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Sample records for affect reproductive outcome

  1. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  2. Social Variables Affecting Mate Preferences, Copulation and Reproductive Outcome in a Pack of Free-Ranging Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  3. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafazzo, Simona; Bonanni, Roberto; Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  4. Prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects reproductive outcomes in female mice.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Sarah; Rattan, Saniya; Brehm, Emily; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal DEHP exposure affects female reproduction. To test this hypothesis, pregnant female CD-1 mice were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DEHP (20 μg/kg/day-750 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 11-birth. Pups were counted, weighed, and sexed at birth, ovaries were subjected to evaluations of follicle numbers on postnatal days (PNDs) 8 and 21, and fertility was evaluated at 3-9 months. The results indicate that prenatal DEHP exposure increased male-to-female ratio compared to controls. Prenatal DEHP exposure also increased preantral follicle numbers at PND 21 compared to controls. Further, 22.2% of the 20 μg/kg/day treated animals took longer than 5 days to get pregnant at 3 months and 28.6% of the 750 mg/kg/day treated animals lost some of their pups at 6 months. Thus, prenatal DEHP exposure alters F1 sex ratio, increases preantral follicle numbers, and causes some breeding abnormalities. PMID:25765777

  5. Post-Disaster Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zotti, Marianne E.; Williams, Amy M.; Robertson, McKaylee; Horney, Jennifer; Hsia, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We examined methodological issues in studies of disaster-related effects on reproductive health outcomes and fertility among women of reproductive age and infants in the United States (US). We conducted a systematic literature review of 1,635 articles and reports published in peer-reviewed journals or by the government from January 1981 through December 2010. We classified the studies using three exposure types: (1) physical exposure to toxicants; (2) psychological trauma; and (3) general exposure to disaster. Fifteen articles met our inclusion criteria concerning research focus and design. Overall studies pertained to eight different disasters, with most (n = 6) focused on the World Trade Center attack. Only one study examined pregnancy loss, i.e., occurrence of spontaneous abortions post-disaster. Most studies focused on associations between disaster and adverse birth outcomes, but two studies pertained only to post-disaster fertility while another two examined it in addition to adverse birth outcomes. In most studies disaster-affected populations were assumed to have experienced psychological trauma, but exposure to trauma was measured in only four studies. Furthermore, effects of both physical exposure to toxicants and psychological trauma on disaster-affected populations were examined in only one study. Effects on birth outcomes were not consistently demonstrated, and study methodologies varied widely. Even so, these studies suggest an association between disasters and reproductive health and highlight the need for further studies to clarify associations. We postulate that post-disaster surveillance among pregnant women could improve our understanding of effects of disaster on the reproductive health of US pregnant women. PMID:22752348

  6. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  7. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  8. Ethnic differences in assisted reproductive technologies outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Trimble; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2013-09-01

    Disparities in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) outcomes have been identified among ethnic minorities when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. Minority ethnicity has been shown to be an independent predictor of lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in many studies. In this article, we seek to summarize the most recent literature on ethnic difference reported within ART outcomes. We will discuss potential reasons behind these disparities and further explore independent predictors and associations between ethnicity and ART success. PMID:23934696

  9. Impact of stress on oocyte quality and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shilpa; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-01-01

    Stress is an important factor that affects physical and mental status of a healthy person disturbing homeostasis of the body. Changes in the lifestyle are one of the major causes that lead to psychological stress. Psychological stress could impact the biology of female reproduction by targeting at the level of ovary, follicle and oocyte. The increased level of stress hormone such as cortisol reduces estradiol production possibly by affecting the granulosa cell functions within the follicle, which results deterioration in oocyte quality. Adaptation of lifestyle behaviours may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ovary, which further affects female reproduction. Balance between level of ROS and antioxidants within the ovary are important for maintenance of female reproductive health. Physiological level of ROS modulates oocyte functions, while its accumulation leads to oxidative stress (OS). OS triggers apoptosis in majority of germ cells within the ovary and even in ovulated oocytes. Although both mitochondria- as well as death-receptor pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis, OS-induced mitochondria-mediated pathway plays a major role in the elimination of majority of germ cells from ovary. OS in the follicular fluid deteriorates oocyte quality and reduces reproductive outcome. On the other hand, antioxidants reduce ROS levels and protect against OS-mediated germ cell apoptosis and thereby depletion of germ cells from the ovary. Indeed, OS is one of the major factors that has a direct negative impact on oocyte quality and limits female reproductive outcome in several mammalian species including human. PMID:27026099

  10. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  11. Effects of noise and electromagnetic fields on reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R E; Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1989-01-01

    Much public health research has been directed to studies of cancer risks due to chemical agents. Recently, increasing attention has been given to adverse reproductive outcomes as another, shorter-term biologic indicator of public health impact. Further, several low-level ubiquitous physical agents have been implicated recently as possibly affecting human health. These physical factors (noise and electromagnetic fields) represent difficult topics for research with epidemiologic study methods. This paper provides a brief review of the published data related to the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and exposure to noise or electromagnetic fields. The discussion includes ideas for possible biologic mechanisms, considerations for exposure assessment, and suggestions for epidemiologic research. PMID:2667980

  12. Environmental conditions and reproductive health outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures range across multiple domains to affect human health. In an effort to learn how environmental factors combine to contribute to health outcomes we constructed a multiple environmental domain index (MEDI) for use in health research. We used principal compone...

  13. Effects of the workplace on fertility and related reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Baranski, B

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of occupational factors on fertility and related reproductive outcomes. Few studies fulfill the criteria of good study design because of small sample size, insensitive measures of effect, selection, recall, and observation bias, weak if any control of confounding factors, bad definition of exposure, inability to analyze a dose-response relationship, and inadequate statistical analysis. The high prevalence of unsuccessful reproductive outcomes in the general population makes the design of human fertility studies difficult. Although a number of publications indicate that certain occupational factors and settings adversely affect both male and female fertility, it is virtually impossible to estimate the proportion of infertility due to occupational factors in the general population. The collected data suggest that the exposure to the following substances or occupational settings may affect a function of male genital system, leading to sperm abnormalities, hyperestrogenism, impotence, infertility, and/or increased spontaneous abortion rate in wives of exposed workers: alkylmercury, antimonide, anesthetic gases, boron, carbon disulfide, chlorodecone, chloroprene, some carbamates (carbaryl), diaminostilbene, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, ethylene glycol ethers, ethylene dibromide, inorganic lead, manganese, methyl chloride, organic solvents, synthetic estrogens and progestins, tetraethyllead, combined exposure to styrene and acetone, welding operations, and heat. The majority of reviewed papers on female fertility concerns the alterations of menstrual cycle and pregnancy complications rather than occupational exposure-induced female infertility. The literature supports the hypothesis that, in general, working women have a tendency of higher risk of unsuccessful reproductive outcomes, although the existing data are not sufficient. PMID:8243410

  14. Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J

    2001-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1994, leptin, a protein hormone synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue, has been shown to regulate feed intake in several species including sheep and pigs. Although a nimiety of information exists regarding the physiological role of leptin in rodents and humans, the regulation and action of leptin in domestic animals is less certain. Emerging evidence in several species indicates that leptin may also affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Leptin receptor mRNA is present in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus of several species, including sheep. In rats, effects of leptin on GnRH, LH and FSH secretion have been inconsistent, with leptin exhibiting both stimulatory and inhibitory action in vivo and in vitro. Evidence to support direct action of leptin at the level of the gonad indicates that the leptin receptor and its mRNA are present in ovarian tissue of several species, including cattle. These leptin receptors are functional, since leptin inhibits insulin-induced steroidogenesis of both granulosa and thecal cells of cattle in vitro. Leptin receptor mRNA is also found in the testes of rodents. As with the ovary, these receptors are functional, at least in rats, since leptin inhibits hCG-induced testosterone secretion by Leydig cells in vitro. During pregnancy, placental production of leptin may be a major contributor to the increase in maternal leptin in primates but not rodents. However, in both primates and rodents, leptin receptors exist in placental tissues and may regulate metabolism of the fetal-placental unit. As specific leptin immunoassays are developed for domestic animals, in vivo associations may then be made among leptin, body energy stores, dietary energy intake and reproductive function. This may lead to a more definitive role of leptin in domestic animal reproduction. PMID:11872320

  15. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  16. The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Cordero, J F

    1993-07-01

    A disaster has been defined as a disruption of human ecology that exceeds the capacity of the community to function normally. Little is known about the adverse effects of natural disasters on reproductive outcomes. Important lessons can be derived from several disasters caused by human factors, such as the Minamata Bay disaster. Adverse reproductive outcomes include infertility, early pregnancy loss, stillbirths, congenital malformations, and serious developmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Recent disasters like the Chernobyl and Bhopal explosions have provided important lessons on the need for accurate and sound information about the risk of prenatal exposures for adverse reproductive outcomes. To study questions of adverse reproductive outcomes and disasters requires a well-planned approach. It should include early development of surveillance for adverse reproductive outcomes, analytic studies on the risk of disasters from direct and indirect effects, sensitive methods to measure early pregnancy loss, and long-term follow-up programs to assess outcomes such as developmental disabilities. PMID:8243383

  17. The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: lessons learned.

    PubMed Central

    Cordero, J F

    1993-01-01

    A disaster has been defined as a disruption of human ecology that exceeds the capacity of the community to function normally. Little is known about the adverse effects of natural disasters on reproductive outcomes. Important lessons can be derived from several disasters caused by human factors, such as the Minamata Bay disaster. Adverse reproductive outcomes include infertility, early pregnancy loss, stillbirths, congenital malformations, and serious developmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Recent disasters like the Chernobyl and Bhopal explosions have provided important lessons on the need for accurate and sound information about the risk of prenatal exposures for adverse reproductive outcomes. To study questions of adverse reproductive outcomes and disasters requires a well-planned approach. It should include early development of surveillance for adverse reproductive outcomes, analytic studies on the risk of disasters from direct and indirect effects, sensitive methods to measure early pregnancy loss, and long-term follow-up programs to assess outcomes such as developmental disabilities. PMID:8243383

  18. Premature ovarian insufficiency: how to improve reproductive outcome?

    PubMed

    Ben-Nagi, J; Panay, N

    2014-06-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a life-changing condition that affects women in their reproductive age. The condition is not necessarily permanent but is associated with intermittent and unpredictable ovarian activity. Hence, spontaneous pregnancies have been reported to be 5-10%. However, pregnancy in patients with POI is still unlikely and rare. Although, there are reviews on POI in the literature, there is a lack of reports which focus on how to improve the reproductive outcome of these women who wish to conceive spontaneously or use assisted conception with their own oocytes. We found that there is no conclusive evidence of which treatment is optimal for women with POI who wish to conceive using their own gametes. However, one could surmise that it is important to lower gonadotropin levels into the physiological range before embarking on any treatment, even if natural conception is the only choice for the woman/couple. In the future, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials should be carried out, which may entail recruitment of patients from various centers nationally and internationally to increase the sample size and therefore achieve a powered study. This may standardize the treatment of women with POI who wish to conceive and ultimately have their biological child. PMID:24341612

  19. Perinatal Outcomes Associated with Assisted Reproductive Technology: the Massachusetts Outcomes Study of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (MOSART)

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Eugene; Luke, Barbara; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard; Diop, Hafsatou; Gopal, Daksha; Hoang, Lan; Kotelchuck, Milton; Stern, Judy E.; Hornstein, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare on a population basis the birth outcomes of women treated with Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), women with indicators of subfertility but without ART, and fertile women. Design Longitudinal cohort study Setting Massachusetts Participants 334,628 births and fetal deaths to Massachusetts mothers giving birth in a Massachusetts hospital between July 1, 2004-December 31, 2008, subdivided into three subgroups for comparison: ART 11,271, subfertile 6,609, and fertile 316,748. Intervention None Main Outcome Measures Four outcomes: preterm birth, low birthweight, small for gestational age and perinatal death, were modeled separately for singletons and twins using logistic regression with the primary comparison between ART births and those to the newly created population based subgroup of births to women with indicators of subfertility but no ART. Results Singletons: The risks for both preterm birth and low birthweight were higher for the ART group (AOR 1.23 and 1.26, respectively) compared to the subfertile group and risks in both the ART and subfertile groups were higher than those among fertile births. Twins: the risk of perinatal death was significantly lower among ART births than fertile (AOR 0.55) or subfertile (AOR 0.15) births. Conclusions The use of a population based comparison group of subfertile births without ART demonstrated significantly higher rates of preterm birth and low birthweight in ART singleton births, but these differences are smaller than differences between ART and fertile births. Further refinement of the measurement of subfertile births and examination of the independent risks of subfertile births is warranted. PMID:25660721

  20. Factors affecting outcomes in colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Selehi, Seema; Leung, Edmund; Wong, Ling

    2008-01-01

    There are many factors that influence successful outcomes in colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to evaluate these factors and determine ways to improve outcomes. All participants (N=229) who underwent planned colonoscopy between July and September 2004 were retrospectively included. Participants included 118 men and 111 women with a mean age of 59 years. Completion rate was 92%. Reasons of failure included poor bowel preparation (2.2%, p< .025), bowel looping (2.2%, p< .025), participant discomfort (1.3%), and obstructing lesion (1.3%). Mean midazolam dose was 3.8 mg. Three participants (1.3%) had midazolam alone, and all had complete colonoscopy. One hundred thirty-three participants (60.7%) had additional meperidine, with a completion rate of 94%. Eighty three participants (37.9%) had additional meperidine and Buscopan, with a completion rate reduced to 89.2%. There was no correlation between sedatives used and completion rate. Completion rate of colonoscopy in our unit was acceptable at 92%. A combination of midazolam and meperidine gave the best completion rates (94%). The two main reasons for incompletion were poor bowel preparation and excessive bowel looping. PMID:18300826

  1. Intracranial ependymoma: factors affecting outcome.

    PubMed

    Massimino, Maura; Buttarelli, Francesca R; Antonelli, Manila; Gandola, Lorenza; Modena, Piergiorgio; Giangaspero, Felice

    2009-03-01

    Ependymomas account for 2-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors, amounting to 6-12% of all intracranial tumors in children and up to 30% of those in children younger than 3 years. Recent findings provide evidence that intracranial and spinal ependymomas share similar molecular profiles with the radial glia of their corresponding locations. The management of intracranial ependymoma is still not optimal. The 5-year progression-free survival for children with ependymoma ranges between 30 and 50% with a worse prognosis for patients with residual disease after surgery. The prognostic relevance of most factors are still being debated. Recent studies, in which the current WHO classification criteria were applied, reported the relationship between histological grade and outcome. Biomolecular studies have identified that gain of 1q25 and EGFR overexpression correlate to poor prognosis, whereas low expression of nucleolin correlated with a favorable outcome. Ependymomas have been considered a 'surgical disease', where completeness of excision can be reached in approximately half of the cases. At present the standard treatment is radiation therapy for all patients after gross-total or near-total resection. For high-risk patients, with residual tumor, an interesting, although experimental, approach could be chemotherapy followed by secondary surgery and postoperative conformal irradiation. PMID:19284379

  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in assisted reproductive technology access and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Molly; Fujimoto, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Infertility is a global problem affecting all ethnic, racial, and religious groups. Nevertheless, only a minority of the U.S. population has access to treatment. Additionally, for those who do engage in treatment, outcomes are disparate among various ethnic and racial groups. This article addresses racial and ethnic disparities regarding rates of fecundity and infertility, access to care, and assisted reproductive technology outcomes. PMID:27054308

  3. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nigel; Kucharczyk, Katherine M.; Estes, Jaclyn L.; Gerber, Rachel S.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Elias, Rony T.; Spandorfer, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage. PMID:26609434

  4. Adverse reproductive outcomes among female veterinarians

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Green, R.S.; Wiggins, P. )

    1990-07-01

    Because female veterinarians are exposed to several known reproductive hazards, the authors conducted a reproductive survey of all female graduates of a US veterinary school (n = 537) and law school (comparison group, n = 794). Analysis was confined to pregnancies completed after the second year of professional school and from 1966 to 1986. Based on one randomly chosen eligible pregnancy per woman (veterinarians, n = 176; lawyers, n = 229), spontaneous abortion rates, adjusted for elective abortions, were 13.3% for the veterinarians and 15.1% for the lawyers; these did not differ significantly. A Cox life table regression model controlling for age, smoking, alcohol use, and prior spontaneous abortion also showed no significant difference in spontaneous abortion rates between the two populations. Using all pregnancies, veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week had a marginally elevated risk of spontaneous abortion, but the statistical significance disappeared when analysis was limited to one random pregnancy per woman. For one random eligible birth per woman, the mean birth weight did not differ significantly between the veterinarians and lawyers, even after controlling for possible confounders in regression analyses. A higher rate of reportable birth defects was observed among the veterinarians than among the lawyers (relative risk = 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-15.1), but this unexpected result must be considered hypothesis-generating. The authors did not find an overall increased risk for spontaneous abortion or low birth weight infants among veterinarians compared with lawyers, but veterinarians who reported performing five or more radiographic examinations per week may have been at increased risk for spontaneous abortion.

  5. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  6. Association of assisted reproductive technology with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Zhang; Yiling, Ding; Ling, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: More and more infertile patients have accepted the assisted reproductive technique (ART) therapy. Concerns have been raised over an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes in ART populations as compared with natural conception (NC). Objective: The aim was to improve the ART in clinicial work and to reduce the incidence of pregnancy complications in ART group according to analyzing the reasons of high incidence of pregnancy complications in ART group, comparing the incidence of pregnancy complications in different controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) programs and evaluating the effects of ART which attribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective population-based cohort study,3216 pregnant women with gestational age ≤12 weeks, regular antenatal examination,and ultrasound identification of intrauterine pregnancy were enrolled from January 2010 to June 2013. According to having ART history, the participantswere divided into two groups: ART group (contains fresh embryo transfer group or frozen-thawed embryo transfer group) and NC group. We compared the incidence of pregnancy complications between different groups and evaluated the factors which could affect the occurrence of these complications. Results: When compared to NC group, significantly increased rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (p<0.01), preeclampsia (PE) (p<0.01) and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) (p˂0.01) were observed in ART group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of birth defect between the two groups (p=0.07). Multiple pregnancies and Gonadotropin (Gn) were risk factors in GDM, PE, and ICP. The exogenous progesterone treatment had no effect on GDM, PE or ICP. Conclusion: ART increases the risk of adverse maternal complications such as GDM, PE and ICP. The dosages of Gn should be reduced to an extent and the number of embryo implantation should be controlled. Exogenous progesterone treatment is safe

  7. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  8. Effects of Salacia chinensis extract on reproductive outcome in rats.

    PubMed

    Jihong, Yang; Shaozhong, Luo; Jingfeng, Song; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Akaki, Junji; Yamashita, Kousaku; Tamesada, Makoto; Umemura, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Salaciachinensis is a traditional South and Southeast Asian herb medicine and has been reported to have an antidiabetic function via α-glucosidases inhibitory activity. In this study, the effects of S. chinensis extract (SCE) on reproductive functions of F0 males and females and the effects on survival and growth of F1 offspring were examined using Sprague-Dawley rats. SCE was administered at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day orally to groups consisting of 25 males and 25 females. Males were dosed once a day in the morning from 8 weeks before mating, throughout the mating period and until the day before necropsy and females were dosed once a day in the morning for 2 weeks before mating and through the mating, gestation and lactation periods (until day 20 of lactation). In all SCE treatment groups, no toxic signs were noted on reproductive outcome such as estrous cycle of F0 females or any parameters for reproductive function or survival, growth, sensory reflex or function development of F1 pups. Therefore, we concluded that SCE has no effects on the reproductive outcome even at a remarkably high dosage level, 2000 mg/kg/day, in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:20920544

  9. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    PubMed

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation of worker

  10. Lifestyle and Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeinab, Hamzehgardeshi; Zohreh, Shahhosseini; Gelehkolaee, Keshvar Samadaee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies reveal that lifestyles such as physical activity patterns, obesity, nutrition, and smoking, are factors that affect laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes induced by assisted fertility techniques in infertile couples. The present study is a narrative review of studies in this area. Methods: In this study, researchers conducted their computer search in public databases Google Scholar general search engine, and then more specific: Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, cochrane library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: infertility (sterility, infertility), lifestyle (life behavior, lifestyle), Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), antioxidant and infertility, social health, spiritual health, mental health, Alcohol and drug abuse, preventive factors, and instruments., and selected relevant articles to the study subject from 2004 to 2013. Firstly, a list of 150 papers generated from the initial search. Then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Secondly, 111 papers were included. Finally, quality assessment of full text studies was performed by two independent reviewers. Researchers reviewed summary of all articles sought, ultimately used data from 62 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Review of literature led to arrangement of 9 general categories of ART results’ relationship with weight watch and diet, exercise and physical activity, psychological health, avoiding medications, alcohol and drugs, preventing diseases, environmental health, spiritual health, social health, and physical health. Conclusion: The following was obtained from review of studies: since lifestyle is among important, changeable, and influential factors in fertility, success of these methods can be greatly helped through assessment of lifestyle patterns of infertile couples, and design and implementation of healthy lifestyle

  11. Do gravidity and age affect pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Santow, G; Bracher, M

    1989-01-01

    Fetal loss has generally been found to vary with gravidity, previous experience of fetal loss, and maternal age, but the literature is divided on the reasons for these associations. In this paper we examine pregnancy histories obtained retrospectively from a nationally representative one-in-one-thousand sample of women in Australia aged 20 to 59 years. The relations of fetal loss ratios with both gravidity and previous outcome are consistent with heterogeneity of risk over the study population and a stopping rule, whereby high-risk women undertake more pregnancies than low-risk women to achieve the same number of live births. Evidence is presented that elevated loss ratios in the teens indicate not higher risk but a selection for short gestation intervals, while loss ratios beyond the mid-thirties do not point unequivocally to a substantial increase in risk at the older reproductive ages. PMID:2814570

  12. Linkages among reproductive health, maternal health, and perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lassi, Zohra S; Blanc, Ann; Donnay, France

    2010-12-01

    Some interventions in women before and during pregnancy may reduce perinatal and neonatal deaths, and recent research has established linkages of reproductive health with maternal, perinatal, and early neonatal health outcomes. In this review, we attempted to analyze the impact of biological, clinical, and epidemiologic aspects of reproductive and maternal health interventions on perinatal and neonatal outcomes through an elucidation of a biological framework for linking reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RHMNH); care strategies and interventions for improved perinatal and neonatal health outcomes; public health implications of these linkages and implementation strategies; and evidence gaps for scaling up such strategies. Approximately 1000 studies (up to June 15, 2010) were reviewed that have addressed an impact of reproductive and maternal health interventions on perinatal and neonatal outcomes. These include systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and stand-alone experimental and observational studies. Evidences were also drawn from recent work undertaken by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), the interconnections between maternal and newborn health reviews identified by the Global Alliance for Prevention of Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS), as well as relevant work by the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. Our review amply demonstrates that opportunities for assessing outcomes for both mothers and newborns have been poorly realized and documented. Most of the interventions reviewed will require more greater-quality evidence before solid programmatic recommendations can be made. However, on the basis of our review, birth spacing, prevention of indoor air pollution, prevention of intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy, antenatal care during pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound monitoring during pregnancy, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, birth and newborn care preparedness via community-based intervention

  13. Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions. PMID:24610662

  14. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  15. Motivated behavioral outcomes affect ratings of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Hardy, David J

    2014-12-01

    A relatively new theory of motivation posits that purposeful human behavior may be partly explained by multidimensional individual differences "traits of action" (motives). Its 15 motives can be characterized according to their purpose: individual integrity, competitiveness, and cooperativeness. Existing evidence supports the model on which the motives are based and the reliability and validity of strategies to assess them. This experiment tested whether the hypothetical results of consistent, motivated cooperative and competitive behavior could affect ratings of attractiveness. Male and female participants (N = 98; M age = 18.8, SD = 1.4) were shown 24 opposite-sex facial photos ranging in attractiveness. The photos were paired with one of three conditions representing theoretical outcomes that would result from low, control, and high levels of cooperative and competitive motives. As predicted, outcome descriptions representing high motive strength of six motives statistically significantly affected ratings of attractiveness. This result was independent of sex of participant and consistent with the theory. PMID:25457092

  16. Reproductive outcomes of retransferring retained embryos in blastocyst transfer cycles

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hyun Jeong; Koo, Hwa Seon; Cha, Sun Hwa; Kim, Hye Ok; Park, Chan Woo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of embryo retention (ER) in the transfer catheter following embryo transfer (ET) in blastocyst transfer and investigate whether retransferring retained embryos has an impact on reproductive outcomes in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-ET. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1,131 blastocyst transfers, which comprised 223 single blastocyst transfer (SBT) and 908 double blastocyst transfer (DBT) cycles. Each SBT and DBT group was classified depending on whether ET was performed without retained embryos in the catheter during the first attempt (without-ER group) or whether any retained embryos were found following ET (ER group) for the purpose of comparing reproductive outcomes in a homogenous population. Results The overall incidence of finding retained embryos was 2.8% (32/1,131). There were no retained embryos in SBT cycles. In DBT cycles, implantation rates (30.0% vs. 26.6%), positive β-hCG rates (57.2% vs. 56.2%), clinical pregnancy rates (45.3% vs. 46.9%), and live birth rates (38.9% vs. 43.8%) were not significantly different between the without-ER and ER groups. There were no significant differences in the mean birth weight (g) 2,928.4±631.8 vs. 2,948.7±497.8 and the mean gestational age at birth (269.3±17.2 days vs. 264.2±25.7 days). A total of nine cases of congenital birth defects were found in this study population. Eight were observed in the without-ER group and one in the ER group. Conclusion Our results suggest that retransfer of retained embryos does not have any adverse impact on reproductive outcomes in blastocyst transfer cycles. Furthermore, our results support finding that SBT might be advantageous for decreasing the incidence of retained embryos in catheters. PMID:27358833

  17. Reproductive interference between Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria affects reproductive success in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Hettyey, Attila; Vági, Balázs; Kovács, Tibor; Ujszegi, János; Katona, Patrik; Szederkényi, Márk; Pearman, Peter B; Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that reproductive interference between heterospecifics can seriously affect individual fitness; support from field studies for such an effect has, however, remained scarce. We studied reproductive interference in 25 natural breeding ponds in an area where two ranid frogs, Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria, co-occur. The breeding seasons of the two species usually overlap and males of both species are often found in amplexus with heterospecific females, even though matings between heterospecifics produce no viable offspring. We estimated species abundance ratios based on the number of clutches laid and evaluated fertilization success. In ponds with low spatial complexity and a species abundance ratio biased towards R. temporaria, the average fertilization success of R. dalmatina eggs decreased, while this relationship was not detectable in spatially more complex ponds. Fertilization success of R. temporaria did not decrease with increasing relative numbers of heterospecifics. This asymmetry in fitness effects of reproductive interference may be attributed to R. temporaria males being more competitive in scramble competition for females than R. dalmatina males. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that in natural breeding populations of vertebrates interference among heterospecifics has the potential to substantially lower reproductive success at the population level, which may in turn affect population dynamics. PMID:25138258

  18. Evidence for adverse reproductive outcomes among women microelectronic assembly workers.

    PubMed Central

    Huel, G; Mergler, D; Bowler, R

    1990-01-01

    Microelectronics assembly entails complex processes where several potentially fetotoxic chemical compounds are used extensively. This study was undertaken to assess the potential adverse reproductive outcomes among former women workers in a microelectronics assembly plant in New Mexico with respect to a comparable population from the same geographical region and to examine the relation between these outcomes and employment history in this plant. After matching a pool of 143 former microelectronic female workers and 105 referents, 90 former microelectronic female worker-referent pairs were constituted (representing 302 and 324 pregnancies in former workers and referents respectively). The odds ratio (for pair matching design) of spontaneous abortion among women workers, before beginning to assemble microelectronic components, was 0.9 (chi 2 = 0.04; NS). After the beginning of employment this odds ratio became 5.6 (chi 2 = 9.8; p less than 1%). This estimated odds ratio decreased to 4.0, taking into account the increased risk for spontaneous abortion in previous pregnancies before employment (chi 2 = 5.4; p less than 5%). It was not possible to determine if this effect was reversible owing to the small number of pairs available after employment. The findings of this study corroborate the results of former studies that suggest a potential association between electronic manufacturing activity and risk of spontaneous abortion. Although the organic solvents were suspected of being the potential risk factor, this study was inconclusive from this point of view. Nevertheless, these investigations may provide some insight into reproductive outcomes among female workers exposed to solvents. PMID:2378817

  19. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  20. Psychological Outcomes and Reproductive Issues Among Gender Dysphoric Individuals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lauren; Levine, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Gender dysphoria is a condition in which a person experiences discrepancy between the natal anatomic sex and the gender he or she identifies with, resulting in internal distress and a desire to live as the preferred gender. There is increasing demand for treatment, which includes suppression of puberty, cross-sex hormone therapy, and sex reassignment surgery. This article reviews longitudinal outcome data evaluating psychological well-being and quality of life among transgender individuals who have undergone cross-sex hormone treatment or sex reassignment surgery. Proposed methodologies for diagnosis and initiation of treatment are discussed, and the effects of cross-sex hormones and sex reassignment surgery on future reproductive potential. PMID:26568492

  1. Nutritional supplementation and artificial reproductive technique (ART) outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kermack, A J; Macklon, N S

    2015-05-01

    Approximately one in six couples suffer from subfertility, and many seek treatment with artificial reproductive technologies (ART). Despite improvements in laboratory techniques and ovarian stimulation, ongoing pregnancy rates per cycle remain at ~25%. Couples wanting to improve their chances may turn to adjuvant therapies, such as nutritional supplements. There is growing evidence that periconceptional nutritional status is a key determinant of fertility and long-term health of the offspring, and a lucrative market has developed to meet the demand based on these benefits. However, the practice of routine dietary supplementation before and during IVF treatment has not been subject to well-powered prospective randomised trials. In this article, the potential roles of specific nutritional supplements in the context of improving IVF outcomes are reviewed and an assessment is made of the evidence base supporting their clinical use in this context. Finally, current research needs in the field are outlined. PMID:25846211

  2. Evaluation of follicular synchronization caused by estrogen administration and its reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bi; Shi, Yan; Gong, Xia; Yu, Lin; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10 μg/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation. PMID:26010950

  3. Evaluation of Follicular Synchronization Caused by Estrogen Administration and Its Reproductive Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bi; Shi, Yan; Gong, Xia; Yu, Lin; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Jian; Sun, Zhaogui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate multiple follicular development synchronization after estrogen stimulation in prepubertal mice, follicular responsiveness to gonadotropin superovulation, the prospective reproductive potential and ovarian polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like symptoms at adulthood, prepubertal mice were intraperitoneally injected with estrogen to establish an animal model with solvent as control. When synchronized tertiary follicles in ovaries, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, blastocyst formation rate, developmental potential into offspring by embryo transfer, adult fertility and PCOS-like symptoms, and involved molecular mechanisms were focused, it was found that estrogen stimulation (10μg/gBW) leads to follicular development synchronization at the early tertiary stage in prepubertal mice; reproduction from oocytes to offspring could be realized by means of the artificial reproductive technology though the model mice lost their natural fertility when they were reared to adulthood; and typical symptoms of PCOS, except changes in inflammatory pathways, were not remained up to adulthood. So in conclusion, estrogen can lead to synchronization in follicular development in prepubertal mice, but does not affect reproductive outcome of oocytes, and no typical symptoms of PCOS remained at adulthood despite changes related to inflammation. PMID:26010950

  4. DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (ptgs2) were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg) titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRβ levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg), maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs,) and ovulation (ptgs2), deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans. PMID:20419165

  5. Correlation between body mass index of Chinese males and assisted reproductive technology outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhengmu; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Min; Cheng, Huaijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between male’s body mass index (BMI) and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In this retrospective study, we analyzed the data from 729 cycles of female patients aged 38 years or less, with normal BMI and who received IVF treatments between January, 2013 and June, 2014. The patients were divided into normal weight (n = 358), overweight (n = 267), and obese (n = 104) groups according to the BMI of their male partners. Embryonic development and pregnancy outcomes in these three groups were compared. Results: With increasing BMI, fertilization rates decreased proportionately (P < 0.05); but embryonic cleavage rates and effective embryo rates were not significantly affected (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in implantation rates, pregnancy rates, or early miscarriage rates (P > 0.05) among the three groups. Conclusions: High male BMI affects fertilization rate with ART; and we recommend that men of reproductive age adjust their lifestyles accordingly and make efforts to control their weight. PMID:26885094

  6. Importance of embryo transfer technique in maximizing assisted reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schoolcraft, William B

    2016-04-01

    Embryo transfer is arguably the most critical process in the sequential events that encompass an IVF cycle. Several variables play a role in the success of a transfer, including catheter type, atraumatic technique, and the use of ultrasound guidance. The inclusion of hyaluronan in the ET media also has a benefit for implantation. Because of the adverse effects of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation on the endometrium, frozen embryo transfers have demonstrated improved pregnancy rates as well as better obstetric outcomes. This review will talk about various aspects of ET as it is currently performed, variables affecting its success, and methods of optimization. PMID:26940790

  7. Adverse health outcomes among cosmetologists and noncosmetologists in the Reproductive Outcomes of Salon Employees (ROSE) study.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R; Greene, Teresa; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine adverse health outcomes, including those related to cardiovascular and skin health as well as respiratory functions, among cosmetologists aged 21 to 55 yr and to compare data to women of the same age working in other occupations. Self-reported data were analyzed from 450 cosmetologists and 511 women in other occupations who participated in the Reproductive Outcomes of Salon Employees (ROSE) study in Maryland. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using logistic regression to examine the associations between cosmetologist occupation and each adverse health outcome adjusted for age, education, and smoking status. Cosmetologists were at significantly increased risk of depression compared to noncosmetologists after adjustment for age, education, and smoking status (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.10, 2.00). There were no statistically significant associations between cosmetology occupation and the other adverse health outcomes, including those related to allergies and skin disorders, in both the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Cosmetologists may be exposed to chemicals in the salon that lead to depression. Future study needs to be conducted to examine specific chemical exposures in the salon. This will help to provide information required for the development of best occupational safety practices among salon workers. PMID:21120748

  8. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  9. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  10. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5%) and urinary system malformations (0.3%). Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence). Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children. PMID:18442369

  11. Effects and outcomes of third-party reproduction: parents.

    PubMed

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2015-09-01

    Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy. PMID:26232745

  12. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  13. Affective Outcomes of a World Geography Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Alfred S., Jr.; Maier, Joan N.

