribution, TDI, SI, RI revealed that, all these parameters are also significantly (P<0.05) reduces in test groups in a dose and time dependant manner. Conclusion: Pyridaben causes histomorphometric and stereologic changes in testis, as well as hormonal and reproductive functional alternations in BALB/c mice. PMID:24379962

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of fruiting body and sporulating mycelia of Villosiclava virens reveals genes with putative functions in sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Jie; Yu, Mi-Na; Nie, Ya-Feng; Sun, Wen-Xian; Yin, Xiao-Le; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Ya-Hui; Ding, Hui; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Du, Yan; Huang, Li; Liu, Yong-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Sexual reproduction of heterothallic clavicipitaceous fungus Villosiclava virens (anamorph: Ustilaginoidea virens) generates ascospores, which is considered as primary infection source of rice false smut disease. However, little is known about the molecular underpinnings of sexual reproduction in V. virens. In this study, transcriptomes of V. virens in fruiting body (FB) and sporulating mycelia (SM) were compared using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 33,384,588 and 23,765,275 clean reads of FB and SM transcriptome profiles could be used to map cDNA of V. virens, respectively. We evaluated the gene expression variations between FB and SM, a total of 488 genes therein were significantly higher expressed in FB than SM, and 342 genes were significantly higher expressed genes in SM than FB. These differentially expressed genes were annotated using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology databases. Several genes were found to specifically function in sexual reproduction, involving in mating type, pheromone synthesis, signaling transduction, transcription factors, and meiosis; additionally, a few of genes were presumed to function in conidia sporulation and infection. Comparative transcriptome analysis of V. virens during FB and SM provided an overview of gene expression profiles at the transcriptional level and provided hints to better understand the molecular mechanisms of sexual development. Additionally, the data presented here also proved benefit for mining of essential genes contributing to sexual conidiation and infection. PMID:26905382

  16. The Long Term Effect of Elective Colpoperineoplasty on Sexual Function in the Reproductive Aged Women in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Abedi, Parvin; Rasekh, Athar; Mohammadjafari, Razieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Many women are suffering from sexual dysfunction followed by vaginal laxity in their reproductive age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effect of colpoperineoplasty on sexual function in Iranian reproductive aged women. Methods. This was a prospective observational study in which 79 women with vaginal laxity who were candidate for selective colpoperineoplasty in Jahrom, Iran, were recruited. Data on sexual function was collected via the Female Sexual Function (FSFI) questionnaire preoperatively, six months and 18 months after colpoperineoplasty. The paired t-test, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Repeated Measure test were utilized for statistical purposes. Results. Seventy-six women completed the study by 18 months. The mean FSFI score changed from 24.19 ± 3.09 in baseline to 26.92 ± 3.41 after six months (P < 0.001); however dyspareunia and vaginal dryness were increased significantly. After 18 months all areas of sexual function including pain and lubrication improved significantly compared to the 6th month (P < 0.001). Sexual satisfaction was increased significantly six and 18 months after surgery (P < 0.001), and the total score of sexual function increased to 32.61 ± 1.32 after 18 months (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The long term effect of colpoperineoplasty in women who suffer from vaginal laxity is promising. It seems that patient's dissatisfaction of sexual function can be a basis for colpoperineoplasty.

  17. Masturbation Frequency and Sexual Function Domains Are Associated With Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels Across the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E.; Greendale, Gail A.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether reproductive hormones are related to sexual function during the menopausal transition. Design: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiethnic cohort study of the menopausal transition located at seven US sites. At baseline, the 3302 community-based participants, aged 42–52, had an intact uterus and at least one ovary and were not using exogenous hormones. Participants self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese. At baseline and at each of the 10 follow-up visits, sexual function was assessed by self-administered questionnaires, and blood was drawn to assay serum levels of T, estradiol, FSH, SHBG, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported frequency of masturbation, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain during intercourse. Results: Masturbation, sexual desire, and arousal were positively associated with T. Masturbation, arousal, and orgasm were negatively associated with FSH. Associations were modest. Estradiol was not related to any measured sexual function domain. Pain with intercourse was not associated with any hormone. Conclusions: Reproductive hormones were associated with sexual function in midlife women. T was positively associated, supporting the role of androgens in female sexual function. FSH was negatively associated, supporting the role of menopausal status in female sexual function. The modest associations in this large study suggest that the relationships are subtle and may be of limited clinical significance. PMID:25412335

  18. Neonatal exposure to 17α-ethynyl estradiol affects ovarian gene expression and disrupts reproductive cycles in female rats.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Kaori; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Zhang, Haolin; Usuda, Kento; Okazaki, Sachiko; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Midori; Watanabe, Gen

    2014-07-01

    Neonatal exposure to synthetic estrogen causes delayed reproductive dysfunction in female rats. Exposure to 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE, low: 20 and high: 2000 μg/kg) induced an abnormal estrous cycle during PND171-190 in low-dose and PND126-145 in high-dose group. At PND90 within normal estrous cycle, high-dose animals showed lack of LH surge and low of ovarian hormones in serum level. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that level of mRNA encoding luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) was higher in EE-treated ovaries than in control ovaries, and LHCGR protein colocalized with apoptosis-related proteins in the interstitial area of the ovary. At PND1, ovarian LHCGR mRNA levels were higher in EE-treated rats than in control rats, and direct induction of LHCGR expression by EE was observed in vitro. Our results indicate that neonatal exposure to EE induces irregular LHCGR expression in the immature ovary, which may influence the occurrence of delayed reproductive dysfunction in adult animals. PMID:24632129

  19. MITIGATION OF AVIAN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT FUNCTION BY SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS PRODUCING HIGH-MILECULAR-MASS LIPOPPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hens were infected with a wild-type Salmonella enteritidis and its wzz mutant, which lacked the ability to make high-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide, in six experiments paired by dosage and by route of exposure. Hens underwent involution of the reproductive tract when injected subcutaneously with ...

  20. CHRONIC INGESTION OF CADMIUM AND/OR TRITIUM. II. EFFECTS ON GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of chronic low-level exposure to cadmium (Cd) and/or tritium (HTO) on the growth and reproduction were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats. Cadmium exposure levels ranged from less than 0.1 to 5.0 ppm as CdCl2 in the drinking water, while HTO concentrations ranged from l...

  1. Neuropeptides linking the control of appetite with reproductive function in domestic animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of puberty and maintenance of normal reproductive cycles are regulated by secretion of gonadotropin hormones from the pituitary gland, which is dependent upon the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. It is well established that secretion of...

  2. Time reproduction performance is associated with age and working memory in high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Laurie A; Shih, Vivian H; Colich, Natalie L; Sugar, Catherine A; Bearden, Carrie E; Dapretto, Mirella

    2015-02-01

    Impaired temporal processing has historically been viewed as a hallmark feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Recent evidence suggests temporal processing deficits may also be characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about the factors that impact temporal processing in children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of co-morbid attention problems, working memory (WM), age, and their interactions, on time reproduction in youth with and without ASD. Twenty-seven high-functioning individuals with ASD and 25 demographically comparable typically developing individuals (ages 9-17; 85% male) were assessed on measures of time reproduction, auditory WM, and inattention/hyperactivity. The time reproduction task required depression of a computer key to mimic interval durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 sec. Mixed effects regression analyses were used to model accuracy and variability of time reproduction as functions of diagnostic group, interval duration, age, WM, and inattention/hyperactivity. A significant group by age interaction was detected for accuracy, with the deficit in the ASD group being greater in younger children. There was a significant group by WM interaction for consistency, with the effects of poor WM on performance consistency being more pronounced in youth with ASD. All participants tended to underestimate longer interval durations and to be less consistent for shorter interval durations; these effects appeared more pronounced in those who were younger or who had poorer WM performance. Inattention/hyperactivity symptoms in the ASD group were not related to either accuracy or consistency. This study highlights the potential value of temporal processing as an intermediate trait of relevance to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25078724

  3. Neonatally induced mild diabetes: influence on development, behavior and reproductive function of female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neonatal STZ treatment induces a state of mild hyperglycemia in adult rats that disrupts metabolism and maternal/fetal interactions. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of neonatal STZ treatment on the physical development, behavior, and reproductive function of female Wistar rats from infancy to adulthood. Methods At birth, litters were assigned either to a Control (subcutaneous (s.c.) citrate buffer, n = 10) or STZ group, (streptozotocin (STZ) - 100 mg/kg-sc, n = 6). Blood glucose levels were measured on postnatal days (PND) 35, 84 and 120. In Experiment 1 body weight, length and the appearance of developmental milestones such as eye and vaginal opening were monitored. To assess the relative contribution of the initial and long term effects of STZ treatment this group was subdivided based on blood glucose levels recorded on PND 120: STZ hyperglycemic (between 120 and 300 mg/dl) and STZ normoglycemic (under 120 mg/dl). Behavioral activity was assessed in an open field on PND 21 and 75. In Experiment 2 estrous cyclicity, sexual behavior and circulating gonadotropin, ovarian steroid, and insulin levels were compared between control and STZ-hyperglycemic rats. In all measures the litter was the experimental unit. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way or, where appropriate, two-way ANOVA and significant effects were investigated using Tukey’s post hoc test. Fisher’s exact test was employed when data did not satisfy the assumption of normality e.g. presence of urine and fecal boli on the open field between groups. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 for all data. Results As expected neonatal STZ treatment caused hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in adulthood. STZ-treated pups also showed a temporary reduction in growth rate that probably reflected the early loss of circulating insulin. Hyperglycemic rats also exhibited a reduction in locomotor and exploratory behavior in the open field. Mild hyperglycemia did

  4. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  5. Food availability and reproduction affects lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown mussel, Perna perna, raised in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Mirle; Freites, L; Guevara, M; Mendoza, J; Guderley, H; Lodeiros, C J; Salazar, G

    2008-02-01

    We examined the influence of the reproductive cycle and environmental factors on variations of the condition index (CI), tissue dry mass, shell size, total lipid content, and relative percent of fatty acids in the mussel, Perna perna. Spat or juveniles were reared to commercial size (70 mm) in suspension culture in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela between May and October 2004. The dry mass of soft tissues and shell, a visual assessment of gonadal status and the organism lipid profile were established every fortnight. In parallel, we measured the environmental conditions, following chlorophyll a, salinity, temperature and seston levels. After an initial decrease, the CI rose and remained high until August after which it decreased continuously until October. Total lipid values also decreased initially, after which they showed two periods of rapid recuperation and depletion, the first between May and August and the second between August and October. Similar tendencies were noted in the fatty acids, C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3. Correlation analysis found no significant relationships between environmental parameters and the variations in total lipids. However, significant correlations were noted between fatty acids and specific environmental parameters. In particular, temperature was inversely correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9 and 20:5n-3. Chlorophyll a was positively correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7, C18:4n-3 and 20:4n-6. On the other hand, gametogenesis had an effect on C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 and C18:1n-7, while spawned and gonadal regression states had an effect on fatty acid 20:4n-6. Temperature and chlorophyll a levels strongly influenced the proportion of mussels spawning, suggesting that their influence upon lipid composition may be secondary to their impact upon reproduction. Despite the thermal stability of this tropical system, the lipid composition of mussels changed markedly during the study, reflecting the central role of diet

  6. Comparative intrauterine development and placental function of ART concepti: implications for human reproductive medicine and animal breeding

    PubMed Central

    Bloise, Enrrico; Feuer, Sky K.; Rinaudo, Paolo F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of children conceived using assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has reached >5 million worldwide and continues to increase. Although the great majority of ART children are healthy, many reports suggest a forthcoming risk of metabolic complications, which is further supported by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis of suboptimal embryo/fetal conditions predisposing adult cardiometabolic pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that fetal and placental growth kinetics are important features predicting post-natal health, but the relationship between ART and intrauterine growth has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS Relevant studies describing fetoplacental intrauterine phenotypes of concepti generated by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in the mouse, bovine and human were comprehensively researched using PubMed and Google Scholar. Intrauterine growth plots were created from tabular formatted data available in selected reports. RESULTS ART pregnancies display minor but noticeable alterations in fetal and placental growth curves across mammalian species. In all species, there is evidence of fetal growth restriction in the earlier stages of pregnancy, followed by significant increases in placental size and accelerated fetal growth toward the end of gestation. However, there is a species-specific effect of ART on birthweights, that additionally vary in a culture condition-, strain-, and/or stage at transfer-specific manner. We discuss the potential mechanisms that underlie these changes, and how they are affected by specific components of ART procedures. CONCLUSIONS ART may promote measurable alterations to intrauterine growth trajectory and placental function. Key findings include evidence that birthweight is not a reliable marker of fetal stress, and that increases in embryo manipulation result in more deviant fetal growth curves

  7. Arabidopsis RPG1 is important for primexine deposition and functions redundantly with RPG2 for plant fertility at the late reproductive stage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Xi; Huang, Xue-Yong; Yang, Jun; Guan, Yue-Feng; Yang, Zhong-Nan

    2013-06-01

    Arabidopsis Ruptured Pollen Grain-1 (RPG1/Sweet8) is a member of the MtN3/saliva protein family that functions as a sugar transporter. The rpg1 mutant shows defective exine pattern formation. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that much less primexine was deposited in rpg1 tetrads. Furthermore, microspore membrane undulation was abnormal, and sporopollenin accumulation was also defective. This suggests that a reduced primexine deposition in rpg1 leads to abnormal membrane undulation that affects exine pattern formation. Chemical staining revealed thinning of the callose wall of rpg1, as well as significantly reduced expression of Callose synthase-5 (CalS5) in rpg1. The fertility of the rpg1 mutant could be partly restored at late reproductive stages, potentially complemented in part by RPG2, another member of the MtN3/saliva family, which is expressed in the anther during microsporogenesis. The double mutant, rpg1rpg2, was almost sterile and was not restored during late reproduction. These results suggest that RPG1 and RPG2 are involved in primexine deposition and therefore pollen wall pattern formation. PMID:23686221

  8. Targeted disruption of the mouse prosaposin gene affects the development of the prostate gland and other male reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Morales, C R; Zhao, Q; El-Alfy, M; Suzuki, K

    2000-01-01

    The prosaposin gene encodes a 65-70 kilodalton (kd) protein, which is secreted or targeted to lysosomes. In lysosomes, prosaposin is the precursor of 4 activator proteins, designated saposins A, B, C, and D, which promote by acidic hydrolases, the degradation of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains. Mutations of the prosaposin gene have been linked to several lysosomal storage disorders. An animal model was recently developed by creating a null allele in embryonic stem cells through gene targeting in order to investigate the phenotypic diversity of prosaposin mutations, the involvement of this protein in lysosomal storage diseases, and to develop potential therapeutic approaches. Mutant homozygous mice die at 35-40 days of age and neurological disorders contribute to their early death. Secreted prosaposin is present in milk and in cerebrospinal and seminal fluids. In the nervous system, prosaposin exhibits a trophic activity. Examination of reproduc-tive organs in homozygous mutant males shows several abnormalities such as a decrease in testis size with reduced spermiogenesis, and an involution of the prostate, seminal vesicle, and epididymis, although levels of testosterone in blood remain normal. In the prostate of homozygous mutants, only basal cells appear to be present, whereas secretory cells are absent. The epithelia in efferent ducts is formed by ciliated cells, whereas heterozygotes exhibit a majority of nonciliated cells. Our data indicate that prosaposin is involved in the development and maintenance of male reproductive organs. In prostatic epithelium, targeted disruption of the prosaposin gene appears to inactivate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and to interfere with differentiation of secretory cells. PMID:11105903

  9. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  10. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  11. Inflammation in Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gerson; Goldsmith, Laura T.; Taylor, Robert N.; Bellet, Dominique; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders account for a significant percentage of gynecologic disease, particularly in reproductive age women. Inflammation is a basic method by which we respond to infection, irritation, or injury. Inflammation is now recognized as a type of nonspecific immune response, either acute or chronic. In gynecology, inflammation leads to anatomic disorders primarily as a result of infectious disease; however inflammation can affect ovulation and hormone production as well as be associated with endometriosis. Similarly, immune cell trafficking is an important component of cyclic endometrial development in each menstrual cycle. These immune cells are required for endometrial function, producing a vast array of inflammatory cytokines. Inflammation alters endometrial receptivity, however it may also play a role in tissue repair and remodeling. Finally, inflammation affects the trophoblast and trophoblast—endometrial interaction. Some components of the immune response are required for optimal fertility and normal tissue remodeling. A better understanding of the necessary role of inflammation in reproduction will allow more rational and targeted treatment of inflammatory disorders in reproductive medicine. PMID:19208790

  12. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  13. Mammalian cadherins DCHS1-FAT4 affect functional cerebral architecture.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; von der Hagen, Maja; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Cortical development is a complex process where a multitude of factors, including cadherins, plays an important role and where disruptions are known to have far reaching effects in neural development and cortical patterning. Cadherins play a central role in structural left-right differentiation during brain and body development, but their effect on a functional level remains elusive. We addressed this question by examining functional cerebral asymmetries in a patient with Van Maldergem Syndrome (VMS) (MIM#601390), which is caused by mutations in DCHS1-FAT4 cadherins, using a dichotic listening task. Using neurophysiological (EEG) data, we show that when key regulators during mammalian cerebral cortical development are disrupted due to DCHS1-FAT4 mutations, functional cerebral asymmetries are stronger. Basic perceptual processing of biaurally presented auditory stimuli was unaffected. This suggests that the strength and emergence of functional cerebral asymmetries is a direct function of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. Moreover, these results support the recent assumption that the molecular mechanisms establishing early left-right differentiation are an important factor in the ontogenesis of functional lateralization. PMID:25930014

  14. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  15. Reproductive hacking

    PubMed Central

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  16. Ovarian function of the Algerian wild Libyan jird, Meriones libycus during seasonal reproductive cycle: histological and immunohistochemical expression.

    PubMed

    Smaï-Hamdidouche, S; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, T; Khammar, F; Exbrayat, J M

    2013-01-01

    Meriones libycus (Libyan jird), a nocturnal Saharan rodent, is characterized by a seasonal reproductive cycle with a short active phase (spring and early summer) and a long resting period (late summer, autumn, winter). Histological and immunohistochemical techniques were performed in order to study the seasonal variations in mature ovaries. During the breeding season, the ovary showed a continuous cyclical activity, the various stages of folliculogenesis from primordial to preovulatory follicles were observed; broken follicles and corpora lutea were also observed. During sexual quiescence, the ovarian cycle was interrupted; anovulation was observed without any corpus luteum. Non mature antral follicles entered the atretic process. Steroid and steroidogenic enzyme activities were studied using indirect immunohistochemistry. 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone hormones and P450 aromatase (P450 arom) were detected in the different components of the ovary and in various stages of healthy and atretic follicles during the seasonal reproductive cycle. Our results indicate that during ovarian folliculogenesis in breeding season steroids hormone and P450 arom present important activities. In comparison with the resting period, steroidogenesis and steroidogenic enzyme activity became less pronounced in the healthy preantral follicle; it seemed that steroid biosynthesis was reduced and could be involved in the stimulation and maintenance of the ovarian structural integrity in early follicle development. In conclusion, the histological and immunohistochemical seasonal variations of ovaries in Meriones libycus support the hypothesis that seasonal fluctuations are indirectly involved in regulating reproduction, inducing significant changes in both ovarian morphology and its hormonal function. PMID:23233063

  17. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  18. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes convey positional identity that leads to the proper partitioning and adult identity of the female reproductive track. Abnormalities in reproductive tract development can be caused by HOX gene mutations or altered HOX gene expression. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and other endocrine disruptors cause Müllerian defects by changing HOX gene expression. HOX genes are also essential regulators of adult endometrial development. Regulated HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression is necessary for endometrial receptivity; decreased HOXA10 or HOXA11 expression leads to decreased implantation rates. Alternation of HOXA10 and HOXA11 expression has been identified as a mechanism of the decreased implantation associated with endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis, and hydrosalpinx. Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. PMID:26552702

  19. Extensive dataset of boar seminal plasma proteome displaying putative reproductive functions of identified proteins.

    PubMed

    Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    A complete proteomic profile of seminal plasma (SP) remains challenging, particularly in porcine. The data reports on the analysis of boar SP-proteins by using a combination of SEC, 1-D SDS PAGE and NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS from 33 pooled SP-samples (11 boars, 3 ejaculates/boar). A complete dataset of the 536 SP-proteins identified and validated with confidence ≥95% (Unused Score >1.3) and a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤1%, is provided. In addition, the relative abundance of 432 of them is also shown. Gene ontology annotation of the complete SP-proteome complemented by an extensive description of the putative reproductive role of SP-proteins, providing a valuable source for a better understanding of SP role in the reproductive success. This data article refers to the article entitled "Characterization of the porcine seminal plasma proteome comparing ejaculate portions" (Perez-Patiño et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27583342

  20. Always follow your nose: the functional significance of social chemosignals in human reproduction and survival.

    PubMed

    Lübke, Katrin T; Pause, Bettina M

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction" Across phyla, chemosensory communication is crucial for mediating a variety of social behaviors, which form the basis for ontogenetic and phylogenetic survival. In the present paper, evidence on chemosensory communication in humans, with special reference to reproduction and survival, will be presented. First, the impact of chemosignals on human reproduction will be reviewed. Work will be presented, showing how chemosensory signals are involved in mate choice and partnership formation by communicating attractiveness and facilitating a partner selection, which is of evolutionary advantage, and furthermore providing information about the level of sexual hormones. In addition to direct effects on phylogenetic survival, chemosignals indirectly aid reproductive success by fostering harm protection. Results will be presented, showing that chemosensory communication aids the emotional bond between mother and child, which in turn motivates parental caretaking and protection, leading to infant survival. Moreover, the likelihood of group survival can be increased through the use of stress-related chemosignals. Stress-related chemosignals induce a stress-related physiology in the perceiver, thereby priming a fight-flight-response, which is necessary for an optimum adaption to environmental harm. Finally, effects of sexual orientation on chemosensory communication will be discussed in terms of their putative role in stabilizing social groups, which might indirectly provide harm protection and foster survival. An integrative model of the presented data will be introduced. In conclusion, an outlook, focusing on the involvement of chemosensory communication in human social behavior and illustrating a novel approach to the significance of chemosensory signals in human survival, will be given. PMID:25637403

  1. Salivary adiponectin levels are associated with training intensity but not with bone mass or reproductive function in elite Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Roupas, Nikolaos D; Maïmoun, Laurent; Mamali, Irene; Coste, Olivier; Tsouka, Alexandra; Mahadea, Krishna Kunal; Mura, Thibault; Philibert, Pascal; Gaspari, Laura; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Leglise, Michel; Sultan, Charles; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2014-01-01

    Elite Rhythmic Gymnasts (RGs) constitute a unique metabolic model and they are prone to developing Anorexia Athletica. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of training intensity on salivary adiponectin levels and assess a possible role of salivary adiponectin levels as a predictive factor of reproductive dysfunction and bone mass acquisition in elite RGs. The study included 80 elite female RGs participating in the World Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship tournament held in Montpellier, France on September 2011. Anthropometric values were assessed, training data and menstrual pattern were recorded, bone mass was measured with Broadband ultrasound attenuation (dB/Mhz) and baseline salivary adiponectin levels were determined. The athletes were classified as intensely and very intensely trained, considering the mean training intensity (40.84h/week). Moreover, considering their reproductive status, they were divided into RG's with normal menstruation, primary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. All comparisons were adjusted to age, BMI and body fat percentage differences. Very intensely trained RGs showed higher salivary adiponectin levels (p=0.05). Moreover, salivary adiponectin levels showed significant correlation with training intensity (r=0.409, p=0.003). On the other hand, no association of salivary adiponectin levels was documented with either reproductive function or bone mass acquisition. The results of the present study suggest that, in elite RGs, salivary adiponectin levels are associated with the intensity of training, possibly reflecting the deterioration of energy balance rather than the training stress. On the other hand, a predictive role of salivary adiponectin levels in reproductive dysfunction or bone mass acquisition could not be supported. PMID:24240086

  2. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  3. Reproductive protein protects functionally sterile honey bee workers from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Seehuus, Siri-Christine; Norberg, Kari; Gimsa, Ulrike; Krekling, Trygve; Amdam, Gro V.

    2006-01-01

    Research on aging shows that regulatory pathways of fertility and senescence are closely interlinked. However, evolutionary theories on social species propose that lifelong care for offspring can shape the course of senescence beyond the restricted context of reproductive capability. These observations suggest that control circuits of aging are remodeled in social organisms with continuing care for offspring. Here, we studied a circuit of aging in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). The bee is characterized by the presence of a long-lived reproductive queen caste and a shorter-lived caste of female workers that are life-long alloparental care givers. We focus on the role of the conserved yolk precursor gene vitellogenin that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, shortens lifespan as a downstream element of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling cascade. Vitellogenin protein is synthesized at high levels in honey bee queens and is abundant in long-lived workers. We establish that vitellogenin gene activity protects worker bees from oxidative stress. Our finding suggests that one mechanistic explanation for patterns of longevity in bees is that a reproductive regulatory pathway has been remodeled to extend life. This perspective is of considerable relevance to research on longevity regulation that builds largely on inference from solitary model species. PMID:16418279

  4. The European study of assisted reproduction families: family functioning and child development.

    PubMed

    Golombok, S; Brewaeys, A; Cook, R; Giavazzi, M T; Guerra, D; Mantovani, A; van Hall, E; Crosignani, P G; Dexeus, S

    1996-10-01

    Findings are presented of a European study (conducted in the UK, Italy, Spain and The Netherlands) of family relationships and the social and emotional development of children in families created as a result of the two most widely used reproductive technologies, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and donor insemination (DI), in comparison with control groups of families with naturally conceived child and adoptive families. Mothers of children conceived by assisted reproduction expressed greater warmth towards their child, were more emotionally involved with their child, interacted more with their child and reported less stress associated with parenting than mothers who conceived their child naturally. Similarly, assisted reproduction fathers were found to interact more with their child and to contribute more to parenting than fathers with a naturally conceived child. With respect to the children themselves, no group differences were found for either the presence of psychological disorder or for children's perceptions of the quality of family relationships. The findings relating to the quality of parenting and the socio-emotional development of the children were similar in each of the four countries studied. PMID:8943550

  5. Coenzyme Q10 restores oocyte mitochondrial function and fertility during reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Ben-Meir, Assaf; Burstein, Eliezer; Borrego-Alvarez, Aluet; Chong, Jasmine; Wong, Ellen; Yavorska, Tetyana; Naranian, Taline; Chi, Maggie; Wang, Ying; Bentov, Yaakov; Alexis, Jennifer; Meriano, James; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Gasser, David L; Moley, Kelle H; Hekimi, Siegfried; Casper, Robert F; Jurisicova, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Female reproductive capacity declines dramatically in the fourth decade of life as a result of an age-related decrease in oocyte quality and quantity. The primary causes of reproductive aging and the molecular factors responsible for decreased oocyte quality remain elusive. Here, we show that aging of the female germ line is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reduced Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) level. Diminished expression of the enzymes responsible for CoQ production, Pdss2 and Coq6, was observed in oocytes of older females in both mouse and human. The age-related decline in oocyte quality and quantity could be reversed by the administration of CoQ10. Oocyte-specific disruption of Pdss2 recapitulated many of the mitochondrial and reproductive phenotypes observed in the old females including reduced ATP production and increased meiotic spindle abnormalities, resulting in infertility. Ovarian reserve in the oocyte-specific Pdss2-deficient animals was diminished, leading to premature ovarian failure which could be prevented by maternal dietary administration of CoQ10. We conclude that impaired mitochondrial performance created by suboptimal CoQ10 availability can drive age-associated oocyte deficits causing infertility. PMID:26111777

  6. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530

  7. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  8. The Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (Formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana Negatively Affect Cotton Aphid Reproduction under Both Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  9. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern. PMID:27293591

  10. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  11. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  12. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  13. The Association of the Dietary Fat and Functional Ovarian Cysts in Women of Reproductive Age Referring to Three Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Tafazoli, Mahin; Fazeli, Elham; Dadgar, Salameh; Nematy, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Functional ovarian cysts (FOC) are one of the most common gynecological problems among women of reproductive age. Some studies have shown that diet may affect the function of the ovaries, so this study was performed to determine the association between the amount of dietary fat and functional ovarian cysts. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 264 female patients (132 with cyst in the case group and 132 in the control group) aged 13 to 49. The case group had ovarian cyst with a size of less than 8 cm and the control group didn’t have any ovarian cyst. Data were collected by questionnaires including a demographic questionnaire, and medical and midwifery characteristics questionnaire; the amount of fat in the diet was measured using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Data were analyzed using SPSS software. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean of fat consumption in the case group was 119.84±103.09g and in the control group it was 109.90±54.66g. The result of data analysis showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between the amount of fat in the diet and FOC in confidence level of 95% (P=0.056). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the amount of fat consumption was higher in women with ovarian cysts; however, this difference was not statistically significant. In this regard, it is recommended that women of reproductive age should reduce their fat intake. PMID:27218112