    2006-01-01

    Affective goals and objectives, rarely stated in geographic education standards, textbooks or course syllabi, include improving students' attitudes toward other people. World geography courses expose students to other parts of the world and to people different from themselves. Although affective goals may not be stated for such courses, could it…

  14. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  15. Reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty in patients with septate uterus - a retrospective cohort study and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Septate uterus, one of the most common forms of congenital uterine malformations, negatively affects female reproductive health. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, we evaluated the reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty in 64 women with septate uterus and primary or secondary infertility. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating the reproductive outcome after hysteroscopic septoplasty. Results Sixty-four women underwent hysteroscopic septoplasty. In 2/64 (3%) women, intraoperative uterine perforation occurred. Complete follow-up was available for 49/64 (76%) patients. Mean follow-up time was 68.6 +/- 5.2 months. The overall pregnancy rate after hysteroscopic septoplasty was 69% (34/49). The overall life birth rate (LBR) was 49% (24/49). The mean time interval between surgery and the first life birth was 35.8 +/- 22.5 months. Including our own data, we identified 18 studies investigating the effect of septoplasty on reproductive outcome in 1501 women. A pooled analysis demonstrated that hysteroscopic septoplasty resulted in an overall pregnancy rate of 60% (892/1501) and a LBR of 45% (686/1501). The overall rate of intra- and postoperative complications was 1.7% (23/1324) and the overall rate of re-hysteroscopy was 6% (79/1324). Conclusions In women with septate uterus and a history of infertility, hysteroscopic septoplasty is a safe and effective procedure resulting in a pregnancy rate of 60% and a LBR of 45%. PMID:20492650

  16. Promoting Reproductive Options for HIV-Affected Couples in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Cohen, Craig R.; Murage, Alfred; Ong’ech, John; Kiarie, James; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    HIV-affected couples have unique challenges that require access to information and reproductive services which prevent HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and offspring while allowing couples to fulfill their reproductive goals. In high HIV prevalent regions of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-affected couples require multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) to enhance their reproductive healthcare options beyond contraception and prevention of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to include assistance in childbearing. The unique characteristics of the condom and its accepted use in conjunction with safer conception interventions allow HIV-serodiscordant couples an opportunity to maintain reproductive health, prevent HIV/STI transmission, and achieve their reproductive goals while timing conception. Rethinking the traditional view of the condom and incorporating a broader reproductive health perspective of HIV-affected couples into MPT methodologies will impact demand, acceptability, and uptake of these future technologies. PMID:25335844

  17. Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. Methods and Findings The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US$20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US$509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US$1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict. PMID:19513098

  18. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404

  19. Rockford, Ill.: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operational tests of the two-way interactive cable television system using a firefighter training series administered to the Rockford (Illinois) fire department. Cognitive and affective measurement instruments described indicate a significant difference favoring two-way systems of in-service training programs. (JMF)

  20. Surgical technique affects outcomes in acromioclavicular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Grassbaugh, Jason A; Cole, Chad; Wohlrab, Kurt; Eichinger, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Optimal treatment for acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation is unknown. Numerous surgical procedures for AC injuries have been described with little comparison. This study sought to compare the clinical and radiographic results of various surgical techniques in order to identify the optimal surgical technique. Ninety patients met inclusion criteria of AC reconstruction at this institution. A retrospective review of outcomes was performed using the electronic records system. Radiographs were measured for pre- and postoperative grade and percent elevation versus the contralateral side. Overall revision rate was 9%. Suture button fixation had a revision rate of 0% compared to 14% (p = .01). Reconstruction procedures performed with distal clavicle excision showed a higher revision rate, 17% compared to 0% (p = .003). There were no statistically significant clinical differences. AC reconstructions performed with suture button construct were superior to other surgical techniques. Procedures performed with distal clavicle excision were inferior to those without. PMID:23449059

  1. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions. PMID:11070641

  2. Influence of Paternal Age on Assisted Reproduction Outcome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2007-08-01

    We Will Retrospectively Assess Our Databases in Our Clinic:; Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Valencia (Spain); Searching for Assisted Reproduction Procedures; (IUI, Standard IVF/ICSI Cycles and Ovum Donation IVF/ICSI Cycles); Who Were Referred to Our Unit to Cryopreserve Sperm During the Period; From January 2000 to December 2006.

  3. Allopregnanolone as a Mediator of Affective Switching in Reproductive Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Reproductive mood disorders, including premenstrual dysphoria (PMD) and postpartum depression (PPD), are characterized by affective dysregulation that occurs during specific reproductive states. The occurrence of illness onset during changes in reproductive endocrine function has generated interest in the role of gonadal steroids in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders, yet the mechanisms by which the changing hormone milieu triggers depression in susceptible women remain poorly understood. Objectives This review focuses on one of the neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone – allopregnanolone (ALLO) – that acutely regulates neuronal function and may mediate affective dysregulation that occurs concomitant with changes in reproductive endocrine function. We describe the role of the ‘neuroactive’ steroids estradiol and progesterone in reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders to highlight the potential mechanisms by which ALLO might contribute to their pathophysiology. Finally, using existing data, we test the hypothesis that changes in ALLO levels may trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women. Results Although there is no reliable evidence that basal ALLO levels distinguish those with PMD or PPD from those without, existing animal models suggest potential mechanisms by which specific reproductive states may unmask susceptibility to affective dysregulation. Consistent with these models, initially euthymic women with PMD and those with a history of PPD show a negative association between depressive symptoms and circulating ALLO levels following progesterone administration. Conclusions Existing animal models and our own preliminary data suggest that ALLO may play an important role in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders by triggering affective dysregulation in susceptible women. PMID:24846476

  4. Paternal age and assisted reproductive outcomes in ICSI donor oocytes: is there an effect of older fathers?

    PubMed Central

    Beguería, R.; García, D.; Obradors, A.; Poisot, F.; Vassena, R.; Vernaeve, V.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does paternal age affect semen quality and reproductive outcomes in oocyte donor cycles with ICSI? SUMMARY ANSWER Paternal age is associated with a decrease in sperm quality, however it does not affect either pregnancy or live birth rates in reproductive treatments when the oocytes come from donors <36 years old and ICSI is used. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The weight of evidence suggest that paternal age is associated with decreasing sperm quality, but uncertainty remains as to whether reproductive outcomes are affected. Although developed to treat severe sperm factor infertility, ICSI is gaining popularity and is often used even in the presence of mild male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A retrospective cohort study spanning the period between February 2007 and June 2010. A total of 4887 oocyte donation cycles were included. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Fertilization was carried out by ICSI in all cycles included, and the semen sample used was from the male partner in all cases. The association of male age with semen parameters (volume, concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa) was analyzed by multiple analysis of covariance. The association of male age with reproductive outcomes (biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate) was modeled by logistic regression, where the following covariates were introduced: donor age, recipient age, semen state (fresh versus frozen) and number of transferred embryos (3 and 2 versus 1). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified a significant relationship between paternal age and all sperm parameters analyzed: for every 5 years of age, sperm volume decreases by 0.22 ml (P < 0.001), concentration increases by 3.1 million sperm/ml (P = 0.003) and percentage motile spermatozoa decreases by 1.2% (P < 0.001). No differences were found in reproductive outcomes (biochemical pregnancy, miscarriage, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and live birth) among

  5. Trends and Correlates of Good Perinatal Outcomes in Assisted Reproductive Technology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nikhil; Kissin, Dmitry; Anderson, John E.; Session, Donna; Macaluso, Maurizio; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate trends in good perinatal outcomes (singleton live births at term with birthweight more than 2,500 g) among live births after assisted reproductive technology in the United States from 2000 to 2008, and associated factors among singletons in 2008. METHODS Using retrospective cohort data from the National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System from 2000 to 2008, we calculated relative change and χ2 tests for trend in the proportion of good perinatal outcomes among assisted reproductive technology live births (n=444,909) and liveborn singletons (n=222,500). We conducted univariable analyses followed by multiple logistic regression to estimate the effects of various characteristics on the outcome among singletons born in 2008 after fresh, nondonor assisted reproductive technology cycles (n=20,780). RESULTS The proportion of good perinatal outcomes among all liveborn neonates increased from 38.6% in 2000 to 42.5% in 2008, whereas it declined marginally among singletons from 83.6% to 83.4%. One previous birth, transfer of fewer than three embryos, and the presence of fewer than three fetal hearts on 6-week ultrasound examination were associated with good perinatal outcome among singletons. Non-Hispanic black race, tubal factor infertility, uterine factor infertility, ovulatory disorder, and 5-day embryo culture were associated with reduced odds for a good outcome. The strongest association was the presence of one fetal heart compared with more than two (adjusted odds ratio 2.43, 95% confidence interval 1.73–3.42). CONCLUSION From 2000 to 2008, good perinatal outcomes increased among assisted reproductive technology live births. Among singleton live births, odds for good outcome were greatest with the presence of a single fetal heart and lowest in women of non-Hispanic black race. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II PMID:22996102

  6. The Neural Basis of Risky Choice with Affective Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Renata S.; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective) expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus) correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes’ emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain of the decision

  7. Reproductive outcome in 3 families with a satellited chromosome 4 with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Arn, P H; Younie, L; Russo, S; Zackowski, J L; Mankinen, C; Estabrooks, L

    1995-07-01

    We describe 3 families segregating for a translocation of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) onto chromosome 4. Review of previously reported cases of translocations involving NOR and chromosome 4 shows that these translocations may be associated with variable reproductive outcomes. We provide evidence that imprinting is not the mechanism responsible for the variable reproductive outcomes in the case of satellited 4p chromosomes; this may offer indirect support for a ribosomal gene position effect. Translocated ribosomal genes may influence the expression of neighboring genes and could explain the variable phenotypes in individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes. We recommend that prenatal counseling of individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes should be cautious. PMID:7677144

  8. Defining and Assessing Affective Outcomes in Undergraduate Pediatric Dentistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Claire L.

    1990-01-01

    The affective aspect of the curriculum is defined as the development of appropriate and measurable values such as ethical behavior, honesty, tolerance, and becoming a life-long learner. In outcome assessment of the affective category, the goal is to evaluate the transition of the student to a professional. (MLW)

  9. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  10. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    PubMed Central

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  11. Paternal Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Other Phenols in Relation to Reproductive Outcomes among Couples from a Fertility Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Laura E.; Williams, Paige L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Toth, Thomas L.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human exposure to phenols, including bisphenol A and parabens, is widespread. Evidence suggests that paternal exposure to environmental chemicals may adversely affect reproductive outcomes. Objectives We evaluated associations of paternal phenol urinary concentrations with fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth. Methods Male–female couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in a prospective study of environmental determinants of fertility and pregnancy outcomes were included. The geometric mean of males’ specific gravity–adjusted urinary phenol concentrations measured before females’ cycle was quantified. Associations between male urinary phenol concentrations and fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation, and live birth were investigated using generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple cycles per couple. Results Couples (n = 218) underwent 195 IUI and 211 IVF cycles. Paternal phenol concentrations were not associated with fertilization or live birth following IVF. In adjusted models, compared with the lowest quartile of methyl paraben, paternal concentrations in the second quartile were associated with decreased odds of live birth following IUI (adjusted odds ratio = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.82). Conclusions To our knowledge, these are some of the first data on the association of paternal urinary phenol concentrations with reproduction and pregnancy outcomes. Although these results do not preclude possible adverse effects of paternal paraben exposures on such outcomes, given the modest sample size, further understanding could result from confirmation using a larger and more diverse population. Citation Dodge LE, Williams PL, Williams MA, Missmer SA, Toth TL, Calafat AM, Hauser R. 2015. Paternal urinary concentrations of parabens and other phenols in relation to reproductive outcomes among couples from a fertility clinic. Environ Health Perspect 123

  12. Timing of contraceptive initiation and association with future sexual and reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    True, Kimberley; Bajos, Nathalie; Bohet, Aline; Moreau, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Who initiates contraception before, at the time or after first sexual intercourse and how does timing of initiation affect future sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER Earlier initiation was associated with current utilization of more effective contraception, but had no impact on future unintended pregnancy, abortion or sexually transmitted infection rates, while later initiation was linked to higher rates of unintended pregnancies and abortions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Contraceptive behaviour at first intercourse is associated with later SRH outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Data were drawn from the FECOND study, the last national SRH study in France, conducted in 2010–2011 by phone among 8645 individuals aged 15–49 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Analysis was performed among 1552 women under the age of 30 years who were sexually experienced and had used contraception at some point. We used logistic regression models to identify factors associated with timing of contraception initiation relative to first intercourse (earlier, at the time and later) and its predictive value on future sexual and reproductive outcomes. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Timing of contraceptive initiation across all three categories (earlier, at the time and later initiators) was dependent on women's age at the time of the survey, country of birth, education level, ease of discussing sex with mother and age of first sex. Using at the time initiators as a reference, later initiators had higher odds of unintended pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8] and abortion (OR = 1.9), while earlier initiators were more likely to be using more effective contraception at the time of the survey (OR = 1.8). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The exclusion of sexually inexperienced women, a quarter of which had ever used the pill, may have reduced the scope of our analysis on the relevance of contraceptive initiation for non

  13. Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists. PMID:23124333

  14. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  15. Indigenous Women of Latin America: Unintended Pregnancy, Unsafe Abortion, and Reproductive Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wurtz, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous women in Latin America have poorer reproductive health outcomes than the general population and face considerable barriers in accessing adequate health services. Indigenous women have high rates of adolescent fertility and unintended pregnancy and may face increased risks for morbidity and mortality related to unsafe abortion. However, research among this population, particularly focusing on social and cultural implications of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion, is significantly limited. This article reviews the literature on unsafe abortion in Latin America and describes successful interventions to ameliorate reproductive health outcomes within Indigenous communities. It also explores important implications for future research. Shedding light on the circumstances, perspectives, and lived realities of Indigenous women of childbearing age, could encourage further qualitative investigation and mitigate negative outcomes through improved understanding of the topic, targeted culturally appropriate interventions, and recommendations for future policy and programming reformations. PMID:23772229

  16. The Role of Gender Empowerment on Reproductive Health Outcomes in Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Akiode, Akinsewa; Saad, Abdulmumin; Calhoun, Lisa; Irani, Laili

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To date, limited evidence is available for urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically research into the association between urban women’s empowerment and reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether women’s empowerment in urban Nigerian settings is associated with family planning use and maternal health behaviors. Moreover, we examine whether different effects of empowerment exist by region of residence. Methods This study uses baseline household survey data from the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation Project (MLE) for the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (NURHI) being implemented in six major cities. We examine four dimensions of empowerment: economic freedom, attitudes towards domestic violence, partner prohibitions and decision-making. We determine if the empowerment dimensions have different effects on reproductive health outcomes by region of residence using multivariate analyses. Results Results indicate that more empowered women are more likely to use modern contraception, deliver in a health facility and have a skilled attendant at birth. These trends vary by empowerment dimension and by city/region in Nigeria. Conclusions We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings on future programs seeking to improve reproductive health outcomes in urban Nigeria and beyond. PMID:23576403

  17. The role of gender empowerment on reproductive health outcomes in urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Corroon, Meghan; Speizer, Ilene S; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Akiode, Akinsewa; Saad, Abdulmumin; Calhoun, Lisa; Irani, Laili

    2014-01-01

    To date, limited evidence is available for urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa, specifically research into the association between urban women's empowerment and reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether women's empowerment in urban Nigerian settings is associated with family planning use and maternal health behaviors. Moreover, we examine whether different effects of empowerment exist by region of residence. This study uses baseline household survey data from the Measurement, Learning and Evaluation Project for the Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative being implemented in six major cities. We examine four dimensions of empowerment: economic freedom, attitudes towards domestic violence, partner prohibitions and decision-making. We determine if the empowerment dimensions have different effects on reproductive health outcomes by region of residence using multivariate analyses. Results indicate that more empowered women are more likely to use modern contraception, deliver in a health facility and have a skilled attendant at birth. These trends vary by empowerment dimension and by city/region in Nigeria. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings on future programs seeking to improve reproductive health outcomes in urban Nigeria and beyond. PMID:23576403

  18. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  19. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lode, Marlin D.

    In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…

  20. Clonal Patch Size and Ramet Position of Leymus chinensis Affected Reproductive Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive allocation is critically important for population maintenance and usually varies with not only environmental factors but also biotic ones. As a typical rhizome clonal plant in China's northern grasslands, Leymus chinensis usually dominates the steppe communities and grows in clonal patches. In order to clarify the sexual reproductive allocation of L. chinensis in the process of the growth and expansion, we selected L. chinensis clonal patches of a range of sizes to examine the reproductive allocation and allometric growth of the plants. Moreover, the effects of position of L. chinensis ramets within the patch on their reproductive allocation were also examined. Clonal patch size and position both significantly affected spike biomass, reproductive tiller biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio. From the central to the marginal zone, both the spike biomass and reproductive tiller biomass displayed an increasing trend in all the five patch size categories except for reproductive tiller biomass in 15–40m2 category. L. chinensis had significantly larger SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio in marginal zone than in central zone of clonal patches that are larger than 15 m2 in area. Regression analysis showed that the spike biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio were negatively correlated with clonal patch size while patch size showed significantly positive effect on SEED/SPIKE biomass ratio, but the reproductive tiller biomass and SEED/TILLER biomass ratio were not dependent on clonal patch size. The relationships between biomass of spike and reproductive tiller, between mature seed biomass and spike biomass and between mature seed biomass and reproductive tiller biomass were significant allometric for all or some of patch size categories, respectively. The slopes of all these allometric relationships were significantly different from 1. The allometric growth of L. chinensis is patch size-dependent. This finding will be helpful for developing appropriate practices for

  1. Pregnancy outcome of assisted reproductive technology cycle in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangi, Monna; Tamizharasi, M.; Reddy, N. Sanjeeva

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ovulation induction in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a challenge to the treating physician. The threshold for ovarian response in HH may differ substantially from that of normal patients. To reach that threshold levels of follicle stimulating hormone, in a step-up protocol longer duration of stimulation is required in some cases so as to prevent multiple pregnancy and to eliminate the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. AIM: To evaluate the duration of stimulation, quality of oocytes, and embryo, and the pregnancy outcome in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles in patients with HH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over the period of 4 years, we had 14 patients with HH in whom 21 cycles of ovulation induction were done. Of these 7 patients underwent oocyte retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We present a retrospective study of these 7 patients who underwent ART to evaluate the duration of stimulation, quality of oocytes and embryo, and the pregnancy outcome. RESULTS: In the study group on ovulation induction with gonadotropins, only one patient had the duration of stimulation of the standard 12 days, the remaining 6 patients took ≥12 days to respond to stimulation (maxium being 54 days). Mean ET in these patients was 8.9 mm. Six patients had >70% good quality MII oocytes. One patient responded poorly and had only 2 good quality MII oocytes (50%). After ICSI procedure, resultant embryos were of grade 1 and 2 in all the patients irrespective of the duration of stimulation. Fertilization rate in these patients was 85% (except in one 50% fertilization rate), and the cumulative pregnancy rate was 68.6%. CONCLUSION: In the patients with HH the quality of oocytes and embryos, and the pregnancy rate is not affected even if the duration of stimulation is prolonged. PMID:26538857

  2. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, V.I.; Sokur, T.N.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. We have concentrated on two well-defined areas: the Chechersky district of the Gomel region in Belorussia and the Polessky district of the Kiev region in the Ukraine. A number of investigations were carried out on 688 pregnant women and their babies, and data were obtained from 7000 labor histories of the development of newborns for a period of 8 years (3 years before the accident and 5 years after it). Parameters examined included birth rate, thyroid pathology, extragenital pathology such as anemias, renal disorders, hypertension, and abnormalities in the metabolism of fats, complications of gestation, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, perinatal morbidity and mortality, stillbirths and early neonatal mortality, infections and inflammatory diseases, neurological symptoms and hemic disturbances in both mothers and infants, trophic anomalies, and biochemical and structural changes in the placenta. Several exogenous, complicating influences were also considered such as psycho-emotional factors, stress, lifestyle changes, and others caused directly by the hazardous situation and by its consequences such as treatment, removal from affected areas, etc. 9 figs.

  3. Difficult embryo transfers or blood on catheter and assisted reproductive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James A S; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Raine-Fenning, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether a difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter affects assisted reproduction outcomes. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). We aimed to determine the risk ratio (RR) associated with difficult embryo transfer or the presence of blood on the transfer catheter for the following outcomes: live birth, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage. We identified 3066 papers, of which 194 were reviewed and nine were included. The outcome of live birth was not reported in any of the included studies and the effect on miscarriage was too imprecise for any conclusions. Pooled analysis of five studies demonstrated lower clinical pregnancy rates following a non-easy embryo transfer (RR=0.75; 95% CI=0.66-0.86). This included three studies showing subjectively difficult transfers reducing clinical pregnancies (RR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.87) and two studies in which the need for additional manoeuvers reduced clinical pregnancies (RR=0.78; 95% CI=0.67-0.91). The presence of blood on the transfer catheter did not affect clinical pregnancy rates (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.82-1.14) in five studies. We concluded that low quality evidence suggests that a difficult embryo transfer but not a bloody catheter reduces the chance of achieving a clinical pregnancy. More good quality studies are needed to evaluate the effect of difficult embryo transfer and the presence of blood on the catheter on the main outcomes of assisted reproduction. PMID:23347607

  4. Effects of Prior Contest Experience and Contest Outcome on Female Reproductive Decisions and Offspring Fitness.

    PubMed

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Halford, Cerian; Rácz, Rita; Smiseth, Per T

    2016-09-01

    Winning or losing a prior contest can influence the outcome of future contests, but it might also alter subsequent reproductive decisions. For example, losers may increase their investment in the current breeding attempt if losing a contest indicates limited prospects for future breeding. Using the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, we tested whether females adjust their prehatching and posthatching reproductive effort after winning or losing a contest with a same-sex conspecific. Burying beetles breed on carcasses of small vertebrates for which there is fierce intrasexual competition. We found no evidence that winning or losing a contest influenced reproductive investment decisions in this species. Instead, we show that a female's prior contest experience (regardless of its outcome) influenced the amount of posthatching care provided, with downstream consequences for the female's reproductive output; both winners and losers spent more time provisioning food to their offspring and produced larger broods than females with no contest experience. We discuss the wider implications of our findings and present a conceptual model linking contest-mediated adjustments in parental investment to population-level processes. We propose that the frequency of intraspecific contests could both influence and be influenced by population dynamics in species where contest experience influences the size and/or number of offspring produced. PMID:27501089

  5. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  6. Metabolic control of oocyte development: linking maternal nutrition and reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Honglin; Gu, Xi; Boots, Christina; Moley, Kelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders are major health issues worldwide. As the epidemic of metabolic disorders continues, the associated medical comorbidities, including the detrimental impact on reproduction, increase as well. Emerging evidence suggests that the effects of maternal nutrition on reproductive outcomes are likely to be mediated, at least in part, by oocyte metabolism. Well-balanced and timed energy metabolism is critical for optimal development of oocytes. To date, much of our understanding of oocyte metabolism comes from the effects of extrinsic nutrients on oocyte maturation. In contrast, intrinsic regulation of oocyte development by metabolic enzymes, intracellular mediators, and transport systems is less characterized. Specifically, decreased acid transport proteins levels, increased glucose/lipid content and elevated reactive oxygen species in oocytes have been implicated in meiotic defects, organelle dysfunction and epigenetic alteration. Therefore, metabolic disturbances in oocytes may contribute to the diminished reproductive potential experienced by women with metabolic disorders. In-depth research is needed to further explore the underlying mechanisms. This review also discusses several approaches for metabolic analysis. Metabolomic profiling of oocytes, the surrounding granulosa cells, and follicular fluid will uncover the metabolic networks regulating oocyte development, potentially leading to the identification of oocyte quality markers and prevention of reproductive disease and poor outcomes in offspring. PMID:25280482

  7. Reproductive outcome in 3 families with a satellited chromosome 4 with review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Arn, P.H.; Younie, L.; Russo, S.

    1995-07-03

    We describe 3 families segregating for a translocation of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) onto chromosome 4. Review of previously reported cases of translocations involving NOR and chromosome 4 shows that these translocations may be associated with variable reproductive outcomes. We provide evidence that imprinting is not the mechanism responsible for the variable reproductive outcomes in the case of satellited 4p chromosomes; this may offer indirect support for a ribosomal gene position effect. Translocated ribosomal genes may influence the expression of neighboring genes and could explain the variable phenotypes in individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes. We recommend that prenatal counseling of individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes should be cautious. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: The feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This is an outstanding report from a distinguished academy committee, which in 71 pages of text provides the scientific basis for the carefully crafted 8-page executive summary. The principles and issues of the required epidemiological study are presented calmly and concisely, as are the ensuing short chapters on radiation biology, genetics and risk estimation, and all other adverse reproductive outcomes. The committee was mandated by Congress to determine the feasibility, cost and duration of a study on adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veteran. The committee found that a scientifically adequate and epidemiologically valid study could not be mounted and the cost would be tens of millions of dollars lasting a decade. The Committee presents a number of well-discussed approaches in support of their position.

  9. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  10. How does childhood socioeconomic hardship affect reproductive strategy? Pathways of development

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Mark S.; Sear, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In high‐income populations, evidence suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage early in life is correlated with reproductive strategy. Children growing up in unfavorable rearing environments tend to experience earlier sexual maturity and first births. Earlier first births may be associated with higher fertility, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and larger family size have rarely been tested. The pathways through which early disadvantage influences reproduction are unknown. We test whether physiological factors link childhood adversity to age at first birth and total children. Methods Using data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a 1947 British birth cohort, we developed path models to identify possible physiological traits linking childhood socioeconomic status, and poor housing standards, to two reproductive outcomes: age at first birth and total children. We explored birth weight, weight gain after birth, childhood illnesses, body mass index at age 9, age at menarche, and adult height as possible mediators. Results We found direct, negative effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and housing on age at first birth, and of housing on fertility. Although we found links between childhood disadvantage and menarche and height, neither of these were significantly correlated with either reproductive outcome. Age at first birth completely mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and total fertility, which we believe has not been empirically demonstrated before. Conclusions While there are some links between childhood adversity and child health, we find little evidence that physiological pathways, such as child health and growth, link early childhood adversity to reproductive outcomes in this relatively well‐nourished population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:356–363, 2016. © 2015 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26407916

  11. Birth order, family environments, academic and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2003-06-01

    Relations were examined among birth order, family social status, family learning environments, and a set of affective and academic outcomes. Data were collected as part of an Australian longitudinal study (4,171 females and 3,718 males). Analysis suggested that birth order continued to have small but significant associations with adolescents' self-concept and educational aspirations and with young adults' educational attainment, after taking into account differences in family social status and family learning environments. PMID:12931949

  12. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  13. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    PubMed

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production. PMID:17803646

  14. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Maxwell C.K.; Phuong, Jimmy; Baker, Nancy C.; Sipes, Nisha S.; Klinefelter, Gary R.; Martin, Matthew T.; McLaurin, Keith W.; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Darney, Sally Perreault; Judson, Richard S.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumors, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias, which have been associated with prenatal environmental chemical exposure based on human and animal studies. Objective: In the present study we aimed to identify significant correlations between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes across a broad chemical landscape with emphasis on developmental toxicity of the male reproductive system. Methods: We used U.S. EPA’s animal study database (ToxRefDB) and a comprehensive literature analysis to identify 774 chemicals that have been evaluated for adverse effects on male reproductive parameters, and then used U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) to profile their bioactivity across approximately 800 molecular and cellular features. Results: A phenotypic hierarchy of testicular atrophy, sperm effects, tumors, and malformations, a composite resembling the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis, was observed in 281 chemicals. A subset of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences had in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets that could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. Conclusion: Computational modeling of available in vivo and in vitro data for chemicals that produce adverse effects on male reproductive end points revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across animal studies consistent with the human TDS hypothesis. We confirmed the known role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in rodent TDS, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include retinoic acid signaling, vascular remodeling proteins, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and cytochrome P450s. Citation: Leung MC, Phuong J, Baker NC, Sipes NS, Klinefelter GR, Martin MT, McLaurin KW, Setzer RW, Darney SP, Judson RS, Knudsen TB. 2016. Systems toxicology of male

  15. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  16. Long-term outcomes in children conceived with assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, E

    2014-10-01

    Over five million children have been born worldwide through assisted reproductive technology (ART) and access to ART treatment is increasing yearly. Investigations of the health, disease, cognitive, developmental and behavioral outcomes in the children conceived with ART are often confounded by parental and other social, environmental and medical factors, including multiplicity, prematurity and low birth weight. Reports of the long-term health and psychosocial adjustment of children conceived with ART show generally good outcomes. Many of the major long-term conditions observed in the children may be associated with multiple gestations, preterm delivery and low birth weight, or with subfertility of the parents. Evidence in the male infants conceived with the aid of intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) suggests an increased risk of reproductive tract anomalies such as hypospadias. Health-related outcomes of children born after cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos are reassuring. Currently, our knowledge and understanding of the long-term health risks and/or benefits to the children conceived is incomplete. Measuring long-term outcomes is the first step to improving and optimizing health in the offspring conceived with medical and technological assistance. PMID:25245993

  17. Ovarian function and reproductive outcomes of female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and the strategies to preserve their fertility.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Guzel, Yılmaz; Aksoy, Senai; Aydin, Elvin; Urman, Bulent

    2015-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune systemic disease that mainly affects women of reproductive age. Emerging data from recent molecular studies show us that estrogen hormone plays a central role in the development of this disease. By acting via its cognate receptors ERα and ERβ expressed on immune cells, estrogen can modulate immune function in both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Interestingly, estrogen may also evoke autoimmune responses after binding to B lymphocytes leading to the generation of high-affinity autoantibodies and proinflammatory cytokines (so-called estrogen-induced autoimmunity). Unfortunately, reproductive function of young female patients with this disease is commonly compromised by different pathophysiologic processes. First, ovarian reserve is diminished even in the presence of mild disease suggesting a direct impact of the disease itself on ovarian function possibly due to ovarian involvement in the form of autoimmune oophoritis. Second, SLE patients with severe manifestations of the disease are treated with alkylating chemotherapy agent cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide and other drugs of alkylating category have the highest gonadotoxicity. Therefore, SLE patients exposed to cyclophosphamide have a much higher risk of developing infertility and premature ovarian failure than do the counterparts who are treated with other less toxic treatments. Third, the functions of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis are perturbed by chronic inflammatory state. And finally adverse pregnancy outcomes are more commonly observed in SLE patients such as fetal loss, preterm birth, intrauterine fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia-eclampsia, and fetal congenital heart block. We aimed in this review article to provide the readers an update on how estrogen hormone closely interacts with and induces lupus-prone changes in the immune system. We also discuss ovarian function and other reproductive outcomes in SLE patients

  18. A Review of Nitrates in Drinking Water: Maternal Exposure and Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Manassaram, Deana M.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Moll, Deborah M.

    2006-01-01

    In this review we present an update on maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water in relation to possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and also discuss nitrates in drinking water in the United States. The current standard for nitrates in drinking water is based on retrospective studies and approximates a level that protects infants from methemoglobinemia, but no safety factor is built into the standard. The current standard applies only to public water systems. Drinking water source was related to nitrate exposure (i.e., private systems water was more likely than community system water to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant limit). Animal studies have found adverse reproductive effects resulting from higher doses of nitrate or nitrite. The epidemiologic evidence of a direct exposure–response relationship between drinking water nitrate level and adverse reproductive effect is still not clear. However, some reports have suggested an association between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction, and various birth defects. Uncertainties in epidemiologic studies include the lack of individual exposure assessment that would rule out confounding of the exposure with some other cause. Nitrates may be just one of the contaminants in drinking water contributing to adverse outcomes. We conclude that the current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and adverse reproductive effects. Future studies incorporating individual exposure assessment about users of private wells—the population most at risk—should be considered. PMID:16507452

  19. Effect of waste anesthetic gas and vapor exposure on reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate potential adverse reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel who are exposed to waste anesthetic gas and vapor at levels near the NIOSH recommended standards. Subjects for this case-control study of births with congenital abnormalities and spontaneous abortion, selected from the American Veterinary Medical Association roster, were contacted by mail and asked to complete a screening questionnaire regarding reproductive history. Crude prevalence rates for spontaneous abortion, births with congenital abnormalities and stillbirths, determined on the basis of the responses to the screening questionnaire, showed no excess rates when compared with national statistics. All pregnancies resulting in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or birth with congenital abnormality were selected as cases. Controls were selected from the reported normal births on a stratified random basis to match maternal age and pregnancy number for cases. Occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gas and vapor in general was not found to be significantly associated with adverse reproductive outcome when adjustment was made for radiation exposure. For nitrous oxide exposure, however, an odds ratio significantly greater than one was found for spontaneous abortion among female veterinary assistants and wives of exposed male veterinarians. Use of diagnostic x-rays in veterinary practice was associated with spontaneous abortion in exposed females with a statistically significant dose response effect observed in female veterinarians.

  20. Child marriage and its association with adverse reproductive outcomes for women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the prevalence of child marriage and its effect on reproductive outcomes among women in Bangladesh using the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques used in the study yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of child marriage and its impact on adverse reproductive and health outcomes. Overall, 77% of the marriages among women aged 20 to 49 years old took place before the age of 18 years. Women's education is the most single significant determinant of child marriage. Findings revealed that after being adjusted for sociodemographic factors, child marriage significantly (P < .001) increases the likelihood of stillbirth/miscarriage (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.45-2.24) and pregnancy termination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.12-1.38). Programs should aim to retain girls in school for longer periods not only to raise the age at first marriage but also for sound reproductive health and overall social development of Bangladesh. PMID:24097938

  1. Vestibular rehabilitation strategies and factors that affect the outcome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadou, Anna; Skalidi, Nikoleta; Velegrakis, Georgios A

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, vestibular rehabilitation (VR) has been gaining popularity in the treatment of the dizzy patient. Numerous studies support the effectiveness of VR in improving balance/walking skills, eye-head coordination and the quality of life of the patient. Different rehabilitation protocols have been used to treat patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Assessment of the patients' progress is based on the patients' selfperception of dizziness and their functional skills. Factors such as age, medication, time of onset of vertigo and home based VR have been evaluated on their effect on the rehabilitation's outcome. The aim of this review is to evaluate rehabilitation strategies and discuss the factors that affect the outcome. PMID:22526580

  2. The Impact of Official Development Aid on Maternal and Reproductive Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Emma Michelle; Hayman, Rachel; Crawford, Fay; Jeffery, Patricia; Smith, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Progress toward meeting Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes, is behind schedule. This is despite ever increasing volumes of official development aid targeting the goal, calling into question the distribution and efficacy of aid. The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness represented a global commitment to reform aid practices in order to improve development outcomes, encouraging a shift toward collaborative aid arrangements which support the national plans of aid recipient countries (and discouraging unaligned donor projects). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review to summarise the evidence of the impact on MDG 5 outcomes of official development aid delivered in line with Paris aid effectiveness principles and to compare this with the impact of aid in general on MDG 5 outcomes. Searches of electronic databases identified 30 studies reporting aid-funded interventions designed to improve maternal and reproductive health outcomes. Aid interventions appear to be associated with small improvements in the MDG indicators, although it is not clear whether changes are happening because of the manner in which aid is delivered. The data do not allow for a meaningful comparison between Paris style and general aid. The review identified discernible gaps in the evidence base on aid interventions targeting MDG 5, notably on indicators MDG 5.4 (adolescent birth rate) and 5.6 (unmet need for family planning). Discussion This review presents the first systematic review of the impact of official development aid delivered according to the Paris principles and aid delivered outside this framework on MDG 5 outcomes. Its findings point to major gaps in the evidence base and should be used to inform new approaches and methodologies aimed at measuring the impact of official development aid. PMID:23468860

  3. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (μg mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  4. Factors Associated with Effectiveness of Treatment and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients with Thin Endometrium Undergoing Estrogen Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-Miao; Zhou, Yuan-Zheng; Wang, Han-Bi; Sun, Zheng-Yi; Zhen, Jing-Ran; Shen, Keng; Deng, Cheng-Yan; Lang, Jing-He

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thin endometrium is associated with poor reproductive outcomes; estrogen treatment can increase endometrial thickness (EMT). The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the factors influencing the effectiveness of estrogen treatment and reproductive outcomes after the treatment in patients with thin endometrium. Methods: Relevant clinical data of 101 patients with thin endometrium who had undergone estrogen treatment were collected. Possible factors influencing the effectiveness of treatment were analyzed retrospectively by logistic regression analysis. Eighty-seven infertile women without thin endometrium who had undergone assisted reproduction served as controls. The cases and controls were matched for age, assisted reproduction method, and number of embryos transferred. Reproductive outcomes of study and control groups were compared using Student's t-test and the Chi-square test. Results: At the end of estrogen treatment, EMT was ≥8 mm in 93/101 patients (92.1%). Effectiveness of treatment was significantly associated with maximal pretreatment EMT (P = 0.017) and treatment duration (P = 0.004). The outcomes of assisted reproduction were similar in patients whose treatment was successful in increasing EMT to ≥8 mm and the control group. The rate of clinical pregnancy in patients was associated with the number of good-quality embryos transferred in both fresh (P = 0.005) and frozen-thawed (P = 0.000) embryo transfer cycles. Conclusions: Thinner EMT before estrogen treatment requires longer treatment duration and predicts poorer treatment outcomes. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the duration of estrogen administration. Assisted reproductive outcomes of patients whose treatment is successful (i.e., achieves an EMT ≥8 mm) are similar to those of controls. The quality of embryos transferred is an important predictor of assisted reproductive outcomes in patients treated successfully with exogenous estrogen. PMID:26612292

  5. Felt affect in good- and poor-outcome schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sovani, Anuradha; Thatte, Shubha; Deshpande, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Family members and caregivers may misinterpret blunted affect as a true lack of emotion in patients with schizophrenia. Aim: To assess felt affect or experienced emotion among low- and high-functioning schizophrenics. Methods: Two hundred people with schizophrenia were assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning scale of DSM-IV and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Results: The findings reveal that people with good- and poor-outcome schizophrenia show no significant differences in the emotions experienced, implying that felt affect is comparable regardless of the severity of symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. In fact, low-functioning patients scored a mean (SD) of 46.07 (13.13) on the PANAS, in contrast to a slightly lower scored by high-functioning patients (44.33 [12.03]). Conclusion: Although patients may show flat affect, and therefore be mistakenly considered withdrawn and apathetic by the observer, they do, in fact, experience as much, or perhaps even more emotion than their higher-functioning counterparts.