  14. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  15. RIGHT HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN NORMALS, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Roy, Amal; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Davis, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    The happy-sad chimeric faces test has been established as a useful test of right hemispheric function. It is known to elicit a left hemifacial bias (LHF bias) in right handed subjects. 41 normals and 19 manic, depressive and schizophrenic patients each were tested. All subjects were strictly right handed. Normals and depressives showed significant LHF bias. Monies and schizophrenics did not show significant LHF Bias. This suggests right hemispheric dysfunction in both mania and schizophrenia. PMID:21584135

  16. Factors affecting post-flight behavior in primary reproductives of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Ihl; Bland, John M; Raina, Ashok K

    2004-06-01

    After swarming, reproductive dealates of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, run together in tandem. The tandem running is an age-related behavioral activity in C. formosanus. This behavior was not evoked in pre-flight alates less than 6-d-old that were artificially dealated. Female age was more important than male age for evoking tandem behavior. Females and males, older than 35 days, did not exhibit this behavior. Mating status was not important for female and male dealates to form the tandem pairs. The titers of the major tergal gland component, trilinolein, did not decline significantly and remained high, not only in virgin females, but also in mated females for a period of time after swarming. On the other hand, increasing amounts of the female-specific compound trilinolein were detected in male dealates 7, 14, and 42 days after pairing. This suggests that trilinolein in the females might be transferred to the males as a nuptial gift in C. formosanus. In addition, females have structurally different lateral setae that may constitute a morphological factor involved in the tandem behavior in this species. Covering the setae with dimethyl sulfoxide prevented the tandem behavior. PMID:15183283

  17. Factors Affecting the Reproduction, Recruitment, Habitat, and Population Dynamics of Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  18. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  19. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  20. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, B.M.; Coates, Miranda N.; Jackson, S. RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S.; Davis, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25967372

  1. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  2. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  3. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  4. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  5. [Male reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-jiao; Qiao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine disruptors has attracted substantial attention from researchers in recent years. Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the most prominent environmental estrogens worldwide, demonstrated to be related with the impairment of male reproductive function as well as other health problems, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. BPA acts primarily by mimicking antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects, disturbing the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and modulating gene expressions and enzyme activities in the hormone biosynthesis affecting steroids or its receptors. BPA is also involved in DNA methylation and the effects of epigenetics, resulting in dyszoospermia, oligoasthenoteratospermia/azoospermia and/or infertility in males. This review addresses the effects of BPA on male reproductive function, focusing on the mechanisms of its toxicity on spermatogenesis, semen quality, and the reproductive system. PMID:26738332

  6. Fat supplementation and reproduction in beef females.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N

    2004-01-01

    Inadequate dietary energy intake and poor body condition can negatively affect reproductive function. Supplemental lipids have been used to increase energy density of the diet and may also have direct positive effects on reproduction in beef cattle. Several fatty acid sources have been studied as they relate to reproductive function. Common sources include sunflower, safflower, cottonseed, rice bran, soybeans, fishmeal, animal tallow, and calcium salts of fatty acids. Fats have been fed before and after calving, during the breeding season, and during heifer development. Response to fat has been investigated through measuring body weight and body condition score, age at puberty, postpartum interval, first-service conception rates, pregnancy rates, calving interval, calving difficulty, and calf birth and weaning weight. Animal response seems to depend on body condition score, age (parity), nutrients available in the diet, and type of fat supplemented. To elucidate potential mechanisms of action, scientists have investigated changes in follicular and uterine development, hormonal profiles, brain function, and embryonic development. Feeding supplemental fat has resulted in varied and inconsistent effects on reproductive function. Elucidating how supplemental fat can influence reproductive function has been a difficult process. The complexity of the reproductive system and makeup of fat supplements are often confounded by management conditions and forage quality both in research and commercial feeding situations. PMID:15471795

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein permeability. Y. enterocolitica was present within the murine mucosa of both ileum and colon. Here, the bacterial insult was of focal nature and led to changes in tight junction protein expression and architecture. These findings are in concordance with observations from former cell culture studies and suggest a leak flux mechanism of diarrhea. PMID:26621910

  8. Induction of reproductive function in anestrous mares using a dopamine antagonist.

    PubMed

    Besognet, B; Hansen, B S; Daels, P F

    1997-01-15

    We investigated the role of dopamine in the regulation of seasonal reproductive activity in mares. Nine seasonal anestrous mares, maintained under a natural photoperiod, were treated daily with a dopamine D2 antagonist, [-]-sulpiride (200 mg/mare, im), beginning February 5 (day of year = 36) until the first ovulation of the year or for a maximum of 58. Nine untreated anestrous mares were maintained under the same conditions. The ovaries were examined by ultrasonography twice a week, and blood was collected three times a week for progesterone, LH, FSH and prolactin determinations. Mean day of first ovulation was significantly advanced for [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than control mares (mean day of year +/- SEM = 77.3 +/- 7.9 and 110.0 +/- 6.8, respectively; P < 0.01). Eight mares ovulated during [-]-sulpiride treatment while one mare failed to ovulate. Ovulation occurred 91 d after the start of treatment or on Day 127. All mares continued to have normal estrous cycles after the first ovulation. First cycle length and luteal progesterone concentrations did not differ between [-]-sulpiride-treated and control mares. Plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly increased at 2 and 9 h after [-]-sulpiride administration (P < 0.05), and had returned to basal levels by 24 h. At the time of the LH surge associated with the first ovulation, mean LH and FSH secretion was significantly higher in [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than in control mares (P < 0.05). These results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the control of reproductive seasonality in mares and exerts a tonic inhibition on reproductive activity during the anovulatory season. PMID:16727999

  9. [The role of riboflavin and pantothenic acid in the reproductive function of swine].

    PubMed

    Pocherniaeva, G M

    1989-01-01

    Results of the experiment have shown that in order to increase multiple pregnancy and quality of piglets the ration of sows during pubescence and in the reproductive period must contain not less than 5-6 mg of riboflavin and 20-22 mg of pantothenic acid per one feed unit. That level can be ensured either by addition of synthetic preparation of riboflavin (4-4.5 mg) and calcium d-pantothenate (10-15 mg), or by inclusion of about 5% of the fodder yeast mass into complete-ration combined feed. PMID:2721747

  10. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-01

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. PMID:25979518

  11. Conditional deletion of the relaxin receptor gene in cells of smooth muscle lineage affects lower reproductive tract in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-04-01

    Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1(+/-) females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  12. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  13. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  14. Mevalonate availability affects human and rat resistance vessel function.

    PubMed Central

    Roullet, J B; Xue, H; Roullet, C M; Fletcher, W S; Cipolla, M J; Harker, C T; McCarron, D A

    1995-01-01

    Previous data in rat conductance vessels indicated that cellular mevalonate contributes to vascular tone and systemic blood pressure control. Using exogenous mevalonate (M) or lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (L), we characterized the role of mevalonate availability in resistance artery function, both in experimental animals and humans. Rat mesenteric artery resistance vessels (MARV, n = 9) were incubated for 48 h with either L, M, L + M, or vehicle (V) and tested for reactivity to NE, serotonin, acetylcholine, atrial natriuretic peptide, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Lovastatin increased sensitivity to NE (P < 0.03) and serotonin (P < 0.003), and significantly impaired the response to all three vasodilators. These effects were reversed by co-incubation with mevalonate. Mevalonate alone had no effect. In separate experiments, intravascular free Ca2+ concentration (ivfCa2+) was determined in fura-2AM loaded MARV. Basal ivfCa2+ was increased after a 48-h exposure to L (52.7 +/- 4.6 nM, L, vs. 29.7 +/- 2.4 nM, V, n = 12, P < 0.003), as were ivfCa2+ levels following stimulation with low (100 nM) NE concentrations. Similar ivfCa2+ concentrations were achieved during maximum contraction with NE (10 mM) in both groups. Human resistance arteries of human adipose tissue were also studied. Lovastatin increased the sensitivity to NE (ED50 = 372 +/- 56 nM, V, and 99 +/- 33 nM, L, P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the relaxation to acetylcholine and SNP of human vessels. We conclude that mevalonate availability directly contribute to resistance vessel function and vascular signal transduction systems in both experimental animals and humans. The study calls for the identification of non-sterol, mevalonate-derived vasoactive metabolites, and suggests that disorders of the mevalonate pathway can alter vascular tone and cause hypertension. PMID:7615793

  15. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients' infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs. PMID:27212796

  16. Gonadal function, fertility, and reproductive medicine in childhood and adolescent cancer patients: a national survey of Japanese pediatric endocrinologists

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yorifuji, Tohru; Horikawa, Reiko; Takahashi, Ikuko; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Ito, Junko; Oba, Mari; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masashi; Shimizu, Chikako; Kato, Tomoyasu; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Nao; Yokoya, Susumu; Ogata, Tsutomu; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of pediatric cancer patients survive, and treatment-related infertility represents one of the most important issues for these patients. While official guidelines in Japan recommend long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), their gonadal function and fertility have not been clarified. To address this issue, we organized a working panel to compile evidence from long-term survivors who received treatments for cancer during childhood or adolescence. In collaboration with members of the CCS Committee of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology (JSPE), we conducted a questionnaire survey regarding reproductive function in pediatric cancer patients. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 178 JSPE-certified councilors who were asked to self-evaluate the medical examinations they had performed. A total of 151 responses were obtained, revealing that 143 endocrinologists were involved in the care of CCSs. A quarter of the respondents reported having experienced issues during gonadal or reproductive examinations. Several survivors did not remember or fully understand the explanation regarding gonadal damage, and faced physical and psychological distress when discussing the risk of becoming infertile. Pediatric endocrinologists had anxieties regarding their patients’ infertility and the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and delivery problems. Only a limited number of endocrinologists had experience with managing childbirth and fertility preservation. Many councilors mentioned the necessity for inter-disciplinary communication among healthcare providers. Both endocrinologists and oncologists should set and follow a uniform clinical guideline that includes management of fertility of CCSs. PMID:27212796

  17. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  18. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  19. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  20. Functional TLR5 genetic variants affect human colorectal cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Klimosch, Sascha N; Försti, Asta; Eckert, Jana; Knezevic, Jelena; Bevier, Melanie; von Schönfels, Witigo; Heits, Nils; Walter, Jessica; Hinz, Sebastian; Lascorz, Jesus; Hampe, Jochen; Hartl, Dominik; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Hemminki, Kari; Schafmayer, Clemens; Weber, Alexander N R

    2013-12-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, including colorectal cancer cells, but little is known about the functional relevance of these immune regulatory molecules in malignant settings. Here, we report frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the TLR downstream effector molecules MyD88 and TIRAP that are associated with altered survival in a large cohort of Caucasian patients with colorectal cancer (n = 613). MYD88 rs4988453, a SNP that maps to a promoter region shared with the acetyl coenzyme-A acyl-transferase-1 (ACAA1), was associated with decreased survival of patients with colorectal cancer and altered transcriptional activity of the proximal genes. In the TLR5 gene, rs5744174/F616L was associated with increased survival, whereas rs2072493/N592S was associated with decreased survival. Both rs2072493/N592S and rs5744174/F616L modulated TLR5 signaling in response to flagellin or to different commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Notably, we observed a reduction in flagellin-induced p38 phosphorylation, CD62L shedding, and elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β mRNA in human primary immune cells from TLR5 616LL homozygote carriers, as compared with 616FF carriers. This finding suggested that the well-documented effect of cytokines like IL-6 on colorectal cancer progression might be mediated by TLR5 genotype-dependent flagellin sensing. Our results establish an important link between TLR signaling and human colorectal cancer with relevance for biomarker and therapy development. PMID:24154872

  1. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  2. Aging and reproductive potential in women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, C.; Zimon, A. E.; Jones, E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reproductive potential in women declines with age. Age-related changes in the ovary account for most of this loss of reproductive function. Oocytes, all of which are present at birth, decline in number and quality with age. The endocrine function of the ovary also declines with age, and the ovary becomes unable to sustain its normal function in the neuroendocrine axis. The neuroendocrine axis may be further affected by primary changes occurring in the hypothalamus and pituitary during aging, although this has not been established in humans. Aging also affects the function of the uterus as the endometrium loses its ability to support implantation and growth of an embryo. Diminished uterine function during aging may be due to changes in the uterine vasculature or to changes in the hormone-dependent development of the endometrium. Finally, aging increases a woman's risk of developing medical, gynecologic or obstetric conditions that may impair her fertility. Knowledge of these affects of aging on a woman's reproductive function is essential to advise and treat the growing number of women seeking pregnancy at advanced reproductive age. PMID:10527364

  3. The Impact of Dietary Folate Intake on Reproductive Function in Premenopausal Women: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Zhang, Cuilin; Pollack, Anna Z.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Perkins, Neil J.; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Folic acid is recommended to reproductive-aged women to prevent birth defects, though little is known about the effects of dietary intake on other reproductive outcomes. Improved pregnancy rates have been documented after folic acid supplement use, suggesting a possible link with ovulation, however research is limited. Our objective was to evaluate the association between dietary folate intake, hormone levels, and sporadic anovulation in healthy, regularly menstruating women. Methodology/Principal Findings The BioCycle study (2005–2007) prospectively followed 259 healthy women aged 18–44 years from the western New York region for up to 2 menstrual cycles. Total folate and specific sources of folate were assessed up to 4 times per cycle by 24-hour recall. Estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone were measured in serum up to 8 times per cycle, timed using fertility monitors. Anovulation was defined as a cycle with peak progesterone concentration ≤5 ng/mL and no LH peak in the mid/late luteal phase. Higher intake of dietary folate (in dietary equivalents) across tertiles had a marginally significant association with greater luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.08). Higher intake of synthetic folate was significantly associated with higher luteal progesterone levels (P trend 0.05). Specifically, women in the 3rd tertile of synthetic folate intake had, on average, 16.0% (95% CI, 0.5–33.8%) higher luteal progesterone levels compared to women in the 1st tertile. Moreover, consumption of synthetic folate was significantly and inversely associated with anovulation such that women in the 3rd tertile had a 64% (95% CI, 8–86%) decreased odds of anovulation compared to the women in the 1st tertile (P trend 0.03). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that a diet high in synthetic folate may be associated with increased progesterone levels and lower risk of sporadic anovulation. Further study of the effect of

  4. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  5. Effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on thyroid and reproductive function in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prolonged exposure to perchlorate on (1) thyroid status and reproductive performance of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and (2) F1 embryo survival and early larval development. Using a static-renewal procedure, mixed sex populations of adult zebrafish were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 mg/l nominal concentrations of waterborne perchlorate for 10 weeks. Thyroid histology was qualitatively assessed, and females and males were separated and further exposed to their respective treatments for six additional weeks. Eight females in each tank replicate (n = 3) were paired weekly with four males from the same respective treatment, and packed-egg (spawn) volume (PEV) was measured each of the last five weeks. At least once during weeks 14-16 of exposure, other end points measured included fertilization rate, fertilized egg diameter, hatching rate, standard length, and craniofacial development of 4-day-postfertilization larvae and thyroid hormone content of 3.5-h embryos and of exposed mothers. At 10 weeks of exposure, perchlorate at both concentrations caused thyroidal hypertrophy and colloid depletion. A marked reduction in PEV was observed toward the end of the 6-week spawning period, but fertilization and embryo hatching rates were unaffected. Fertilized egg diameter and larval length were increased by parental exposure to perchlorate. Larval head depth was unaffected but the forward protrusion of the lower jaw-associated cartilage complexes, Meckel's and ceratohyal, was decreased. Exposure to both concentrations of perchlorate inhibited whole-body thyroxine content in mothers and embryos, but triiodothyronine content was unchanged. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of adult zebrafish to perchlorate not only disrupts their thyroid endocrine system but also impairs reproduction and influences early F1 development. ?? 2007 Oxford University Press.

  6. Leptin signaling in GABA neurons, but not glutamate neurons, is required for reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Zuure, Wieteke A; Roberts, Amy L; Quennell, Janette H; Anderson, Greg M

    2013-11-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to modulate the central driver of fertility: the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. This effect is indirect, as GnRH neurons do not express leptin receptors (LEPRs). Here we test whether GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons provide the intermediate pathway between the site of leptin action and the GnRH neurons. Leptin receptors were deleted from GABA and glutamate neurons using Cre-Lox transgenics, and the downstream effects on puberty onset and reproduction were examined. Both mouse lines displayed the expected increase in body weight and region-specific loss of leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. The GABA neuron-specific LEPR knock-out females and males showed significantly delayed puberty onset. Adult fertility observations revealed that these knock-out animals have decreased fecundity. In contrast, glutamate neuron-specific LEPR knock-out mice displayed normal fertility. Assessment of the estrogenic hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation in females showed that leptin action on GABA neurons is not necessary for estradiol-mediated suppression of tonic luteinizing hormone secretion (an indirect measure of GnRH neuron activity) but is required for regulation of a full preovulatory-like luteinizing hormone surge. In conclusion, leptin signaling in GABAergic (but not glutamatergic neurons) plays a critical role in the timing of puberty onset and is involved in fertility regulation throughout adulthood in both sexes. These results form an important step in explaining the role of central leptin signaling in the reproductive system. Limiting the leptin-to-GnRH mediators to GABAergic cells will enable future research to focus on a few specific types of neurons. PMID:24198376

  7. Morphology and function of the reproductive system of representatives of the genus Uca.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, Agnes D; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker

    2010-11-01

    The morphology of the reproductive organs of three species of fiddler crabs, Uca ecuadoriensis, Uca c.f. forcipata, and Uca tangeri were investigated to subsequently produce a model of their mode of operation. Vulva, vagina, and spermatheca in females, and the first and second gonopods in males were examined by applying histological techniques and electron microscopy. In all three species, vulva and vagina conform to the concave type, and the spermatheca complies with the ventral type. The tissue of the oviduct orifice is enlarged and bulges into the lumen of the spermatheca. Differences between the three species are apparent in the organization of the spermatheca, especially in the distribution and structure of glandular epithelium: In U. ecuadoriensis and U. c.f. forcipata the largest proportion of the spermathecal wall is lined with cuticle and only a small area consists of glandular epithelium, while in U. tangeri almost all of the lining is glandular. Furthermore, the glandular epithelia of the species differ in their histology and ultrastructure: In U. ecuadoriensis it is tubular and multilayered, while in U. c.f. forcipata it is mono-layered. U. tangeri finally has both forms of this tissue. In the males, the terminal segments of the first gonopod exhibit a tight fit to female organs and narrow, tightly sealed sperm channels. These features suggest a tendency towards minimizing loss of fluids, which can be interpreted as an adaptation to mating on land. The tight fit of male gonopod and female opening seem to be protection from interbreeding, which points toward a strong sexual selection. In the terrestrial environment, these originally aquatic organisms experience serious competition for resources; therefore there is pressure on successful reproduction. According to the current results a model of the process of fertilization and egg-laying involving the investigated organs was generated. PMID:20665534

  8. Good vibrations switch attention: an affective function for network oscillations in evolutionary simulations.

    PubMed

    Heerebout, Bram T; Phaf, R Hans

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, a new hypothesis on the neural mechanisms linking affect to attention was brought forward by evolutionary simulations on agents navigating a virtual environment while collecting food and avoiding predation. The connection strengths between nodes in the networks controlling the agents were subjected to random variation, and the fittest agents were selected for reproduction. Unexpectedly, oscillations of node activations emerged, which drastically enhanced the agent's fitness. We analyzed the mechanisms involved in the modulation of attention and found that oscillations acted on competitive networks. Response selection depended on the connection structure, but the speed and efficacy of switching between selections was modulated by oscillation frequency. The main focus of the present study was the differential emergence of stimulus-specific oscillation frequencies. Oscillations had a higher frequency in an appetitive motivational state than in an aversive state. We suggest that oscillations in biological networks also mediate the affective modulation of attention. PMID:20498346

  9. Reproductive functional anatomy and oestrous cycle pattern of the female brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus, Gray 1842) from Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mayor, P; López-Béjar, M; Jori, F; Fenech, M; López-Gatius, F

    2003-07-15

    In the present study, we examined certain features of the functional anatomy of the female genital tract of the wild brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) to obtain data on the reproductive biology of this African forest rodent. Two consecutive experiments were performed. The aim of the first was to establish macroscopic and microscopic features of the genital organs, and to explore correlations between predominant ovarian structures and vaginal contents in 20 wild, mature females. In the second experiment, we inspected the external genitalia and vaginal smears of a further 10 females in captivity on a daily basis for 90 days. The uterus of the brush-tailed porcupine is bicornuate and composed of two separated uterine horns, a uterine body and cervix. The genital tract does not present a vaginal vestibule. Thus, there is no portion common to genital and urinary tracts. Females in the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle showed increased cornification of the vaginal epithelium and a high density of eosinophilic cells in vaginal smears. The vulva and vaginal opening were open, reddish and tumefacted. In luteal phase or in pregnancy, epithelial cornification and eosinophilic features were notably reduced and the vagina presented a pale, non-tumefacted vulva and a vaginal closure membrane. Females in captivity showed spontaneous cycles, a polyoestrous reproduction pattern and, based on features of the external genitalia and vaginal smears, their oestrous cycle length was 27.1+/-6.4 days (n=12). PMID:12695058

  10. Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies and an Obesogenic Environment on Resistance Artery Function and Diabetes Biomarkers in Mice Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I.; Schenewerk, Angela L.; Coffman, Katy L.; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Rivera, Rocio M.; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity affects the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring. Also the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been associated with cardiovascular deficiencies in offspring. Obese women often suffer from infertility and use ART to achieve a pregnancy, but the combined effects of maternal obesity and ART on cardiovascular health and incidence of diabetes in the offspring is not known. Here, we report the effects of the use of ART within an obesogenic environment, consisting of feeding a western diet (WD) to dams and offspring, on resistance artery function and presence of diabetes biomarkers in juvenile mice offspring. Our results indicate that WD and ART interacted to induce endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from 7-week-old mice offspring. This was determined by presence of a reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation compared to controls. The arteries from these WD-ART mice also had greater wall cross-sectional areas and wall to lumen ratios indicative of vascular hypertrophic remodeling. Of the diabetes biomarkers measured, only resistin was affected by a WD×ART interaction. Serum resistin was significantly greater in WD-ART offspring compared to controls. Diet and sex effects were observed in other diabetes biomarkers. Our conclusion is that in mice the use of ART within an obesogenic environment interacts to favor the development of endothelial dysfunction in the resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, while having marginal effects on diabetes biomarkers. PMID:25386661

  11. SMAD Signaling Is Required for Structural Integrity of the Female Reproductive Tract and Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Amanda; Tripurani, Swamy K; Burton, Jason C; Clementi, Caterina; Larina, Irina; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy is a complex physiological process tightly controlled by the interplay among hormones, morphogens, transcription factors, and signaling pathways. Although recent studies using genetically engineered mouse models have revealed that ligands and receptors of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways are essential for multiple reproductive events during pregnancy, the functional role of SMAD transcription factors, which serve as the canonical signaling platform for the TGFbeta/BMP pathways, in the oviduct and uterus is undefined. Here, we used a mouse model containing triple conditional deletion of the BMP receptor signaling Smads (Smad1 and Smad5) and Smad4, the central mediator of both TGFbeta and BMP signaling, to investigate the role of the SMADs in reproductive tract structure and function in cells from the Amhr2 lineage. Unlike the respective single- or double-knockouts, female Smad1(flox/flox) Smad5(flox/flox) Smad4(flox/flox) Amhr2(cre/+)conditional knockout (i.e., Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO) mice are sterile. We discovered that Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females have malformed oviducts that subsequently develop oviductal diverticuli. These oviducts showed dysregulation of multiple genes essential for oviduct and smooth muscle development. In addition, uteri from Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females exhibit multiple defects in stroma, epithelium, and smooth muscle layers and fail to assemble a closed uterine lumen upon embryo implantation, with defective uterine decidualization that led to pregnancy loss at early to mid-gestation. Taken together, our study uncovers a new role for the SMAD transcription factors in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of oviduct and uterus, required for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:27335065

  12. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  13. Peri-pubertal administration of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) affects reproductive organ development in male but not female Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Wallace, Shannon M; Carroll, Erica E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrotriazolone (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO) is an insensitive munition that has demonstrated effects on reproductive organs in adult male rats. NTO was administered to male (0, 250, and 500milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg-day)) and female (0, 500, and 1000mg/kg-day) Sprague-Dawley rats (15/sex/group) via oral gavage from weaning through post-natal day 53/54 and 42/43, respectively. Age and body mass at vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PPS), as well as all measures of estrous cyclicity were not affected by treatment with NTO. Males treated with NTO exhibited reductions in testis mass associated with tubular degeneration/atrophy. Less pronounced reductions in accessory sex organ masses were also observed in the 500mg/kg-day group. Treatment with NTO did not affect thyroid hormone or testosterone levels. These findings suggest that NTO is not acting as an estrogen or thyroid active compound, but may indicate effects on steroidogenesis and/or direct testicular toxicity. PMID:25962730

  14. Reproductive partitioning and the assumptions of reproductive skew models in the cooperatively breeding American crow

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Andrea K.; Clark, Anne B.; McGowan, Kevin J.; Lovette, Irby J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the benefits of cooperative breeding for group members of different social and demographic classes requires knowledge of their reproductive partitioning and genetic relatedness. From 2004-2007, we examined parentage as a function of relatedness and social interactions among members of 21 American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) family groups. Paired female breeders monopolized maternity of all offspring in their broods, whereas paired male breeders sired 82.7% of offspring, within-group auxiliary males sired 6.9% of offspring, and extragroup males sired 10.4% of offspring. Although adult females had fewer opportunities for direct reproduction as auxiliaries than males, they appeared to have earlier opportunities for independent breeding. These different opportunities for direct reproduction probably contributed to the male biased adult auxiliary sex ratio. Patterns of reproductive partitioning and conflict among males were most consistent with a synthetic reproductive skew model, in which auxiliaries struggled with breeders for a limited reproductive share, beyond which breeders could evict them. Counter to a frequent assumption of reproductive skew models, female breeders appeared to influence paternity, although their interests might have agreed with the interests of their paired males. Unusual among cooperative breeders, close inbreeding and incest occurred in this population. Incest avoidance between potential breeders did not significantly affect reproductive skew. PMID:20126287

  15. Effects of anthropogenic noise on endocrine and reproductive function in White's treefrog, Litoria caerulea

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kristine; Devito, Julia; Jones, Caitlin G.; Marentes, Adam; Perez, Rachel; Umeh, Lisa; Weickum, Regina M.; McGovern, Kathryn E.; Wilson, Emma H.; Saltzman, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is a major driver of ecological change and comes with a suite of habitat modifications, including alterations to the local temperature, precipitation, light and noise regimes. Although many recent studies have investigated the behavioural and ecological ramifications of urbanization, physiological work in this area has lagged. We tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic noise is a stressor for amphibians and that chronic exposure to such noise leads to reproductive suppression. In the laboratory, we exposed male White's treefrogs, Litoria caerulea, to conspecific chorus noise either alone or coupled with pre-recorded traffic noise nightly for 1 week. Frogs presented with anthropogenic noise had significantly higher circulating concentrations of corticosterone and significantly decreased sperm count and sperm viability than did control frogs. These results suggest that in addition to having behavioural and ecological effects, anthropogenic change might alter physiology and Darwinian fitness. Future work should integrate disparate fields such as behaviour, ecology and physiology to elucidate fully organisms’ responses to habitat change. PMID:27293682

  16. MYB-FL controls gain and loss of floral UV absorbance, a key trait affecting pollinator preference and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Hester; Moser, Michel; Klahre, Ulrich; Esfeld, Korinna; Dell'Olivo, Alexandre; Mandel, Therese; Metzger, Sabine; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Freitas, Loreta; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2016-02-01

    Adaptations to new pollinators involve multiple floral traits, each requiring coordinated changes in multiple genes. Despite this genetic complexity, shifts in pollination syndromes have happened frequently during angiosperm evolution. Here we study the genetic basis of floral UV absorbance, a key trait for attracting nocturnal pollinators. In Petunia, mutations in a single gene, MYB-FL, explain two transitions in UV absorbance. A gain of UV absorbance in the transition from bee to moth pollination was determined by a cis-regulatory mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation caused subsequent loss of UV absorbance during the transition from moth to hummingbird pollination. The functional differences in MYB-FL provide insight into the process of speciation and clarify phylogenetic relationships between nascent species. PMID:26656847

  17. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. PMID:26807937

  18. Dopamine antagonist-induced reproductive function in anoestrous mares: gonadotrophin secretion and the effects of environmental cues.