  6. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Obesity, Reproduction, and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stang, Jamie; Huffman, Laurel G

    2016-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all women of reproductive age receive education about maternal and fetal risks associated with prepregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and significant postpartum weight retention, including potential benefits of lifestyle changes. Behavioral counseling to improve dietary intake and physical activity should be provided to overweight and obese women, beginning in the preconception period and continuing throughout pregnancy, for at least 12 to 18 months postpartum. Weight loss before pregnancy may improve fertility and reduce the risk of poor maternal-fetal outcomes, such as preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, assisted delivery, and select congenital anomalies. Lifestyle interventions that moderate gestational weight gain may reduce the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, large for gestational age, and macrosomia, as well as lower the risk for significant postpartum retention. Postpartum interventions that promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors may reduce postpartum weight retention and decrease obesity-related risks in subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of the evidence suggests that there is good evidence to support the role of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes in promoting optimal weight gain during pregnancy; however, there is currently a relative lack of evidence in other areas related to reproductive outcomes. PMID:27017177

  7. Reproductive Outcomes Associated with Noise Exposure — A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ristovska, Gordana; Laszlo, Helga Elvira; Hansell, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: High noise exposure during critical periods in gestation is a potential stressor that may result in increased risk of implantation failure, dysregulation of placentation or decrease of uterine blood flow. This paper systematically reviews published evidence on associations between reproductive outcomes and occupational and environmental noise exposure. Methods: The Web of Science, PubMed and Embase electronic databases were searched for papers published between 1970 to June 2014 and via colleagues. We included 14 epidemiological studies related to occupational noise exposure and nine epidemiological studies related to environmental noise exposure. There was some evidence for associations between occupational noise exposure and low birthweight, preterm birth and small for gestational age, either independently or together with other occupational risk factors. Five of six epidemiologic studies, including the two largest studies, found significant associations between lower birthweight and higher noise exposure. There were few studies on other outcomes and study design issues may have led to bias in assessments in some studies. Conclusions: There is evidence for associations between noise exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes from animal studies. Few studies in have been conducted in humans but there is some suggestive evidence of adverse associations with environmental noise from both occupational and epidemiological studies, especially for low birthweight. PMID:25101773

  8. Do waiting times affect health outcomes? Evidence from coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Moscelli, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Luigi; Tonei, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    Long waiting times for non-emergency services are a feature of several publicly-funded health systems. A key policy concern is that long waiting times may worsen health outcomes: when patients receive treatment, their health condition may have deteriorated and health gains reduced. This study investigates whether patients in need of coronary bypass with longer waiting times are associated with poorer health outcomes in the English National Health Service over 2000-2010. Exploiting information from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), we measure health outcomes with in-hospital mortality and 28-day emergency readmission following discharge. Our results, obtained combining hospital fixed effects and instrumental variable methods, find no evidence of waiting times being associated with higher in-hospital mortality and weak association between waiting times and emergency readmission following a surgery. The results inform the debate on the relative merits of different types of rationing in healthcare systems. They are to some extent supportive of waiting times as an acceptable rationing mechanism, although further research is required to explore whether long waiting times affect other aspects of individuals' life. PMID:27299977

  9. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about the effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk of recurrence was the same for the two disorders. However, analyses with frailty models revealed that for unipolar men, this progressive course was due to a subgroup of patients

  10. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Huang, Qing; Liu, Jianqiao

    2016-01-01

    The impact of paternal age on reproduction, especially using assisted reproductive technologies, has not been well studied to date. To investigate the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes, here we performed a retrospective analysis of 2,627 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and May 2015. Effect of paternal age on embryo quality [number of fertilized oocytes, 2 pronucleus zygotes (2PNs), viable embryos, and high-quality embryos] was analyzed by multiple linear regression. Relationships between paternal age and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed by binary logistic regression. After adjusting for female age, no association between paternal age and the following parameters of embryo quality was observed: number of fertilized oocytes (B = -0.032; 95% CI -0.069–0.005; P = 0.088), number of 2PNs (B = -0.005; 95% CI -0.044–0.034; P = 0.806), and number of viable embryos (B = -0.025; 95% CI -0.052–0.001; P = 0.062). However, paternal age negatively influenced the number of high-quality embryos (B = -0.020; 95% CI -0.040–0.000; P = 0.045). Moreover, paternal age had no effect on pregnancy outcomes (OR for a 5-year interval), including the rates of clinical pregnancy (OR 0.919; 95% CI 0.839–1.006; P = 0.067), ongoing pregnancy (OR 0.914; 95% CI 0.833–1.003; P = 0.058), early pregnancy loss (OR 1.019; 95% CI 0.823–1.263; P = 0.861), live births (OR 0.916; 95% CI 0.833–1.007; P = 0.070), and preterm births (OR 1.061; 95% CI 0.898–1.254; P = 0.485). Therefore, increased paternal age negatively influences the number of high-quality embryos, but has no effect on pregnancy outcomes in couples undergoing ICSI cycles. However, more studies including men aged over 60 years with a longer-term follow-up are needed. PMID:26901529

  11. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  12. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in men with treated and untreated varicocele: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C; Roque, Matheus; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele affects approximately 35%–40% of men presenting for an infertility evaluation. There is fair evidence indicating that surgical repair of clinical varicocele improves semen parameters, decreases seminal oxidative stress and sperm DNA fragmentation, and increases the chances of natural conception. However, it is unclear whether performing varicocelectomy in men with clinical varicocele prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART) improve treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of varicocelectomy on ART pregnancy outcomes in nonazoospermic infertile men with clinical varicocele. An electronic search was performed to collect all evidence that fitted our eligibility criteria using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases until April 2015. Four retrospective studies were included, all of which involved intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and accounted for 870 cycles (438 subjected to ICSI with prior varicocelectomy, and 432 without prior varicocelectomy). There was a significant increase in the clinical pregnancy rates (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.19–2.12, I2 = 25%) and live birth rates (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55–3.06, I2 = 0%) in the varicocelectomy group compared to the group subjected to ICSI without previous varicocelectomy. Our results indicate that performing varicocelectomy in patients with clinical varicocele prior to ICSI is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26510504

  13. The reproductive outcome of women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Saynur; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Yumusak, Omer; Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Seckin, Berna; Yilmaz, Nafiye

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome and assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes of patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and to compare the results with male factor (MF) infertility patients. The reproductive outcome of 33 HH patients was evaluated retrospectively and compared with results of 47 patients with mild male factor infertility. For ovulation induction, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) was used in HH patients and recFSH was used in MF infertility patients. HH patients were divided into subgroups according to retrieved oocyte numbers and the groups were compared with each other. The main outcome measures were total gonadotropin dose used, duration of stimulation, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) day estradiol level and endometrial thickness, oocyte number retrieved, and rate of clinical pregnancy. ART outcomes and cycle characteristics of 33 HH patients were compared with 47 MF infertility patients. There was no difference in age and body mass index (BMI) between the groups, but mean follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH levels were significantly lower in the HH group (p < 0.001). Duration of stimulation was 12.5 ± 2.06 days in the HH patients and 10.08 ± 1.62 days in the MF infertility patients and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). Total gonadotropin dose used was higher in the HH group than the MF infertility group (p < 0.001). However, there were no differences in hCG day estradiol levels, endometrial thickness on hCG day, total oocyte number retrieved, MII oocyte number, and pregnancy rate. In the HH subgroups, patient ages were significantly lower in the >15 oocyte retrieved group. Although patients with HH have a long-term estrogen deficiency, their response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation treatment is similar to normal women. However, the HH group is heterogeneous and estimating the ovarian reserve before treatment is not always possible in

  14. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  15. Hippocampal morphology is differentially affected by reproductive experience in the mother.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy and mothering result in a number of hormonal, neurological, and behavioral changes that are necessary to ensure reproductive success. With subsequent reproductive experience (multiparity and mothering), further neurological and behavioral changes may result. Recent research has shown that previous motherhood enhances both hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and long-term potentiation (LTP); together with decreases in hippocampus volumes during pregnancy it is suggested that the hippocampus is affected by pregnancy and/or mothering. The present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of reproductive experience (nulli, primi-, and multiparity and mothering) on dendritic morphology in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Brains were stained with a modified version of the single-section Golgi impregnation technique, and dendritic length, number of branch points, and spine density was analyzed for apical and basal regions of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Primiparity and/or mothering resulted in dendritic remodeling in both the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions, and multiparity resulted in enhanced spine density in the basal CA1 region, which was positively correlated with number of male pups in a litter. These findings point to the effect of reproductive experience and offspring on plasticity in the hippocampus, an area not traditionally associated with motherhood. PMID:16216005

  16. Can blood or follicular fluid levels of presepsin predict reproductive outcomes in ART; a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ovayolu, Ali; Özdamar, Özkan; Gün, İsmet; Arslanbuga, Cansev Yılmaz; Sofuoğlu, Kenan; Tunalı, Gülden; Topuz, Samet

    2015-01-01

    Many stages of COH protocols are considered to potentiate a state of systemic inflammation. The limit beyond which inflammation has negative impacts on the formation of conception and the reproductive outcomes are compromised still remains unclear. Presepsin is a novel biomarker for diagnosing systemic inflammation and sepsis. We aimed to investigate whether plasma and follicular fluid presepsin values on oocyte pick-up (OPU) day, embryo transfer (ET) day and pregnancy test (PT) days could predict reproductive outcomes during IVF treatment in women with UEI. Patients were assigned to two groups according to pregnancy test results; pregnant (Group 1) and non-pregnant (Group 2). From all patients included in the study, 2 cc of venous blood was sampled on the three days and follicular fluid (FF) was collected during oocyte retrieval. Plasma presepsin, CRP and WBC values and FF presepsin values were measured and compared between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference between FF and plasma presepsin levels on the OPU day (298±797.4 ve 352.9±657.1; P=0.701, respectively). Plasma WBC, CRP and presepsin levels on the OPU, ET and PT days and FF presepsin levels on OPU day were not different between the 2 groups. Plasma presepsin course on the separate 3 days were different between the groups. PMID:26221358

  17. Statistical issues in risk assessment of reproductive outcomes with chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzber, V.S.; Lemasters, G.K.; Hansen, K. ); Zenick, H.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time in number of components, doses of individual components, and constancy of exposure, the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among male wastewater treatment workers and their wives is described here. The wives of 231 workers were interviewed to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature of the exposure and the lack of quantification of specific exposures, six dichotomous variables were used for each specific job description to give a surrogate measure of exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response relationships could be modeled. These six variables were independently assigned by two environmental hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed. Results are presented and further innovations in statistical methodology are proposed for further applications.

  18. Statistical issues in risk assessment of reproductive outcomes with chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Hertzberg, V S; Lemasters, G K; Hansen, K; Zenick, H M

    1991-01-01

    Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time in number of components, doses of individual components, and constancy of exposure, the picture becomes even more complicated. A pilot study of risk of adverse reproductive outcomes among male wastewater treatment workers and their wives is described here. The wives of 231 workers were interviewed to evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of spontaneous early fetal loss and infertility. In addition, 87 workers participated in a cross-sectional evaluation of sperm/semen parameters. Due to the ever-changing nature of the exposure and the lack of quantification of specific exposures, six dichotomous variables were used for each specific job description to give a surrogate measure of exposure. Hence, no quantitative exposure-response relationships could be modeled. These six variables were independently assigned by two environmental hygienists, and their interrater reliability was assessed. Results are presented and further innovations in statistical methodology are proposed for further applications. PMID:2050057

  19. Can blood or follicular fluid levels of presepsin predict reproductive outcomes in ART; a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ovayolu, Ali; Özdamar, Özkan; Gün, İsmet; Arslanbuga, Cansev Yılmaz; Sofuoğlu, Kenan; Tunalı, Gülden; Topuz, Samet

    2015-01-01

    Many stages of COH protocols are considered to potentiate a state of systemic inflammation. The limit beyond which inflammation has negative impacts on the formation of conception and the reproductive outcomes are compromised still remains unclear. Presepsin is a novel biomarker for diagnosing systemic inflammation and sepsis. We aimed to investigate whether plasma and follicular fluid presepsin values on oocyte pick-up (OPU) day, embryo transfer (ET) day and pregnancy test (PT) days could predict reproductive outcomes during IVF treatment in women with UEI. Patients were assigned to two groups according to pregnancy test results; pregnant (Group 1) and non-pregnant (Group 2). From all patients included in the study, 2 cc of venous blood was sampled on the three days and follicular fluid (FF) was collected during oocyte retrieval. Plasma presepsin, CRP and WBC values and FF presepsin values were measured and compared between the 2 groups. There was no significant difference between FF and plasma presepsin levels on the OPU day (298±797.4 ve 352.9±657.1; P=0.701, respectively). Plasma WBC, CRP and presepsin levels on the OPU, ET and PT days and FF presepsin levels on OPU day were not different between the 2 groups. Plasma presepsin course on the separate 3 days were different between the groups. PMID:26221358

  20. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30–34 (4,587 cycles), and 35–38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30–32, 33–35, 36–38, 39–41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35–38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31–34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30–34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30–32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36–38 y and 39–41 y groups. PMID:26352861

  1. Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Surgical Outcome in Tympanoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Naderpour, Masoud; Jabbari Moghadam, Yalda; Ghanbarpour, Ensieh; Shahidi, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tympanoplasty is a standard procedure to repair tympanic membrane perforation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of tympanoplasty (hearing improvement and tympanic membrane closure rate) in patients suffering from chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane by considering the prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, based on the results of tympanoplasty with temporal graft fascia in 60 patients in the ENT department of the Medical Science University of Tabriz, we evaluated prognostic factors, such as age, sex, smoking, size, and site of perforation, for the outcome of this surgery. Results: The rate of surgical success- integration of the graft- was 93.3%. Improvement of hearing, as demonstrated through audiometry, occurred in 93% of cases. We did not find any factors to be statistically significant to affect surgical outcome. Conclusion: Even by considering the influence of different factors on the results of a tympanoplasty operation, according to the statistical results of this study, there is not a significant difference in the results of the operation, neither in the health of the tympanic membrane after surgery nor in hearing development. PMID:27280095

  2. Caterpillar biomass depends on temperature and precipitation, but does not affect bird reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöll, Eva Maria; Ohm, Judith; Hoffmann, Konstantin Frank; Hille, Sabine Marlene

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes in phenological events appear as temperatures are increasing: In deciduous forests bud burst, hatching of herbivorous caterpillars, egg laying and nestling time of birds when feeding chicks on caterpillars, may differentially shift into early season and alter synchronization. If timing of bird reproduction has to match with short periods of food availability, phenological mismatch could negatively affect reproductive success. Using a unique empirical approach along an altitudinal temperature gradient, we firstly asked whether besides temperature, also precipitation and leaf phenology interplay and affect caterpillar biomass, since impacts of rainfall on caterpillars have been largely neglected so far. Secondly, we asked whether abundance of caterpillars and thereby body mass of great tit nestlings, which are mainly fed with caterpillars, vary along the altitudinal temperature gradient. We demonstrated that next to temperature also precipitation and leaf phenology affected caterpillar biomass. In our beech forest, even along altitudes, caterpillars were available throughout the great tit breeding season but in highly variable amounts. Our findings revealed that although timing of leaf phenology and great tit breeding season were delayed with decreasing temperature, caterpillars occurred synchronously and were not delayed according to altitude. However, altitude negatively affected caterpillar biomass, but body mass of fledglings at high altitude sites was not affected by lower amounts of caterpillar biomass. This might be partially outweighed by larger territory sizes in great tits.

  3. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable across

  4. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  5. Advancing or postponing the day of human chorionic gonadotropin does not matter for the outcome in assisted reproductive technology

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Deepika; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The primary outcome is to remove the worry of getting immature oocytes with early administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). AIM: The aim was to find out the association between the day of hCG administration and follicular response in relation to the number and maturity of oocytes, and fertilization rate in assisted reproduction to avoid weekend oocyte recovery (OR). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective study was carried out in the university infertility clinic. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in 94 patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (2010-2011) with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone and timely gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist were analyzed regarding day of hCG from day 8-11. Oocyte maturity and fertilization was analyzed and correlated with the day of hCG administration. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Kruskal–Wallis test. RESULTS: The average number of >18 mm follicles observed from day 8-11 of hCG administration was not statistically different. However, the OR rate (54.2%), number of mature oocytes (92.5%), and fertilization rate (78.5%) was maximum in the patients where hCG was administered on day 8 of COH. CONCLUSIONS: The day of hCG administration between 8 and 11 does not affect the OR rate significantly although the number of oocytes recovered on day 8 are marginally higher compared with day 9-11. Hence, it is possible to safely avoid weekend oocyte retrieval, by delaying or advancing hCG administration without compromising the outcome. PMID:25191023

  6. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  7. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and early reproductive health outcomes among women undergoing IVF

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Flaws, Jodi A.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Petrozza, John C.; Wright, Diane; Hauser, Russ

    2012-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION In women undergoing IVF, are urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations associated with ovarian response and early reproductive outcomes, including oocyte maturation and fertilization, Day 3 embryo quality and blastocyst formation? SUMMARY ANSWER Higher urinary BPA concentrations were found to be associated with decreased ovarian response, number of fertilized oocytes and decreased blastocyst formation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Experimental animal and in vitro studies have reported associations between BPA exposure and adverse reproductive outcomes. We previously reported an association between urinary BPA and decreased ovarian response [peak serum estradiol (E2) and oocyte count at the time of retrieval] in women undergoing IVF; however, there are limited human data on reproductive health outcomes, such as fertilization and embryo development. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION Prospective preconception cohort study. One hundred and seventy-four women aged 18–45 years and undergoing 237 IVF cycles were recruited at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center, Boston, MA, USA, between November 2004 and August 2010. These women were followed until they either had a live birth or discontinued treatment. Cryothaw and donor egg cycles were not included in the analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGAND METHODS Urinary BPA concentrations were measured by online solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed effect models, poisson regression and multivariate logistic regression models were used wherever appropriate to evaluate the association between cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations and measures of ovarian response, oocyte maturation (metaphase II), fertilization, embryo quality and cleavage rate. We accounted for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The geometric mean (SD) for urinary

  8. Does the inclusion of protease inhibitors in the insemination extender affect rabbit reproductive performance?

    PubMed

    Casares-Crespo, L; Vicente, J S; Talaván, A M; Viudes-de-Castro, M P

    2016-03-15

    The bioavailability of buserelin acetate when added to the seminal dose appears to be determined by the activity of the existing aminopeptidases. Thus, the addition of aminopeptidase inhibitors to rabbit semen extenders could be a solution to decrease the hormone degradation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the protease activity inhibition on rabbit semen quality parameters and reproductive performance after artificial insemination. Seminal quality was not affected by the incubation with protease inhibitors, being the values of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity not significantly different between the protease inhibitors and the control group. In addition, seminal plasma aminopeptidase activity was inhibited in a 55.1% by the protease inhibitors. On the other hand, regarding the effect of protease inhibitors on reproductive performance, our results showed that the presence of protease inhibitors affected the prolificacy rate (9.2 ± 0.26 and 9.3 ± 0.23 vs. 8.2 ± 0.22 total born per litter for negative control, positive control, and aminopeptidase inhibitors group, respectively; P < 0.05), having this group one kit less per delivery. We conclude that the addition of a wide variety of protease inhibitors in the rabbit semen extender negatively affects prolificacy rate. Therefore, the development of new extenders with specific aminopeptidase inhibitors would be one of the strategies to increase the bioavailability of GnRH analogues without affecting the litter size. PMID:26639641

  9. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  10. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  11. Reproductive outcome after IVF following hysteroscopic division of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility

    PubMed Central

    Abuzeid, M.; Ghourab, G.; Abuzeid, O.; Mitwally, M.; Ashraf, M.; Diamond, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine reproductive outcome after in-vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in women with primary infertility following hysteroscopic septoplasty of incomplete uterine septum or arcuate uterine anomaly. Methods: This is a historical cohort study. The study group consisted of 156 consecutive patients who underwent a total of 221 cycles of IVF/ET following hysteroscopic septoplasty of an incomplete uterine septum or arcuate anomaly (Group 1). The control group included 196 consecutive patients with normal endometrial cavity on hysteroscopy who underwent a total of 369 cycles of IVF/ET (Group 2). The reproductive outcome after the first cycle of IVF-ET and the best reproductive outcome of all the cycles the patient underwent were calculated. In addition, we compared the reproductive outcome in the study group based on the type of the anomalies (septum versus arcuate). Results: In the first fresh cycle, following septoplasty, there were significantly higher clinical pregnancy and delivery rates in Group 1 (60.3% and 51.3% respectively) compared to Group 2 (38.8% and 33.2% respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the clinical pregnancy (74.4% vs. 67.3%) or in the delivery (65.4% vs. 60.2%) rates per patient, respectively. There was no significant difference in the reproductive outcome after IVF-ET between patients who previously had arcuate uterine anomaly versus incomplete uterine septum. Conclusion: Reproductive outcome of IVF-ET after hysteroscopic correction of incomplete uterine septum/arcuate uterine anomaly in women with primary infertility is no different from women with normal uterine cavity. PMID:25593694

  12. Soy food intake and treatment outcomes of women undergoing assisted reproductive technology

    PubMed Central

    Vanegas, Jose C.; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Williams, Paige L.; Wright, Diane L.; Toth, Thomas L.; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of dietary phytoestrogens intake and clinical outcomes of women undergoing infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technology (ART). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility center in an academic hospital. Participants 315 women who collectively underwent 520 ART cycles between 2007 and 2013. Interventions None Outcomes Primary outcomes were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates per initiated cycle. Results Soy isoflavones intake was positively related to live birth rates in ART. Compared to women who did not consume soy isoflavones, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of live birth (95% confidence interval) for women in increasing categories of soy isoflavone intake were 1.32 (0.76–2.27) for women consuming 0.54–2.63 mg/d, 1.87 (1.12–3.14) for women consuming 2.64- 7.55 mg/d, and 1.77 (1.03–3.03) for women consuming 7.56- 27.89 mg/d. Conclusions Dietary soy intake was positively related to the probability of having a live birth during infertility treatment with ART. PMID:25577465

  13. Clinical outcomes after assisted reproductive technology in twin pregnancies: chorionicity-based comparison.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luming; Zou, Gang; Wei, Xing; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Okun, Nanette; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The chorionicity-based evaluation of the perinatal risk in twin pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is lacking. A retrospective review was performed of all twin pregnancies monitored prenatally and delivered at our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Chorionicity was diagnosed by ultrasound examination at first trimester and confirmed by postnatal pathology. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were prospectively recorded. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in a logistic regression model. A total of 1153 twin pregnancies were analyzed. The occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was 3 times as frequent in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after ART as in those spontaneous counterparts (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.1-3.2). The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancies (ICP) was significantly higher in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneous DCDA pregnancies (aOR 3.3; 95%CI 1.3-5.6). Perinatal outcomes did not differ between two conception methods, either in MCDA or DCDA twin pregnancies. Based on differentiation of chorionicity, ART is associated with the increased risk of PPROM in MCDA twin pregnancies and with a higher rate of ICP in DCDA twin gestations. ART does not increase adversity of perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. PMID:27243373

  14. Clinical outcomes after assisted reproductive technology in twin pregnancies: chorionicity-based comparison

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luming; Zou, Gang; Wei, Xing; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Okun, Nanette; Duan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The chorionicity–based evaluation of the perinatal risk in twin pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is lacking. A retrospective review was performed of all twin pregnancies monitored prenatally and delivered at our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Chorionicity was diagnosed by ultrasound examination at first trimester and confirmed by postnatal pathology. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were prospectively recorded. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in a logistic regression model. A total of 1153 twin pregnancies were analyzed. The occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was 3 times as frequent in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after ART as in those spontaneous counterparts (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.1–3.2). The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancies (ICP) was significantly higher in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneous DCDA pregnancies (aOR 3.3; 95%CI 1.3–5.6). Perinatal outcomes did not differ between two conception methods, either in MCDA or DCDA twin pregnancies. Based on differentiation of chorionicity, ART is associated with the increased risk of PPROM in MCDA twin pregnancies and with a higher rate of ICP in DCDA twin gestations. ART does not increase adversity of perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. PMID:27243373

  15. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus newmani (Copepoda: Calanoida) is deleteriously affected by diatom blooms A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Pierson, James J.; Leising, Andrew W.

    2005-11-01

    Copepod secondary production has traditionally been linked to the spring diatom bloom in temperate and high latitudes, but laboratory studies have recently challenged this view and have shown either reduced fecundity or viability of offspring when copepods were fed high concentrations of - mostly unialgal - diatoms. However, field evidence that diatoms affect copepod reproduction is still scarce. We analyzed the reproductive response of a common, small calanoid copepod of the boreal Pacific, Pseudocalanus newmani, to spring diatom blooms in Dabob Bay, a semi-enclosed fjord of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abundance patterns, egg production rates, egg hatching success, and naupliar viability of the egg-carrying copepod were examined between February and early May in the years 2002-2004. The population underwent strong variations in abundance during both years, with high abundance of all stages from February to mid-March, but dramatically decreasing individual numbers later in spring. A recovery to higher numbers occurred in July. While egg production rates were independent of chlorophyll concentrations, the reproductive success of P. newmani was negatively affected by certain phytoplankton bloom conditions. Hatching success and - more markedly - naupliar survival were reduced following peaks of Thalassiosira species that were producing anti-mitotic aldehydes, but were high during periods when phytoplankton blooms were more diverse or dominated by other prey taxa including diatoms. As a consequence, recruitment of the naupliar population was considerably affected by the Thalassiosira blooms. This study shows for the first time that the so-called diatom effect operates in nature when all prerequisites - (1) high concentration of aldehyde producers, (2) few prey alternatives, and (3) feeding of copepods on these algae - are given. However, the effect was transient in Dabob Bay and may be so in other pelagic ecosystems. It remains to discern the potential sources of

  16. Food availability affects onset of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Mangel, Marc; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment on the onset of reproduction and reproductive performance (productivity at first breeding) in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska. Birds were born and raised in nests with supplemented food (‘fed’) or unsupplemented control nests (‘unfed’), and later recruited into either fed or unfed nests. Fed chicks grew faster than unfed chicks, and males grew faster than females. Birds were more likely to reproduce at younger ages when recruiting into fed nests. Faster growth during development tended to increase age at recruitment in all individuals. Social rank of individuals also affected age at recruitment: B-chicks recruited earlier than A-chicks and singletons recruited later than A- and B-chicks. Productivity increased with the age at recruitment and growth rate as chick, but much of the variability remained unexplained. We conclude that results of this study at least partially support predictions of life-history theory: younger age at first breeding for kittiwakes that experienced suboptimal natal conditions, as well as greater productivity of early recruiting kittiwakes that grew in control nests compared with those that grew in food-supplemented nests. PMID:23576791

  17. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. PMID:22380551

  18. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  19. Melanin content in melanoma metastases affects the outcome of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brożyna, Anna A; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Jan; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2016-04-01

    Melanin possess radioprotective and scavenging properties, and its presence can affect the behavior of melanoma cells, its surrounding environment and susceptibility to the therapy, as showed in vitro experiments. To determine whether melanin presence in melanoma affects the efficiency of radiotherapy (RTH) we evaluated the survival time after RTH treatment in metastatic melanoma patients (n = 57). In another cohort of melanoma patients (n = 84), the relationship between melanin level and pT and pN status was determined. A significantly longer survival time was found in patients with amelanotic metastatic melanomas in comparison to the melanotic ones, who were treated with either RTH or chemotherapy (CHTH) and RTH. These differences were more significant in a group of melanoma patients treated only with RTH. A detailed analysis of primary melanomas revealed that melanin levels were significantly higher in melanoma cells invading reticular dermis than the papillary dermis. A significant reduction of melanin pigmentation in pT3 and pT4 melanomas in comparison to pT1 and T2 tumors was observed. However, melanin levels measured in pT3-pT4 melanomas developing metastases (pN1-3, pM1) were higher than in pN0 and pM0 cases. The presence of melanin in metastatic melanoma cells decreases the outcome of radiotherapy, and melanin synthesis is related to higher disease advancement. Based on our previous cell-based and clinical research and present research we also suggest that inhibition of melanogenesis can improve radiotherapy modalities. The mechanism of relationship between melanogenesis and efficacy of RTH requires additional studies, including larger melanoma patients population and orthotopic, imageable mouse models of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26910282

  20. Melanin content in melanoma metastases affects the outcome of radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Brożyna, Anna A.; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Jan; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2016-01-01

    Melanin possess radioprotective and scavenging properties, and its presence can affect the behavior of melanoma cells, its surrounding environment and susceptibility to the therapy, as showed in vitro experiments. To determine whether melanin presence in melanoma affects the efficiency of radiotherapy (RTH) we evaluated the survival time after RTH treatment in metastatic melanoma patients (n = 57). In another cohort of melanoma patients (n = 84), the relationship between melanin level and pT and pN status was determined. A significantly longer survival time was found in patients with amelanotic metastatic melanomas in comparison to the melanotic ones, who were treated with either RTH or chemotherapy (CHTH) and RTH. These differences were more significant in a group of melanoma patients treated only with RTH. A detailed analysis of primary melanomas revealed that melanin levels were significantly higher in melanoma cells invading reticular dermis than the papillary dermis. A significant reduction of melanin pigmentation in pT3 and pT4 melanomas in comparison to pT1 and T2 tumors was observed. However, melanin levels measured in pT3-pT4 melanomas developing metastases (pN1-3, pM1) were higher than in pN0 and pM0 cases. The presence of melanin in metastatic melanoma cells decreases the outcome of radiotherapy, and melanin synthesis is related to higher disease advancement. Based on our previous cell-based and clinical research and present research we also suggest that inhibition of melanogenesis can improve radiotherapy modalities. The mechanism of relationship between melanogenesis and efficacy of RTH requires additional studies, including larger melanoma patients population and orthotopic, imageable mouse models of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26910282

  1. A preliminary study of reproductive outcomes of female maquiladora workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, B; Guendelman, S; Elkin, E P; Jasis, M

    1993-12-01

    Maquiladoras are plants on the Mexican side of the United States-Mexico border which are used largely by U.S. manufacturers to assemble premanufactured parts. We examined reproductive outcomes of women employed in electronics (N = 120) and garment (N = 121) maquiladora work compared to women employed in the service sector (N = 119) in Tijuana, Mexico. Women recruited by community health workers were interviewed about their reproductive history, sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and characteristics of their current job. Length of regular menstrual cycle in the past year as well as time of conception and rates of fetal loss in the most recent pregnancy were similar across occupational groups. However, infants of garment maquiladora workers were 653 g lighter (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1,041 g, -265 g) and infants of electronic maquiladora workers were 337 g lighter (95% CI: -682 g, 9 g) than infants of service workers after adjusting for potential confounders. The cause of these differences remains unclear. PMID:8311097

  2. [Reproductive outcome after laparoscopic myomectomy--retrospective analysis 1994-2007].