    PubMed

    Daels, P F; Fatone, S; Hansen, B S; Concannon, P W

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the dopamine antagonist sulpiride on FSH secretion and onset of reproductive activity in anoestrous mares under different environmental conditions was investigated. In Expt 1, sulpiride (0.5 mg (-)-sulpiride kg(-1) twice a day) had no affect on FSH pulse frequency, mean FSH concentration, basal FSH concentration or FSH pulse amplitude in anoestrous mares. These data do not support the hypothesis that dopamine inhibits reproductive activity by suppressing GnRH secretion, as it does in other species. In Expt 2, the interval to first ovulation (14.8 +/- 1.9 days; range 12-22 days) in five mares treated with sulpiride (0.5 mg (-)-sulpiride kg(-1) twice a day) housed indoors under extended daylength (16 h light: 8 h dark) was significantly shorter (P < 0.02) than in six untreated mares housed indoors under extended daylength (34.3 +/- 5.5; range 16-52 days and seven untreated mares housed outside under natural photoperiod (73 +/- 10; range 37-107 days). However, if the FSH secretion parameters at the start of treatment are treated as covariants, each has a significant effect (P < 0.05) on the interval to ovulation and sulpiride treatment does not have a significant effect. In Expt 3, the interval to first ovulation was not significantly different in sulpiride-treated (200 mg (-)-sulpiride twice a day) and untreated mares maintained outside under natural photoperiod. These results indicate that sulpiride treatment combined with increased temperature (indoor housing) and stimulatory photoperiod (extended daylength) results in a shorter interval to first ovulation and that a nonstimulatory environment decreases the effect of treatment on the interval to first ovulation. The role of FSH secretion at the time of treatment remains to be determined. PMID:20681129

  19. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females. PMID:23036371

  20. The Effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Gene on Reproductive Performance and Immune Function in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    KAWASAKI, Yurie; AOKI, Yuka; MAGATA, Fumie; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KAWASHIMA, Chiho; HOJO, Takuo; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; SHIRASUNA, Koumei; SHIMIZU, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) promoter (A/A, A/G and G/G) and exons (T/T, T/C and C/C) on immune function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The occurrence of the first postpartum ovulation within 3 weeks in the cows with the TNF-α promoter A/G and G/G genotypes was higher than in the A/A group. Among the different TNF-α exon genotypes, the occurrence of early first postpartum ovulation was higher in the T/C and C/C genotype groups than in the T/T group. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF-α gene did not affect the rate of artificial insemination (AI) or duration from parturition to next conception (days open). The apoptosis rate of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) did not differ among the TNF-α promoter genotypes, but the PMN transmigration rate was significantly higher for the A/A and A/G genotypes than for the G/G genotype. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) mRNA expression in PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before culture was significantly higher for the A/A genotype compared with the G/G genotype. There were no significant differences between the genotypes in the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in PMNs and PBMCs before and 4 h after culture. IL-8 and IL-1β production by PBMCs cultured for 4 h was significantly higher for the animals with the A/A genotype than for those with the G/G genotype. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in IL-8 and IL-1β production by PMNs among different TNF-α genotypes. Taken together, these results suggest that SNP in the TNF-α gene affects immune function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. PMID:24562592

  1. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    PubMed

    Klop-Toker, Kaya; Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  2. We Made Your Bed, Why Won’t You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn’t breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  3. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction. PMID:26787324

  4. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol modulation of prenatally organized reproductive neuroendocrine function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Herkimer, Carol; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-08-01

    Gestational testosterone (TS) excess, acting via both the androgenic and estrogenic pathways, advances puberty and disrupts the neuroendocrine estradiol (E2) feedback and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in female sheep. These prenatally programmed defects may be subject to postnatal modifications by continued organizational and/or activational effects of steroids. This study investigated (1) the organizational contribution of prenatal estrogen excess and (2) the impact of postnatal exposure to E2 in modulating the effects of prenatal androgen excess (TS and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) on puberty, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were treated with TS, DHT, E2, or E2 plus DHT (ED) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. A subset of the control (C), TS, and DHT female offspring received a constant-release E2 implant postnatally. Findings revealed that (1) prenatal E2-treatment failed to reproduce the neuroendocrine disruptions predicted to be programmed by the estrogenic pathway and (2) prenatal E2D-treatment did not adequately replicate the reproductive neuroendocrine defects induced by prenatal TS excess. More importantly, continuous postnatal E2-treatment, while delaying the onset of puberty and reducing the inhibitory effects of E2 on tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) release, failed to amplify the E2-positive feedback and periovulatory defects induced by prenatal TS-treatment. Our results indicate that disruptions in E2-positive feedback mechanisms and periovulatory gonadotropin secretion induced by prenatal TS-treatment are programmed predominantly during the prenatal life with postnatal exposure to E2 excess not contributing further to these disruptions. PMID:27222598

  5. Effects of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the reproductive functions of rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Brecchia, G; Menchetti, L; Cardinali, R; Castellini, C; Polisca, A; Zerani, M; Maranesi, M; Boiti, C

    2014-06-30

    Systemic and local infections and inflammations are known to cause infertility in humans and animals. However, the mechanisms by which infection/inflammation induces infertility are only partially known. The objectives of this study were: (i) to provide models of systemic (acute) and local (sub-acute) inflammation by intra-peritoneal injection or intra-cervical deposition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rabbit and (ii) to assess their effects on uterine tissues and sperm transport in the genital tract of rabbit does. Intra-peritoneal administration of different doses of LPS induced systemic effects such as fever, anorexia and changes in white blood cells (WBC) count. In our study, LPS inoculation (100μg/kg) produced an inflammation-like status that lasted for about 3 days, with minimal distress for the animals. Intra-peritoneal administration of LPS 60h before artificial insemination induced a rapid increase of IL-1β concentrations. The intra-cervical inoculation of LPS did not show any systemic effects, as confirmed by the lack of changes in body temperature, feed intake and WBC count. Histological examination of uterine tissues showed an endometritis-like inflammation status in LPS-treated does, more severe in those inoculated intra-cervically. The number of spermatozoa recovered from uterine horns and oviducts of intra-cervically treated does was less than that retrieved from intra-peritoneally treated animals and controls. These results suggest (i) that sub-acute or acute inflammation may cause infertility by compromising the uterine environment and/or impairing sperm transport and (ii) that the LPS-induced -infection/inflammation experimental model is useful for studying the mechanisms involved in reproductive dysfunctions in the rabbit. PMID:24838082

  6. Perinatal Environmental Exposures Affect Mammary Development, Function, and Cancer Risk in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Suzanne E.; Reed, Casey; Newbold, Retha R.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is an important transition that enables reproduction of mammalian species. Precocious puberty, specifically early thelarche (the appearance of breast “buds”), in girls of multiple ethnic backgrounds is a major health problem in the United States and other countries. The cause for a continued decrease in the age of breast development in girls is unknown, but environmental factors likely play a major role. Laboratory and epidemiological studies have identified several individual environmental factors that affect breast development, but further progress is needed. Current research needs include increased attention to and recording of prenatal and neonatal environmental exposures, testing of marketed chemicals for effects on the mammary gland, and understanding of the mammary gland–specific mechanisms that are altered by chemicals. Such research is required to halt the increasing trend toward puberty at earlier ages. PMID:22017681

  7. Who or What? Self-Replication and Function-Reproduction in the Origin of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    New, Michael H.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Monaco, Regina; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this presentation, we will present results on the fundamental properties of two classes of replicating systems: autocatalytic replicators that reproduce exact copies of a template molecule, and function reproducers that maintain a set of essential functions without replicating the identities of the functional moieties. We will describe the stability and behavior in-the-large of autocatalytic replicators. Most importantly, we have found no sharp distinction between an autocatalytic and a non-autocatalytic domain. We will also present a new derivation of von Kiedrowski's square-root rate law. Function - reproducers are proposed as an important component of protocells and we will present theoretical results on a simple model system that incorporates known peptide biophysics. For a wide range of parameters, we have shown that this type of system can improve its overall performance, even in the absence of any method for information storage. This type of system improvement is defined to be non-genomic evolution.

  8. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production. PMID:27068520

  9. Maternal corticosterone further reduces the reproductive function of male offspring hatched from eggs laid by quail hens selected for exaggerated adrenocortical stress responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Cole, C A; Castille, S A

    2007-03-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can depress the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Male quail cloacal gland (CG) size and foam production shows androgen dependency, and males selected for exaggerated [high stress (HS)] rather than reduced [low stress (LS)] plasma corticosterone (B) stress response exhibit reduced CG and testes development. High stress hens also deposit more B into egg yolks than LS ones, and quail hens given B produce chicks that have a reduced growth rate and adults with heightened HPA responsiveness. Herein, we gave LS and HS hens no B [empty implants, control (CON)] or B-filled implants and assessed the reproductive performances of these hens and their male offspring. Mortality was similarly elevated in LS and HS B-treated hens, but only HS B-implanted hens showed reduced egg production. In male offspring, CG volume (CVOL), intensity of CG foam production (CFP), and the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam were measured from 4 to 11 wk of age. At 6 wk, BW, and at 15 wk, BW, testes weight (TWT), and TWT relative to BW were also determined. Hen treatments did not affect male chick CVOL at 4 wk, but CVOL differed thereafter as follows: LS CON > LS B = HS CON = HS B at 5 and 6 wk and LS CON > LS B > HS CON = HS B from 7 to 11 wk. By 8 wk, and thereafter, CFP differed as follows: LS CON > LS B > HS CON > HS B. Group differences in the proportion of individuals that produced CG foam generally supported CFP findings from 4 to 8 wk of age. Body weight did not differ by treatment at 6 wk of age. By 15 wk, TWT were similarly depressed in both HS groups. However, similarly higher 15-wk BW in the LS-CON and HS-B groups contributed to TWT relative to BW differences as follows: LS-B > LS-CON > HS-B; LS-CON = HS-CON; LS-B > HS-CON; and, HS-CON = HS-B. Both selection for exaggerated HPA responsiveness and maternal B treatment negatively affected the reproductive function of HS male offspring. PMID:17297171

  10. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine alveolar macrophage function as determined using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. The main target of infection is the porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM). Infection of PAM by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that a...

  11. EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS), BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) AND MOLINATE ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CD-1 MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS), BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) AND MOLINATE ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CD-1 MALE MICE. D.K. Tarka1,2 , G.R. Klinefelter2, J.C. Rockett2, J.D. Suarez2, N.L. Roberts2 and J.M. Rogers1,2. 1 University of North Carol...

  12. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on porcine alveolar macrophage function as determined using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. The major target of infection is the alveolar macrophage (AM). Infection of AMs by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not...

  13. Positive Affect in the Midst of Distress: Implications for Role Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Acree, Michael; Folkman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been shown to deplete the self-regulation resources hypothesized to facilitate effective role functioning. However, recent research suggests that positive affect may help to replenish these vital self-regulation resources. Based on revised Stress and Coping theory and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotion, three studies provide evidence of the potential adaptive function of positive affect in the performance of roles for participants experiencing stress. Participants were students (Study 1), caregivers of ill children (Study 2), and individuals recently diagnosed with HIV (Study 3). In cross sectional analyses, using role functioning as an indicator of self-regulation performance, we found that positive affect was significantly correlated with better self regulation performance, independent of the effects of negative affect. The effects were not as strong longitudinally, however, and there was little evidence of a reciprocal association between increases in positive affect and improvements in role functioning over time. The results provide some modest support for hypotheses stemming from the Broaden and Build model of positive emotion and revised Stress and Coping theory, both of which argue for unique adaptive functions of positive affect under stressful conditions. PMID:23175617

  14. Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history trade-off.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robert M; Lovern, Matthew B; Calsbeek, Ryan

    2014-07-01

    The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in reproductive investment was created using unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) along with intact (SHAM) control. Next, this manipulation was decoupled from its downstream effects on energy storage by surgically ablating the abdominal fat stores from half of the females in each reproductive treatment. As predicted, unilateral OVX (intermediate reproductive investment) induced levels of growth, body condition, fat storage and breeding-season survival that were intermediate between the high levels of bilateral OVX (no reproductive investment) and the low levels of SHAM (full reproductive investment). Ablation of abdominal fat bodies had a strong and persistent effect on energy stores, but it did not influence post-breeding survival in any of the three reproductive treatments. This suggests that the energetic savings of reduced reproductive investment do not directly enhance post-breeding survival, with the caveat that only one aspect of energy storage was manipulated and OVX itself had no overall effect on post-breeding survival. This study supports the emerging view that simple energy-allocation models may often be insufficient as explanations for the life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival. PMID:24724820

  15. Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta.

    PubMed

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E; Luna, María G

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  16. Reproductive Biology and Functional Response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a Natural Enemy of the Tomato Moth, Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Vivina; Coviella, Carlos E.; Luna, María G.

    2012-01-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2–15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed. PMID:23464576

  17. The ``gunshot'' sound produced by male North Atlantic right whales and its potential function in reproductive advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Susan E.; Hamilton, Philip; Kraus, Scott D.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2001-05-01

    North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) commonly use sound to mediate social interactions between individuals. Surface active groups (SAGs) are the most commonly observed social interaction on the summer feeding grounds. These groups are typically composed of an adult female with two or more males engaged in social behavior at the surface. Several distinct types of sounds have been recorded from these groups. One sound commonly recorded from these groups is a brief broadband sound, referred to as a gunshot sound because it sounds like a rifle being fired. This sound has been recorded in the Bay of Fundy, Canada from both lone whales (N=9) and social SAGs (N=49). Those lone whales producing gunshot sounds whose sex could be determined (N=9) were all mature males. In surface active groups, the rate of production of gunshot sounds was weakly correlated with the total number of males present in the group. Given the behavioral contexts of gunshot sound production by male whales, gunshots probably function in a reproductive context as an agonistic signal directed toward other males, an advertisement signal to attract females, or a combination of the two functions.

  18. The combined effect of clothianidin and environmental stress on the behavioral and reproductive function in male mice

    PubMed Central

    HIRANO, Tetsushi; YANAI, Shogo; OMOTEHARA, Takuya; HASHIMOTO, Rie; UMEMURA, Yuria; KUBOTA, Naoto; MINAMI, Kiichi; NAGAHARA, Daichi; MATSUO, Eiko; AIHARA, Yoshiko; SHINOHARA, Ryota; FURUYASHIKI, Tomoyuki; MANTANI, Youhei; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoids, some of the most widely used pesticides in the world, act as agonists to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects, resulting in death from abnormal excitability. Neonicotinoids unexpectedly became a major topic as a compelling cause of honeybee colony collapse disorder, which is damaging crop production that requires pollination worldwide. Mammal nAChRs appear to have a certain affinity for neonicotinoids with lower levels than those of insects; there is thus rising concern about unpredictable adverse effects of neonicotinoids on vertebrates. We hypothesized that the effects of neonicotinoids would be enhanced under a chronic stressed condition, which is known to alter the expression of targets of neonicotinoids, i.e., neuronal nAChRs. We performed immunohistochemical and behavioral analyses in male mice actively administered a neonicotinoid, clothianidin (CTD; 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day), for 4 weeks under an unpredictable chronic stress procedure. Vacuolated seminiferous epithelia and a decrease in the immunoreactivity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 were observed in the testes of the CTD+stress mice. In an open field test, although the locomotor activities were not affected, the anxiety-like behaviors of the mice were elevated by both CTD and stress. The present study demonstrates that the behavioral and reproductive effects of CTD become more serious in combination with environmental stress, which may reflect our actual situation of multiple exposure. PMID:25960033

  19. Recreating the female reproductive tract in vitro using iPSC technology in a linked microfluidics environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The female reproductive tract produces hormones for reproductive function and cardiovascular, bone and sexual health; the tract supplies a finite number of gametes, and it supports fetal development. Diseases that affect each of the female reproductive tract organs, along with treatments that have direct, deleterious effects on the reproductive tract (for example, chemotherapeutics), are understudied due to the lack of model systems that phenocopy in vivo function. This review describes a path toward developing female reproductive tract mimics. The models use isolated primary support cells cultured onto a biological scaffold and within a microfluidic system to create a niche and support the desired differentiation of epithelia, germ and somatic cells from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Improving our fund of knowledge about reproductive tract biology and creating reproductive organs for patients who have lost gonadal, uterine or vaginal/ cervical function is a major step forward in women's health and an important advancement in personalized medicine. PMID:24565375

  20. Effects of the anti-microbial, triclocarban, on the reproductive function and ovarian transcriptome of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclocarban (TCC) is a widely used antimicrobial agent that is routinely detected in surface waters. The present study was designed to examine TCC’s efficacy and mode of action as a reproductive toxicant in fish. Reproductively mature Pimephales promelas were continuously ...

  1. [The impact of thyroid function in women of reproductive age: infertility, pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Speer, Gábor

    2013-12-22

    This article reviews the management and diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum, which was published by any of the endocrine societies in 2012. The author presents human data based on these clinical practice guidelines, however, there are also many unresolved questions. Especially, there are inconsistencies about screening using plasma TSH measurement. In pregnancy the main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves's disease and gestational transient thyrotoxicosis. Generally, gestational transient thyrotoxicosis does not require medication, whereas Graves's disease needs antithyroid drug therapy. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs more frequently in antithyroid peroxidase-positive women, who should be screened using serum thyrotropin measurements at 6 to 12 gestation weeks and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Because overt maternal hypothyroidism, due to autoimmune pathophysioloical mechanisms, negatively affects the fetus, timely recognition and treatment are important. The subclinical form of maternal hypothyroidism should also be treated. A link between thyroid dysfunction and infertility has been warranted. PMID:24334133

  2. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    of reproductive function without any adverse effects for at least 48 weeks in male cats. PMID:26620725

  3. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their

  4. Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist “mate finding,” particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:26195747

  5. Seasonality of reproductive function and weight loss in rural Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, C; Lotstein, D S; Ellison, P T

    1993-05-01

    Menstrual and hormonal disturbances have been reported in thin, dieting and exercising Western women, and also recently in rural African women. A study of salivary progesterone profiles was undertaken in a Nepali population to examine whether seasonal increases in workload and changes in energy balance influenced ovarian function. Women's energy expenditure levels were moderately heavy in the winter and very heavy in the monsoon, and body mass fluctuated by -2.8 to +4.8 kg. Samples were collected from 24 normally menstruating women in two seasons, each individual serving as her own control. Progesterone levels were significantly depressed in the monsoon relative to winter for women who lost weight, but not for women who gained weight, indicating that energy imbalance is associated with a loss of fecundity. No differences in body mass index were found between women who lost or gained weight. Progesterone levels were age-dependent, and the degree of hormonal disturbance between age-groups was related to weight loss. The study demonstrates seasonal changes in the fecundity of hard-working Nepali women and a direct link between ovarian function and weight loss (negative energy balance), which is independent of current nutritional status. PMID:8314959

  6. The impact of reproduction on the stress axis of free-living male northern red backed voles (Myodes rutilus).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Dantzer, Ben; Boonstra, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis culminates in the release of glucocorticoids (henceforth CORT), which have wide-reaching physiological effects. Three hypotheses potentially explain seasonal variation in CORT. The enabling hypothesis predicts that reproductive season CORT exceeds post-reproductive season CORT because CORT enables reproductive investment. The inhibitory hypothesis predicts the opposite because CORT can negatively affect reproductive function. The costs of reproduction hypothesis predicts that HPA axis condition declines over and following the reproductive season. We tested these hypotheses in wild male red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) during the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons. We quantified CORT levels in response to restraint stress tests consisting of three blood samples (initial, stress-induced, and recovery). Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor mRNA levels in the brain were also quantified over the reproductive season. Total CORT (tCORT) in the initial and stress-induced samples were greater in the post-reproductive than in the reproductive season, which supported the inhibitory hypothesis. Conversely, free CORT (fCORT) did not differ between the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons, which was counter to both the enabling and inhibitory hypotheses. Evidence for HPA axis condition decline in CORT as well as GR and MR mRNA over the reproductive season (i.e. costs of reproduction hypothesis) was mixed. Moreover, all of the parameters that showed signs of declining condition over the reproductive season did not also show signs of declining condition over the post-reproductive season suggesting that the costs resulting from reproductive investment had subsided. In conclusion, our results suggest that different aspects of the HPA axis respond differently to seasonal changes and reproductive investment. PMID:26188715

  7. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production. PMID:27441055

  8. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) directly affects the feeding and reproduction behavior of its vector, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a recently discovered member of the genus Fijivirus and it is transmitted by the rice whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). It was found that SRBSDV infected vectors might contribute negatively to the WBPH population, although the longer nymphal period might benefit viral acquisition, transmission and increase infection rate. The interaction between SRBSDV and its vector need to be further explored to gain better understanding of the dispersal of WBPH and the spread of virus disease, in particular the feeding and reproduction behavior of viruliferous WBPH. Methods Newly hatched nymphs of WBPH were fed on healthy rice plant after feeding on SRBSDV-infected rice plants for 2 h, and newly emerged adults were numbered and tested. Feeding behaviors of WBPH adults were monitored electronically within a Faraday cage using a Giga-4 DC EPG amplifier. The newly emerged adults were paired, and the fecundity and egg hatchability were investigated. WBPH was molecularly identified for SRBSDV when they dead. According to the identification results, data on viruliferous and non-viruliferous WBPH were collected and analyzed. Results Feeding behavior of viruliferous WBPH was different from those of non-viruliferous WBPH. Frequency of phloem sap ingestion of viruliferous WBPH increased significantly, however the total feeding duration did not increase markedly. When both WBPH parents were infected with SRBSDV, their fecundity and hatchability of the eggs produced were significant lower than those of normal WBPH parents. However, if only one of the parents was viruliferous, fecundity and egg hatchability were only slightly affected. Conclusions Viruliferous WBPH fed on the phloem more frequently than non-viruliferous WBPH and can thus contribute to virus transmission. When both vector parents are viruliferous fecundity and hatchability of the eggs were significantly reduced. However when only

  9. Growth performance and reproductive traits at first parity of New Zealand white female rabbits as affected by heat stress and its alleviation under Egyptian conditions.

    PubMed

    Marai, I F; Ayyat, M S; Abd el-Monem, U M

    2001-12-01

    Exposing growing and adult New Zealand White (NZW) female rabbits to severe heat stress (temperature-humidity index = 28.9) during summer adversely affected their growth and reproductive traits. The traits that declined significantly (p < 0.01) were the live body weight, daily weight gain and feed intake of growing rabbits, and the litter size and litter weight at weaning (p < 0.05) and the pre-weaning weight gain of pups (p < 0.01) for adult females. The conception rate declined considerably with heat stress. The declines in the values of the digestibility coefficients due to heat stress were 7.9% (p < 0.05) for dry matter (DM), 8.1% (p < 0.05) for crude protein (CP) and 1.0% for crude fibre (CF). The traits that increased significantly (p < 0.01) due to heat stress were water intake, water/feed ratio and rectal temperature in growing rabbits and pre-weaning mortality for adult females. Alleviation of heat stress in the growing and adult female NZW rabbits was more efficient with drinking cool water (10-15 degrees C; between 10:00 and 17:00) than with supplementation with palm oil (as a source of energy) or natural clay (as a natural enhancer to growth and milk production). Supplying the animals with cool drinking water gave the highest body weight and weight gain, conception rate, litter size and weight and digestibility coefficients for DM and CP and the lowest rectal temperature, respiration rate and pre-weaning mortality. The loss in rabbit production pertaining to heat stress estimated from the percentages of decline in conception rate x pre-weaning mortality x litter weight at weaning was 73.0%. The provision of cool water restored 11/12 of heat loss. PMID:11770200

  10. Evaluation of reproductive function among men occupationally exposed to a stilbene derivative: II. Perceived libido and potency.

    PubMed

    Whelan, E A; Grajewski, B; Wild, D K; Schnorr, T M; Alderfer, R

    1996-01-01

    This is the second of two reports of a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation conducted in response to complaints of sexual dysfunction among men who manufacture the stilbene derivative 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DAS; CAS 81-11-8), an intermediate in the manufacture of fluorescent whitening agents. The first report [Grajewski et al. (1995): Am J Ind Med 29:53-61] describes results of the analysis of reproductive hormone levels. This second report provides results from the analysis of perceived libido and potency. In a cross-sectional design, self-reported sexual function of 30 male workers who manufacture DAS and 20 former DAS workers was compared to that of 35 workers who manufactured plastics additives in a different manufacturing area. Questionnaire items were examined by factor analysis, reducing the data to these components of sexual function: sexual activity/performance (two factors), interest, satisfaction, and physiologic competence. Adjusting for age, currently exposed workers were more likely than unexposed workers to have a value in the lowest quartile for interest (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-7.2), physiologic competence (adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.4), and activity/performance factor II (adjusted OR = 5.8, 95% CI 1.3-27.3). Former DAS workers reported problems associated with activity/performance factors I and II compared to unexposed workers (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.5-10.1 and adjusted OR = 6.7, 95% CI 1.2-35.9, respectively). Although the small study size limits the precision of the effect estimates, the pattern of results suggests a possible effect on sexual function of working in the DAS manufacturing area. PMID:8808043

  11. Function of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-1 in Reproductive System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hongyan; Xuan, Jingxiu; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Guixiu

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), also known as GPR30, is a novel estrogen receptor mediating estrogen receptor signaling in multiple cell types. The progress of estrogen-related cancer is promoted by GPER-1 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. However, this promoting effect of GPER-1 is nonclassic estrogen receptor (ER) dependent manner. In addition, clinical evidences revealed that GPER-1 is associated with estrogen resistance in estrogen-related cancer patients. These give a hint that GPER-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the estrogen-related cancers. However, preclinical studies also found that GPER-1 activation of its special agonist G-1 inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This review aims to summarize the characteristics and complex functions of GPER-1 in cancers. PMID:27314054

  12. Functional genetic polymorphisms and female reproductive disorders: Part I: polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian response

    PubMed Central

    Simoni, M.; Tempfer, C.B.; Destenaves, B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The identification of polymorphisms associated with a disease can help to elucidate its pathogenesis, and this knowledge can be used to improve prognosis for women with a particular disorder, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Since an altered response to ovarian stimulation is also a characteristic of the disease, further knowledge about its aetiology could help in defining the parameters that determine the response of an individual to ovarian stimulation. METHODS PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched for gene association studies published until the end of August 2007, using search criteria relevant to PCOS and ovarian response to stimulation. Data from additional papers identified through hand searches were also included; 139 publications were reviewed. RESULTS Several genes involved in ovarian function and metabolism are associated with increased susceptibility to PCOS, but none is strong enough to correlate alone with susceptibility to the disease, or response to therapy. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 10 of the FSH receptor (FSHR) gene, FSHR p.N680S, was consistently identified as having a significant association with ovarian response to FSH. CONCLUSIONS No consistent association between gene polymorphism and PCOS could be identified. The FSHR gene may play a significant role in the success of ovarian stimulation, and can be used as a marker to predict differences in FSHR function and ovarian response to FSH. Genotyping the FSHR p.N680S polymorphism may provide a means of identifying a population of poor responders before in vitro fertilization procedures are initiated. PMID:18603647

  13. In vitro functional screening as a means to identify new plasticizers devoid of reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Annie; Jones, Steven; Issop, Leeyah; Erythropel, Hanno C; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Culty, Martine