    PubMed

    Kucera, E; Mandys, F; Drahonovský, J; Martin, D; Procházka, B

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the reproductive outcome after laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) in infertile patients. Between the years 1994-2007 were 351 infertile women operated in our department. The average age of the patients was 33.5. The total number of extirpated fibroids was 643, with the average of 1.7 per patient and the average size of 3.3 cm. 171 women (48.7%) became pregnant after LM. There were 119 deliveries, 16 spontaneous abortions and 6 ectopic pregnancies in this group. The caesarean section (CS) rate was 46.2% . Intramural localisation of the fibroid significantly correlated with the termination of pregnancy by CS. I. and II. trimester pregnancy loss correlated significantly with deep coagulation when conception occurred during 12 months after surgery. No uterine rupture was observed during pregnancy. PMID:21246791

  3. Reproductive outcomes in men with karyotype abnormalities: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Taylor P.; Clavijo, Raul; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Hakky, Tariq; Candrashekar, Aravind; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations of autosomal chromosomes are present in about 1/625 men, yet often there are no symptoms except primary infertility. Abnormal segregation during meiosis often produces sperm and subsequent embryos with unbalanced translocations that often ultimately result in spontaneous abortions. We report on a 37-year-old man and his 39-year-old wife who complained of primary infertility. Previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) had resulted in pregnancy, but two spontaneous abortions. Upon chromosomal testing, the man was diagnosed with a reciprocal translocation and his wife was diagnosed with mosaic Turner’s syndrome. Through testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and IVF with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), they succeeded in having two healthy children. Since men with different karyotype abnormalities can have male infertility, we reviewed the literature and summarized the reproductive outcomes for men with both autosome and sex chromosomal karyotype abnormalities. PMID:26425238

  4. Reproductive outcomes in men with karyotype abnormalities: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Taylor P; Clavijo, Raul; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Hakky, Tariq; Candrashekar, Aravind; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations of autosomal chromosomes are present in about 1/625 men, yet often there are no symptoms except primary infertility. Abnormal segregation during meiosis often produces sperm and subsequent embryos with unbalanced translocations that often ultimately result in spontaneous abortions. We report on a 37-year-old man and his 39-year-old wife who complained of primary infertility. Previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) had resulted in pregnancy, but two spontaneous abortions. Upon chromosomal testing, the man was diagnosed with a reciprocal translocation and his wife was diagnosed with mosaic Turner's syndrome. Through testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and IVF with preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), they succeeded in having two healthy children. Since men with different karyotype abnormalities can have male infertility, we reviewed the literature and summarized the reproductive outcomes for men with both autosome and sex chromosomal karyotype abnormalities. PMID:26425238

  5. Decline in Child Marriage and Changes in Its Effect on Reproductive Outcomes in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the decline in child marriage and changes in its effect on reproductive outcomes of Bangladeshi women, using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Chi-square tests, negative binomial Poisson regression and binary logistic regression were performed in analyzing the data. Overall, 82% of women aged 20-49 years were married-off before 18 years of age, and 63% of the marriages took place before 16 years of age. The incidence of child marriage was significantly less among the young women aged 20-24 years compared to their older counterparts. Among others, women's education appeared as the most significant single determinant of child marriage as well as decline in child marriage. Findings revealed that, after being adjusted for sociodemographic factors, child marriage compared to adult marriage appeared to be significantly associated with lower age at first birth (OR=0.81, 95% CI=76-0.86), higher fertility (IRR=1.45, 95% WCI=1.35-1.55), increased risk of child mortality (IRR=1.64, 95% WCI=1.44-1.87), decreased risk of contraceptive-use before any childbirths (OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.50-0.63), higher risk of giving three or more childbirth (OR=3.94, 95% CI=3.38-4.58), elevated risk of unplanned pregnancies (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.02-1.45), increased risk of pregnancy termination (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.00-1.34), and higher risk of the use of any current contraceptive method (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.06-1.35). Increased enforcement of existing policies is crucial for the prevention of child marriage. Special programmes should be undertaken to keep girls in school for longer period to raise the age of females at first marriage in Bangladesh and thereby reduce the adverse reproductive outcomes. PMID:23082634

  6. Chronic cadmium exposure: relation to male reproductive toxicity and subsequent fetal outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Zenick, H.; Hastings, L.; Goldsmith, M.; Niewenhuis, R.J.

    1982-03-01

    Acute injections of high doses of Cd induced marked testicular necrosis. However, the effects of low-dose, oral Cd exposure on a chronic basis are not well documented. The present investigation was designed to examine the effects of such exposure as reflected in parameters of spermatotoxicity and histology. Moreover, the impact on fetal outcome was measured by evaluating teratological and postnatal neurobehavior endpoints. Male Long-Evans hooded rats (100 d of age) were exposed to 0, 17.2, 34.4, or 68.8 ppm Cd for 70 d. During this period, the animals were maintained on a semipurified diet to control for the contribution of Zn and other trace elements. Near the end of exposure the males were mated to three female rats. One was sacrificed on d 21 of pregnancy for teratological assessment, including fetal weight, and determination of preimplantation and postimplantation loss. The other two dams were allowed to deliver, and their offspring were tested on tasks of exploratory behavior (d 21) and learning (d 90). Subsequently, the male parent was sacrified and a variety of measures recorded including weights of testes and caudae epididymides, sperm count and sperm morphology, and Cd content of liver and kidney. One of the testes was also evaluated histologically. No significant effects were observed on any of the parameters of reproductive toxicity or fetal outcome. These findings suggest that, at the doses employed in this study, Cd did not have signficant deleterious effects on the male reproductive system. Morever, the traditional view of Cd-related testicular insult, based on acute exposure, injection protocols, needs to be reevaluated in terms of environmental relevance.

  7. Mercury in fish and adverse reproductive outcomes: results from South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mercury is a metal with widespread distribution in aquatic ecosystems and significant neurodevelopmental toxicity in humans. Fish biomonitoring for total mercury has been conducted in South Carolina (SC) since 1976, and consumption advisories have been posted for many SC waterways. However, there is limited information on the potential reproductive impacts of mercury due to recreational or subsistence fish consumption. Methods To address this issue, geocoded residential locations for live births from the Vital Statistics Registry (1995–2005, N = 362,625) were linked with spatially interpolated total mercury concentrations in fish to estimate potential mercury exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the hypothesis that risk of low birth weight (LBW, <2,500 grams) or preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks clinical gestation) was greater among women living in areas with elevated total mercury in fish, after adjustment for confounding. Separate analyses estimated term LBW and PTB risks using residential proximity to rivers with fish consumption advisories to characterize exposure. Results Term LBW was more likely among women residing in areas in the upper quartile of predicted total mercury in fish (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.09) or within 8 kilometers of a river with a ‘do not eat’ fish advisory (1.05; 1.00-1.11) compared to the lowest quartile, or rivers without fish consumption restrictions, respectively. When stratified by race, risks for term LBW or PTB were 10-18% more likely among African-American (AA) mothers living in areas with the highest total fish mercury concentrations. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship between fish total mercury concentrations and adverse reproductive outcomes in a large population-based sample that included AA women. The ecologic nature of exposure assessment in this study

  8. Evidence that elevated water temperature affects the reproductive physiology of the European bullhead Cottus gobio.

    PubMed

    Dorts, Jennifer; Grenouillet, Gaël; Douxfils, Jessica; Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N M; Milla, Sylvain; Silvestre, Frédéric; Kestemont, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the average water temperature and alter the ecology and physiology of several organisms including fish species. To examine the effects of increased water temperature on freshwater fish reproduction, adult European bullhead Cottus gobio of both genders were maintained under three temperature regimes (T1: 6-10, T2: 10-14 and T3: 14-18°C) and assessed for gonad development (gonadosomatic index-GSI and gonad histology), sex steroids (testosterone-T, 17β-estradiol-E2 and 11-ketotestosterone-11-KT) and vitellogenin (alkali-labile phosphoprotein phosphorus-ALP) dynamics in December, January, February and March. The results indicate that a 8°C rise in water temperature (T3) deeply disrupted the gonadal maturation in both genders. This observation was associated with the absence of GSI peak from January to March, and low levels of plasma sex steroids compared with T1-exposed fish. Nevertheless, exposure to an increasing temperature of 4°C (T2) appeared to accelerate oogenesis with an early peak value in GSI and level of plasma T recorded in January relative to T1-exposed females. In males, the low GSI, reduced level of plasma 11-KT and the absence of GSI increase from January to March support the deleterious effects of increasing water temperature on spermatogenesis. The findings of the present study suggest that exposure to elevated temperatures within the context of climate warming might affect the reproductive success of C. gobio. Specifically, a 4°C rise in water temperature affects gametogenesis by advancing the spawning, and a complete reproductive failure is observed at an elevated temperature of 8°C. PMID:21638008

  9. Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local inhibition of gonadal activity by glucocorticoids. As the latter has not been tested in birds yet, we tested if corticosterone directly inhibits ovarian steroid synthesis under in vitro conditions. We hypothesized that degradation of corticosterone by follicular cells impairs their ability to synthesize reproductive hormones due to either inhibition of enzymes or competition for common co-factors. Therefore, we first established whether follicles degrade corticosterone. Follicular tissue was harvested from freshly euthanized laying hens and incubated with radiolabelled corticosterone. Radioactive metabolites were visualized and quantified by autoradiography. Follicles converted corticosterone in a time-dependent manner into metabolites with a higher polarity than corticosterone. The predominant metabolite co-eluted with 20β-dihydrocorticosterone. Other chicken tissues mostly formed the same metabolite when incubated with corticosterone. In a second experiment, follicles were incubated with either progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone. Corticosterone was added in increasing dosages up to 1000 ng per ml medium. Corticosterone did not inhibit the conversion of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone into a number of different metabolites, including 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone. In conclusion, avian tissues degrade corticosterone mostly to 20β-dihydrocorticosterone and even high corticosterone dosages do not affect follicular hormone production under in vitro conditions. PMID:23333751

  10. Geographic variation of reproductive health indicators and outcomes in the United States: place matters.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, William M

    2014-09-01

    The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age and the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances, in turn, are shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics. Reproductive health indicators and conditions that are germane to obstetricians and gynecologists vary across states and regions in the United States as well as within regions and states. The aim of this article is to illustrate this variation with the use of examples of gynecologic malignancies, sexually transmitted infections, teen birth rates, preterm birth rates, and infant mortality rates. Using the example of infant death, the difficulties in "unpacking" the construct of place will be discussed, and a special emphasis is placed on the interaction of race, place, and disparities in shaping perinatal outcomes. Finally, readily available and easy-to-use online data resources will be provided so that obstetricians and gynecologists will be able to assess geographic variation in health indicators and outcomes in their own localities. PMID:24956548

  11. Impact of men's dairy intake on assisted reproductive technology outcomes among couples attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chiu, Yu-Han; Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Ford, Jennifer B; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Souter, Irene; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2016-03-01

    Intake of full-fat dairy has been linked to lower semen quality but whether this leads to decreased fertility is unknown. To address this question, we prospectively evaluated the association of men's dairy intake with treatment outcomes of subfertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). We followed 142 men from couples undergoing infertility treatment with ART at an academic fertility centre between 2007 and 2014. Couples completed dietary assessments prior to treatment, and the female partners underwent a total of 248 ART cycles. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of dairy intake with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, total exercise time, dietary patterns, alcohol, caffeine, total energy intake, and female dairy intake. Intake of dairy foods, regardless of their fat content, was not associated with fertilization, implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates. The adjusted live birth rates (95% confidence interval) for couples in increasing quartiles of men's dairy intake were 0.42 (0.25, 0.60), 0.25 (0.13, 0.42), 0.26 (0.15, 0.41), and 0.44 (0.27, 0.63) (p linear trend = 0.73). Results remained similar after adjustment for female partner intake of dairy foods. Overall, men's dairy intake was not associated with treatment outcomes of couples undergoing ART. PMID:26825777

  12. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  13. Disruption of amylase genes by RNA interference affects reproduction in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Huvet, Arnaud; Béguel, Jean-Philippe; Cavaleiro, Nathalia Pereira; Thomas, Yoann; Quillien, Virgile; Boudry, Pierre; Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Fabioux, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Feeding strategies and digestive capacities can have important implications for variation in energetic pathways associated with ecological and economically important traits, such as growth or reproduction in bivalve species. Here, we investigated the role of amylase in the digestive processes of Crassostrea gigas, using in vivo RNA interference. This approach also allowed us to investigate the relationship between energy intake by feeding and gametogenesis in oysters. Double-stranded (ds)RNA designed to target the two α-amylase genes A and B was injected in vivo into the visceral mass of oysters at two doses. These treatments caused significant reductions in mean mRNA levels of the amylase genes: -50.7% and -59% mRNA A, and -71.9% and -70.6% mRNA B in 15 and 75 µg dsRNA-injected oysters, respectively, relative to controls. Interestingly, reproductive knock-down phenotypes were observed for both sexes at 48 days post-injection, with a significant reduction of the gonad area (-22.5% relative to controls) and germ cell under-proliferation revealed by histology. In response to the higher dose of dsRNA, we also observed reductions in amylase activity (-53%) and absorption efficiency (-5%). Based on these data, dynamic energy budget modeling showed that the limitation of energy intake by feeding that was induced by injection of amylase dsRNA was insufficient to affect gonadic development at the level observed in the present study. This finding suggests that other driving mechanisms, such as endogenous hormonal modulation, might significantly change energy allocation to reproduction, and increase the maintenance rate in oysters in response to dsRNA injection. PMID:25883379

  14. Metabolic stressors and signals differentially affect energy allocation between reproduction and immune function.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Cooper, Candace L; Demas, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Most free-living animals have finite energy stores that they must allocate to different physiological and behavioral processes. In times of energetic stress, trade-offs in energy allocation among these processes may occur. The manifestation of trade-offs may depend on the source (e.g., glucose, lipids) and severity of energy limitation. In this study, we investigated energetic trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems by experimentally limiting energy availability to female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, a compound that disrupts cellular utilization of glucose. We observed how glucoprivation at two levels of severity affected allocation to reproduction and immunity. Additionally, we treated a subset of these hamsters with leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a direct signal of available fat stores, in order to determine how increasing this signal of fat stores influences glucoprivation-induced trade-offs. We observed trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems and that these trade-offs depended on the severity of energy limitation and exogenous leptin signaling. The majority of the animals experiencing mild glucoprivation entered anestrus, whereas leptin treatment restored estrous cycling in these animals. Surprisingly, virtually all animals experiencing more severe glucoprivation maintained normal estrous cycling throughout the experiment; however, exogenous leptin resulted in lower antibody production in this group. These data suggest that variation in these trade-offs may be mediated by shifts between glucose and fatty acid utilization. Collectively, the results of the present study highlight the context-dependent nature of these trade-offs, as trade-offs induced by the same metabolic stressor can manifest differently depending on its intensity. PMID:25125082

  15. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-03-22

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of 'environmental sex determination'. PMID:17251109

  16. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of ‘environmental sex determination’. PMID:17251109

  17. Factors affecting reproductive success in three entomophilous orchid species in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Vojtkó, Anna E; Sonkoly, Judit; Lukács, Balázs András; Molnár V, Attila

    2015-06-01

    The reproductive success of orchids is traditionally estimated by determining the fruit-set of individuals. Here, we investigated both the fruit and the seed production of three orchid species and the factors that may affect individual fruit-set, like pollination strategy, individual traits or the annual amount of precipitation. The species [Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soó, Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P. F. Hunt & Summerhayes and Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. M. Richard] were studied in three consecutive years (2010-2012) in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. All three species were proved to be non-autogamous by a bagging experiment. Data analyses showed significant differences between seed numbers but not between fruit-sets of species. There was no statistical difference in individual reproductive success between wet and dry years, however, the effect of the annual amount of precipitation is significant on the population level. Comparison of published fruit-set data revealed accordance with our results in P. bifolia, but not in D. sambucina and D. majalis. We assume that the surprisingly high fruit-set values of the two Dactylorhiza species may be due to the fact that the pollination crisis reported from Western European countries is not an actual problem in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. PMID:26081278

  18. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Sonja V; Rueda, Carolina; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Visser, Marcel E

    2011-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues from sprouting vegetation and the consequent abundance of invertebrate prey, although dependent on temperature, may provide supplementary environmental cues per se. This hypothesis was investigated in breeding pairs of great tits kept in outdoor aviaries. In spring, experimental pairs were provided with access to leafing birch branches and caterpillars as a visual food cue, while control pairs were provided with non-leafing branches. Observations were made on the onset of laying and on concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) at regular intervals to monitor changes in reproductive function. The onset of egg laying was not advanced by the presence of leafing branches and caterpillars. LH concentrations increased during the course of the study, but phenological cues did not affect plasma LH levels in females and males. Early spring vegetation, such as the leafing of birch branches, and the appearance of caterpillar prey do not appear to play a significant role in fine-tuning the onset of egg laying in great tits. PMID:21993796

  19. Second-Hand Eating? Maternal perception of the food environment affects reproductive investment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Tonia S.; Gainer, Renee; Dohm, Erik D.; Johnson, Maria S.; Wyss, J. Michael; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little information exists on how perception of the food (or ‘energetic’) environment affects body composition and reproductive investment. We test the hypothesis that female mice, who are themselves consuming standard chow diets, but who are exposed to conspecifics eating a rich “cafeteria diet”, will exhibit altered weight gain and reproductive investment. Design and Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were raised on a cafeteria diet. At maturity, subjects were switched to a standard chow diet and their cage-mate was assigned to consume either a cafeteria diet (treatment, n=20), or standard chow (control, n=20). Subjects were mated, and pups raised to weaning. Subjects and pups were analyzed for body composition. Results Treatment had no discernable effect on dam body weight or composition, but caused pups to have lower body weight (p=0.036), and less fat mass (p=0.041). We found a nearly significant treatment effect on ‘time to successful reproduction’ (avg. 55 vs. 44 days) likely due to increased failed first pregnancies (14/19 versus 8/19, p=0.099). Conclusions These data indicate that perceived food environment (independent of the diet actually consumed) can produce small pups with less body fat, and possibly induce difficulties in pregnancy for dams. Replication and mechanistic studies should follow. PMID:25864567

  20. Reproductive outcome after chromosome analysis in couples with two or more miscarriages: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Maureen T M; Korevaar, Johanna C; van der Veen, Fulco; Leschot, Nico J; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Goddijn, Mariette

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare reproductive outcomes in couples carrying a structural chromosome abnormality and non-carrier couples referred for chromosome analysis after two or more miscarriages. Design Case-control study. Setting Six centres for clinical genetics in the Netherlands. Participants 278 carrier couples and 427 non-carrier couples referred for chromosome analysis between 1992 and 2000 after two or more miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation. Couples were followed up for at least 24 months after chromosome analysis. Main outcome measures The birth of at least one healthy child, at least one more miscarriage, and viable offspring with unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities after parental chromosome analysis. Results Mean follow-up after chromosome analysis was 5.8 years. 120 of 247 (49%) carrier couples had one or more miscarriage after chromosome analysis compared with 122 of 409 (30%) non-carrier couples (difference 19%, 95% confidence interval 11% to 26%; P < 0.01). The percentage of couples with at least one healthy child was not significantly different in carrier couples (83%) and non-carrier couples (84%) (difference -1%, - 7% to 5%). Among 550 pregnancies in carrier couples, two viable unbalanced chromosome abnormalities were detected at prenatal diagnosis (0.4%) and the fetuses aborted and two children with an unbalanced karyotype were born (0.4%). Conclusions Couples whose carrier status was ascertained after two or more miscarriages have a low risk of viable offspring with unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities. Their chances of having a healthy child are as high as non-carrier couples, despite a higher risk of miscarriage. PMID:16495333

  1. Reproductive Outcome of Patients with Asherman’s Syndrome: A SAIMS Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Shilpa; Bhave, Priya; Ganguly, Ishita; Baxi, Asha; Agarwal, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate menstrual and reproductive outcome in patients diagnosed with Asherman’s syndrome on hysteroscopy and to assess the role of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. Methods: A prospective study was performed for patients having intrauterine adhesion at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Indore, India for a period of 2 years. Findings at hysteroscopy, details of adhesiolysis, changes in menstrual pattern following adhesiolysis, need for repeat procedure and fertility outcome were prospectively collected. Data was analysed using SPSS software. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 60 patients with a mean age of 30.1±5.5 years with Asherman’s syndrome were included. In 53.3% of them, no factors like post-partum curettage, uterine surgery or history of tuberculosis could be found in which the present intrauterine adhesions could be attributed to. Hypomenorrhoea was the most common (53.3%) menstrual pattern in patients diagnosed with Asherman’s syndrome. Thirty eight out of 60 (63.33%) required second look hysteroscopy. There was a significant change in endometrial lining and echo pattern after adhesiolysis (p<0.05). 45% of patients started having normal menstrual flow after adhesiolysis which was statistically significant. A total of 16 conceptions and 10 live births were reported in the present cohort. Pregnancy rate was higher in patients having mild Asherman’s syndrome (53.3%) as compared to moderate (26.9%) or severe type (9.5%), (p=0.0049). It was also higher in patients having normal endometrial pattern after adhesiolysis (p=0.0005). Conclusion: Women who underwent hysteroscopic adhesiolysis showed significant improvement in the menstrual pattern. Pregnancy rates were improved after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. PMID:27110522

  2. Uptake and outcome of assisted reproductive techniques in long-term survivors of SCT.

    PubMed

    Babb, A; Farah, N; Lyons, C; Lindsay, K; Reddy, N; Goldman, J; Apperley, J F; Salooja, N

    2012-04-01

    We have audited the invitation for uptake and outcome of artificial reproductive techniques in patients undergoing SCT for haematological malignancy, with the aim of improving our pre-transplant counselling. A postal survey was sent to 434 patients in our centre surviving a minimum of 2 years after allo-SCT, of whom 221 patients responded. Of 112 male patients, 79 were offered sperm storage, 42 banked sperm and 25 subsequently attempted parenthood with stored sperm. A total of 18 were successful, with 29 children born a median of 8 years (range 1-22 years) following SCT. Of 72 females <42 years old, 33 were offered storage of embryos/eggs/ovarian tissue and 12 accepted. Following SCT, four women attempted pregnancy using cryopreserved embryos, with two successes. The majority of patients who were not counselled about infertility or not offered fertility-preservation options provided a likely reason, with completion of family being the most frequent. Nonetheless, 16 patients (11/72 women and 5/112 men) could not provide a reason for the lack of information/invitation. In conclusion, uptake of gamete/embryo storage is high when offered and collected material is used frequently. Pregnancies in partners of male patients were usually successful and our data highlight the value of prolonged cryostorage. PMID:21743501

  3. Health and reproductive outcomes among American legionnaires in relation to combat and herbicide exposure in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Stellman, S.D. ); Stellman, J.M. ); Sommer, J.F. Jr. )

    1988-12-01

    History of diagnosed illnesses, medical symptoms, and reproductive outcomes and their relation to combat intensity and herbicide exposure were studied, via a mailed questionnaire, among 6,810 American Legionnaires who served during the Vietnam War (42% in Southeast Asia, 58% elsewhere). Heart disease, venereal disease, and benign fatty tumors were reported significantly more often by Vietnam veterans than by controls. Combat intensity was significantly dosage-related to history of high blood pressure, ulcers, arthritis and rheumatism, genito-urinary problems, nervous system disease, major injury, hepatitis, and benign fatty tumors. Agent Orange exposure was significantly dosage-related to history of benign fatty tumors, adult acne, skin rash with blisters, and increased sensitivity of eyes to light. Rates of the latter two conditions and of change in skin color were especially elevated in men whose military occupations involved direct handling of herbicides. Neither combat nor Agent Orange exposure was associated with difficulty in conception, time to conception of first child, or to birthweight or sex ratio of offspring, but maternal smoking was strongly related to reduced birthweight. The percentage of spouses' pregnancies which resulted in miscarriages was significantly higher for Vietnam veterans than controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that Agent Orange exposure and maternal smoking were both independently and significantly associated with miscarriage rates in a dose-related manner.

  4. Effects of consanguineous marriage on reproductive outcome in an Arab community in Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, L; Merlob, P; Gabriel, R; Shohat, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrafamilial marriage is favoured by the Arab community in Israel, almost all of whom live in villages populated by a few (< 20) founding families. A previous study in Taibe, a large Arab village located 30 km from Tel Aviv, showed a significantly high malformation rate among infants of consanguineous parents. The present study examines the reproductive consequences of parental consanguinity in 610 families from the same village, selected retrospectively through infants routinely seen in the local well baby clinic. All mothers were interviewed with regard to previous pregnancy outcomes, including abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal or infant deaths, as well as the degree of consanguinity. In addition, we analysed the anthropometric measurements of the probands. The incidence of infant deaths was significantly higher in the inbred group (p < 0.001). No significant increase in fetal loss between the inbred and outbred groups was observed. There were no differences in anthropometric features, except for a lower birth weight in the consanguineous group (p < 0.035). This study, combined with our previous studies of the same population, indicates a prominent public health problem associated with consanguineous marriage in the Arab community and a need for specific genetic counselling. PMID:9429142

  5. Coerced first sexual intercourse and selected reproductive health outcomes among young women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Pranitha; Munthree, Chantal

    2007-03-01

    Coercion may play an important role in compelling young women to engage in sexual intercourse at an early age. With a decline in age at first intercourse and increased reporting of coercive first sex, concerns of adverse reproductive health outcomes such as unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, have become important issues, particularly in the context of a high HIV prevalence. This paper uses data collected in 2001 from the second round of a longitudinal study of 1130 sexually experienced young women in KwaZulu-Natal to investigate the relationship between coerced first intercourse and selected reproductive health outcomes and behaviours. Nearly 46% of all sexually experienced young women had reported that their first sexual encounter had been coerced. Young women who reported being coerced at first sex were significantly more likely to be Black and living in an urban area. Those who had been coerced at first sex were also more likely to report having had an STI and having experienced unintended pregnancy, than those who had not been coerced at first sex. Coercion at first sex is an important social and public health problem that has a serious impact on the reproductive health and behaviours of young women. Interventions should directly address the issue of sexual coercion by ensuring young women are aware of their reproductive rights. PMID:16566848

  6. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  7. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  8. Factors affecting patient outcome in primary cutaneous aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary cutaneous aspergillosis (PCA) is an uncommon infection of the skin. There is a paucity of organized literature regarding this entity in regard to patient characteristics, associated Aspergillus species, and treatment modalities on outcome (disease recurrence, disease dissemination, and mortality). We reviewed all published reports of PCA from 1967 to 2015. Cases were deemed eligible if they included the following: patient baseline characteristics (age, sex, underlying condition), evidence of proven or probable PCA, primary treatment strategy, and outcome. We identified 130 eligible cases reported from 1967 to 2015. The patients were predominantly male (63.8%) with a mean age of 30.4 ± 22.1 years. Rates of PCA recurrence, dissemination, and mortality were 10.8%, 18.5%, and 31.5%, respectively. In half of the cases, there was an association with a foreign body. Seven different Aspergillus species were reported to cause PCA. Systemic antifungal therapy without surgery was the most common form of therapy (60% of cases). Disease dissemination was more common in patients with underlying systemic conditions and occurred on average 41.4 days after PCA diagnosis (range of 3–120 days). In a multivariate linear regression model of mortality including only patients with immunosuppressive conditions, dissemination and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were statistically significantly associated with increased mortality. Nearly one-third of patients with PCA die with the disease. Dissemination and host status are critical in patient outcome. PMID:27367980

  9. Race Affects Outcome among Infants with Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Robert H; Balint, Jane; Horslen, Simon; Wales, Paul W.; Soden, Jason; Duggan, Christopher; Li, Ruosha; Belle, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intestinal failure is a rare, devastating condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine if ethnic and racial differences were associated with patient survival and likelihood of receiving an intestinal transplant in a contemporary cohort of children with intestinal failure. Methods This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study with data collected from chart review conducted by the Pediatric Intestinal Consortium (PIFCon). Entry criteria included infants < 12 mo receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) for > 60 continuous days and followed for at least 2 years. Outcomes included death and intestinal transplant (ITx). Race and ethnicity were recorded as they were in the medical record. For purposes of statistical comparisons and regression modeling, categories of race were consolidated into “white” and “non-white” children. Results Of 272 subjects enrolled, 204 white and 46 non-white children were available for analysis. The 48 month cumulative incidence probability (CIP) of death without ITx was 0.40 for non-white and 0.16 for white children (p<0.001); the CIP of ITx was 0.07 for non-white vs 0.31 for white children (p=0.003). The associations between race and outcomes remained after accounting for low-birth weight, diagnosis, and being seen at a transplant center. Conclusion Race is associated with death and receiving an ITx in a large cohort of children with intestinal failure. This study highlights the need to investigate reasons for this apparent racial disparity in outcome among children with intestinal failure. PMID:24918984

  10. How much do immigration and trade affect labor market outcomes?

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Freeman, R B; Katz, L F

    1997-01-01

    "This paper provides new estimates of the impact of immigration and trade on the U.S. labor market.... We examine the relation between economic outcomes for native workers and immigrant flows to regional labor markets.... We...use the factor proportions approach to examine the contributions of immigration and trade to recent changes in U.S. educational wage differentials and attempt to provide a broader assessment of the impact of immigration on the incomes of U.S. natives." Comments and discussion by John DiNardo, John M. Abowd, and others are included (pp. 68-85). PMID:12321914

  11. Reproductive outcomes among Mexico-born women in San Diego and Tijuana: testing the migration selectivity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Weeks, J R; Rumbaut, R G; Ojeda, N

    1999-04-01

    Mexican immigrants to the United States have better reproductive outcomes than do U.S.-born non-Latina whites. Explanations offered for this "epidemiologic paradox" include (1) poor outcomes among Mexican women may be hidden by their return to Mexico; (2) Mexican women may have a higher fetal death rate that alters the pattern of live birth outcomes; (3) Mexican women may have socioeconomic characteristics which, if properly measured, would explain the outcome; (4) Mexican women may have personal characteristics which would explain the outcome, if properly measured; (5) there may be ameliorative or salutogenic "protective" effects of culture; and (6) migration may be selective of healthier women who are thus more prone to positive outcomes. We test these explanations, with an emphasis on the last one, using a data set that combines reproductive histories and birth outcomes for Mexico-born women delivering in San Diego, California and Mexican women delivering in Tijuana, Mexico. These data are compared with U.S.-born Latinas and U.S.-born non-Latina Whites. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggests that when controlling for birth history (stillbirths and miscarriages), socioeconomic characteristics (education and prenatal visits), personal characteristics (age, parity, time in area, history of family problems), and health characteristics (history of smoking, alcohol use, drug use, anemia, vaginal bleeding, urinary infection), the adjusted odds of a positive birth outcome (measured as a live birth of 2500 grams or more) is highest for women delivering in Tijuana, implying that migrants may not be so selective when compared to the country of origin. The number of prenatal visits was an important explanatory variable. PMID:16228706

  12. Genetically Determined Dosage of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Affects Male Reproductive Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Ẑilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Ausmees, Kristo; Matuleviĉius, Valentinas; Tsarev, Igor; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Context: The detailed role of FSH in contributing to male testicular function and fertility has been debated. We have previously identified the association between the T-allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; G/T, −211 bp from the mRNA start) and significantly reduced male serum FSH. Objective: In the current study, the T-allele carriers of the FSHB −211 G/T single nucleotide polymorphism represented a natural model for documenting downstream phenotypic consequences of insufficient FSH action. Design and Subjects: We genotyped rs10835638 in the population-based Baltic cohort of young men (n = 1054; GG carriers, n = 796; GT carriers, n = 244; TT carriers, n = 14) recruited by Andrology Centres in Tartu, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and Kaunas, Lithuania. Marker-trait association testing was performed using linear regression (additive, recessive models) adjusted by age, body mass index, smoking, and recruitment center. Results: Serum hormones directly correlated with the T-allele dosage of rs10835638 included FSH (additive model, P = 1.11 × 10−6; T-allele effect, −0.41 IU/liter), inhibin-B (P = 2.16 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −14.67 pg/ml), and total testosterone (P = 9.30 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −1.46 nmol/liter). Parameters altered only among TT homozygotes were reduced testicular volume (recessive model, P = 1.19 × 10−4; TT genotype effect, −9.47 ml) and increased serum LH (P = 2.25 × 10−2; TT genotype effect, 1.07 IU/liter). The carrier status of rs10835638 alternative genotypes did not affect sperm motility and morphology, calculated free testosterone, serum SHBG, and estradiol concentrations. Conclusion: We showed for the first time that genetically determined low FSH may have wider downstream effects on the male reproductive system, including impaired testes development, altered testicular hormone levels (inhibin-B, total testosterone, LH), and affected male reproductive potential. PMID:21733993

  13. Ovarian failure and reproductive outcomes after childhood cancer treatment: results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel M; Sklar, Charles A; Boice, John D; Mulvihill, John J; Whitton, John A; Stovall, Marilyn; Yasui, Yutaka

    2009-05-10

    These studies were undertaken to determine the effect, if any, of treatment for cancer diagnosed during childhood or adolescence on ovarian function and reproductive outcomes. We reviewed the frequency of acute ovarian failure, premature menopause, live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous and therapeutic abortion and birth defects in the participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Acute ovarian failure (AOF) occurred in 6.3% of eligible survivors. Exposure of the ovaries to high-dose radiation (especially over 10 Gy), alkylating agents and procarbazine, at older ages, were significant risk factors for AOF. Premature nonsurgical menopause (PM) occurred in 8% of participants versus 0.8% of siblings (rate ratio = 13.21; 95% CI, 3.26 to 53.51; P < .001). Risk factors for PM included attained age, exposure to increasing doses of radiation to the ovaries, increasing alkylating agent score, and a diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma. One thousand two hundred twenty-seven male survivors reported they sired 2,323 pregnancies, and 1,915 female survivors reported 4,029 pregnancies. Offspring of women who received uterine radiation doses of more than 5 Gy were more likely to be small for gestational age (birthweight < 10 percentile for gestational age; 18.2% v 7.8%; odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6 to 9.8; P = .003). There were no differences in the proportion of offspring with simple malformations, cytogenetic syndromes, or single-gene defects. These studies demonstrated that women treated with pelvic irradiation and/or increasing alkylating agent doses were at risk for acute ovarian failure, premature menopause, and small-for-gestational-age offspring. There was no evidence for an increased risk of congenital malformations. Survivors should be generally reassured although some women have to consider their potentially shortened fertile life span in making educational and career choices. PMID:19364956

  14. Outcomes of assisted reproduction treatment after dopamine agonist -cabergoline- for prevention of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi, Shohreh; Safdarian, Leili; Agahoseini, Marzieh; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Khodaverdi, Sepideh; Asadollah, Sara; Kord Valeshabad, Ali; Fallahi, Parvin; Rezaeeian, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by ovaries in response to HCG administration is one of the main mechanisms of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. Since Dopamine/dopamine receptor2 (Dp-r2) pathway activity -mediated by VEGF/ Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR- 2) signaling-, is associated with angiogenic events, dopamine agonists were used for the management of severe forms of OHSS. In order to assess the effects of Cabergoline on angiogenesis in the human endometrium, and subsequently its impacts on the implantation rate this study was conducted. Methods: This historical cohort study was conducted based on existing data of 115 patients (20-40 years) whom underwent assisted reproductive treatment (ART) and with a high probability for developing OHSS between March 2007 and September 2008. Forty five cases received Cabergoline were compared to 70 control subjects. The statistical methods used were: Unpaired t-test for continuous variables and the chi-square test (or Fisher’s exact test if required) for categorical variables. Results: None of the patients (treatment or control group) developed OHSS. The etiologies of infertility and administration of GnRH agonist or antagonist protocols were similar in two groups (p>0.2). Number of transferred embryos and zygote intra-fallopian transfer (ZIFT) did not differ between the two groups (p≥0.06). Implantation rate in treatment (3.1%) and control (6.6%) subjects was similar (p=0.4). No significant difference was observed in fertilization rate, chemical, clinical and ongoing pregnancies between the two groups (p>0.5). Conclusion: Cabergoline can be safely administered in ART protocols to prevent OHSS, without compromising ART outcomes. PMID:27493915

  15. Reproductive Health Outcomes of Insured Women Who Access Oral Levonorgestrel Emergency Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Raine-Bennett, Tina; Merchant, Maqdooda; Sinclair, Fiona; Lee, Justine W.; Goler, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the level of risk for women who seek emergency contraception through various clinical routes and the opportunities for improved care provision. Methods This study looked at a retrospective cohort to assess contraception and other reproductive health outcomes among women aged 15-44 who accessed oral levonorgestrel emergency contraception through an office visit or the call center at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from 2010 to 2011. Results Of 21,421 prescriptions, 14,531(67.8%) were accessed through the call center. In the subsequent 12 months, 12,127(56.6%) women had short-acting contraception (pills, patches, rings, depot medroxyprogesterone) dispensed and 2,264(10.6%) initiated very effective contraception (intrauterine contraception, implants, sterilization). Initiation of very effective contraception was similar for women who accessed it through the call center -1,569(10.8%) and office visits – 695(10.1%) (adjusted OR 1.02 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.13). In the subsequent 6 months, 2,056(9.6%) women became pregnant. Women who accessed emergency contraception through the call center were less likely to become pregnant within 3 months of accessing emergency contraception than woman who accessed it through office visits (adjusted OR 0.82 95% CI 0.72-0.94); however they were more likely to become pregnant within 4-6 months (adjusted OR 1.37 95%CI 1.16-1.60). Among women who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea, 689(7.8%) and 928(7.9%) were positive in the 12 months before and after accessing emergency contraception, respectively. Conclusions Protocols to routinely address unmet need for contraception at every call for emergency contraception and all office visits including visits with primary care providers should be investigated. PMID:25751211

  16. Assisted Reproduction versus Spontaneous Conception: A Comparison of the Developmental Outcomes in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Anthis, Kristine S.; Needelman, Howard

    2004-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technology is increasing rapidly. Research, although sparse, has resulted in inconsistent findings as to the developmental prognosis for infants conceived by assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization and the use of fertility drugs. In the present study, the authors compared twins who were…

  17. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  18. Cognitive and Affective Learning Outcomes of Gifted Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcourt, Marcia A. B.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Goldberg, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    This project was a 2-year investigation of elementary school children placed in programs for high-ability learners. The primary purpose of the study was to investigate academic and affective changes in students during their first 2 years in a gifted program. Students were assessed during the fall of one year and the spring of the next year.…

  19. Higher Education for Sustainability: Seeking Affective Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to interpret aspects of education for sustainability in relation to educational theories of the affective domain (values, attitudes and behaviours) and suggest how the use of these theories, and relevant experience, in other educational areas could benefit education for sustainability.…

  20. Family-School Links: How Do They Affect Educational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Dunn, Judith F., Ed.