    2016-10-01

    Plasticizers are indispensable additives providing flexibility and malleability to plastics. Among them, several phthalates, including di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), have emerged as endocrine disruptors, leading to their restriction in consumer products and creating a need for new, safer plasticizers. The goal of this project was to use in vitro functional screening tools to select novel non-toxic plasticizers suitable for further in vivo evaluation. A panel of novel compounds with satisfactory plasticizer properties and biodegradability were tested, along with several commercial plasticizers, such as diisononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH®). MEHP, the monoester metabolite of DEHP was also included as reference compound. Because phthalates target mainly testicular function, including androgen production and spermatogenesis, we used the mouse MA-10 Leydig and C18-4 spermatogonial cell lines as surrogates to examine cell survival, proliferation, steroidogenesis and mitochondrial integrity. The most promising compounds were further assessed on organ cultures of rat fetal and neonatal testes, corresponding to sensitive developmental windows. Dose-response studies revealed the toxicity of most maleates and fumarates, while identifying several dibenzoate and succinate plasticizers as innocuous on Leydig and germ cells. Interestingly, DINCH®, a plasticizer marketed as a safe alternative to phthalates, exerted a biphasic effect on steroid production in MA-10 and fetal Leydig cells. MEHP was the only plasticizer inducing the formation of multinucleated germ cells (MNG) in organ culture. Overall, organ cultures corroborated the cell line data, identifying one dibenzoate and one succinate as the most promising candidates. The adoption of such collaborative approaches for developing new chemicals should help prevent the development of compounds potentially harmful to human health. PMID:27423704

  14. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P < 0.05). Granulosa cells from F1 follicles of AL hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P < 0.05) production, suggestive of slower maturation in ovulatory process and inflamed necrosis. Interestingly, while highly infiltrated with immune cells, particularly heterophils, IL-1beta, MMP-22-like, and gelatinase A activities were reduced in AL hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P < 0.05); however, AL monocytes showed an increase in phagocytosis rate (P < 0.05). Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates was also suppressed in AL heterophils but increased in AL monocytes (P < 0.05). In contrast to leukocyte-free control, both AL and R heterophils and monocytes suppressed progesterone production and increased cell death in a dose-dependent manner when coincubated with granulosa cells at different ratios (P < 0.05). AL monocytes suppressed progesterone production more, but AL heterophils were less proapoptotic when compared to their R counterparts (P < 0.05). Alterations of cellular ceramide content (P < 0.05) corresponded to the discrepancy between heterophil and monocyte functionality. In conclusion, leukocyte dysfunction contributes to impaired ovarian activities of overfed broiler hens. PMID:24829031

  15. Incubation Patterns in a Central-Place Forager Affect Lifetime Reproductive Success: Scaling of Patterns from a Foraging Bout to a Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Akiko; Elliott, Kyle H.; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Crump, Doug; Gaston, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-lived seabirds face a conflict between current and lifelong reproductive success. During incubation shifts, egg neglect is sometimes necessary to avoid starvation, but may compromise the current reproductive attempt. However, factors underlying this decision process are poorly understood. We focus on the ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus, an alcid with exceptionally long incubation shift lengths, and test the impact of environmental factors on incubation shift length in relation to reproductive success. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an information theoretic approach, we show that incubation shift length was a strong predictor of reproductive success for ancient murrelets at Reef Island, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. The most important factors explaining an individual's shift length were egg size, wind speed and the length of the mate's previous shift. Wind speed and tide height were the two most important factors for determining foraging behavior, as measured by dive frequency and depth. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates that (i) species-specific reproductive strategies interact with environmental conditions such as wind speed to form multiple incubation patterns and (ii) maintaining regular incubation shifts is an essential component of reproductive success. PMID:21423631

  16. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  17. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Codony, Francesc; Estrada, Efrén; Lleonart, Miquel; Balasch, Sam; Peña, Alejandro; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light LED regimens on sperm quality and reproductive performance. Of all of the tested photo-stimulation procedures, the best pattern consisted of 10 min light, 10 min rest and 10 min of further light (10-10-10 pattern). This pattern induced an intense and transient increase in the majority of motility parameters, without modifying sperm viability and acrosome integrity. While incubating non-photo-stimulated sperm at 37 °C for 90 min decreased all sperm quality parameters, this reduction was prevented when the previously-described light procedure was applied. This effect was concomitant with an increase in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential. When sperm were subjected to ‘in vitro’ capacitation, photo-stimulation also increased the percentage of sperm with capacitation-like changes in membrane structure. On the other hand, treating commercial semen doses intended for artificial insemination with the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern significantly increased farrowing rates and the number of both total and live-born piglets for parturition. Therefore, our results indicate that a precise photo-stimulation procedure is able to increase the fertilising ability of boar sperm via a mechanism that could be related to mitochondrial function. PMID:26931070

  18. Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Codony, Francesc; Estrada, Efrén; Lleonart, Miquel; Balasch, Sam; Peña, Alejandro; Bonet, Sergi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exposing liquid-stored boar semen to different red light LED regimens on sperm quality and reproductive performance. Of all of the tested photo-stimulation procedures, the best pattern consisted of 10 min light, 10 min rest and 10 min of further light (10-10-10 pattern). This pattern induced an intense and transient increase in the majority of motility parameters, without modifying sperm viability and acrosome integrity. While incubating non-photo-stimulated sperm at 37 °C for 90 min decreased all sperm quality parameters, this reduction was prevented when the previously-described light procedure was applied. This effect was concomitant with an increase in the percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial membrane potential. When sperm were subjected to 'in vitro' capacitation, photo-stimulation also increased the percentage of sperm with capacitation-like changes in membrane structure. On the other hand, treating commercial semen doses intended for artificial insemination with the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern significantly increased farrowing rates and the number of both total and live-born piglets for parturition. Therefore, our results indicate that a precise photo-stimulation procedure is able to increase the fertilising ability of boar sperm via a mechanism that could be related to mitochondrial function. PMID:26931070

  19. Relative Importance of the Arcuate and Anteroventral Periventricular Kisspeptin Neurons in Control of Puberty and Reproductive Function in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, M. H.; Li, X. F.; McCausland, B.; Li, S. Y.; Gresham, R.; Kinsey-Jones, J. S.; Gardiner, J. V.; Sam, A. H.; Bloom, S. R.; Poston, L.; Lightman, S. L.; Murphy, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin plays a critical role in pubertal timing and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya within the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei are thought to be involved in LH pulse and surge generation, respectively. Using bilateral microinjections of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC or AVPV of female rats at postnatal day 10, we investigated the relative importance of these two kisspeptin populations in the control of pubertal timing, estrous cyclicity, and LH surge and pulse generation. A 37% knockdown of kisspeptin in the AVPV resulted in a significant delay in vaginal opening and first vaginal estrous, abnormal estrous cyclicity, and reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous LH surges, although these retained normal amplitude. This AVPV knockdown had no effect on LH pulse frequency, measured after ovariectomy. A 32% reduction of kisspeptin in the ARC had no effect on the onset of puberty but resulted in abnormal estrous cyclicity and decreased LH pulse frequency. Additionally, the knockdown of kisspeptin in the ARC decreased the amplitude but not the incidence of LH surges. These results might suggest that the role of AVPV kisspeptin in the control of pubertal timing is particularly sensitive to perturbation. In accordance with our previous studies, ARC kisspeptin signaling was critical for normal pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. Despite the widely reported role of AVPV kisspeptin neurons in LH surge generation, this study suggests that both AVPV and ARC populations are essential for normal LH surges and estrous cyclicity. PMID:25875299

  20. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing—from a reproductive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Gingnell, Malin

    2014-01-01

    The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI −0.35 to 3.57), suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase. Thus, to the extent that behavioral changes

  1. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  2. Advances in human reproductive ecology.

    PubMed

    Ellison, P T

    1994-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology pertains to reproduction biology and changes due to environmental influences. The research literature relies on clinical, epidemiological, and demographic analysis. The emphasis is on normal, nonpathological states and a broad range of ecological conditions. This review focused on the importance of age and energetic stress from ecological conditions rather than dieting or self-directed exercise in changing female fecundity. The literature on male reproductive ecology is still small but growing. J.W. Wood provided a comprehensive overview of the field. Natural fertility, as defined by Henry, is the lack of parity-specific fertility limitation. There is evidence that fertility can vary widely in natural fertility populations. There are consistent age patterns among different natural fertility populations. Doring found that there was higher frequency of anovulatory and luteal insufficiency in cycles during perimenarche and perimenopausal periods. Infertility studies have shown declines in pregnancy rates in women over the age of 30 years. Ovum donation evaluations have found both uterine age and ovarian and oocyte age to be related to the probability of a successful pregnancy. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and the endometrial thickness are important predictors of ovarian capacity and related to age and declining fecundity. Much of the literature on fecundity is derived from women with impaired reproductive physiology. In Lipson and Ellison's study of healthy women, average follicular and average luteal estradiol values declined with increasing subject age. Low follicular levels were correlated with smaller follicular size, low oocyte fertilizability, reduced endometrial thickness, and low pregnancy rates. Comparisons across populations have shown that populations experience declines in luteal function with age, but levels of luteal functions varied widely. Chronic conditions which slow growth and delay reproductive maturation may impact

  3. Functional genetic polymorphisms and female reproductive disorders: Part II—endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Tempfer, C.B.; Simoni, M.; Destenaves, B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endometriosis has a strong genetic component, and numerous genetic studies have been reported. METHODS We have systematically reviewed these studies and included 114 in our final selection. RESULTS We found no consistent evidence linking endometriosis with specific polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammatory mediators, proteins involved in sex steroid metabolism, vascular function and tissue remodelling. Although a number of polymorphisms have been associated with endometriosis in selected populations, the associations have not been independently confirmed, either because only single studies were carried out on these markers/genes or because other studies reported no association. The most solid evidence linking specific polymorphisms to endometriosis came from studies investigating glutathione-S-transferase, a phase II detoxification enzyme. Carriage of the GSTT1 null deletion variant showed consistent association with endometriosis with a 29% increased risk; however, it cannot be excluded that this result was due to publication bias, and this association should be independently confirmed in large-scale, well-designed case–control studies. CONCLUSIONS The evidence of an association between genetic polymorphisms and endometriosis is weak. Carriage of the GSTT1 null deletion may moderately increase the risk of this disease. We suggest that the methodology of association studies should be improved in order to identify and validate associations in endometriosis. PMID:18805939

  4. Identification of cdc25 gene in pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, and its function in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ye-Na; Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Oh, Wan-Suk; Lee, Yi; Paik, Young-Ki; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2010-02-28

    The cdc25 gene, which is highly conserved in many eukaryotes, encodes a phosphatase that plays essential roles in cell cycle regulation. We identified a cdc25 ortholog in the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The B. xylophilus ortholog (Bx-cdc25) was found to be highly similar to Caenorhabditis elegans cdc-25.2 in sequence as well as in gene structure, both having long intron 1. The Bx-cdc25 gene was determined to be composed of seven exons and six introns in a 2,580 bp region, and was shown to encode 360 amino acids of a protein containing a highly-conserved phosphatase domain. Bx-cdc25 mRNA was hardly detectable throughout the juvenile stages but was highly expressed in eggs and in both female and male adults. Functional conservation during germline development between C. elegans cdc25 and Bx-cdc25 was revealed by Bx-cdc25 RNA interference in C. elegans. PMID:20069382

  5. A Dimerization-Dependent Mechanism Drives the Endoribonuclease Function of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp11

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuejun; Li, Youwen; Lei, Yingying; Ye, Gang; Shen, Zhou; Sun, Limeng; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Fu, Zhen F.; Xiao, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA endoribonuclease nsp11 belongs to the XendoU superfamily and plays a crucial role in arterivirus replication. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the arterivirus nsp11 protein from PRRSV, which exhibits a unique structure and assembles into an asymmetric dimer whose structure is completely different from the hexameric structure of coronavirus nsp15. However, the structures of the PRRSV nsp11 and coronavirus nsp15 catalytic domains were perfectly superimposed, especially in the “active site loop” (His129 to His144) and “supporting loop” (Val162 to Thr179) regions. Importantly, our biochemical data demonstrated that PRRSV nsp11 exists mainly as a dimer in solution. Mutations of the major dimerization site determinants (Ser74 and Phe76) in the dimerization interface destabilized the dimer in solution and severely diminished endoribonuclease activity, indicating that the dimer is the biologically functional unit. In the dimeric structure, the active site loop and supporting loop are packed against one another and stabilized by monomer-monomer interactions. These findings may help elucidate the mechanism underlying arterivirus replication and may represent great potential for the development of antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a member of the family Arteriviridae, order Nidovirales. PRRSV is a major agent of respiratory diseases in pigs, causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. The PRRSV nsp11 endoribonuclease plays a vital role in arterivirus replication, but its precise roles and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Here, we report the first dimeric structure of the arterivirus nsp11 from PRRSV at 2.75-Å resolution. Structural and biochemical experiments demonstrated that nsp11 exists mainly as a dimer in solution and that nsp11 may be fully active as a dimer. Mutagenesis and

  6. The endocrine control of reproduction in Nereidae: a new multi-hormonal model with implications for their functional role in a changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A. J.; Soame, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nereidae are vital to the functioning of estuarine ecosystems and are major components in the diets of over-wintering birds and commercial fish. They use environmental cues to synchronize reproduction. Photoperiod is the proximate cue, initiating vitellogenesis in a temperature-compensated process. The prevailing paradigm in Nereidae is of a single ‘juvenile’ hormone controlling growth and reproduction. However, a new multi-hormone model is presented here that integrates the environmental and endocrine control of reproduction. This is supported by evidence from in vitro bioassays. The juvenile hormone is shown to be heat stable and cross reactive between species. In addition, a second neuro-hormone, identified here as a gonadotrophic hormone, is shown to be present in mature females and is found to promote oocyte growth. Furthermore, dopamine and melatonin appear to switch off the juvenile hormone while serotonin and oxytocin promote oocyte growth. Global warming is likely to uncouple the phase relationship between temperature and photoperiod, with significant consequences for Nereidae that use photoperiod to cue reproduction during the winter in northern latitudes. Genotypic adaptation of the photoperiodic response may be possible, but significant impacts on fecundity, spawning success and recruitment are likely in response to short-term extreme events. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may also impact on putative steroid hormone pathways in Nereidae with similar consequences. These impacts may have significant implications for the functional role of Nereidae and highlight the importance of comparative endocrinology studies in these and other invertebrates. PMID:19833648

  7. Reproductive manifestations of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid function and reproductive function have many interactions, the scope and mechanism of which are not fully understood. These functions are of greatest clinical importance for veterinarians working with breeders of purebred dogs. Thyroid dysfunction does not always result in clinical signs of reproductive disorders or in subfertility. It seems that animals with overt thyroid dysfunction are those most likely to manifest reproduction problems. PMID:8053110

  8. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: effects on reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are appearance and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) used in competitive athletics, in recreational sports, and by body-builders. The global lifetime prevalence of AASs abuse is 6.4% for males and 1.6% for women. Many AASs, often obtained from the internet and dubious sources, have not undergone proper testing and are consumed at extremely high doses and in irrational combinations, also along with other drugs. Controlled clinical trials investigating undesired side effects are lacking because ethical restrictions prevent exposing volunteers to potentially toxic regimens, obscuring a causal relationship between AASs abuse and possible sequelae. Because of the negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, in men AASs cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, infertility, and erectile dysfunction (anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism). Should spermatogenesis not recover after AASs abuse, a pre-existing fertility disorder may have resurfaced. AASs frequently cause gynecomastia and acne. In women, AASs may disrupt ovarian function. Chronic strenuous physical activity leads to menstrual irregularities and, in severe cases, to the female athlete triad (low energy intake, menstrual disorders and low bone mass), making it difficult to disentangle the effects of sports and AASs. Acne, hirsutism and (irreversible) deepening of the voice are further consequences of AASs misuse. There is no evidence that AASs cause breast carcinoma. Detecting AASs misuse through the control network of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) not only aims to guarantee fair conditions for athletes, but also to protect them from medical sequelae of AASs abuse. PMID:25805894

  9. Effects of a model 3B-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenas Inhibitor, Trilostane, on Reproductive Endocrine Function in the Fathead Minnow

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of enzymes involved in the synthesis of sex steroids can substantially impact developmental and reproductive processes controlled by the hypothalmic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. A key steroidogenic enzyme that has received little attention from a toxicological perspec...