    This book explores issues related to the links between families and schools and how they affect children's educational achievement, and is organized as follows: Part 1, titled "Families and Schools: How Can They Work Together To Promote Children's School Success?" contains the following chapters: chapter 1, "Family Involvement in Chidrens' and…

  1. Epidemiologic investigation of health effects in Air Force personnel following exposure to herbicides: Extract reproductive outcomes. Executive summary, introduction, and conclusions. Interim report, 1985-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.; Rahe, A.J.

    1992-08-31

    The Air Force is conducting a 20-year prospective study of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same period who were not occupationally exposed to herbicides was selected. The study, called the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), is in its tenth year and is designed to determine whether exposure to the herbicides or their contaminant, 2,3,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has adversely affected the health, survival or reproductive outcomes of Ranch Hands. This report summarizes the findings of an investigation of reproductive outcomes of the 791 Ranch Hands and 942 Comparisons for whom a dioxin level had been determined by August, 1991. These men have fathered 5,489 pregnancies including 4,514 live births. These men are a subset of all Ranch Hands (n=1,098) and Comparisons (n=1,549) who have fathered 8,263 pregnancies and 6,792 live births. All data in this report have been verified by review of birth certificates, newborn clinic records, health records and death certificates. The birth defect status of each child was verified through the age of 18.

  2. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  3. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  4. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  5. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  6. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-04-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  7. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  8. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  10. Hospital volume affects outcome after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Pamilo, Konsta J; Peltola, Mikko; Paloneva, Juha; Mäkelä, Keijo; Häkkinen, Unto; Remes, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose The influence of hospital volume on the outcome of total knee joint replacement surgery is controversial. We evaluated nationwide data on the effect of hospital volume on length of stay, re-admission, revision, manipulation under anesthesia (MUA), and discharge disposition for total knee replacement (TKR) in Finland. Patients and methods 59,696 TKRs for primary osteoarthritis performed between 1998 and 2010 were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Hospitals were classified into 4 groups according to the number of primary and revision knee arthroplasties performed on an annual basis throughout the study period: 1–99 (group 1), 100–249 (group 2), 250–449 (group 3), and ≥ 450 (group 4). The association between hospital procedure volume and length of stay (LOS), length of uninterrupted institutional care (LUIC), re-admissions, revisions, MUA, and discharge disposition were analyzed. Results The greater the volume of the hospital, the shorter was the average LOS and LUIC. Smaller hospital volume was not unambiguously associated with increased revision, re-admission, or MUA rates. The smaller the annual hospital volume, the more often patients were discharged home. Interpretation LOS and LUIC ought to be shortened in lower-volume hospitals. There is potential for a reduction in length of stay in extended institutional care facilities. PMID:25323798

  11. Reproductive outcomes of mothers with potential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Stockbauer, J.W.; Hoffman, R.E.; Schramm, W.F.; Edmonds, L.D.

    1988-08-01

    Animal laboratory studies have demonstrated that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has fetotoxic and teratogenic effects at low doses. TCDD contamination of soil in nine residential areas of eastern Missouri began in 1971 when several horse arenas and dirt roads were sprayed for dust control with a mixture that contained waste oil and dioxin. The authors conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine if adverse human reproductive outcomes are associated with exposure to soil contaminated with dioxin. The authors attempted to identify all births during the period of January 1, 1972 through December 31, 1982 that had potential exposure to dioxin, based on proximity of the maternal address to a location of known TCDD contamination. This group totaled 410 births. A matched set of 820 unexposed births was selected as a comparison group after being matched for maternal age and race, year of birth, hospital of birth, and plurality. The exposed group had increased risk ratios for infant, fetal, and perinatal death; low birth weight; and several subcategories of birth defects. None of these increased risk ratios for the exposed group were statistically significant. These results do not provide evidence that TCDD exposure has a substantial impact on the reproductive outcomes investigated. If TCDD does produce effects on reproductive health, a larger study and/or better measures of exposure may be needed to discover them.

  12. Effect of essential oil from Citrus aurantium in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gustavo T; Francia-Farje, Luis A D; Damasceno, Débora C; Oliveira, Renata V; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Kempinas, Wilma G

    2015-03-01

    Citrus aurantium L., commonly known as bitter orange, is widely used in folk medicine, but there is little data in the literature about the effects on pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of essential oil obtained from fruits of Citrus aurantium on the maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n minimum = 12 animals/group): G1 = control, G2 to G4 = treated with essential oil from C. aurantium at dose 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were orally treated, by gavage, with plant essential oil or vehicle during pre-implantation and organogenic period (gestational day 0-14). On gestational day 20 the rats were anaesthetized and the gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and the fetuses were analyzed. Results showed that the treated group with 500 mg/kg presented decreased placental weights and placental index, although the treatment with bitter orange essential oil did not show any alteration in maternal reproductive performance, toxicological effect, changes in ossification sites, and malformation index. In conclusion, the treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and did not alter the maternal reproductive outcome. PMID:25806990

  13. Reproductive adverse outcome pathways for chemical inhibitors of steroid synthesis in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key physiological process controlling reproductive success of oviparous vertebrates (fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds) involves production of the egg yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (VTG). VTG production is an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated process that, in females, is con...

  14. STATISTICAL ISSUES IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE OUTCOMES WITH CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Establishing the relationship between a given chemical exposure and human reproductive health risk is complicated by exposures or other concomitant factors that may vary from pregnancy to pregnancy. Moreover, when exposures are to complex mixtures of chemicals, varying with time ...

  15. TOXICOLOGY OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT: PROFILING 774 CHEMICALS FOR MOLECULAR TARGETS AND ADVERSE OUTCOMES (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  16. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  17. Does Treatment Duration Affect Outcome After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, David J.; Li Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.; Chen, David Y.T.; Pollack, Alan; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: The protraction of external beam radiotherapy (RT) time is detrimental in several disease sites. In prostate cancer, the overall treatment time can be considerable, as can the potential for treatment breaks. We evaluated the effect of elapsed treatment time on outcome after RT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 1989 and November 2004, 1,796 men with prostate cancer were treated with RT alone. The nontreatment day ratio (NTDR) was defined as the number of nontreatment days divided by the total elapsed days of RT. This ratio was used to account for the relationship between treatment duration and total RT dose. Men were stratified into low risk (n = 789), intermediate risk (n = 798), and high risk (n = 209) using a single-factor model. Results: The 10-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) rate was 68% for a NTDR <33% vs. 58% for NTDR {>=}33% (p = 0.02; BF was defined as a prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL). In the low-risk group, the 10-year FFBF rate was 82% for NTDR <33% vs. 57% for NTDR {>=}33% (p = 0.0019). The NTDR was independently predictive for FFBF (p = 0.03), in addition to T stage (p = 0.005) and initial prostate-specific antigen level (p < 0.0001) on multivariate analysis, including Gleason score and radiation dose. The NTDR was not a significant predictor of FFBF when examined in the intermediate-risk group, high-risk group, or all risk groups combined. Conclusions: A proportionally longer treatment duration was identified as an adverse factor in low-risk patients. Treatment breaks resulting in a NTDR of {>=}33% (e.g., four or more breaks during a 40-fraction treatment, 5 d/wk) should be avoided.

  18. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  19. Psychosocial Environment and Affective Outcomes in Technology-Rich Classrooms: Testing a Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigated classroom environment antecedent variables and student affective outcomes in Australian high schools. The Technology-Rich Outcomes-Focused Learning Environment Inventory (TROFLEI) was used to assess 10 classroom environment dimensions: student cohesiveness, teacher support, involvement, investigation, task orientation,…

  20. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    PubMed Central

    Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M.; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  1. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were 'good' prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  2. Intervention Outcomes among HIV-affected Families Over 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rice, Eric; Comulada, W. Scott; Best, Karin; Elia, Carla; Peters, Katherine; Li, Li; Green, Sara; Valladares, Ena

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy of a family-based intervention over time among HIV-affected families. Mothers Living with HIV (MLH; n=339) in Los Angeles and their school-aged children were randomized to either an intervention or control condition and followed for 18 months. MLH and their children in the intervention received 16 cognitive-behavioral, small-group sessions designed to help them maintain physical and mental health, parent while ill, address HIV-related stressors, and reduce HIV-transmission behaviors. At recruitment, MLH reported few problem behaviors related to physical health, mental health, or sexual or drug transmission acts. Compared to MLH in the control condition, intervention MLH were significantly more likely to monitor their own CD4 cell counts and their children were more likely to decrease alcohol and drug use. Most MLH and their children had relatively healthy family relationships. Family-based HIV interventions should be limited to MLH who are experiencing substantial problems. PMID:22020758

  3. Prediction and diagnosis of clinical outcomes affecting restoration margins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, J B; Sarrett, D C

    2012-04-01

    The longevity of dental restorations is largely dependent on the continuity at the interface between the restorative material and adjacent tooth structure (the restoration margin). Clinical decisions on restoration repair or replacement are usually based upon the weakest point along that margin interface. Physical properties of a restorative material, such as polymerisation shrinkage, water sorption, solubility, elastic modulus and shear strength, all have an effect on stress distribution and can significantly affect margin integrity. This review will focus on two aspects of margin deterioration in the oral environment: the in vitro testing of margin seal using emersion techniques to simulate the oral environment and to predict clinical margin failure and the relationship between clinically observable microleakage and secondary caries. The many variables associated with in vitro testing of marginal leakage and the interpretation of the data are presented in detail. The most recent studies of marginal leakage mirror earlier methodology and lack validity and reliability. The lack of standardised testing procedures makes it impossible to compare studies or to predict the clinical performance of adhesive materials. Continual repeated in vitro studies contribute little to the science in this area. Clinical evidence is cited to refute earlier conclusions that clinical microleakage (penetrating margin discoloration) leads to caries development and is an indication for restoration replacement. Margin defects, without visible evidence of soft dentin on the wall or base of the defect, should be monitored, repaired or resealed, in lieu of total restoration replacement. PMID:22066463

  4. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15%. Results: During the follow-up period (mean, 15.3±3.2 months), no early thrombotic reocclusions occurred within 30 days, but in-stent restenosis developed in 78 limbs. The primary patency rates at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 78%, 66%, 42%, and 22%, respectively, and the secondary patency rates were 85%, 72%, 58%, and 58%, respectively. TASC II C or D lesions, stent length >8 cm, number of patent tibial arteries and diabetes were significantly associated with reintervention. Conclusion: The midterm results of stenting for SFA occlusive disease were disappointing because the primary and secondary patency rates at two years were 22% and 58%, respectively. Reintervention after SFA stenting remains a major problem, particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus or long TASC II C or D lesions. PMID:26719837

  5. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  6. ANDROGENS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS AFFECT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND PLAY BEHAVIOR IN THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In mammals, exposure to androgens early in development is essential for masculinization of the male reproductive phenotype. Male fetuses exposed to antiandrogens during perinatal life are permanently demasculinized in their morphology and physiology, whereas exposure to...

  7. Gender Affects Early Postoperative Outcomes of Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hee-Uk; Jung, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Background The literature does not provide consistent information on the impact of patients' gender on recovery after rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender affects pain and functional recovery in the early postoperative period after rotator cuff repair. Methods Eighty patients (40 men and 40 women) were prospectively enrolled. Pain intensity and functional recovery were evaluated, using visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and range of motion on each of the first 5 postoperative days, at 2 and 6 weeks and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Perioperative medication-related adverse effects and postoperative complications were also assessed. Results The mean VAS pain score was significantly higher for women than men at 2 weeks after surgery (p = 0.035). For all other periods, there was no significant difference between men and women in VAS pain scores, although women had higher scores than men. Mean forward flexion in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks after surgery (p = 0.033) and the mean degree of external rotation in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks (p = 0.007) and at 3 months (p = 0.017) after surgery. There was no significant difference in medication-related adverse effects or postoperative complications. Conclusions Women had more pain and slower recovery of shoulder motion than men during the first 3 months after rotator cuff repair. These findings can serve as guidelines for pain management and rehabilitation after surgery and can help explain postoperative recovery patterns to patients with scheduled rotator cuff repair. PMID:26217471

  8. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrators (body snatchers). I quantify growth, reproductive effort, and expected extrinsic mortality for several species that, despite being different species, use the same species' phenotype for growth and survival. These are eight trematode parasitic castrators—the individuals of which infect and take over the bodies of the same host species—and their uninfected host, the California horn snail. Results As predicted, across species, growth decreased with increased extrinsic mortality, while reproductive effort increased with increased extrinsic mortality. The trematode parasitic castrator species (operating stolen host bodies) that were more likely to be killed by dominant species allocated less to growth and relatively more to current reproduction than did species with greater life expectancies. Both genders of uninfected snails fit into the patterns observed for the parasitic castrator species, allocating as much to growth and to current reproduction as expected given their probability of reproductive death (castration by trematode parasites). Additionally, species differences appeared to represent species-specific adaptations, not general plastic responses to local mortality risk. Conclusions Broadly, this research illustrates that parasitic castrator guilds can allow unique comparative tests discerning the forces promoting adaptive evolution. The specific findings of this study support the hypothesis that extrinsic mortality influences species differences in growth and reproduction

  9. Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Russell, Andrew F

    2012-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been studied intensively to understand the associations between physiological stress and reproductive skew in animal societies. However, we have little appreciation of the range of either natural levels within and among individuals, or the associations among dominance status, reproductive rate and GCs levels during breeding. To address these shortcomings, we examined variation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGC) during breeding periods in free-ranging female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over 11 years. The vast majority of variation in fGC levels was found within breeding events by the same female (~87%), with the remaining variation arising among breeding events and among females. Concentrations of fGC generally tripled as pregnancy progressed. However, females with a high reproductive rate, defined as those conceiving within a month following parturition (mean = 9 days postpartum), showed significant reductions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition. Despite these reductions, females with a high reproductive rate had higher fGC levels at conception of the following litter than those breeding at a low rate. After controlling for the higher reproductive rate of dominants, we found no association between levels of fGC and either age or dominance status. Our results suggest that one should be cautious about interpreting associations between dominance status, reproductive skew and GCs levels, without knowledge of the natural variation in GCs levels within and among females. PMID:22210199

  10. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. PMID:26673934

  11. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Reproductive Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization: Results from the EARTH Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W.; Dodge, Laura E.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Williams, Paige L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse female reproductive outcomes. Objective: We evaluated the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods: This analysis included 256 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2004–2012) who provided one to two urine samples per cycle before oocyte retrieval. We measured 11 urinary phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP)]. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Results: In multivariate models, women in the highest as compared with lowest quartile of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ΣDEHP (MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP), and MCNP had lower oocyte yield. Similarly, the number of mature (MII) oocytes retrieved was lower in the highest versus lowest quartile for these same phthalate metabolites. The adjusted differences (95% CI) in proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth between women in the fourth versus first quartile of ΣDEHP were –0.19 (–0.29, –0.08) and –0.19 (–0.28, –0.08), respectively, and there was also a lower proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth for individual DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy

  12. Reproductive Health CHOICES for Young Adults with Sickle Cell Disease or Trait: Randomized Controlled Trial Outcomes over Two Years.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christiane; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Johnson, Bonnye; Angulo, Rigoberto; Carrasco, Jesus; Angulo, Veronica; Thompson, Alexis A

    2016-04-01

    Interventions to assist reproductive health decision-making in populations affected by sickle cell disease (SCD) or trait (SCT) lack proven efficacy over time. Our aim was to compare effects of CHOICES, a Web-based multimedia education program on implementing informed reproductive plans, and usual care education (e-Book) on reproductive knowledge, intention, and behavior over 24 months. We randomized 234 participants with SCD (n = 138) or SCT (n = 96) (age 18-35 years, 35 % male, 94 % African American) to CHOICES and e-Book groups. Participants completed a sickle cell-specific reproductive measure before and four times after the intervention (6, 12, 18 and 24 months). Compared to the e-Book group the CHOICES group had significantly more improvement in knowledge over time (p = .004) but not intention (p = .18) or behavior (p = .69). At baseline, 114 (48.7 %) participants reported having partners who would not put the couple at risk for their children inheriting SCD. Of the 116 (49.6 %) at-risk participants, a higher poroportion of those who were in the CHOICES group chose partners that reduced their risk by the last visit than the e-Book group (p = .04). Study findings provide important insights for designing a national trial of the CHOICES intervention focusing on subjects whose partner status puts them at risk for having a child with SCD. PMID:26310871

  13. Maternal testosterone and reproductive outcome in a rat model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Liat; Hazut, Noa; Tabachnik, Tzlil; Weller, Aron; Koren, Lee

    2016-09-01

    Global sex differences in obesity rates are persistent, suggesting the involvement of sex steroids. In addition, adipose tissue is a metabolic site for steroidogenesis. Here, we compared female reproductive parameters in a rat model of obesity, with the same parameters in its lean control strain, and tested for an association with integrated measures of corticosterone and testosterone. Steroids were extracted and quantified from 17 Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; an animal model for obesity) and 13 Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO; the lean control strain) hair samples that were collected after weaning offspring. The obese OLETF mothers had higher hair testosterone levels than the control LETO strain. Overall, testosterone, but not corticosterone, predicted litter sex ratios. Younger mothers with large litters and older mothers with small litters tended to have the highest sex ratios (i.e., male-biased litters). In the lean LETO strain, but not in the obese OLETF, maternal testosterone was positively associated with litter size and number of male pups. Corticosterone did not differ between the two strains and was not associated with testosterone or with reproductive parameters. This study suggests that long-term circulating testosterone is associated with female reproduction in multiple ways. The possible trade-off between litter size and sex ratio may be mediated by testosterone and influenced by body fat and composition, which influence the individual's well-being. Exploring the multiple roles of testosterone in females may also help explain the complex relationship between obesity and reproduction. PMID:27125699

  14. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T.; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a “cost of males.” Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to

  15. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess

  16. Maternal age as a factor in determining the reproductive and behavioral outcome of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V

    1988-01-01

    reproduction. Here the combination of the two factors increased maternal mortality, the number of early pregnancy losses, and the number of litters where all members were dead or resorbed. It was concluded that short-term prenatal ethanol combined with advanced maternal age produces additive interactions on pregnancy success without affecting longer-term outcomes, while young maternal age showed no clear detrimental effects compared to the middle maternal age reference group. PMID:3352565

  17. Association Between Availability and Quality of Health Services in Schools and Reproductive Health Outcomes Among Students: A Multilevel Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth; Lawler, Catriona; Bagshaw, Sue; Farrant, Bridget; Bell, Fionna; Dawson, Dianne; Nicholson, Diana; Hart, Mo; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Clark, Terryann; Kekus, Maria; Utter, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the association between availability and quality of school health services and reproductive health outcomes among sexually active students. Methods. We used a 2-stage random sampling cluster design to collect nationally representative data from 9107 students from 96 New Zealand high schools. Students self-reported whether they were sexually active, how often they used condoms or contraception, and their involvement in pregnancy. School administrators completed questionnaires on their school-based health services, including doctor and nursing hours per week, team-based services, and health screening. We conducted analyses using multilevel models controlling for individual variables, with schools treated as random effects. Results. There was an inverse association between hours of nursing and doctor time and pregnancy involvement among sexually active students, with fewer pregnancies among students in schools with more than 10 hours of nursing and doctor time per 100 students. There was no association between doctor visits, team-based services, health screening, and reproductive health outcomes. Conclusions. School health services are associated with fewer pregnancies among students, but only when the availability of doctor and nursing time exceeds 10 hours per 100 students per week. PMID:22897539

  18. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  19. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  20. Benzyl isothiocyanate affects development, hatching and reproduction of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) applied at micromolar doses decreased Heterodera glycines J2 movement, H. glycines hatching, and reproduction of H. glycines on soybean, Glycine max. Direct exposure of J2 to 30 microM BITC caused an immediate decrease (17%; P < 0.05) in J2 movement relative to 1% methan...

  1. Within-species reproductive costs affect the asymmetry of satyrization in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A; David, J R

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how species interactions influence their distribution and evolution is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Theory suggests that asymmetric reproductive interference, in which one species induces higher reproductive costs on another species, may be more important in delimiting species boundaries than interspecific competition over resources. However, the underlying mechanisms of such asymmetry remain unclear. Here, we test whether differences in within-species reproductive costs determine the between-species asymmetry of costs using three allopatric Drosophila species belonging to the melanogaster subgroup. Our results support this hypothesis, especially in a pair of insular species. Males of one species that induce costs to their conspecific females led to a 5-fold increase of heterospecific females mortality with dead flies bearing spectacular large melanized wounds on their genitalia. Males of the other species were harmful neither to their conspecific nor heterospecific females. Comparative studies of within-species reproductive costs may therefore be a valuable tool for predicting between-species interactions and community structures. PMID:26538290

  2. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  3. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C F; García, M B; Ehlers, B K

    2013-05-01

    Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40 maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low water availability even among geographically close populations. PMID:23621367

  4. Use of Adverse Outcome Pathways for Assessing Effects of the Fungicide Propiconazole on Fish Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOP) are used to describe the linkage of biological events from a molecular initiating point, to individual-level-endpoints relevant to risk assessment. This study was done to assess toxicity outcomes for the conazole fungicide propiconazole based on a p...

  5. Availability of Reproductive Health Care Services at Schools and Subsequent Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…

  6. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism which is reversed by metformin

    PubMed Central

    Louden, Erica D.; Luzzo, Kerri M.; Jimenez, Patricia T.; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes compared to normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay. The objective of this study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity in order to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. Methods New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morulae or blastocysts stage embryos which were cultured in human tubal fluid media. Deoxyglucose uptake was performed on insulin-stimulated individual blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using TUNEL assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for %TUNEL positive/total nuclei. AMPK activation, TNFα expression, and adiponectin expression were analyzed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by Bodipy. Finally all measured parameters were compared between TallyHO mice in morulaes cultured to blastocyst embryos in either human tubal fluid (HTF) media or HTF with 25ug/ml metformin added. Results TallyHo mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, decreased litter number and increased NEFA. Blastocysts demonstrated increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity, and decreased activation of AMP activated protein-kinase (AMPK). As a possible cause of the insulin resistance/abnormal P-AMPK, we found that Tumor necrosis Factor (TNFα) expression and lipid accumulation as detected by BODIPY were increased in TallyHO blastocysts and adiponectin was decreased. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator, metformin lead to a reversal of all abnormal findings, including increased p-AMPK, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalization of lipid accumulation. Conclusions Women with obesity and insulin resistance experience poor pregnancy outcomes. Previously we have shown in mouse

  8. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  9. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microcystins (MCs) are able to exert negative effects on the reproductive system of fish. However, few data are actually available on the effects of MC-LR on the reproductive system of female fish. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to 2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1) of MC-LR for 21 d, and its effects on oogenesis, sex hormones, transcription of genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and reproduction were investigated for the first time. It was observed that egg production significantly declined at ⩾ 10 μg L(-1) MC-LR. MC-LR exposure to zebrafish increased the concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) at 10 μg L(-1) level, whereas concentrations of E2, VTG and testosterone declined at 50 μg L(-1) MC-LR. The transcriptions of steroidogenic pathway gene (cyp19a, cyp19b, 17βhsd, cyp17 and hmgra) changed as well after the exposure and corresponded well with the alterations of hormone levels. A number of intra- and extra-ovarian factors, such as gnrh3, gnrhr1, fshβ, fshr, lhr, bmp15, mrpβ, ptgs2 and vtg1 which regulate oogenesis, were significantly changed with a different dose-related effect. Moreover, MC-LR exposure to female zebrafish resulted in decreased fertilization and hatching rates, and may suggest the possibility of trans-generational effects of MC-LR exposure. The results demonstrate that MC-LR could modulate endocrine function and oogenesis, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance in female zebrafish. These data suggest there is a risk for aquatic population living in MC polluted areas. PMID:25014902

  10. Experimental Approaches to Systematic Discovery and Development of Reproductive Adverse Outcome Pathways in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks that portray causal and predictive linkages between key events at multiple scales of biological organization that connect molecular initiating events and early cellular perturbations (e.g., initiation of toxicity pathways)...

  11. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased α1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp <0.5), (5) good reproductive tract health [normal uterine scan at d 45 pp; clear vaginal mucus discharge at first ovulation and at d 45 pp; resumed ovarian cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period (≥ d 35 pp)], and (6) adequate diet (to ensure increased glutathione peroxidase in wk 2 and 3 and increased magnesium in wk 4). Risk factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp

  12. Effect of maternal exposure to ozone on reproductive outcome and immune, inflammatory, and allergic responses in the offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing concern that exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy affects health outcomes in the offspring due to alterations in the development of immune and other homeostatic processes. To assess the risks of maternal inhalation exposure to ozone (O3), timed pregnant BA...

  13. Effect of male body mass index on clinical outcomes following assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Le, W; Su, S-H; Shi, L-H; Zhang, J-F; Wu, D-L

    2016-05-01

    Overweight and obese males might exhibit a great risk of infertility. However, according to the current studies, the association between elevated male body mass index (BMI) and the clinical adverse results after assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains controversial. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of raised male BMI on clinical outcomes following ART. PubMed, EMBASE and three Chinese databases were used to identify relevant studies. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included live birth rate and sperm parameters. A total of 5262 male participants from 10 cohort studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results indicated that overweight or obese had no significant impact on clinical pregnancy rate [in vitro fertilisation (IVF): odds ratio (OR), 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-1.39; intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92-1.15], live birth rate (IVF: OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78-1.06; ICSI: OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.50-1.99) and sperm concentration (SMD, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.65 to 0.08) compared with normal weight following IVF/ICSI treatments. Exclusion of any single study and almost all the sensitivity analyses showed that our results were reliable. At present, the role of male BMI in the process of ART is only partly understood and should be further investigated. PMID:26276351

  14. A Single Hot Event That Does Not Affect Survival but Decreases Reproduction in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Extremely hot events (usually involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures in summer) are expected to increase in frequency in temperate regions under global warming. The impact of these events is generally overlooked in insect population prediction, since they are unlikely to cause widespread mortality, however reproduction may be affected by them. In this study, we examined such stress effects in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. We simulated a single extreme hot day (maximum of 40°C lasting for 3, 4 or 5 h) increasingly experienced under field conditions. This event had no detrimental effects on immediate mortality, copulation duration, mating success, longevity or lifetime fecundity, but stressed females produced 21% (after 3 or 4 h) fewer hatched eggs because of a decline in the number and hatching success of eggs laid on the first two days. These negative effects on reproduction were no longer evident in the following days. Male heat exposure led to a similar but smaller effect on fertile egg production, and exposure extended pre-mating period in both sexes. Our results indicate that a single hot day can have detrimental effects on reproduction, particularly through maternal effects on egg hatching, and thereby influence the population dynamics of diamondback moth. PMID:24116081

  15. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  16. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  17. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  18. Sperm selection in natural conception: what can we learn from Mother Nature to improve assisted reproduction outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Sakkas, Denny; Ramalingam, Mythili; Garrido, Nicolas; Barratt, Christopher L.R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In natural conception only a few sperm cells reach the ampulla or the site of fertilization. This population is a selected group of cells since only motile cells can pass through cervical mucus and gain initial entry into the female reproductive tract. In animals, some studies indicate that the sperm selected by the reproductive tract and recovered from the uterus and the oviducts have higher fertilization rates but this is not a universal finding. Some species show less discrimination in sperm selection and abnormal sperm do arrive at the oviduct. In contrast, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) utilize a more random sperm population. In this review we contrast the journey of the spermatozoon in vivo and in vitro and discuss this in the context of developing new sperm preparation and selection techniques for ART. METHODS A review of the literature examining characteristics of the spermatozoa selected in vivo is compared with recent developments in in vitro selection and preparation methods. Contrasts and similarities are presented. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS New technologies are being developed to aid in the diagnosis, preparation and selection of spermatozoa in ART. To date progress has been frustrating and these methods have provided variable benefits in improving outcomes after ART. It is more likely that examining the mechanisms enforced by nature will provide valuable information in regard to sperm selection and preparation techniques in vitro. Identifying the properties of those spermatozoa which do reach the oviduct will also be important for the development of more effective tests of semen quality. In this review we examine the value of sperm selection to see how much guidance for ART can be gleaned from the natural selection processes in vivo. PMID:26386468

  19. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  20. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  1. Factors Affecting Academic Outcomes of Underprepared Community College Students. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, J. Charles

    This study examined the factors affecting the four-year academic performance and outcomes of 1,249 underprepared students at Prince George's Community College (Maryland). The fall 1994 freshmen required remediation in reading, writing, or mathematics. Subjects were defined as achievers if, by summer 1998, they had earned a degree or certificate…

  2. Affective Learning Outcomes in Workplace Training: A Test of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Ally, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Research employing an experimental design pilot-tested two delivery platforms, WebCT™ and vClass™, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Using a sample of volunteer participants in the help-desk industry, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two types of delivery software. Thirty-eight subjects…

  3. Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour and Secondary Students' Cognitive, Affective and Moral Outcomes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivan, Atara; Chan, Dennis W. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the Chinese version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) in the Hong Kong context as well as examined the relationship between students' perceptions of interpersonal teacher behaviour and their cognitive, affective and moral learning outcomes. Data were collected with the QTI and four other measures of student…

  4. Technology Integration before Student Outcomes: Factors Affecting Teacher Adoption of Technology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Alankar

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1920s, ICTs have been endorsed as solutions to challenges of access and quality in education. Proponents have also supported technology use in education on grounds that it could potentially impact cognitive, affective, and pedagogical outcomes. Based on these perceived benefits, many developed and developing countries have been…

  5. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  6. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Juliana; Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of "high-quality" queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and "low-quality" queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone ("QMP") components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the "queen-specific" developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting that other external

  7. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response

    PubMed Central

    Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of “high-quality” queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and “low-quality” queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone (“QMP”) components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the “queen-specific” developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting

  8. Semen residual viral load and reproductive outcomes in HIV-infected men undergoing ICSI after extended semen preparation.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Maria Jose; Obradors, Albert; Woodward, Bryan; Vernaeve, Valerie; Vassena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following a triple gradient extended semen wash from ejaculates of serodiscordant couples, and analyse their reproductive outcomes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For this purpose, a retrospective analysis of our database was performed in serodiscordant couples, with HIV-infected men and non-infected women, using fresh or frozen sperm with ICSI in oocytes from either the patients or donors from January 2006 to September 2013. Overall, the rate of positive HIV test after semen washing was 1.86%. The positive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in patients with their own oocytes were 47.1%, 37.5% and 30.8%, respectively, and 58.6%, 50.8% and 39.1%, respectively, in oocyte donation cycles. To summarize, the described method of sperm washing based on triple gradient sperm selection coupled with extensive centrifugations is a highly reliable technique for HIV removal, as it provides lower than reported post-wash positive tests while maintaining high pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles. Despite extensive personnel training and effectiveness of the washing protocol, post-wash HIV test on semen is recommended to identify residual positive samples. PMID:26995657

  9. A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on the reproductive outcomes of wives of dry-cleaning workers

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Fenster, L.; Hudes, M.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Katz, D.F.; Gerson, J.; Rempel, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the reproductive outcomes of wives of men exposed to perchloroethylene in the dry-cleaning industry compared to those of wives of laundry workers. Seventeen female partners of dry cleaners and 32 partners of laundry workers were interviewed. The number of pregnancies and the standardized fertility ratios were similar between the two groups. Wives of dry cleaners did not have higher rates of spontaneous abortions. However, wives of dry cleaners were more than twice as likely to have a history of attempting to become pregnant for more than 12 months or to have sought care for an infertility problem. Cox proportional hazards models indicated that dry-cleaners' wives had half of the per-cycle pregnancy rate of wives of laundry workers, when controlling for other potential confounders (estimated rate ratio of 0.54, 95% C.I. = 0.23, 1.27).

  10. The Interplay of Host Immunity, Environment and the Risk of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Reproductive Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kerry; Mitchell, Caroline M

    2016-08-15

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common causes of vaginal symptoms in US women, but its causal mechanism has not yet been defined. BV is more prevalent in women who are immunosuppressed, and several risk factors for the development of BV are associated with lower quantities of immune mediators in vaginal fluid. In contrast, the poor reproductive health outcomes associated with BV, such as preterm birth and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition, are associated with increased levels of proinflammatory immune mediators in the genital tract. In this article, we discuss how variations in the host immune profile and environmental effects on host immunity may influence the risk of BV, as well as the risk of complications associated with BV. PMID:27056955

  11. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  12. Relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive disorders and performance in dairy cows. Blood samples from 213 dairy cows were collected at 4 and 2 weeks prepartum, just after calving, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum to measure serum β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and progesterone concentrations. Cows were grouped on the basis of the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration at 1 and/or 2 weeks postpartum into two groups: the ketotic group (≥1200 μmol/L, n = 59) and the nonketotic group (<1200 μmol/L, n = 154). The body condition score (BCS) was assessed simultaneously with blood collection. Clinical endometritis was diagnosed by observation of vaginal discharges (>50% pus), and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (>18% neutrophils) at 4 weeks postpartum. Ovarian cysts were diagnosed by ultrasonography, and resumption of postpartum cyclicity was evaluated by progesterone concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. In the ketotic group, NEFA levels were higher (P ≤ 0.0005), whereas glucose (P < 0.05-0.0005) and urea nitrogen levels (P < 0.05-0.01) were lower than those in the nonketotic group during the postpartum period. Aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher (P < 0.01) in the ketotic group than those in the nonketotic group at 2 weeks postpartum. The BCS of the ketotic group was higher than the nonketotic group during the prepartum (P < 0.001) and postpartum (P < 0.05-0.001) periods. The probabilities of clinical endometritis (odds ratio = 2.55) and ovarian cysts (odds ratio = 2.80) were higher (P < 0.05) in the ketotic group than those in the nonketotic group. The hazards of resumption of postpartum cyclicity by 8 weeks postpartum (hazard ratio = 0.67) and pregnancy by 360 days postpartum (hazard ratio = 0.68) were lower (P < 0

  13. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  14. Factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the outer banks of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Shiloh A.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. We evaluated survival with respect to nesting island, year, time of season, brood age, distance to tide (m), presence of off-road vehicles and proximity of foraging habitat. The daily nest survival (mean 0.981, standard error [SE] 0.002) was affected by year and island, and declined over the nesting season. Mammals were responsible for 54% of identified nest failures. Daily brood survival (mean 0.981, SE 0.002) varied by island and increased non-linearly with age, with highest mortality in the seven days after hatching. Model results indicate direct access to foraging sites has a positive effect on brood survival, whereas presence of off-road vehicles has a negative effect. We studied chick behavior and survival using radio telemetry and direct observation and found that vehicles caused mortality and affected behavior and resource use by oystercatcher chicks. We identified the source of mortality for 37 radio-tagged chicks. Six (16%) were killed by vehicles, 21 (57%) by predators, and 10 (27%) by exposure and starvation. From 1995 to 2008, 25 additional oystercatcher chicks were found dead, 13 (52%) killed by vehicles. Chicks on beaches closed to vehicles used beach and intertidal zones more frequently than chicks on beaches open to vehicles. Chick predators included Great Horned Owls Bubo virginianus, Fish Crows Corvus ossifragus, cats Felis catus, mink Mustela vison, raccoons Procyon lotor, and ghost crabs Ocypode albicans. The factors affecting reproductive success differed between the incubation and chick-rearing stages.  Management actions that influence chick survival will have a larger effect on total productivity than actions affecting nest survival.