  10. Impact of the environment on reproductive health.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    damage is reported for fetuses and infants exposed to methyl mercury. There is the beginning of evidence that complications of pregnancy may be related to pollution levels surrounding industrial plants. Reproductive health is affected through chromosome damage and cell destruction, prenatal death, altered growth, fetal abnormalities, postnatal death, functional learning deficits, and premature aging. PMID:12285819

  11. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in Japanese Patients: Clinical Features, Visual Function, and Factors Affecting Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Saho; Saito, Wataru; Saito, Michiyuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical features and investigate their relationship with visual function in Japanese patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 38 Japanese AZOOR patients (31 female and 7 male patients; mean age at first visit, 35.0 years; median follow-up duration, 31 months) were retrospectively collected: 31 untreated eyes with good visual acuity and 21 systemic corticosteroid-treated eyes with progressive visual acuity loss. Variables affecting the logMAR values of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean deviation (MD) on Humphrey perimetry at initial and final visits were examined using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In untreated eyes, the mean MD at the final visit was significantly higher than that at the initial visit (P = 0.00002). In corticosteroid-treated eyes, the logMAR BCVA and MD at the final visit were significantly better than the initial values (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). The final logMAR BCVA was 0.0 or less in 85% of patients. Variables affecting initial visual function were moderate anterior vitreous cells, myopia severity, and a-wave amplitudes on electroretinography; factors affecting final visual function were the initial MD values, female sex, moderate anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy. Conclusions Our data indicated that visual functions in enrolled patients significantly improved spontaneously or after systemic corticosteroids therapy, suggesting that Japanese patients with AZOOR have good visual outcomes during the follow-up period of this study. Furthermore, initial visual field defects, gender, anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy affected final visual functions in these patients. PMID:25919689

  12. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  13. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  14. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  15. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  16. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  17. Impact of Marine Drugs on Animal Reproductive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre, Francesco; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and description of bioactive substances from natural sources has been a research topic for the last 50 years. In this respect, marine animals have been used to extract many new compounds exerting different actions. Reproduction is a complex process whose main steps are the production and maturation of gametes, their activation, the fertilisation and the beginning of development. In the literature it has been shown that many substances extracted from marine organisms may have profound influence on the reproductive behaviour, function and reproductive strategies and survival of species. However, despite the central importance of reproduction and thus the maintenance of species, there are still few studies on how reproductive mechanisms are impacted by marine bioactive drugs. At present, studies in either marine and terrestrial animals have been particularly important in identifying what specific fine reproductive mechanisms are affected by marine-derived substances. In this review we describe the main steps of the biology of reproduction and the impact of substances from marine environment and organisms on the reproductive processes. PMID:20098597

  18. Leptin and reproductive function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue plays a dynamic role in whole-body homeostasis by acting as an endocrine organ. Collective evidence indicates a strong link between neural influences and adipocyte expression and secretion of leptin. Developmental changes in these relationships are considered important for pubertal ...

  19. Maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation delays male puberty and disrupts reproductive functions via hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis alterations.

    PubMed

    Jeje, S O; Akindele, O O; Balogun, M E; Raji, Y

    2016-03-01

    The effects of maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation on pubertal timing, serum hormonal profile and sperm indices in the male offspring were assessed. Twenty lactating dams were divided into 4 groups (n=5). Group 1 was administered subcutaneously 0.02ml/100g/day normal saline at lactation days 1-21. Groups 2-4 were administered subcutaneously 100μg/kg/day dexamethasone (Dex) at lactation days 1-7, 1-14, and 1-21 respectively. Results showed that there was significant reduction in serum testosterone in the DexLD 1-7 (p<0.05), DexLD 1-14 (p<0.01) and DexLD 1-21 (p<0.001) relative to control. In addition there was a significant reduction in serum FSH and LH in the DexLD 1-7 (p<0.01), DexLD 1-14 (p<0.001) and DexLD 1-21 (p<0.001) when compared with the control. Treatment with dexamethasone during lactation significantly increased the days of preputial separation in the DexLD 1-7 (p<0.05), DexLD 1-14 (p<0.05) and DexLD 1-21 (p<0.001) relative to control. Maternal treatment with dexamethasone throughout lactation period also significantly reduced sperm counts (p<0.001), motility (p<0.01) and increased percentage abnormal sperm (p<0.001) in the offspring when compared with the control. In conclusion, maternal treatment with dexamethasone during lactation may induce delayed puberty and disrupt reproductive functions by altering activities at hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male offspring. PMID:26774541

  20. Functional characterization of polymorphic variants for ovine MT1 melatonin receptors: possible implication for seasonal reproduction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Trecherel, E; Batailler, M; Chesneau, D; Delagrange, P; Malpaux, B; Chemineau, P; Migaud, M

    2010-12-01

    In seasonal breeding species, the gene encoding for the melatonin MT(1) receptor (oMT(1)) is highly polymorphic and numerous data have reported the existence of an association between an allele of the receptor and a marked expression of the seasonality of reproduction in ewes. This allele called "m" (previously named "-" allele) carries a mutation leading to the absence of a MnlI restriction site as opposed to the "M" allele (previously named "+" allele) carrying the MnlI restriction site (previously "+" allele). This allows the determination of the three genotypes "M/M" (+/+), "M/m" (+/-) and "m/m" (-/-). This mutation is conservative and could therefore not be causal. However, it is associated with another mutation introducing the change of a valine to an isoleucine in the fifth transmembrane domain of the receptor. Homozygous "M/M" and "m/m" animals consequently express structurally different receptors respectively named oMT(1) Val(220) and oMT(1) Ile(220). The objective of this study was to test whether these polymorphic variants are functionally different. To achieve this goal, we characterized the binding properties and the transduction pathways associated with both variants of the receptors. Using a pharmacological approach, no variation in binding parameters between the two receptors when transiently expressed in COS-7. In stably transfected HEK293 cells, significant differences were detected in the inhibition of cAMP production whereas receptors internalization processes were not different. In conclusion, the possibility that subtle alterations induced by the non conservative mutation in "m/m" animals might modify the perception of the melatoninergic signal is discussed in the context of melatonin action. PMID:21075566

  1. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  2. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  3. Breeding and Housing Laboratory Rats and Mice in the Same Room Does Not Affect the Growth or Reproduction of Either Species

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Chang, Fon T; Festing, Michael F W

    2009-01-01

    Few data exist regarding the effects of long-term housing of rats and mice in the same secondary enclosure. Historical reproductive and growth data were compared for colonies of mice and rats maintained in open-topped cages in either single-species or dual-species barrier rooms. This analysis included reproductive parameters (litter size at birth, litter size at weaning, and pups missing at weaning) collected from 33 colonies of mice comprising 500 to 38,500 breeding females and 28 colonies of rats totaling 350 to 4,600 breeding females, and representative samples from 28 colonies of each species were analyzed for weight gain from weaning to adulthood. The presence or absence of the other species was not associated with statistically significant differences in weight gain or any of the reproductive parameters. These results suggest that breeding colonies of rats and mice of the same health status can be housed in the same room without a negative effect on the growth and reproduction of either species. PMID:19807969

  4. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  5. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889

  6. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  7. “I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead”: Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background. We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24–57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on “family planning” and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Discussion. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention. PMID:27051664

  8. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Reproductive function and embryo quality of superovulated heifers.

    PubMed

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Jahnke, Marianna M; West, James K; Phillips, Patrick E; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to study the effects of a commercial pyrethroid-based pour-on product, permethrin, on reproductive performance in superovulated beef heifers by assessing steroid biosynthesis and embryo quality. Nonpregnant, yearling beef heifers (n = 10; 418 ± 33 kg; 5.5 ± 0.2 body conditioning scores) were assigned by body weight and breed to either (1) saline control or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Superovulation was achieved on all heifers using a timed, 17-day, CIDR-based protocol with GnRH and PGF2α and decreasing total dosage of 240-mg FSH administered twice daily for 4 days. Heifers were artificially inseminated twice (at onset of estrus and 12 hours later) by same technician with frozen semen from single bull collection. To determine short- and long-term effects of permethrin on embryo quality and steroid biosynthesis, superovulation was initiated twice with collection of embryos occurring at 17 and 51 days after treatment. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after first artificial insemination via nonsurgical flush and were evaluated by International Embryo Transfer Society standards. Blood was collected at standing estrus and day of embryo recovery. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were analyzed via RIA. MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS were used to analyze continuous and categorical data, respectively. Heifer per flush was the experimental unit. Total embryos recovered did not differ because of treatment (P = 0.30), but did decrease in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.02). Quality grade, total transferable quality embryos, and overall flush success did not differ because of treatment (P ≥ 0.16). However, transferable quality embryos were decreased in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.05). Total unfertilized oocytes were greater in saline control (P = 0.04). The PYR heifers tended to have less total P4 (P = 0.15) and P4 per CL (P = 0.06) at recovery. E2 per ovulated

  9. Nocturnal illumination maintains reproductive function and simulates the period-lengthening effect of constant light in the mature male Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    Mature male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were placed in individual light-tight, sound attenuated chambers and exposed to one of four lighting conditions for a duration of approximately seven weeks. The four lighting conditions were: constant light (LL); constant dark (DD); feedback lighting (LDFB; a condition that illuminates the cage in response to locomotor activity); or a feedback lighting neighbor control (LDFB NC; the animal receives the same light pattern as a paired animal in feedback lighting, but has no control over it). Exposure of hamsters to LL or LDFB produced significantly and similarly longer free-running periods of the locomotor activity rhythm than exposure of animals to DD. Hamsters exposed to LDFB NC did not free-run or entrain, but rather displayed "relative coordination". The paired testes and sex accessory glands weights suggest that in the Djungarian hamster, LL and LDFB exposed animals maintained reproductive function, whereas DD exposed animals did not. Animals exposed to LDFB NC had intermediate paired testes weights. Since several previous studies have demonstrated that short pulses of light, which are coincident with the subjective night, are photostimulatory, it is not surprising that LDFB maintained reproductive function in the mature Djungarian hamster. Feedback lighting, however, has been shown to be an insufficient stimulus to maintain reproductive function of mature male and female Syrian hamsters, and to the reproductive maturation of immature Djungarian hamsters. The results suggest that there may be slight, but significant differences in the way these two species interpret photoperiod, as well as a developmental change in the photoperiodic response of Djungarian hamsters.

  10. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  11. [Reproductive aspects of celiac disease].

    PubMed

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2005-01-01

    In the past, celiac disease (CD), or intolerance to gluten, was considered a rare disease of infancy characterized by chronic diarrhea with malabsorption and delayed growth. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are other clinic and subclinical forms which appear later in life. Target organs are not limited to the gut, but include liver, thyroid, skin and female and male reproductive systems. CD interference on reproduction is related to the multifactorial nature of the disease, whose pathological manifestations can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients such as iron, folic acid and vitamin K, which are essential for organogenesis, and fat-soluble vitamins important for spermatogenesis. Regarding endocrine disorders, the deficiencies of specific trace elements on ovarian function could explain its involvement in the increased risk of female osteoporosis in CD patients. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens; the increases of follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin, not associated with infertility, may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health. Since reproductive alterations are reversible, adoption of a gluten-free diet supported by early diagnosis is important. Therefore, the detection of early biomarkers, such as deficiencies of vitamins and/or iron and andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions, should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:16250182

  12. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  13. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments

  14. Role of free radicals in female reproductive diseases and assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2004-09-01

    Infertility is a common problem experienced by many couples. Numerous treatments are available for female infertility. However, in some cases, the treatment is empirical in nature because the aetiology of infertility is not fully understood. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to have an important role in the normal functioning of reproductive system and in the pathogenesis of infertility in females. Reactive oxygen species may also play a role in other reproductive organ diseases of women such as endometriosis. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between the generation of ROS and the scavenging capacity of antioxidants in the reproductive tract. It affects both natural and assisted fertility. Because assisted reproductive techniques are used extensively in the treatment of infertility, it is critical to understand the in-vitro conditions that affect fertilization and embryo development. Treatments that reduce oxidative stress may help infertile women with diseases that are caused by this imbalance. Such strategies include identifying the source of excessive generation of ROS, treating the primary cause, and in-vitro and in-vivo supplementation of antioxidants. Research is in progress to identify the mechanisms that are involved in the aetiology of female reproductive diseases caused by ROS, and to create effective strategies that can counteract oxidative stress. PMID:15353087

  15. Amygdala Perfusion Is Predicted by Its Functional Connectivity with the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Coombs III, Garth; Loggia, Marco L.; Greve, Douglas N.; Holt, Daphne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect). It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1) amygdala over-activity and 2) reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. Methods Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF) and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal) of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA), and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. Results BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. Conclusions These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach. PMID:24816735

  16. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) duri