  15. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  16. Sperm DNA damage and its clinical relevance in assessing reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Said, T; Agarwal, A

    2004-06-01

    The routine examination of semen, which assesses sperm concentration, percentage motility and morphology, does not identify subtle defects in sperm chromatin architecture. The focus on the genomic integrity of the male gamete has intensified recently due to the growing concern that genetic diseases may be transmitted via assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Accordingly, the intent of this review is to describe the details of the information pertaining to mitochondrial/nuclear sperm DNA damage with an emphasis on its clinical significance and its relationship with male infertility. Assessment of sperm DNA damage appears to be a potential tool for evaluating semen samples prior to their use in ART. Testing DNA integrity may help select spermatozoa with intact DNA or with the least amount of DNA damage for use in assisted conception. In turn, this may alleviate the financial, social and emotional problems associated with failed ART attempts. PMID:15154089

  17. A Review of Outcome Data concerning Children Born following Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Charlotte; Sifer, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTS) are used for more than 30 years to help infertile couples. Concerns about long-term health of children conceived following ART have led to start follow-up studies. Despite methodological limitations and discrepant results, many of the studies and meta-analyses have reported an increased risk of birth defects after ART. Etiologies may be multiple births, a major drawback of ART, parents' subfertility, or technologies themselves. Prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) seem to cause most of the pathologies reported in ART children. Nevertheless, epigenetic disorders need to be followed up since increases of imprinting diseases were reported. Consequently, alteration of gametes and early embryo development with ART may have consequences on children health since periconceptional period is critical for long-term development. Yet general condition of most of children conceived with ART is reassuring, but long-term followup is still strongly needed. PMID:22778982

  18. Defining Adverse Outcome Pathways for Effects of the Fungicide Propiconazole of Fish Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are used to describe the linkage of chemical interactions in terms of molecular initiating events to whole organism responses suitable for risk assessment. This study was conducted to develop AOPs for the model fungicide propiconazole relative to r...

  19. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  20. Alloparenting experience affects future parental behavior and reproductive success in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Mathieu, Denise; Griffin, Luana; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the function of alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. We examined whether alloparental experience as juveniles enhanced later parental care and reproductive success in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a cooperatively breeding rodent. Juveniles cared for one litter of siblings (1EX), two litters of siblings (2EX) or no siblings (0EX). As adults, these individuals were mated to other 0EX, 1EX or 2EX voles, yielding seven different pair combinations, and we recorded measures of parental behaviors, reproductive success, and pup development. As juveniles, individuals caring for siblings for the first time were more alloparental; and as adults, 0EX females paired with 0EX males spent more time in the nest with their pups. Taken together, these results suggest that inexperienced animals spend more time in infant care. As parents, 1EX males spent more time licking their pups than 2EX and 0EX males. Pups with either a 1EX or 2EX parent gained weight faster than pups with 0EX parents during certain developmental periods. While inexperienced animals may spend more time in pup care, long-term benefits of alloparenting may become apparent in the display of certain, particularly important parental behaviors such as licking pups, and in faster weight gain of offspring. PMID:19732810

  1. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes. PMID:23965029

  2. Reproductive Outcomes Among Male and Female Workers at an Aluminum Smelter

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Carine J.; Taiwo, Oyebode A.; Galusha, Deron H.; Slade, Martin D.; Fiellin, Martha G.; Bayer, Felicia; Savitz, David A.; Cullen, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Several adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported among female laboratory workers in a North American aluminum smelter. To determine whether these outcomes were associated with any occupational exposure at the plant, a cross sectional survey was undertaken. Methods Rates of miscarriage, premature singleton birth, and major congenital anomaly occurring during employment were compared to a reference group comprised of all pregnancies that occurred prior to employment. Results Among female workers, the excess of congenital anomalies among female laboratory workers that defined the initial cluster was observed, but no specific pattern was found. Conclusions Based on these analyses, the increase in congenital anomalies could not be attributed to occupational exposures at the smelter, nor could potential exposure likely explain the diverse anomalies described. PMID:20134342

  3. DESTAF: a database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Adam S; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sagar, Sunil; Seshadri, Sundararajan V; Schaefer, Ulf; Kamau, Allan A; Christoffels, Alan; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database. DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. PMID:22198179

  4. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  5. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees

    PubMed Central

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  6. Gonadal steroids and affective symptoms during in vitro fertilization: implication for reproductive mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Aharonov, Inbar; Ben Avi, Irit; Schreiber, Shaul; Amit, Ami; Weizman, Abraham; Azem, Foad

    2011-07-01

    Gonadal steroids (GSs) have been associated with the onset of a number of reproductive-related mood disorders in women, in which fluctuating or unstable hormonal levels are postulated to act as the trigger for the destabilization of mood. There is, however, rather limited direct clinical evidence that can link rapidly changing GS levels with the induction of mood symptoms. We aimed to study the effect of controlled and rapid GS fluctuations on mood in an in vivo model. Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (n=108) were assessed for depression and anxiety levels on 3 time points: during a low estradiol and progesterone baseline, during a gonadotropin stimulated estradiol-dominant phase, and after embryo transfer, during a progesterone-dominant low estrogen phase. Plasma levels for estrogen and progesterone were drawn on these time points. Symptoms of depression and anxiety significantly increased from baseline to the high estradiol levels but were not correlated with estrogen. The sharp drop from high estradiol levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to low levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly correlated with rising depression scores. The rise in progesterone levels from low levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to high levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly and inversely correlated with depression scores. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the role of estrogen in reproductive-related mood disorders involves an abrupt and precipitous drop in its plasma level that can precipitate negative mood states. This finding has implications on the treatment of GS-related mood disorders. PMID:21106297

  7. Reproductive outcomes among former Love Canal residents, Niagara Falls, New York.

    PubMed

    Austin, April A; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Pantea, Cristian I; Gensburg, Lenore J; Kim, Nancy K; Stark, Alice D; Hwang, Syni-An

    2011-07-01

    Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, NY, and among the earliest and most significant hazardous waste sites in the United States, first came to public attention in 1978. In this study, researchers evaluated 1,799 live births from 1960 through 1996 to 980 women who formerly lived in the Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area and were of reproductive age sometime during that time period. Using Upstate New York and Niagara County as external comparison populations, standardized incidence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for low birth weight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and congenital malformations, and unadjusted proportions of male to female births were calculated. Internal comparisons among the infants were also performed according to several measures of potential exposure using generalized estimating equations. The results indicated a statistically significant elevated risk of preterm birth among children born on the Love Canal prior to the time of evacuation and relocation of residents from the Emergency Declaration Area, using Upstate New York as the standard population (standardized incidence ratio=1.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.90). Additionally, the ratio of male to female births was lower for children conceived in the Emergency Declaration Area (sex ratio=0.94 versus sex ratio=1.05 in the standard population) and the frequency of congenital malformations was greater than expected among Love Canal boys born from 1983 to 1996 (standardized incidence ratio=1.50 when compared to Upstate New York), although in both cases the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Finally, increased risk for low birth weight infants among mothers who lived closest to the Canal as children was found (odds ratio=4.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.24, 17.66), but this estimate was limited due to small numbers (n=4). The study adds to the knowledge of the possible reproductive effects from exposure to chemicals arising from hazardous

  8. Associations between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review of population-based data.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy; Patrick, Kent; Smith, Anthony M A; Pitts, Marian K

    2015-04-01

    The assumption that early sexual debut leads to adverse outcomes has been used as justification for sexual health interventions and policies aimed at delaying sexual initiation, yet research in the area has been limited. This review identified and synthesized published literature on the association between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual/reproductive outcomes. Literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Current Contents. In all, 65 citations met the selection criteria (industrialized, population-based studies). By far the most common sexual behavior to have been investigated has been sexual partners. Studies consistently reported early first intercourse to be associated with more recent, lifetime, and concurrent sexual partners. Early initiators were also more likely to participate in a wider range of sexual practices and report increased sexual satisfaction (among men). Furthermore, early first intercourse, in some studies, was shown to increase the risk of teen pregnancies, teen births, and having an abortion, while findings on STIs and contraceptive use have been mixed. These findings, however, must be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems and limitations present in the research, including a lack of consensus on what constitutes early sexual intercourse and inconsistencies and problems with analyses. PMID:25425161

  9. Effect of medical x-ray exposure on subsequent reproductive outcomes in scoliosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was done which was designed to assess the effects of medical x-ray exposure on cancer incidence among scoliosis patients. Although the primary purpose of the study was to assess cancer incidence, a secondary goal was to investigate whether diagnostic x-ray exposure is related to adverse reproductive events in the female subjects. A series of case-control analyses were done which were designed to assess these effects. Radiation exposure was measured both by total films received and by an estimate of the number of films received and by an estimate of the number of films which involved ovarian irradiation. Radiation appeared to increase a woman's risk of any adverse event in the overall analysis and her risk of a premature or low birth weight infant in the separate analyses. Radiation did not appear to be related to spontaneous abortion, complications of pregnancy or delivery or birth defects, although the results of the pregnancy complications analysis was suggestive.

  10. Reproductive problems of the work force.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, G D; Ravindran, J

    2000-03-01

    The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area. PMID:11072503

  11. Examining intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals: cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2009-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this study had two purposes: (a) examine the associations between intrinsic (relative to extrinsic) exercise goal content and cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes; and (b) test the mediating role of psychological need satisfaction in the Exercise Goal Content --> Outcomes relationship. Using a sample of 410 adults, hierarchical regression analysis showed relative intrinsic goal content to positively predict physical self-worth, self-reported exercise behavior, psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction and negatively predict exercise anxiety. Except for exercise behavior, the predictive utility of relative intrinsic goal content on the dependent variables of interest remained significant after controlling for participants' relative self-determined exercise motivation. Structural equation modeling analyses showed psychological need satisfaction to partially mediate the effect of relative intrinsic goal content on the outcome variables. Our findings support further investigation of exercise goals commensurate with the goal content perspective advanced in SDT. PMID:19454771

  12. Contemporary Reproductive Outcomes for Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins-Jones, Sara; Morgan, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and may be associated with adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. However, it is difficult to establish how much of this risk is due to PCOS and how much to obesity. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of PCOS upon fertility, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes. Design and Setting: Data were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), a longitudinal anonymized primary care research database in the United Kingdom. Patients with a diagnosis of PCOS were matched to controls (1:2) by age (±1 y), body mass index (± 3 U), and CPRD practice. Standardized fertility ratios before and after diagnosis (index date) were calculated. Rates of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, delivery method, and neonatal outcomes were compared. Results: Nine thousand sixty-eight women with PCOS matched study criteria. Prior to index date the standardized fertility ratio for patients with PCOS was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.77–0.83); following index date it was 1.16 (1.12–1.20). The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for miscarriage (1.70; 1.56–1.84), pre-eclampsia (1.32; 1.16–1.49), gestational diabetes (1.41; 1.2–1.66), and premature delivery (1.25; 1.1–1.43) were all increased compared with controls. Of PCOS births, 27.7% were by Caesarean section compared with 23.7% of controls (1.13; 1.05–1.21). Infants born to mothers with PCOS had an increased risk of neonatal jaundice (1.20; 1.03–1.39) and respiratory complications (1.20; 1.06–1.37). Conclusions: PCOS is associated with subfertility but fertility rates are restored to those of the background population following diagnosis. Pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcomes are more prevalent for women with PCOS independently of obesity. PMID:26859102

  13. Key Factors Affecting Reproductive Success of Thoroughbred Mares and Stallions on a Commercial Stud Farm.

    PubMed

    Lane, E A; Bijnen, Mlj; Osborne, M; More, S J; Henderson, Isf; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate factors contributing to fertility of thoroughbred mares, data from 3743 oestrous periods of 2385 mares were collected on a large thoroughbred farm in Ireland. Fourteen stallions (mean age 8.3 years; range 4-15 years) had bred 2385 mares (mean age 9.4 years; range 3-24 years). Maiden mares accounted for 12%, mares with a foal at foot for 64%, and barren, slipped or rested mares for 24% of the total. The mean pregnancy rate per cycle was 67.8% (68.6% in year 1 and 66.9% in year 2). Backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to develop two models to evaluate mare factors, including mare age, reproductive status, month of foaling, dystocia, month of cover, foal heat, cycle number, treatments, walk-in status and stallion factors including stallion identity, stallion age, shuttle status, time elapsed between covers and high stallion usage on the per cycle pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. Old age (p < 0.001) and cover within 20 days post-partum (p < 0.003) were associated with lowered pregnancy rates. High mare age (p < 0.05) and barren, slipped or rested reproductive status (p = 0.05) increased the likelihood of pregnancy loss. Uterine inflammation or infection, if appropriately treated, did not affect fertility. Only high usage of stallions (used more than 21 times in previous week) was associated with lowered (p = 0.009) pregnancy rates. However, shuttle stallions were more likely to have increased (p = 0.035) pregnancy survival, perhaps reflecting a bias in stallion selection. In conclusion, mare age exerted the greatest influence on fertility; nonetheless, thoroughbreds can be effectively managed to achieve high reproductive performance in a commercial setting. PMID:26815482

  14. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  15. Comparing predicted and actual affective responses to process versus outcome: an emotion-as-feedback perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Jessica Y Y; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Tang, Suki K Y

    2013-10-01

    One of the conjectures in affective forecasting literature is that people are advised to discount their anticipated emotions because their forecasts are often inaccurate. The present research distinguishes between emotional reactions to process versus those to outcome, and highlights an alternative view that affective misforecasts could indeed be adaptive to goal pursuit. Using an ultimatum game, Study 1 showed that people overpredicted how much they would regret and be disappointed by the amount of effort they exerted, should the outcomes turned out worse than expected; nonetheless, people could accurately predict their emotional responses to unfavorable outcomes per se. In a natural setting of a university examination, Study 2 demonstrated that actual regret and disappointment toward favorable outcomes were more intense than the level people expected, but this discrepancy was not observed in their emotional responses to efforts they had invested. These two distinct patterns of results substantiate the argument that the deviation between predicted and actual emotions is dependent on the referents of the emotional reactions. PMID:23831563

  16. Weight loss improves reproductive outcomes in obese women undergoing fertility treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sim, K A; Dezarnaulds, G M; Denyer, G S; Skilton, M R; Caterson, I D

    2014-04-01

    For women attempting pregnancy, obesity reduces fertility and is an independent risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. The aim of this evaluator-blinded, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate a weight loss intervention on pregnancy rates in obese women undertaking fertility treatment. Forty-nine obese women, aged ≤ 37 years, presenting for fertility treatment were randomized to either a 12-week intervention (n = 27) consisting of a very-low-energy diet for the initial 6 weeks followed by a hypocaloric diet, combined with a weekly group multidisciplinary programme; or a control group (n = 22) who received recommendations for weight loss and the same printed material as the intervention. Anthropometric and reproductive parameters were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. The 22 women who completed the intervention had greater anthropometric changes (-6.6 ± 4.6 kg and -8.7 ± 5.6 cm vs. -1.6 ± 3.6 kg and -0.6 ± 6.3 cm) compared with the control group (n = 17; P < 0.001). The intervention group achieved a pregnancy rate of 48% compared with 14% (P = 0.007), took a mean two fertility treatment cycles to achieve each pregnancy compared with four in the control group (P = 0.002), and had a marked increase in the number of live births (44% vs. 14%; P = 0.02). A group weight loss programme, incorporating dietary, exercise and behavioural components, is associated with a significant improvement in pregnancy rates and live births in a group of obese women undergoing fertility treatment. PMID:25826729

  17. Treatment outcomes for substance use disorder among women of reproductive age in Massachusetts: A population-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith; Derrington, Taletha M.; Belanoff, Candice; Cabral, Howard J.; Babakhanlou-Chase, Hermik; Diop, Hafsatou; Evans, Stephen R.; Jacobs, Hilary; Kotelchuck, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Longitudinal patterns of treatment utilization and relapse among women of reproductive age with substance use disorder (SUD) are not well known. In this statewide report spanning seven years we describe SUD prevalence, SUD treatment utilization, and differences in subsequent emergency department (ED) use and post-treatment relapse rates by type of treatment: none, ‘acute only’ (detoxification/stabilization), or ‘ongoing’ services. Methods We linked a statewide dataset of hospital discharge, observation stay and ED records with SUD treatment admission records from hospitals and freestanding facilities, and birth/fetal death certificates, in Massachusetts, 2002–2008. We aggregated episodes into individual woman records, identified evidence of SUD and treatment, and tested post-treatment outcomes. Results Nearly 150,000 (8.5%) of 1.7 million Massachusetts women aged 15–49 were identified as SUD-positive. Nearly half of SUD-positive women (71,533 or 48.3%) had evidence of hospital or facility-based SUD treatment; among these, 12% received acute care/detoxification only while 88% obtained ‘ongoing’ treatment. Treatment varied by substance type; women with dual diagnosis and those with opiate use were least likely to receive ‘ongoing’ treatment. Treated women were older and less likely to have a psychiatric history or chronic illness. Women who received ‘acute only’ services were more likely to relapse (12.4% vs. 9.6%) and had a 10% higher rate of ED visits post-treatment than women receiving ‘ongoing’ treatment. Conclusions Many Massachusetts women of reproductive age need but do not receive adequate SUD treatment. ‘Ongoing’ services beyond detoxification/stabilization may reduce the likelihood of post-treatment relapse and/or reliance on the ED for subsequent medical care. PMID:25496707

  18. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions. PMID:25491898

  19. Maternally transferred dioxin-like compounds can affect the reproductive success of European eel.

    PubMed

    Foekema, Edwin M; Kotterman, Michiel; de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-01-01

    Reported concentrations of dioxin-like compounds accumulated in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) were used to perform a risk assessment for eel larval survival, taking into account a modeled amplification of tissue concentrations with a factor of 1.33 during spawning migration. The calculated concentrations of dioxin-like compounds finally deposited in the eggs were compared with the internal effect concentrations for survival of early life stages of the European eel; these concentrations, by lack of experimental data, were estimated from a sensitivity distribution based on literature data by assuming that eel larvae are among the 10% most sensitive teleost fish species. Given concentrations of dioxin-like contaminants and assuming a relatively high sensitivity, it can be expected that larvae from eggs produced by eel from highly contaminated locations in Europe will experience increased mortality as a result of maternally transferred dioxin-like contaminants. As historical persistent organic pollutant concentrations in eel tissue were higher, this impact must have been stronger in the past. Potential effects of other compounds or effects on the migration, condition, and fertility of the parental animals were not taken into account. It is important to further study the overall impact of contaminants on the reproductive success of the European eel as this may have been underestimated until now. PMID:26223357

  20. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  1. An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

  2. The cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy scar and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa A; Shalaby, Osama E; Elbakary, Molham A; Hashish, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR) and to detect the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: Prospective randomized interventional study included forty patients who were treated by 40 Ex-DCRs. In twenty patients, medial canthal vertical incision was used and in the other twenty cases, subciliary incision was used. The skin was closed using vicryl 6-0 or prolene 6-0 interrupted sutures, and each one was randomly used in twenty patients (10 patients of each incision type). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated 6 months postoperative by the patients and by an oculoplastic surgeon on a four grades scale. Cosmetic results and its correlation to patients’ age, sex, skin complexion, type of incision, and type of skin sutures were studied. Results: The mean scar grading was 0.98 ± 1.0 and 1.3 ± 1.0 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. About 27.5% described their scars as cosmetically significant. The cosmetic outcome was significantly affected by the type of incision with only 5% significant scars in subciliary incision group. Prolene 6-0 suture was associated with better cosmetic results with 15% significant scars. 50% of dark-skinned patients showed cosmetically significant scars. Although no correlation was found between patients’ age and cosmetic outcome, pediatric patients showed higher tendency to scar visibility with mean scar grade 1.2 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 0.9 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. Conclusion: Dark skinned and pediatric patients are more prone to visible Ex-DCR scar. The use of subciliary approach and prolene 6-0 skin sutures is associated with more favorable cosmetic outcome. PMID:27221676

  3. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  4. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17α-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic progesterones and estrogens are broadly used bioactive pharmaceutical agents and have been detected in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the combined reproductive effects of megestrol acetate (MTA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to MTA (33, 100 or 333 ng/L), EE2 (10 ng/L) or a mixture of both (MTA + EE2: 33 + 10, 100 + 10 or 333 + 10 ng/L) for 21 days. Results demonstrated that egg production was significantly reduced by exposure to 10 ng/L EE2, but not MTA. However, a combined exposure to MTA and EE2 caused further reduction of fish fecundity compared to EE2 exposure alone, suggesting an additive effect on egg production when EE2 is supplemented with MTA. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in the females and 11-ketotestosterone in the males were significantly decreased in the groups exposed to EE2 or MTA alone compared with the solvent control, and the plasma concentrations of the three hormones were further reduced in the co-exposure groups relative to the MTA exposure group, but not the EE2 exposure group. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects on plasma concentrations in the co-exposures were predominantly caused by EE2. Furthermore, exposure to MTA and EE2 (alone or in combination) led to histological alterations in the ovaries (decreased vitellogenic/mature oocytes), but not in the testes. This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. PMID:27038209

  5. Developmental Methoxychlor Exposure Affects Multiple Reproductive Parameters and Ovarian: Folliculogenesis and Gene Expression in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post-coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis. PMID:18848953

  6. Bad actions or bad outcomes? Differentiating affective contributions to the moral condemnation of harm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan M; Hannikainen, Ivar A; Cushman, Fiery A

    2014-06-01

    Moral condemnation of harmful behavior is influenced by both cognitive and affective processes. However, despite much recent research, the proximate source of affect remains unclear. One obvious contender is empathy; simulating the victim's pain could lead one to judge an action as wrong ("outcome aversion"). An alternative, less obvious source is one's own aversion to performing the action itself ("action aversion"). To dissociate these alternatives, we developed a scale that assessed individual aversions to (a) witnessing others experience painful outcomes (e.g., seeing someone fall down stairs); and (b) performing actions that are harmless yet aversive (e.g., stabbing a fellow actor with a fake stage knife). Across 4 experiments, we found that moral condemnation of both first-person and third-party harmful behavior in the context of moral dilemmas is better predicted by one's aversion to action properties than by an affective response to victim suffering. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated both action aversion and the degree of expected suffering across a number of actions and found that both factors make large, independent contributions to moral judgment. Together, these results suggest we may judge others' actions by imagining what it would feel like to perform the action rather than experience the consequences of the action. Accordingly, they provide a counterpoint to a dominant but largely untested assumption that empathy is the key affective response governing moral judgments of harm. PMID:24512250

  7. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  8. “I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead”: Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background. We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24–57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on “family planning” and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Discussion. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention. PMID:27051664

  9. Sublethal effects of antibiosis resistance on the reproductive biology of two spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria spp.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Paola A; Miller, María F; Cardona, Cesar; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo; Montoya, James

    2008-04-01

    Several greenhouse experiments were used to measure how high levels of antibiosis resistance to nymphs in two interspecific Brachiaria (brachiariagrass) hybrids affect life history parameters of the spittlebugs Aeneolamia varia (F.) and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand), two of the most important spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria production in Colombia. The A. varia-resistant hybrid CIAT 36062, the Z. carbonaria-resistant hybrid SX01NO/0102, and the susceptible accession CIAT 0654 were used to compare the effect of all possible combinations of food sources for nymphs and adults. Calculation of growth indexes showed a significant impact of antibiosis resistance on the biology of immature stages of both species. Median survival times of adults feeding on resistant genotypes did not differ from those recorded on the susceptible genotype, suggesting that factors responsible for high mortality of nymphs in the resistant hybrids did not affect adult survival. Rearing nymphs of A. varia on CIAT 36062 and of Z. carbonaria on SX01NO/0102 had deleterious sublethal effects on the reproductive biology of resulting adult females. It is concluded that high nymphal mortality and subsequent sublethal effects of nymphal antibiosis on adults should have a major impact on the demography of the two spittlebug species studied. PMID:18459425

  10. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  11. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence. PMID:22429791

  12. Reproductive outcomes following hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps of different location, number and size in patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Karakuş, S S; Özdamar, Ö; Karakuş, R; Gün, I; Sofuoğlu, K; Muhcu, M; Polat, M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the pregnancy rates after hysteroscopic polypectomy in infertility patients with endometrial polyps and to compare pregnancy rates among subgroups with polyps of different location, size and number. All patients who underwent hysteroscopic evaluation which revealed endometrial polyps were included. Patients with any intrauterine pathology other than polyp and those undergoing frozen embryo transfer (ET) cycles were excluded. Patients were evaluated according to polyp location, size and number. Rates of β-hCG positivity and clinical pregnancy were compared. Clinical pregnancy rates after polypectomy was 41.7% for multiple polyps, 30.8% for isthmus zone polyps, 28.6% for anterior wall polyps, 27.3% for cornual zone, 22.2% for posterior uterine wall polyps and 11.8% for fundal polyps (p = 0.532). There appears no difference regarding reproductive outcomes after hysteroscopic resection of polyps situated in different intrauterine locations. Similarly, chance of conceiving seems not to change after hysteroscopic treatment of polyps of different size and number. PMID:26471837

  13. Developmental Exposure to TCDD Reduces Fertility and Negatively Affects Pregnancy Outcomes across Multiple Generations

    PubMed Central

    Bruner-Tran, Kaylon L.; Osteen, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known endocrine disruptor. Since humans and animals are most sensitive to toxicant exposure during development, we previously developed a mouse model of in utero TCDD exposure in order to examine the impact of this toxicant on adult reproductive function. Our initial in utero toxicant-exposure study revealed a dose-dependent reduction in uterine sensitivity to progesterone; however, we did not previously explore establishment or maintenance of pregnancy. Thus, in the current study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in adult C57BL/6 mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure. Herein we demonstrate reduced fertility and an increased incidence of premature birth (PTB) in F1 mice exposed in utero to TCDD as well as in three subsequent generations. Finally, our studies revealed that mice with a history of developmental TCDD exposure exhibit an increased sensitivity to inflammation which further negatively impacted gestation length in all generations examined. PMID:20955784

  14. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  15. Epidemiologic evidence of relationships between reproductive and child health outcomes and environmental chemical contaminants.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Donald T; Arbuckle, Tye E; Turner, Michelle C; Bérubé, Annie; Yang, Qiuying; Liu, Shiliang; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    This review summarizes the level of epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and/or early life exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and fetal, child, and adult health. Discussion focuses on fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, birth defects, respiratory and other childhood diseases, neuropsychological deficits, premature or delayed sexual maturation, and certain adult cancers linked to fetal or childhood exposures. Environmental exposures considered here include chemical toxicants in air, water, soil/house dust and foods (including human breast milk), and consumer products. Reports reviewed here included original epidemiologic studies (with at least basic descriptions of methods and results), literature reviews, expert group reports, meta-analyses, and pooled analyses. Levels of evidence for causal relationships were categorized as sufficient, limited, or inadequate according to predefined criteria. There was sufficient epidemiological evidence for causal relationships between several adverse pregnancy or child health outcomes and prenatal or childhood exposure to environmental chemical contaminants. These included prenatal high-level methylmercury (CH(3)Hg) exposure (delayed developmental milestones and cognitive, motor, auditory, and visual deficits), high-level prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related toxicants (neonatal tooth abnormalities, cognitive and motor deficits), maternal active smoking (delayed conception, preterm birth, fetal growth deficit [FGD] and sudden infant death syndrome [SIDS]) and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure (preterm birth), low-level childhood lead exposure (cognitive deficits and renal tubular damage), high-level childhood CH(3)Hg exposure (visual deficits), high-level childhood exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (chloracne), childhood ETS exposure (SIDS, new-onset asthma, increased

  16. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  17. Correlation of serum estradiol level on the day of ovulation trigger with the reproductive outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Siddhartha, N.; Reddy, N. Sanjeeva; Pandurangi, Monna; Tamizharasi, M.; Radha, V.; Kanimozhi, K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum estradiol (E2) levels are measured in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), to assess the ovarian response and to predict ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The impact of peak E2 levels on IVF-ICSI outcome was found to be inconsistent in the previous studies. AIM: To evaluate the impact of the serum E2 levels on the day of ovulation trigger with the reproductive outcome of ICSI. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. ART Center, at a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine infertile women, who underwent ICSI with fresh embryo transfer over a period of 3 years, were included in the study. The study subjects were grouped based on the serum E2 level on the day of ovulation trigger:- Group I - <1000 pg/ml, Group II - 1000–2000 pg/ml, Group III – 2000.1-3000 pg/ml, Group IV – 3000.1–4000 pg/ml, and Group V >4000 pg/ml. The baseline characteristics and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) outcome were compared among the study groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The study groups were comparable with regard to age, body mass index, ovarian reserve. Group V had significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved than I and II (18.90 vs. 11.36 and 11.33; P = 0.009). Group IV showed significantly higher fertilization rate than I, III, and V; (92.23 vs. 77.43, 75.52, 75.73; P = 0.028). There were no significant differences in the implantation rates (P = 0.368) and pregnancy rates (P = 0.368). CONCLUSION: Higher E2 levels on the day of ovulation trigger would predict increased oocyte yield after COH. E2 levels in the range of 3000–4000 pg/ml would probably predict increased fertilization and pregnancies in ICSI cycles. PMID:27110074

  18. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mowry, Annelise V.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Sirman, Aubrey E.; Potts, Wayne K.; Hood, Wendy R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage. PMID:27537547

  19. Analysis of donor heterogeneity as a factor affecting the clinical outcome of oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sarah E; Faddy, Malcolm; Levett, Stephen; Sharma, Vinay; Gosden, Roger

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated factors that may affect the clinical outcome of oocyte donation on the basis of data from a clinical programme involving 243 treatment cycles analysed retrospectively. In each cohort, oocytes were distributed randomly to one, two or three recipients, which enabled the outcomes in terms of pregnancy and live birth rates to be compared among donors. The results were compared with respect to age of the donor and recipient, number of oocytes collected, fertilization and cleavage rates, qualitative embryo criteria (morphological grade) and other clinical criteria. Most variables had no significant effect on either outcome, although the live birth rate varied inversely with recipient age. Unsurprisingly, the pregnancy rate was correlated positively with the number of embryos transferred. Most of the variation in pregnancy and live birth rates (85-90%) could not be accounted for by any specific donation characteristic, indicating that interdonor heterogeneity was the result of idiopathic factors. The factor most predictive of a recipient's cycle outcome was a history of previous success of the donor, which accounted for approximately 30% of the variation in live birth rates. Pregnancy success rates varied widely among oocyte donors, as has been found among sperm donors. This observation highlights the need to identify markers that predict developmental competence and help to identify the genetic and environmental bases of differential fertility. In conclusion, the quality of oocytes varied widely among women presumed to be fertile by clinical criteria, and the causative factors set a major limitation on the prospects of improving the outcome of egg donation. PMID:12477962

  20. Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa J.; Branson, Nicholas; Cody, Denis; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This article discusses the impacts of arousal and emotional state on training animals using methods based on reward and punishment. Three-dimensional graphs are provided to offer a visual means to illustrate how arousal and emotional state may influence the effectiveness of reward and punishment depending on the behaviour being trained. Dogs and horses are used to illustrate this with reference to commonly trained behaviours in a predatory and a prey animal. Abstract Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them. PMID:26487403

  1. Phenotypic plasticity in growth and fecundity induced by strong population fluctuations affects reproductive traits of female fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Juha; Urpanen, Olli; Keskinen, Tapio; Huuskonen, Hannu; Sarvala, Jouko; Valkeajärvi, Pentti; Marjomäki, Timo J

    2016-02-01

    Fish are known for their high phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental variability, and this is particularly pronounced among salmonids in the Northern Hemisphere. Resource limitation leads to trade-offs in phenotypic plasticity between life-history traits related to the reproduction, growth, and survival of individual fish, which have consequences for the age and size distributions of populations, as well as their dynamics and productivity. We studied the effect of plasticity in growth and fecundity of vendace females on their reproductive traits using a series of long-term incubation experiments. The wild parental fish originated from four separate populations with markedly different densities, and hence naturally induced differences in their growth and fecundity. The energy allocation to somatic tissues and eggs prior to spawning served as a proxy for total resource availability to individual females, and its effects on offspring survival and growth were analyzed. Vendace females allocated a rather constant proportion of available energy to eggs (per body mass) despite different growth patterns depending on the total resources in the different lakes; investment into eggs thus dictated the share remaining for growth. The energy allocation to eggs per mass was higher in young than in old spawners and the egg size and the relative fecundity differed between them: Young females produced more and smaller eggs and larvae than old spawners. In contrast to earlier observations of salmonids, a shortage of maternal food resources did not increase offspring size and survival. Vendace females in sparse populations with ample resources and high growth produced larger eggs and larvae. Vendace accommodate strong population fluctuations by their high plasticity in growth and fecundity, which affect their offspring size and consequently their recruitment and productivity, and account for their persistence and resilience in the face of high

  2. Reproductive hazards in the microelectronics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, L.; Swan, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    There has been increased awareness of the potential for occupational and environmental exposures to hazardous substances to adversely affect reproductive outcome in men and women. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the clinician with some of the normal physiologic changes of pregnancy and how those may interact with working conditions in the electronics industry. It also reviews some of the data regarding potential reproductive hazards of substances and physical agents used in this industry. 11 references.

  3. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  4. Predicted and experienced affective responses to the outcome of the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, Michael B; Corser, Grant C; Gohm, Carol L; VonWaldner, Kristen L; Foreman, Elizabeth L

    2010-12-01

    People typically have intense feelings about politics. Therefore, it was no surprise that the campaign and eventual election of Barack Obama were highly anticipated and emotionally charged events, making it and the emotion experienced afterward a useful situation in which to replicate prior research showing that people typically overestimate the intensity and duration of their future affective states. Consequently, it was expected that Obama supporters and McCain supporters might overestimate the intensity of their affective responses to the outcome of the election. Data showed that while McCain supporters underestimated how happy they would be following the election, Obama supporters accurately predicted how happy they would be following the election. These data provide descriptive information on the accuracy of people's predicted reactions to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. The findings are discussed in the context of the broad literature and this specific and unique event. PMID:21323142

  5. Lifestyle-Related Diseases Affect Surgical Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Hyperlipidemia (HL) and hypertension (HT) lead to systemic atherosclerosis. Not only atherosclerosis but also bone fragility and/or low bone mineral density result from diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine whether these lifestyle-related diseases affected surgical outcomes after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Methods The subjects comprised 122 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The clinical results were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before surgery and at 2 years postoperatively. The fusion status was graded as union in situ, collapsed union, or nonunion at 2 years after surgery. The abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score was assessed using preoperative lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine. Results HL did not significantly affect the JOA score recovery rate. On the other hand, HT and CKD (stage 3 to 4) had a significant adverse effect on the recovery rate. The recovery rate was also lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group, but the difference was not significant. The AAC score was negatively correlated with the JOA score recovery rate. The fusion status was not significantly affected by HL, HT, DM, or CKD; however, the AAC score was significantly higher in the collapsed union and nonunion group than in the union in situ group. Conclusions At 2 years after PLIF, the presence of HT, CKD, and AAC was associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes, and advanced AAC significantly affected fusion status. PMID:26835195

  6. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes. PMID:25619927

  7. Experimental Comparison of the Reproductive Outcomes and Early Development of the Offspring of Rats Given Five Common Types of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Shu, Wei-qun; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Lin; Wang, Da-hua; Fu, Wen-juan; Wang, Ling-qiao; Luo, Jiao-hua; Zhang, Liang; Tan, Yao; Qiu, Zhi-qun; Huang, Yu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Tap water (unfiltered), filtered tap water and processed bottled water (purified water, artificial mineralized water, or natural water) are now the five most widely consumed types of drinking water in China. However, the constituents (organic chemicals and inorganic ingredients) of the five waters differ, which may cause them to have different long-term health effects on those who drink them, especially sensitive children. In order to determine which type of water among the five waters is the most beneficial regarding reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of offspring, two generations of Sprague–Dawley rats were given these five waters separately, and their reproductive outcomes and the developmental behaviors of their offspring were observed and compared. The results showed that the unfiltered tap water group had the lowest values for the maternal gestation index (MGI) and offspring's learning and memory abilities (OLMA); the lowest offspring survival rate was found in the purified water group; and the highest OLMA were found in the filtered tap water group. Thus, the best reproductive and offspring early developmental outcomes were found in the group that drank filtered tap water, which had the lowest levels of pollutants and the richest minerals. Therefore, thoroughly removing toxic contaminants and retaining the beneficial minerals in drinking water may be important for both pregnant women and children, and the best way to treat water may be with granular activated carbon and ion exchange by copper zinc alloy. PMID:25279561

  8. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  9. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  10. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  11. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  12. The assesment of follicular fluid presepsin levels in poor ovarian responder womenandits relationship with the reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ovayolu, Ali; Özdamar, Özkan; Gün, İsmet; Arslanbuğa, Cansev Y; Kutlu, Tayfun; Tunalı, Gülden; Uluhan, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    A considerable proportion of all women undergoing IVFrespond poorly to gonadotropin stimulation. These women are reported to be associated with increased cancellation rates and lower pregnancy rates. It has been hypothesized that poor response to ovarian stimulation is a first sign of ovarian ageing or premature ovarian failure, which might be related to altered inflammatory response in the body. We aimed to compare follicular fluid presepsin levels between poor- and normo-responder patients to ovarian stimulation, to assess its relationship with reproductive outcomes. This study included infertility patients who underwent ovulation induction with either long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols and who subsequently underwent IVF/ICSI. Included patients were assigned to two groups according to the Bologna criteria for poor ovarian response. Group 1 and 2 consisted of normo- and poor-responder patients, respectively.The 2 groups were compared in terms of FF presepsin levels. Also, any relationship between the FF presepsin levels and fertility outcomes was assessed within the groups. The groups were compared by using student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and X2 test, where appropriate. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different between the groups (22.6% and 17.6%; P=0.650, respectively). FF presepsin levels were higher in Group 1, however, the difference was not statistically significant (298.0±797.4 and 149.2±422.3; P=0.190, respectively). FF presepsin levels did not significantly differ between pregnancy positive and the pregnancy negative patients in both Group 1 (243.6±531.1 and 314.3±866.5; P=0.055, respectively) and Group 2 (112.2±79.8 and 157.1±464.3; P=0.394, respectively). Consequently, FF presepsin seems not to be a reliable marker in predicting pregnancy in both normo-responder and poor-responder infertility groups. PMID:26309683

  13. Critical Factors Affecting the Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Delphi Study of the Opinions of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify critically important factors that affect the meaningful assessment of student learning outcomes and study why these factors were critically important. A three-round Delphi process was used to solicit the opinions of individuals who were actively involved in student learning outcomes assessment…

  14. Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

  15. Developmental Exposure to Ethinylestradiol Affects Reproductive Physiology, the GnRH Neuroendocrine Network and Behaviors in Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Martini, Mariangela; Duittoz, Anne H.; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2), the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR) or pharmacological (PHARMACO) doses [0.1 and 1 μg/kg (body weight)/day respectively], from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs. PMID:26696819

  16. CO2 and fertility affect growth and reproduction but not susceptibility to aphids in field grown Solanum ptycanthum

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    In general, C3 annual plants respond positively in terms of growth, reproduction and biomass accrued when grown under elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, most studies documenting this response have been conducted in growth chambers where plants can be reared under conditions free form environmental stressors such as nutrient and water constraints, UV exposure and damage from pests. During the 1993 fieldseason, I grew 200 individuals of Solanum ptycanthum in an array of 10 outdoor, open-topped CO2 enclosures (5 @ 700 ppm CO2) at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI. Half of the plants were grown in a 50;50 mix of native C-horizon soil and topsoil (low fertility); the other half were grown in 100% topsoil (high-fertility). Plants were censused throughout the growing season for flower and fruit production, growth rate and degree of infestation of aphids. Fertility and CO2 both significantly affected production of flowers and fruits, but only fertility was significantly related to vegetative growth. Aphid infestation varied significantly among enclosures, but was not related to CO2 or fertility.

  17. Population and Public Health Implications of Child Health and Reproductive Outcomes Among Carrier Couples of Sickle Cell Disorders in Madhya Pradesh, Central India

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, Ranbir S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell disease is a major genetic and public health challenge in India. Adequate studies on clinico-hematological aspects of disorders are available, however there are few studies on the public health and reproductive outcomes among sickle cell carrier couples. Methods: A total of 383 couples including their offspring with at least one case of sickle cell disorder referred to a testing center from a tertiary hospital from March 2010 to February 2013 were consecutively studied as matched case controls. Results: Out of 383 couples, 200 were found normal and 183 had different sickle cell disorders. Carrier couples of sickle cell disease had significantly higher fertility (mean number of conceptions, i.e. 3.153 versus 1.480) and higher below 10 year mortality (11% versus 2.7%) and lower surviving offspring (877.4 versus 970.6) than of controls. Neonatal and infant mortality was doubled (34.3 versus 14.7) and three-fold higher (44.1 versus 14.7), respectively in carriers of disease per 1000 live-births compared to controls. Couples of AS/SS genotype showed high neonatal, infant, below 10 year mortality (214.3 each) and low surviving offspring (785.7 per 1000 live-births). Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Sickle cell carrier couples are increasing in both trait and disease offspring (surviving: 56.7% against 43.3% normals). This increased production of carrier and disease offspring leads to increased morbidity, neonatal/infant and childhood mortality, and adversely affects the survival fitness.

  18. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  19. Microbiome associations in pigs with the best and worst clinical outcomes following co-infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Jaing, Crystal J; Thissen, James B; Cino-Ozuna, Ada Giselle; McLoughlin, Kevin S; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2016-05-30

    On a world-wide basis, co-infections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are common and contribute to a range of polymicrobial disease syndromes in swine. Both viruses compromise host defenses, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections by primary and secondary pathogens that can affect growth performance as well as increased morbidity and mortality. An experimental population of 95 pigs was co-infected with PRRSV and PCV2. At 70days post-infection (dpi), 20 representative pigs were selected as having the best or worst clinical outcome based on average daily gain (ADG) and the presence of clinical disease. Worst clinical outcome pigs had prolonged and greater levels of viremia as measured by qPCR. Serum, lung and fecal samples collected at 70 dpi were analyzed using a comprehensive DNA microarray technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, to detect over 8000 microbes. Bacterial species, such as Bacillus cereus, were detected at a higher rate in the serum of worst performing pigs. At the level of the fecal microbiome, the overall microbial diversity was lower in the worst clinical outcome group. The results reinforce the importance of pathogen load in determining clinical outcome and suggest an important role of microbial diversity as a contributing factor in disease. PMID:27139023

  20. Microbiome associations in pigs with the best and worst clinical outcomes following co-infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Niederwerder, Megan C.; Jaing, Crystal J.; Thissen, James B.; Cino-Ozuna, Ada Giselle; McLoughlin, Kevin S.; Rowland, Raymond R. R.

    2016-03-10

    Co-infections involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are common and contribute to a range of polymicrobial disease syndromes in swine and on a world-wide basis. Both viruses compromise host defenses, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections by primary and secondary pathogens that can affect growth performance as well as increased morbidity and mortality. An experimental population of 95 pigs was co-infected with PRRSV and PCV2. At 70 days post-infection (dpi), 20 representative pigs were selected as having the best or worst clinical outcome based on average daily gain (ADG) and the presencemore » of clinical disease. Moreover, the worst clinical outcome pigs had prolonged and greater levels of viremia as measured by qPCR. Serum, lung and fecal samples collected at 70 dpi were analyzed using a comprehensive DNA microarray technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, to detect over 8000 microbes. Bacterial species, such as Bacillus cereus, were detected at a higher rate in the serum of worst performing pigs. At the level of the fecal microbiome, the overall microbial diversity was lower in the worst clinical outcome group. The results reinforce the importance of pathogen load in determining clinical outcome and suggest an important role of microbial diversity as a contributing factor in disease.« less

  1. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants’ comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)–no feedback–was on average “slightly uncomfortable”, the other three conditions were “slightly comfortable” (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  2. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants' comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)-no feedback-was on average "slightly uncomfortable", the other three conditions were "slightly comfortable" (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  3. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  4. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  5. Relationship of Negative Affect and Outcome of an Opioid Therapy Trial Among Low Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Robert N.; Edwards, Robert R.; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ross, Edgar L.; Michna, Edward; Warnick, Meredith; Wasan, Ajay D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients with chronic noncancer pain frequently report symptoms of depression and anxiety (negative affect), which are associated with higher ratings of pain intensity and a greater likelihood of being prescribed chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to test the hypothesis that initial levels of negative affect can predict treatment-related outcomes in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of extended-release (ER) hydromorphone among opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain. Methods Four hundred fifty-nine (N = 459) patients participated in the titration/conversion phase of a multicenter study, of which 268 were randomized to receive once-daily hydromorphone or placebo. All patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at baseline and were divided evenly into Low (N = 157), Moderate (N = 155), and High (N = 147) negative affect groups based on their scores. Group differences in numerical pain intensity measures at home and in the clinic, Roland–Morris Disability ratings, and measures of symptoms from the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) throughout the trial were analyzed. Results Two hundred sixty-eight of the initial 459 subjects who entered the 2 to 4-week titration/conversion phase (pretreatment) were successfully randomized to either placebo or ER hydromorphone; a total of 110 patients then completed this double-blind phase of the study. Those in the Moderate and High negative affect groups tended to drop out more often during the titration/conversion phase because of the adverse effects or lack of efficacy of their prescribed opioid than those in the Low negative mood group (P < 0.05). Overall, those patients in the Moderate and High groups reported significantly higher pain intensity scores in at-home and in-clinic pain intensity ratings (P < 0.05), greater disability on the Roland–Morris Scale (P < 0.01), and more withdrawal symptoms on the SOWS (P < 0.05) than those in

  6. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed. PMID:25288430

  7. Spirituality and religiousness as predictive factors of outcome in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sylvia; Perroud, Nader; Gillieron, Christiane; Brandt, Pierre-Yves; Rieben, Isabelle; Borras, Laurence; Huguelet, Philippe

    2011-04-30

    Spirituality and religiousness have been shown to be highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. This study assesses the predictive value of helpful vs. harmful use of religion to cope with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder at 3 years. From an initial cohort of 115 outpatients, 80% were reassessed for positive, negative and general symptoms, clinical global impression, social adaptation and quality of life. For patients with helpful religion at baseline, the importance of spirituality was predictive of fewer negative symptoms, better clinical global impression, social functioning and quality of life. The frequencies of religious practices in community and support from religious community had no effect on outcome. For patients with harmful religion at baseline, no relationships were elicited. This result may be due to sample size. Indeed, helpful spiritual/religious coping concerns 83% of patients, whereas harmful spiritual/religious coping concerns only 14% of patients. Our study shows that helpful use of spirituality is predictive of a better outcome. Spirituality may facilitate recovery by providing resources for coping with symptoms. In some cases, however, spirituality and religiousness are a source of suffering. Helpful vs. harmful spiritual/religious coping appears to be of clinical significance. PMID:20869123

  8. Parenting Cognition and Affective Outcomes Following Parent Management Training: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Colalillo, Sara; Johnston, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Parent management training (PMT) is considered the gold standard in the treatment of child behavior problems. The secondary effects of these interventions, particularly on parent well-being, are infrequently studied, despite evidence that parents of children with behavior problems often experience personal difficulties. This narrative review examined the affective and parenting cognition outcomes of PMT for mothers and fathers of children ages 2-13 years, across 48 controlled treatment studies. Substantial support was found for reductions in parenting stress, and increases in perceived parenting competence following PMT. Evidence indicated fewer improvements in domains more distal from parenting, including parent depressive symptoms and marital relationship dysfunction. A number of studies suggested parent gender as a moderator of parent outcomes of PMT; however, the underrepresentation of fathers in existing research limits conclusions in this regard. Avenues for future research are highlighted to address current gaps in the literature, and to further our understanding of the ways in which both children and parents may benefit from PMT. PMID:27389605

  9. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  10. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success. PMID:23163395

  11. Factors affecting the outcome of related allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with Fanconi Anemia.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Mouhab; Siddiqui, Khawar; Al-Jefri, Abdullah; El-Solh, Hassan; Al-Ahmari, Ali; Khairy, Ashraf; Markiz, Samer; Shahin, Hasan; Al-Musa, Abdulrahman; Al-Seraihy, Amal

    2014-10-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can cure bone marrow failure in patients with Fanconi Anemia (FA), and it is generally accepted that these patients should receive low-intensity conditioning because of the underlying DNA repair defect in their cells. Outcomes for recipients of matched related HCT have generally been favorable, but only a few studies have scrutinized the factors that may affect the eventual outcome of these patients. This retrospective analysis of 94 pediatric patients with FA who underwent related HCT at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center was carried out to attempt to identify factors that may affect outcome. Results showed overall survival (OS) probabilities of 92.5%, 89%, and 86% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In univariate analysis, use of higher dose cyclophosphamide (CY) (60 mg/kg) conditioning was associated with a better 10-year OS than lower dose CY (20 mg/kg) conditioning (91% versus 82%, respectively; P = .035), and use of radiation-containing regimens was associated with a significantly lower 10-year OS than nonradiation regimens (76% versus 91%, respectively; P = .005). Of the 4 regimens used in this study, the fludarabine-based regimen was associated with the highest survival (95.2%; P = .034). The use of the higher dose CY (60 mg/kg) was associated with a significantly increased incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) (20% versus 5.6% respectively; P = .049). Three patients (3%) developed squamous cell carcinoma (2 oropharyngeal and 1 genitourinary), at 9.4, 5.4, and 13.3 years after HCT; 2 of them had radiation-containing conditioning. In conclusion, our data suggest that although using a higher dose CY (60 mg/kg) conditioning regimen may be associated with better survival, it is also associated with a significantly increased risk of HC. The addition of fludarabine to the low-dose CY (20 mg/kg) is associated with the best survival. On the other hand, radiation-containing regimens are associated with

  12. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  13. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  14. CRF-Like Diuretic Hormone Negatively Affects Both Feeding and Reproduction in the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Dillen, Senne; Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Diuretic hormones (DH) related to the vertebrate Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) have been identified in diverse insect species. In the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, the CRF-like DH (CRF/DH) is localized in the same neurosecretory cells as the Ovary Maturating Parsin (OMP), a neurohormone that stimulates oocyte growth, vitellogenesis and hemolymph ecdysteroid levels in adult female locusts. In this study, we investigated whether CRF-like DH can influence feeding and reproduction in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. We identified two highly similar S. gregaria CRF-like DH precursor cDNAs, each of which also encodes an OMP isoform. Alignment with other insect CRF-like DH precursors shows relatively high conservation of the CRF/DH sequence while the precursor region corresponding to OMP is not well conserved. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that the precursor transcripts mainly occur in the central nervous system and their highest expression level was observed in the brain. Injection of locust CRF/DH caused a significantly reduced food intake, while RNAi knockdown stimulated food intake. Therefore, our data indicate that CRF-like DH induces satiety. Furthermore, injection of CRF/DH in adult females retarded oocyte growth and caused lower ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph and ovaries, while RNAi knockdown resulted in opposite effects. The observed effects of CRF/DH may be part of a wider repertoire of neurohormonal activities, constituting an integrating control system that affects food intake and excretion, as well as anabolic processes like oocyte growth and ecdysteroidogenesis, following a meal. Our discussion about the functional relationship between CRF/DH and OMP led to the hypothesis that OMP may possibly act as a monitoring peptide that can elicit negative feedback effects. PMID:22363645

  15. Adverse pregnancy and neo-natal outcomes after assisted reproductive treatment in patients with pelvic endometriosis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Marianne; Freour, Thomas; Barriere, Paul; Ploteau, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of endometriosis on obstetric outcomes and to determine whether the severity, location and surgical treatment of the disease before the pregnancy had an impact on the prevalence of these disorders, a monocentric, case-control study was performed. In total, 113 pregnancies obtained by assisted reproductive treatment among patients with endometriosis were matched with control selected among assisted reproductive treatment pregnancies due to male infertility. The main result measures were pregnancy outcome at the obstetrical and neo-natal levels. The incidence of first trimester bleeding, pre-eclampsia, premature delivery threat, pelvic pain and Caesarean section was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women with endometriosis. Except for gestational diabetes and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), the severity, location of lesions and surgical treatment of endometriosis did not have an impact on either pregnancy outcome or risk of obstetric complications. The IUGR is mainly due to deep locations and the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) stages III-IV. Newborns with a mother suffering from endometriosis are at greater risk of being premature, smaller for their gestational age and more frequently hospitalized than the control group. Deep location of endometriosis is associated with more prematurity, hospitalization and smaller birthweight than ovarian locations. PMID:27068240

  16. Gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaomin; Qiu, Miaoyan; Zhang, Xuan'e; Wang, Haiyan; Tong, Wenxin; Ju, Liping; Gu, Lei; Sun, Siming; Zhang, Hongli; Wang, Weiqing; Tian, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gender-related affecting factors of prediabetes on its 10-year outcome, in a longitudinal study. Methods and results This longitudinal population-based study was performed in the Ping Liang community, Yangpu district, Shanghai, between November 2002 and October 2014. There were 334 participants with prediabetes enrolled in the final analysis. While a certain proportion of the prediabetic population progress to diabetes, the majority remain at the same level or even revert to normal glucose regulation. No gender difference was observed in the change of glucose regulation. However, results from an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males showed that physical activity was significantly associated with both elevated odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (active vs inactive, OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.09 to 8.30) and developing diabetes (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.92). Age, baseline 2 h glucose, triglycerides and smoking status were also risk factors significantly associated with diabetes development; while for females, waist circumference played a key role in the outcome. Every unit elevation of waist circumference was associated with lower odds of reverting to normal glucose regulation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) and higher odds of progressing to diabetes (OR, 1.05; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10). Baseline hypertension and family history of diabetes carried higher risk for developing diabetes as well. Conclusions Physical activity in males and waist circumference in females are important factors predicting both progression to diabetes and regression to normal glucose regulation, indicating that more exercise for males and lower waist circumference for females are beneficial for prediabetes to achieve reversion. PMID:27239315

  17. Climate change affects the outcome of competitive interactions-an application of principal response curves.

    PubMed

    Heegaard, Einar; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2004-05-01

    It has been hypothesised that climate change may affect vegetation by changing the outcome of competitive interactions. We use a space-for-time approach to evaluate this hypothesis in the context of alpine time-of-snowmelt gradients. Principal response curves, a multivariate repeated-measurement analysis technique, are used to analyse for compositional differences in local ridge-to-snowbed gradients among 100 m altitudinal bands from 1,140 to 1,550 m a.s.l., corresponding to a temperature gradient of 2.5 degrees C (local lapse rate is 0.6 degrees C). The interaction between time-of-snowmelt and altitude is strongly significant statistically, indicating that the altitudinal gradient cannot be explained simply by the physiological responses of the species, but that there are also changes in the outcome of competitive interactions. At higher altitudes, there is a decrease in the time-of-snowmelt ranges of species which have intermediate times-of-snowmelt optima, whereas snowbed (chinophilous) species have wider time-of-snowmelt ranges. As snowbed species can survive, grow and reproduce at very early snow-free sites at high altitudes, the most likely explanation for their absence from all but the latest time-of-snowmelt habitats at lower altitudes is competitive exclusion by more vigorous lee-side species. This suggests that with future climate change snowbed species will experience, in addition to habitat fragmentation and reduced size of habitats due to increased temperature and snowmelt, an indirect effect due to competitive exclusion from late-snowmelt sites by species that have their optima outside snowbeds. PMID:15021981

  18. Does therapist’s attitude affect clinical outcome of lumbar facet joint injections?

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Marcus; Kollias, Konstantinos; Ackermann, Hanns; Splettstößer, Annina; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad; Maataoui, Adel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist’s attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere. During the dialog, the patients were encouraged to ask questions and were shown four images. The patients of the control group (CG) left the clinic without any further contact with the radiologist. Outcome was assessed using a pain-based Verbal Numeric Scale at baseline, at 1 wk and at 1, 3, and 6 mo after first treatment. RESULTS: The patient demographics showed no differences between the groups. The patients of the EG received 57 interventional procedures in total, while the patients of the CG received 70 interventional procedures. In both groups, the pain scores decreased significantly over the entire observation period. Compared to the CG, the EG showed a statistically significant reduction of pain at 1 wk and 1 mo post-treatment, while at 3 and 6 mo after treatment, there were no significant differences between both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect on pain relief during the early post-interventional period in the EG as compared to the CG. The basic principle behind the higher efficacy might be the phenomenon of hetero-suggestion. PMID:27358691

  19. Does Family Structure Affect Children's Educational Outcomes? NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.

    This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…

  20. Do local adaptation and the reproductive tactic of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affect offspring metabolic capacities?

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Marquilly, C; Guderley, H

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an iteroparous, anadromous species that exhibits some of the greatest within-population variability in size and age at maturity of all vertebrates. In the conditional reproductive strategy of salmonids, the male reproductive tactic expressed is believed to depend on an individual male's status relative to others in the population and therefore depends on his capacity to attain a physiological threshold, the exact nature of which is unknown. Although the threshold is influenced by local biotic and abiotic conditions, it is likely to be under genetic control. Our study examined whether the early growth, muscle metabolic capacities, routine metabolic rate, and spontaneous swimming of salmon alevins reared in laboratory conditions varied with the population of origin, maternal investment, and the paternal reproductive tactic. Our experimental design allowed us to establish that neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the physiological capacities of alevins. The strong influence of the mother on alevin metabolic capacities suggests that the bioenergetic differences in metabolic capacities, realized metabolic rates, and activity levels that could eventually dictate the reproductive tactic of male offspring may originate in maternal effects. PMID:20350165

  1. Cardiovascular and Affective Outcomes of Active Gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a Cardiovascular Training Tool

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Keith E.; Naugle, Kelly M.; Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2014-01-01

    Naugle, KE, Naugle, KM, and Wikstrom, EA. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: Using the Nintendo Wii as a cardiovascular training tool. J Strength Cond Res 28(2): 443–451, 2014–Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities. PMID:23660574

  2. Variable Gene Dispersal Conditions and Spatial Deforestation Patterns Can Interact to Affect Tropical Tree Conservation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with ‘Near’ distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  3. Do different reperfusion methods affect the outcomes of stroke induced by MCAO in adult rats?

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Deng, Hou-Liang; Wu, Ping; Xu, En

    2016-09-01

    There are two patterns of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) I/R models, which differ in the use of unilateral or bilateral carotid artery reperfusion. The primary difference between the two patterns of I/R models is the complexity of the surgery procedure. However, researchers in this field have no idea whether there are any differences in outcomes of these two methods. In this study, we investigated the effects of the two methods on neurological deficits, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Through evaluating the current way of bilateral common carotid artery reperfusion, we tried to find whether it could be replaced by an easier way. We found that there were no statistical significant differences between the different methods in infarct volume, neurological deficits, BBB integrity, and the level of BDNF (P > 0.05). These data demonstrated that different methods did not affect the neurological deficits, infarct volume, BBB integrity, and the BDNF protein level, which provides reference when we use an experimental stroke. These results suggest that the two methods have similar capability for inducing cerebral I/R injury and can be interchanged. PMID:26268737

  4. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  5. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced.

  6. Delay of Treatment Initiation Does Not Adversely Affect Survival Outcome in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies examining the relationship between time to treatment and survival outcome in breast cancer have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the overall impact of delay of treatment initiation on patient survival and to determine whether certain subgroups require more prompt initiation of treatment. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of stage I-III patients who were treated in a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2008. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate the impact of interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation in breast cancer and various subgroups. Results A total of 1,702 patients were included. Factors associated with longer delay of treatment initiation were diagnosis at another hospital, medical comorbidities, and procedures performed before admission for surgery. An interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation as a continuous variable or with a cutoff value of 15, 30, 45, and 60 days had no impact on disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analyses for hormone-responsiveness, triple-negative breast cancer, young age, clinical stage, and type of initial treatment showed no significant association between longer delay of treatment initiation and DFS. Conclusion Our results show that an interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation of 60 days or shorter does not appear to adversely affect DFS in breast cancer. PMID:26511801

  7. Derivation and evaluation of adverse outcome pathways for the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on reproductive processes in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition is of concern in fish because COX inhibitors (e.g., ibuprofen) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems/fish tissues, and can disrupt synthesis of prostaglandins that modulate a variety of essential biological functions (e.g., reproduction). This study ut...

  8. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Philippa B.; Camuzeaux, Stephane S.M.; Footitt, Emma J.; Mills, Kevin A.; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B.; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I.; Livingston, John H.; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F.; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W. Kling; Pitt, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin

  9. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Mills, Philippa B; Camuzeaux, Stephane S M; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B; Varadkar, Sophia M; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I; Livingston, John H; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W Kling; Pitt, Matthew; Clayton, Peter T

    2014-05-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin mononucleotide or

  10. Reproductive allocation in plants as affected by elevated carbon dioxide and other environmental changes: a synthesis using meta-analysis and graphical vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianzhong; Taub, Daniel R; Jablonski, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction is an important life history trait that strongly affects dynamics of plant populations. Although it has been well documented that elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere greatly enhances biomass production in plants, the overall effect of elevated CO2 on reproductive allocation (RA), i.e., the proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive structures, is little understood. We combined meta-analysis with graphical vector analysis to examine the overall effect of elevated CO2 on RA and how other environmental factors, such as low nutrients, drought and elevated atmospheric ozone (O3), interacted with elevated CO2 in affecting RA in herbaceous plants. Averaged across all species of different functional groups and environmental conditions, elevated CO2 had little effect on RA (-0.9%). RA in plants of different reproductive strategies and functional groups, however, differed in response to elevated CO2. For example, RA in iteroparous wild species decreased by 8%, while RA in iteroparous crops increased significantly (+14%) at elevated CO2. RA was unaffected by CO2 in plants grown with no stress or in low-nutrient soils. RA decreased at elevated CO2 and elevated O3, but increased in response to elevated CO2 in drought-stressed plants, suggesting that elevated CO2 could ameliorate the adverse effect of drought on crop production to some extent. Our results demonstrate that elevated CO2 and other global environmental changes have the potential to greatly alter plant community composition through differential effects on RA of different plant species and thus affect the dynamics of natural and agricultural ecosystems in the future. PMID:25537120

  11. Oocyte donation in Turner's syndrome: an analysis of the factors affecting the outcome.

    PubMed

    Khastgir, G; Abdalla, H; Thomas, A; Korea, L; Latarche, L; Studd, J

    1997-02-01

    A total of 29 women with Turner's syndrome (19 monosomy and 10 mosaic) had 68 cycles of oocyte donation that included 29 cycles of initial attempt and 39 cycles of subsequent attempts. Oral oestradiol valerate was used either in a variable dose (42 cycles) or in a constant dose (26 cycles) regimen for the endometrial preparation which was monitored by pelvic ultrasonography. The embryos/zygotes were transferred either fresh (50 cycles) or after cryopreservation (18 cycles) into the Fallopian tube (41 cycles) and uterine cavity (27 cycles) as appropriate. There were 28 clinical pregnancies including two sets of triplets resulting in a pregnancy rate of 41.2% per treatment cycle and an implantation rate of 17.1% per embryo transferred. The recipient's age, chromosomal constitution or associated uterine or tubal anomaly had no influence on the treatment outcome. The implantation and pregnancy rates were higher in the subsequent than initial cycles (22.6 versus 9.99%, P < 0.05; 51.3 versus 27.6%, P < 0.05). An endometrial thickness of > or = 6.5 mm was an important predictor of pregnancy but the endometrial echo pattern failed to predict the outcome. Although the total dose of oestradiol before embryo transfer was higher in the pregnant cycles than the non-pregnant ones and its gradation (< 50 mg, 50-100 mg, < 100 mg) influenced the implantation (3.4, 17.5, 26.3% respectively, P < 0.05) and pregnancy rates (10, 42.2, 61.5% respectively, P < 0.05), the effect was indirect by altering the endometrial thickness. The number of oocytes fertilized affected the pregnancy rate irrespective of the number of embryos transferred. The implantation and pregnancy rates were higher when fresh rather than frozen-thawed embryos were transferred (20.3 versus 8.2%, P < 0.05; 48 versus 22.2%, P < 0.05) but the route of transfer was of no statistical importance. The overall miscarriage rate was higher (50%), and was related to the presence of hypoplastic or bicornuate uterus and to a low

  12. Virus and Host Factors Affecting the Clinical Outcome of Bluetongue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Caporale, Marco; Di Gialleonorado, Luigina; Janowicz, Anna; Wilkie, Gavin; Shaw, Andrew; Savini, Giovanni; Van Rijn, Piet A.; Mertens, Peter; Di Ventura, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue is a major infectious disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), an arbovirus transmitted by Culicoides. Here, we assessed virus and host factors influencing the clinical outcome of BTV infection using a single experimental framework. We investigated how mammalian host species, breed, age, BTV serotypes, and strains within a serotype affect the clinical course of bluetongue. Results obtained indicate that in small ruminants, there is a marked difference in the susceptibility to clinical disease induced by BTV at the host species level but less so at the breed level. No major differences in virulence were found between divergent serotypes (BTV-8 and BTV-2). However, we observed striking differences in virulence between closely related strains of the same serotype collected toward the beginning and the end of the European BTV-8 outbreak. As observed previously, differences in disease severity were also observed when animals were infected with either blood from a BTV-infected animal or from the same virus isolated in cell culture. Interestingly, with the exception of two silent mutations, full viral genome sequencing showed identical consensus sequences of the virus before and after cell culture isolation. However, deep sequencing analysis revealed a marked decrease in the genetic diversity of the viral population after passaging in mammalian cells. In contrast, passaging in Culicoides cells increased the overall number of low-frequency variants compared to virus never passaged in cell culture. Thus, Culicoides might be a source of new viral variants, and viral population diversity can be another factor influencing BTV virulence. IMPORTANCE Bluetongue is one of the major infectious diseases of ruminants. It is caused by an arbovirus known as bluetongue virus (BTV). The clinical outcome of BTV infection is extremely variable. We show that there are clear links between the severity of bluetongue and the mammalian host species infected

  13. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative. PMID:25801548

  14. Factors affecting reproductive success and life history parameters of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from three host-associated populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentative releases of native natural enemies are viable strategies for suppression of crop pests. Appropriate mass rearing and release strategies rely on a thorough understanding of the reproductive biology of the natural enemy. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of parasitoid source ...

  15. Dehydration-stress affects vegetative reproduction and transcriptome profiles in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed that infests mainly range, recreational and right-of-way lands in the great plains of the US and Canada. Although spread occurs by both seeds and roots, the perennial nature of leafy spurge is attributed to vegetative reproduction from an abundance of under...

  16. Paternal dapoxetine administration induced deterioration in reproductive performance, fetal outcome, sexual behavior and biochemistry of male rats.

    PubMed

    ElMazoudy, R; AbdelHameed, N; ElMasry, A

    2015-01-01

    Dapoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is considered an antidepressant drug and has been developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Hence the objective was to assess whether dapoxetine administration to male rats adversely affect sexual behavior and pregnancy outcomes after mating with untreated female rats. Proven fertile male rats were gavaged with 0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg dapoxetine per kg body weight (bw) per day (DC, DI, DII and DIII groups, respectively) for 70 days prior to mating with untreated female rats. Weight gain, organ weights and feed consumption were decreased significantly in the DII and DIII groups. A significant decline in the number of spermatozoa in the DII and DIII groups is attributed to a significant decrease in testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Levels of prolactin were significantly increased in the DII and DIII groups. Rats treated with a high dose of dapoxetine (8.0 mg kg(-1)) showed a significant inhibition in sperm motility and increment in sperm abnormalities. There was a pronounced decrease in fertility index in females mated with males treated chronically with 4.0 and 8.0 mg per kg bw dapoxetine. In addition, the treatment markedly increased the number of fetal resorptions in female rats impregnated by males in the DII and DIII groups reflecting their infertility. The number of implantation sites and the number of viable fetuses were also notably decreased in female rats impregnated by males given 4.0 or 8.0 mg kg(-1) dapoxetine. These findings suggest that the long-term dapoxetine at high dosages causes failure of the fertilization or successful impregnation of the females mated with dapoxetine-treated male rats, which were clearly able to copulate. A detrimental effect of dapoxetine on fertility parameters was also revealed. PMID:26399566

  17. Evaluation of quantitative trait loci affecting intramuscular fat and reproductive traits in pigs using marker-assisted introgression.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Ohnishi, C; Kikuchi, T; Kohira, K; Egawa, S; Terai, S; Nakamura, T; Arata, S; Komatsuda, A; Uemoto, Y

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an experimental backcross (BC) between Chinese Meishan pigs and commercial Duroc pigs. We performed marker-assisted introgression of two QTL for intramuscular fat (IMF) content (IMF population) and three QTL for reproductive traits (reproduction population) from a donor Meishan pig into a recipient Duroc pig. At the fourth BC generation of the IMF population and third BC generation of the reproduction population, carrier animals were selected for the production of animals homozygous for the QTL. Our previous studies have shown that the presence of a Meishan allele on the IMF QTL is associated with low IMF values, and the Meishan allele on the reproductive QTL is associated with large litters. In this study, the presence of a Duroc allele at the IMF QTL on SSC9 resulted in a 0.27% increase in IMF (additive effect = 0.27 ± 0.08), whereas the presence of a Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 resulted in a 0.34% increase in IMF (additive effect = -0.34 ± 0.09). The presence of the Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 thus had the opposite effect to our previous studies, that is, increased IMF. In the reproduction population, we observed no differences between the genotypes of the three QTL in regard to number of corpora lutea or litter size. Marker-assisted introgression at these QTL is thus unlikely to result in an associated increase in litter size. These results show that it is possible to introgress alleles from other breeds into a selection population using molecular markers; any unexpected results might be associated with the genetic background. PMID:25099662

  18. Factors affecting the outcome of maternity care. II. Neonatal outcomes and resources beyond the hospital of birth.

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, M; Szczepura, A; Lodwick, A; Stilwell, J

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of data about perinatal mortality and indicators of resources at maternity hospitals in the West Midlands region between 1977 and 1983 showed that paediatric staff ratios were inversely related to in-house mortality rates. In this paper, the outcomes for and resources used by transferred babies are added to those of the hospital of birth for three of the study years--1978, 1980, and 1982. Patterns of transfer differ between units and over time in the region, and a regional neonatal intensive care policy was introduced in 1980. Analysis of the new variables showed that in 1978 paediatric staffing was significantly inversely related to neonatal mortality. In later years, neonatal mortality of births at maternity units is explained entirely by the proportion of low or very low weight births. PMID:3221167

  19. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  20. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  1. Obstructive sleep apnea affects the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun-jie; Gao, Xiao-fei; Ge, Zhen; Jiang, Xiao-Min; Xiao, Ping-xi; Tian, Nai-liang; Kan, Jing; Lee, Chi-Hang; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of evidence regarding the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for coronary artery disease. We sought to investigate whether OSA affects the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PCI. Patients and methods All enrolled individuals treated with PCI were evaluated for OSA by polysomnography. The primary end point was defined as major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 2 years, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and/or target vessel revascularization. Results A total of 340 consecutive patients undergoing PCI were assigned to the OSA (n=152, apnea–hypopnea index ≥15) and non-OSA (n=188, apnea–hypopnea index <15) groups. The incidence of OSA in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI was 44.7%. Patients in the OSA group had more three-vessel disease (34.9%), increased number of total implanted stents (3.3±2.0), and longer total stent length (83.8±53.1 mm) when compared to the non-OSA group (23.4%, P=0.020; 2.8±1.9, P=0.007; 68.7±48.4, P=0.010). After a median follow-up of 2 years, the incidence of MACEs was significantly higher in patients with OSA (25.0% vs 16.0%, P=0.038), mainly driven by the increased periprocedural MI (19.2% vs 11.2%, P=0.038) in the OSA group. By Cox regression multivariable analysis, the independent predictor of MACEs was OSA (hazard ratio: 1.962, 95% confidence interval: 1.036–3.717, P=0.039). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of moderate-to-severe OSA in patients undergoing PCI, and OSA was associated with significantly increased MACE rate, mainly due to the increase in periprocedural MI rate. PMID:27284240

  2. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  3. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  4. Culture Matters. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Participation in Vocational Education and Training by Australian Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Ardler, William; Morley-Warner, Terri; Solomon, Nicky; Spindler, Laraine

    The factors affecting the outcomes of indigenous Australians' participation in vocational education and training (VET) were examined in a study in which 7 Aboriginal researchers in 5 Australian states and territories interviewed 70 indigenous Australians enrolled in VET and 48 coordinators and teachers in technical and further education (TAFE)…

  5. A Binational Overview of Reproductive Health Outcomes Among US Hispanic and Mexican Women in the Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Mojarro, Octavio; Sutton, Paul D.; Ventura, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The US–Mexico border region has 15 million residents and 300,000 births annually. Reproductive health concerns have been identified on both sides of the border, but comparable information about reproductive health is not available. The objective of this study was to compare reproductive health indicators among populations in this region. Methods We used 2009 US Hispanic and Mexican birth certificate data to compare births inside the border region, elsewhere within the border states, and in the United States and Mexico overall. We examined trends in total fertility and birth rates using birth data from 2000 through 2009 and intercensal population estimates. Results Among women in the border region, US women had more lifetime births than Mexican women in 2009 (2.69 births vs 2.15 births) and throughout the decade. Birth rates in the group aged 15 to 19 years were high in both the US (73.8/1,000) and Mexican (86.7/1,000) border regions. Late or no prenatal care was nearly twice as prevalent in the border regions as in the nonborder regions of border states. Low birth weight and preterm and early-term birth were more prevalent in the US border than in the Mexican border region; US border rates were higher and Mexican rates were lower than their corresponding nonborder and national rates. We found some variations within border states. Conclusion These findings constitute the first population-based information on the reproductive health of the entire Hispanic US–Mexico border population. Evidence of disparities warrants exploration at state and local levels. Teen pregnancy and inadequate prenatal care are shared problems in US–Mexico border communities and suggest an area for binational cooperation. PMID:23948338

  6. Consequences of Lower Food Intake on the Digestive Enzymes Activities, the Energy Reserves and the Reproductive Outcome in Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Digestive enzyme activity is often used as a sensitive response to environmental pollution. However, only little is known about the negative effects of stress on digestive capacities and their consequences on energy reserves and reproduction, although these parameters are important for the maintenance of populations. To highlight if changes in biochemical responses (digestive enzymes and reserves) led to impairments at an individual level (fertility), Gammarus fossarum were submitted to a lower food intake throughout a complete female reproductive cycle (i.e. from ovogenesis to offspring production). For both males and females, amylase activity was inhibited by the diet stress, whereas trypsin activity was not influenced. These results underline similar sensitivity of males and females concerning their digestive capacity. Energy reserves decreased with food starvation in females, and remained stable in males. The number of embryos per female decreased with food starvation. Lower digestive activity in males and females therefore appears as an early response. These results underline the ecological relevance of digestive markers, as they make it possible to anticipate upcoming consequences on reproduction in females, a key biological variable for population dynamics. PMID:25880985

  7. How Group Experience Affects Outcomes from NOLS Programs: A Means-End Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Using means-end theory, this study evaluates how being part of a group influences outcomes of National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participants. This study examines outcomes from NOLS courses during the summer of 2006 in the Wind River Mountain Range of Wyoming. Immediately following 2006 course completion, a convenience sample of 345…

  8. Evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of traditionally managed Sheko cattle in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bayou, E; Haile, A; Gizaw, S; Mekasha, Y

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of Ethiopia Sheko cattle and to assess non-genetic factors affecting their performance in their home tract as a step towards designing sustainable cattle conservation and improvement strategy. All the growth traits considered in the study were significantly affected by all non-genetic factors considered except for the fixed effects of Agro ecological zones (AEZs) and season of birth which were not significant for post weaning daily gain. Calving interval (CI) and days open (DO) were significantly influenced by AEZs, season and dam parity. Cows that calved in lowland had shorter CI and DO than cows which calved in midland. Cows that calved in short rainy season had Short CI and DO than those calved during dry season or long rainy season. Cows which calved for the first time had the longest CI and DO from the other parities whereas cows on their fifth parity had the shortest CI and DO. AEZ significantly affected lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL), but not significant on daily milk yield (DMY) and 305 days yield (305DY). Season was significant on all milk traits considered except DMY. Parity effect was significant on LMY and 305DY, whereas DMY and LL were not affected. The non-genetic factors had significant effects for all of the reproductive; and many of the growth and milk performance traits considered and hence will need to be considered in cattle breed improvement program. PMID:26543703

  9. A not-so-grim tale: how childhood family structure influences reproductive and risk-taking outcomes in a historical U.S. Population.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother-absent households

  10. A Not-So-Grim Tale: How Childhood Family Structure Influences Reproductive and Risk-Taking Outcomes in a Historical U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R.; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n = 16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother

  11. Moisture source and diet affect development and reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two predatory anthocorids from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  12. Moisture Source and Diet affect Development and Reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two Predatory Anthocorids from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; Clercq, Patrick De

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  13. Does Alcohol Consumption during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment Affect Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Duraisamy, Karthickeyan; Mrithyunjayan, Sunilkumar; Ghosh, Smita; Nair, Sreenivas Achuthan; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Subramoniapillai, Jayasankar; Oeltmann, John E.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale India reports the largest number of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the world; yet, no longitudinal study has assessed factors related to treatment outcomes under programmatic conditions in the public sector. Objectives To describe demographic, clinical, and risk characteristics associated with treatment outcomes for all patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis registered in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, Kerala State, India from January 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Methods Cox regression methods were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess factors associated with an unsuccessful treatment outcome. Measurements and Main Results Of 179 patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis registered, 112 (63%) had successful treatment outcomes (77 bacteriologically cured, 35 treatment completed) and 67 (37%) had unsuccessful treatment outcomes (30 died, 26 defaulted, 9 failed treatment, 1 stopped treatment because of drug-related adverse events, and 1 developed extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis). The hazard for unsuccessful outcome was significantly higher among patients who consumed alcohol during treatment (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.1–17.6) than those who did not. Persons who consumed alcohol during treatment, on average, missed 18 more intensive-phase doses (95% CI, 13–22) than those who did not. Although many patients had diabetes (33%), were ever smokers (39%), or had low body mass index (47%), these factors were not associated with outcome. Conclusion Overall treatment success was greater than global and national averages; however, outcomes among patients consuming alcohol remained poor. Integration of care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and alcoholism should be considered to improve treatment adherence and outcomes. PMID:24735096

  14. Chronic urinary retention in men: how we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Negro, Carlo L A; Muir, Gordon H

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is a poorly defined entity, as the key element of definition, significant postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), has not a worldwide and moreover evidenced-based definition. There is no agreement on which is the threshold value to define a significant PVR and different society produced guidelines with different thresholds ranging from 300 mL to 1000 mL. Diagnosis is difficult, and management has not been defined yet. There is a lack of studies on the best management of these patients, as this group of patients has always been considered at high risk of failure. Only one study compares conservative with the surgical management but it is not a randomised controlled trail. This review offers a systematic appraisal of the most recent publications on CUR. It indicates the absence of a real worldwide agreed definition, as the two keys element of it are not satisfactorily defined yet: significant PVR, is suffering from a lack of evidenced-based definition, and percussable or palpable bladder is a very nebulous concept as it is not a criteria of certainty as different individual variables affect it. This has an important effect on management which is not structured. Most of the trials involving benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments (either medical or surgical) tend to exclude this group of patients, which is a clinically important group, comprising up to a quarter of men undergoing TURP in the UK. Urinary retention describes a bladder that does not empty completely or does not empty at all. Historically, urinary retention has been classified as either acute or chronic the latter is generally classified as high pressure or low pressure according to the bladder filling pressure on urodynamic. A MEDLINE® search for articles written in English and published before January 2010 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention: 'urinary retention', 'chronic urinary retention

  15. Race Matters: A Systematic Review of Racial/Ethnic Disparity in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) Reported Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Baker, Valerie L.; Barrington, Debbie S.; Broomfield, Diana; Catherino, William H.; Richard-Davis, Gloria; Ryan, Mary; Thornton, Kim; Armstrong, Alicia Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the reporting of race/ethnicity in SART Clinic Outcome Reporting System (CORS) publications. Design Systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology of literature published in PUBMED on race/ethnicity that includes data from SART CORS. Setting Systematic review was performed on behalf of the ASRM Health Disparities Special Interest Group. Population IVF cycles reported to SART Exposure Race/ethnicity Main Outcome Measure Any outcomes reported in SART CORS Results Seven publications were identified that assessed racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes using SART data. All reported a racial/ethnic disparity. However, over 35% of cycles were excluded from analysis because of missing race/ethnicity data. Conclusions Review of current publications of SART data suggests significant racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes. However, the potential for selection bias limits confidence in these findings given that fewer than 65% of SART reported cycles include race/ethnicity. Our understanding of how race/ethnicity influences ART outcome could be greatly improved if information on race/ethnicity was available for all reported cycles. PMID:22698638

  16. Foreign language affects the contribution of intentions and outcomes to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Geipel, Janet; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Surian, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We examine whether the use of a foreign language, as opposed to the native language, influences the relative weight intentions versus outcomes carry in moral evaluations. In Study 1, participants were presented with actions that had positive outcomes but were motivated by dubious intentions, while in Study 2 with actions that had negative outcomes but were motivated by positive intentions. Participants received the materials either in their native or a foreign language. Foreign language prompted more positive moral evaluations in Study 1 and less positive evaluations in Study 2. These results show that foreign language reduces the relative weight placed on intentions versus outcomes. We discuss several theoretical accounts that are consistent with the results such as that foreign language attenuates emotions (triggered by intentions) or it depletes cognitive resources. PMID:27232522

  17. Interventions targeting sexual and reproductive health and rights outcomes of young people living with HIV: a comprehensive review of current interventions from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Leandri; Gibbs, Andrew; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Willan, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing number of young people (ages 10–24) are living with HIV (YPLWH) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These YPLWH have particular needs and challenges related to their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Contextual factors including gender inequalities, violence, stigma, and discrimination and lack of tailored services undermine YPLWH's SRHR. Objective Understand the scope and impact of interventions targeting YPLWH to improve SRH-related outcomes in SSA. Design We undertook a review to synthesise evaluated interventions (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) aimed at improving the SRH outcomes of YPLWH in SSA with outcomes based on a World Health Organization framework of comprehensive SRHR approaches for women living with HIV. Using inclusion criteria, only six interventions were identified. Results Interventions sought to improve a range of direct and indirect SRH outcomes, including sexual behaviour, adherence, disclosure, and mental health. Four overarching issues emerged: 1) all interventions were structured according to cognitive behavioural therapy theories of behaviour change – while showing promise they do not tackle the wider gender, social, and economic contexts that shape YPLWH's SRH; 2) ‘significant others’ were included in two of the interventions, but further work needs to consider how to leverage parental/guardian support appropriately; 3) interventions only accessed young people who were already linked to care, participants were likely to have better SRH outcomes than those potentially more vulnerable YPLWH; and 4) none of the interventions explored the sexuality of young people. Conclusions There have been a limited number of evaluated interventions to strengthen SRH of YPLWH in SSA, and gaps exist in addressing the SRHR needs of YPLWH. Intervention approaches require greater scope and depth, including the need to address structural and contextual challenges. PMID:26534721

  18. Adverse pregnancy outcomes with assisted reproductive technology in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ae Ra; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Yeong; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups. Methods Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese PCOS group, obese-PCOS group, non-obese tubal factor group, and obese tubal factor group, with obesity defined by a body mass index over 25 kg/m2, and reviewed focusing on the basal characteristics, ART outcomes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results There was no difference among the groups' the clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. Regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, the miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and prevalence of preterm delivery and pregnancy induced hypertension were not different among the four groups. The incidence of small for gestational age infant was higher in the PCOS groups than the tubal factor groups (p<0.02). On the other hand, the morbidity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was not high in the non-obese PCOS group but was in the obese groups. And in the obese PCOS group, the newborns were heavier than in the other groups (p<0.02). Conclusion Non-obese PCOS presents many differences compared with obese PCOS, not only in the IVF-parameters but also in the morbidity of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in GDM and fetal macrosomia. PMID:22384427

  19. Does family group decision making affect child welfare outcomes? Findings from a randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs (FGDM; Fresno n = 60; Riverside n = 50) administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that children were not worse than those receiving traditional services; outcomes examined were related to child safety, placement stability, and permanence. PMID:19391466

  20. Clients' Perception of Outcome of Team-Based Prenatal and Reproductive Genetic Counseling in Serbian Service Using the Perceived Personal Control (PPC) Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Cuturilo, Goran; Vucinic, Olivera Kontic; Novakovic, Ivana; Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Mijovic, Marija; Sulovic, Nenad; Vukolic, Dusan; Komnenic, Milica; Tadic, Jasmina; Cetkovic, Aleksandar; Belic, Aleksandra; Ljubic, Aleksandar

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe dedicated to clients' perception of outcome and efficiency of prenatal and reproductive genetic counseling. The primary aim of this study was to assess overall value and success of genetic counseling in prenatal and reproductive care with regard to perceived personal control of clients, reflecting also in a part patient comprehension, knowledge retention, and empowerment in decision-making. The standardized Perceived Personal Control questionnaire (PPC) was used for the assessment of 239 female participants. First, we performed a complete validation of the psychometric characteristics of the Serbian-language version of the PPC questionnaire. The validation of the questionnaire permits other researchers from Serbian-speaking regions of South-East Europe to use this standard instrument to assess the effectiveness of prenatal genetic counseling in their communities and analyze advantages and disadvantages of their counseling models. We also measured social and demographic characteristics of participants. Further, we analyzed effects of our team-based prenatal and reproductive genetic counseling model through (a) calculation of PPC scores at three different stages (before initial, after initial, and before second counseling session), and (b) by assessing participants' responses by indication for referral (advanced maternal age, abnormal biochemical screening, family history of hereditary disorders, maternal exposure to drugs, exposure to radiation, exposure to infective agents, infertility or recurrent abortions, and miscellaneous). The results indicate that participants' knowledge after initial counseling increased significantly and after that remained stable and sustainable. A satisfactory level of confidence among participants had been achieved, in that many felt an increased sense of control over their situation and emotional response to it. Indirectly, these results indicate the success of a

  1. How Does Religious Affiliation Affect Women’s Attitudes Toward Reproductive Health Policy? Implications for the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Elizabeth W.; Hall, Kelli Stidham; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Background Supreme Court cases challenging the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandate for employer-provided reproductive health care have focused on religiously based opposition to coverage. Little is known about women’s perspectives on such reproductive health policies. Study Design Data were drawn from the Women’s Health Care Experiences and Preferences survey, a randomly selected, nationally representative sample of 1078 US women age 18–55. We examined associations between religious affiliation and attitudes toward employer-provided insurance coverage of contraception and abortion services, and the exclusion of religious institutions from this coverage. We used chi-square and multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Respondents self-identified as Baptist (18%), Protestant (Other Mainline, 17%), Catholic (17%), Other Christian (20%), Religious, Non-Christian (7%) or no affiliation (21%). Religious affiliation was associated with proportions of agreement for contraception (p = 0.03), abortion (p <0.01), and religious exclusion (p <0.01) policies. In multivariable models, differences in the odds of agreement varied across religious affiliations and frequency of service attendance. For example, compared to non-affiliated women, Baptists and Other Nondenominational Christians (but not Catholics) had lower odds of agreement with employer coverage of contraception (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.1 and OR 0.57, CI 0.4–0.9, respectively); women who attended services weekly or more than weekly had lower odds of agreement (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.3–0.8 and OR 0.33, CI 0.2–0.6, respectively), compared to less frequent attenders. Conclusions Recent religiously motivated legal challenges to employer-provided reproductive health care coverage may not represent the attitudes of many religious women. PMID:25727764

  2. Human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm alleviates diabetic pathology and improves reproductive outcome in C57BL/KsJ-Lep(db/+) gestational diabetes mellitus mice.

    PubMed

    Xing, Baoheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Qin; Cao, Yalei; Dong, Xiujuan; Liang, Jun; Wu, Xiaohua

    2015-07-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a condition commonly encountered during mid to late pregnancy with pathologic manifestations including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and fetal maldevelopment. The cause of gestational diabetes mellitus can be attributed to both genetic and environmental factors, hence complicating its diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells were shown to be able to effectively treat diabetes in mice. In this study, we have developed a system of treating diabetes using human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm in a mouse model of gestational diabetes mellitus. Human embryonic stem cells were differentiated in vitro into pancreatic endoderm, which were then transplanted into db/+ mice suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus. The transplant greatly improved glucose metabolism and reproductive outcome of the females compared with the control groups. Our findings support the feasibility of using differentiated human embryonic stem cells for treating gestational diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:26066567

  3. Yield and quality grade outcomes as affected by molecular breeding values for commercial beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N M; DeVuyst, E A; Brorsen, B W; Lusk, J L

    2015-05-01

    Although genetic tests for many economically important beef cattle traits are commercially available, additional information is needed to help the industry better understand how the results from these tests translate into phenotypic outcomes. This information has important implications for marker-assisted management. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between molecular breeding values (MBV) characterizing yield grade and marbling and distributions of phenotypic outcomes for yield grade and quality grade. Using data collected from commercially-fed cattle, mixed-model regression equations were estimated for yield grade and quality grade outcomes for both the full sample of commercial cattle (n= 8,995) and a subsample of black-hided steers (n = 4,790). Significant yield grade (P < 0.01) and marbling (P < 0.01) MBV effects were found. However, the yield grade MBV held up better at predicting phenotypic outcomes than the marbling MBV. Estimated conditional probability mass functions of yield and quality grade outcomes for the general population and black-hided steers were similar. Since distributions for black-hided steers were expected to be more applicable from a management perspective, we focused our analysis on these animals. For example, black-hided steers with "low" genetic potential for yield grade and marbling had about a 29% chance of achieving the base price or better on a price grid (yield grade 3 or lower and quality grade Low Choice or better). Increasing genetic potential for marbling increased the likelihood of achieving this same outcome. However, increasing genetic potential for yield grade was unlikely to increase overall carcass quality given its large deleterious effect on quality grade outcomes. Instead, simultaneous improvements in genetic potential for yield grade and marbling offered much more reliable improvements in overall carcass quality. For example, an animal with "moderate" genetic potential for both yield

  4. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  5. Neonatal exposure to 17α-ethynyl estradiol affects ovarian gene expression and disrupts reproductive cycles in female rats.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Kaori; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Zhang, Haolin; Usuda, Kento; Okazaki, Sachiko; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Midori; Watanabe, Gen

    2014-07-01

    Neonatal exposure to synthetic estrogen causes delayed reproductive dysfunction in female rats. Exposure to 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE, low: 20 and high: 2000 μg/kg) induced an abnormal estrous cycle during PND171-190 in low-dose and PND126-145 in high-dose group. At PND90 within normal estrous cycle, high-dose animals showed lack of LH surge and low of ovarian hormones in serum level. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that level of mRNA encoding luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) was higher in EE-treated ovaries than in control ovaries, and LHCGR protein colocalized with apoptosis-related proteins in the interstitial area of the ovary. At PND1, ovarian LHCGR mRNA levels were higher in EE-treated rats than in control rats, and direct induction of LHCGR expression by EE was observed in vitro. Our results indicate that neonatal exposure to EE induces irregular LHCGR expression in the immature ovary, which may influence the occurrence of delayed reproductive dysfunction in adult animals. PMID:24632129

  6. Weight of evidence evaluation of adverse outcome pathways converging at impaired vitellogenin synthesis leading to reproductive impairment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) provide a framework that supports greater use of mechanistic data measured at lower levels of biological organization as a basis for regulatory decision-making. However, it is recognized that different types of regulatory applications and decisions...

  7. Adapting the Speed of Reproduction of Audio Content and Using Text Reinforcement for Maximizing the Learning Outcome though Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Organero, M.; Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology in learning environments should be targeted at improving the learning outcome of the process. Several technology enhanced techniques can be used for maximizing the learning gain of particular students when having access to learning resources. One of them is content adaptation. Adapting content is especially important when…

  8. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Obstetric Outcome in Couples when The Male Partner Has A Chronic Viral Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Irene; Carmen del Gonzalvo, María; Clavero, Ana; Ángel López-Ruz, Miguel; Mozas, Juan; Pasquau, Juan; Sampedro, Antonio; Martínez, Luis; Castilla, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assisted reproductive technology (ART) with washed semen can achieve pregnancy with minimal risk of horizontal and vertical transmission of chronic viral diseases (CVD) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepati- tis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among serodiscordant couples. How- ever, few studies have been made of the use made by these couples of ARTs or of the obstetric results achieved. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 93 men who were seropositive for HIV, HCV or HBV and who underwent assisted reproduction treatment at our centre (Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain) were included. Washed semen was tested to detect viral particles. Non-infected women were tested before and after each treatment, as were the neonates at birth and after three months. Results: A total of 62 sperm samples were washed, and none were positive for the detec- tion of viral molecules. Semen samples from 34 HBV positive males were not washed since the female partner had immunity to hepatitis B. In total, 38 clinical pregnancies were achieved (22% per cycle and 40.9% per couple) out of 173 cycles initiated, and 28 births were achieved (16.2% per cycle and 30.1% per couple), producing 34 live births. The rate of multiple pregnancies was 21.4%. Obstetric and neonatal results were similar in the groups of couples studied. At follow-up, no seroconversion was detected in the women or neonates. Conclusion: Sperm washing and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are shown to be a safe and effective option for reducing the risk of transmission or super infection in serodiscordant or concordant couples who wish to have a child. Pregnancies ob- tained by ART in couples when the male is CVD infected achieve good obstetric and neonatal results. PMID:24520499

  9. Generational reproductive outcomes in Wistar rats maternally exposed to Ricinus communis oil at different stages of gestation.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-10-01

    Fetal programming hypothesis presupposes that stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of uterine growth and development may permanently alter tissue structure and function. Ricinus communis oil (RCO) has been reported to possess/used as laxative, labor-inducing and estrogenic properties. Generational reproductive effects of maternal exposure to RCO was investigated in rats. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five equal groups were treated with distilled water (control, group 1), RCO (950 mg/kg p.o.) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 7-14, 14-21 and 1-21, respectively. Birth weight, morphometric data, anogenital distance (AGD), pubertal age, sperm parameters, hormonal profile, organ weight and histopathology were determined in the first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations. Results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in birth weight/morphometric data in male pups from the GD 1-7 and 7-14 groups. AGD decreased significantly in RCO-treated F1 males. Pubertal age of F1 females decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with controls. At postnatal day 90, F1 males from the RCO-treated group showed significant decrease in testis weight, body weight, sperm count, motility and normal morphology. Testosterone levels were significantly decreased in RCO-treated F1 males, which also showed testicular interstitial edema and epididymal hypospermia. Only pubertal indexes were altered in F2 rats. Maternal exposure to RCO at early gestation periods impaired androgen-mediated reproductive end points in the first generation of rats. RCO exhibits endocrine disrupting capabilities. PMID:26118402

  10. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success. 

  11. Do Neighbours Affect Teenage Outcomes? Evidence from Neighbourhood Changes in England. CEE DP 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo; Weinhardt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    There are large disparities between the achievements, behaviour and aspirations of children growing up in different neighbourhoods. This has contributed to the view that neighbourhoods can determine individuals' outcomes. Notably, in the long run these effects could lead to larger social inequality and reduce social mobility, which is why they…

  12. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  13. Neighborhoods and Youth: How Neighborhood Demographics and Social Processes Affect Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Researchers over the past two decades have increasingly recognized the importance of neighborhood contexts for youth development. For example, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood has been associated with a wide range of negative outcomes throughout the early years of the life course. However, neighborhoods likely have very different effects,…

  14. Organizational and individual factors affecting consumer outcomes of care in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Morris, Anne; Bloom, Joan R; Kang, Soo

    2007-05-01

    The impact of organizational and individual factors on outcomes of care were assessed for 424 adult consumers with chronic mental illness who were receiving services from one of 14 Community Mental Health Organizations (CMHOs) in Colorado over a 30-month period, as part of a larger statewide evaluation of the impact of Medicaid capitation on mental health services. Data on organizational culture and climate were aggregated from surveys of staff and administrators conducted within CMHOs over a two-year period corresponding to the collection of consumer outcome and service utilization data. Growth curve analyses were conducted on consumer perceptions of physical and mental health, and on quality of life (QOL). Analyses indicated a significant cross-level effect of organizational culture and climate on improvements in consumer perceptions of physical and mental health, but not on a "quasi-objective" index of QOL. Individual characteristics, such as age, diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity, were significant predictors of outcomes. Being older, female, an ethnic minority, and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia all predicted poorer outcomes among consumers. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and future research. PMID:17096194

  15. Can a future choice affect a past measurement’s outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-15

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  16. Culture-Specific Variables That May Affect Employment Outcomes for Mexican-American Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier-Kronick, Nancy

    This paper reviews variables specific to the Mexican-American culture that might influence work-related behavior and outcomes for youths with disabilities from this population. Areas covered include: parental/family network; cultural view of disability; religious influences; acculturation levels; language issues; education and employment…

  17. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  18. Does Surgical Management of the Hand in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Affect Functional Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…

  19. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  20. Food availability and reproduction affects lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown mussel, Perna perna, raised in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Mirle; Freites, L; Guevara, M; Mendoza, J; Guderley, H; Lodeiros, C J; Salazar, G

    2008-02-01

    We examined the influence of the reproductive cycle and environmental factors on variations of the condition index (CI), tissue dry mass, shell size, total lipid content, and relative percent of fatty acids in the mussel, Perna perna. Spat or juveniles were reared to commercial size (70 mm) in suspension culture in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela between May and October 2004. The dry mass of soft tissues and shell, a visual assessment of gonadal status and the organism lipid profile were established every fortnight. In parallel, we measured the environmental conditions, following chlorophyll a, salinity, temperature and seston levels. After an initial decrease, the CI rose and remained high until August after which it decreased continuously until October. Total lipid values also decreased initially, after which they showed two periods of rapid recuperation and depletion, the first between May and August and the second between August and October. Similar tendencies were noted in the fatty acids, C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3. Correlation analysis found no significant relationships between environmental parameters and the variations in total lipids. However, significant correlations were noted between fatty acids and specific environmental parameters. In particular, temperature was inversely correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9 and 20:5n-3. Chlorophyll a was positively correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7, C18:4n-3 and 20:4n-6. On the other hand, gametogenesis had an effect on C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 and C18:1n-7, while spawned and gonadal regression states had an effect on fatty acid 20:4n-6. Temperature and chlorophyll a levels strongly influenced the proportion of mussels spawning, suggesting that their influence upon lipid composition may be secondary to their impact upon reproduction. Despite the thermal stability of this tropical system, the lipid composition of mussels changed markedly during the study, reflecting the central role of diet

  1. Endocannabinoids and Reproductive Events in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Battista, Natalia; Bari, Monica; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The lasting research on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has now provided solid and convincing evidence that proves the detrimental effects of recreational drug abuse (a growing habit among teenagers) on fertility. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) affect reproductive events from gametogenesis to fertilization, from embryo implantation to the final outcome of pregnancy and, thus, they have been proposed as suitable biomarkers to predict the reproductive potential of male and female gametes in clinical practice. Novel tools for reproductive medicine are highly sought after, and here we report the latest findings on the impact of the ECS on fertility, demonstrating how basic research can be translated into new medical strategies. PMID:26408167

  2. Affective Commitment to the Organization, Supervisor, and Work Group: Antecedents and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Bentein, Kathleen; Stinglhamber, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Three longitudinal studies investigated the usefulness of distinguishing among employees' affective commitments to the organization, the supervisor, and the work group. Study 1, with 199 employees from various organizations, found that affective commitments to these entities were factorially distinct and related differentially to their theorized…

  3. Targeted disruption of the mouse prosaposin gene affects the development of the prostate gland and other male reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Morales, C R; Zhao, Q; El-Alfy, M; Suzuki, K

    2000-01-01

    The prosaposin gene encodes a 65-70 kilodalton (kd) protein, which is secreted or targeted to lysosomes. In lysosomes, prosaposin is the precursor of 4 activator proteins, designated saposins A, B, C, and D, which promote by acidic hydrolases, the degradation of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains. Mutations of the prosaposin gene have been linked to several lysosomal storage disorders. An animal model was recently developed by creating a null allele in embryonic stem cells through gene targeting in order to investigate the phenotypic diversity of prosaposin mutations, the involvement of this protein in lysosomal storage diseases, and to develop potential therapeutic approaches. Mutant homozygous mice die at 35-40 days of age and neurological disorders contribute to their early death. Secreted prosaposin is present in milk and in cerebrospinal and seminal fluids. In the nervous system, prosaposin exhibits a trophic activity. Examination of reproduc-tive organs in homozygous mutant males shows several abnormalities such as a decrease in testis size with reduced spermiogenesis, and an involution of the prostate, seminal vesicle, and epididymis, although levels of testosterone in blood remain normal. In the prostate of homozygous mutants, only basal cells appear to be present, whereas secretory cells are absent. The epithelia in efferent ducts is formed by ciliated cells, whereas heterozygotes exhibit a majority of nonciliated cells. Our data indicate that prosaposin is involved in the development and maintenance of male reproductive organs. In prostatic epithelium, targeted disruption of the prosaposin gene appears to inactivate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and to interfere with differentiation of secretory cells. PMID:11105903

  4. The Arabidopsis DSO/ABCG11 transporter affects cutin metabolism in reproductive organs and suberin in roots.

    PubMed

    Panikashvili, David; Shi, Jian Xin; Bocobza, Samuel; Franke, Rochus Benni; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2010-05-01

    Apart from its significance in the protection against stress conditions, the cuticular cover is essential for proper development of the diverse surface structures formed on aerial plant organs. This layer mainly consists of a cutin matrix, embedded and overlaid with cuticular waxes. Following their biosynthesis in epidermal cells, cutin and waxes were suggested to be exported across the plasma membrane by ABCG-type transporters such as DSO/ABCG11 to the cell wall and further to extracellular matrix. Here, additional aspects of DSO/ABCG11 function were investigated, predominantly in reproductive organs, which were not revealed in the previous reports. This was facilitated by the generation of a transgenic DSO/ABCG11 silenced line (dso-4) that displayed relatively subtle morphological and chemical phenotypes. These included altered petal and silique morphology, fusion of seeds, and changes in levels of cutin monomers in flowers and siliques. The dso-4 phenotypes corresponded to the strong DSO/ABCG11 gene expression in the embryo epidermis as well as in the endosperm tissues of the developing seeds. Moreover, the DSO/ABCG11 protein displayed polar localization in the embryo protoderm. Transcriptome analysis of the dso-4 mutant leaves and stems showed that reduced DSO/ABCG11 activity suppressed the expression of a large number of cuticle-associated genes, implying that export of cuticular lipids from the plasma membrane is a rate-limiting step in cuticle metabolism. Surprisingly, root suberin composition of dso-4 was altered, as well as root expression of two suberin biosynthetic genes. Taken together, this study provides new insights into cutin and suberin metabolism and their role in reproductive organs and roots development. PMID:20035035

  5. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  6. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  7. Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Giladi, Nir; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Pezzoli, Gianni; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), patients were divided into: group 1—normal cognition (score 27–30), group 2—mild cognitive impairment (score 21–26), group 3—moderate or severe cognitive impairment (score ≤ 20). According to Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), subjects were divided into patients with normal (score ≥13.8) and pathological (score <13.8) executive functions. The outcome measures were: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Parkinson’s Disease Disability Scale (PDDS), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results: All scales had worse values with the increase of cognitive impairment and passing from normal to pathological executive functions. After rehabilitation, all the outcome measures improved in all groups (p < 0.0001). Between groups, the percentage of improvement was significantly different for total UPDRS (p = 0.0009, best improvement in normal MMSE group; p = 0.019, best improvement in normal FAB group), and BBS (p < 0.0001, all pairwise comparisons significant, best improvement in patients with worse MMSE score; p < 0.0001, best improvement in patients with pathological FAB). TUG (p = 0.006) and BBS (p < 0.0001) improved in patients with pathological FAB score, more than in those with normal FAB score. Conclusions: Patients gain benefit in the rehabilitative outcomes, regardless of cognition

  8. Reproductive hacking

    PubMed Central

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  9. Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Health Outcomes Following Prenatal Exposure to a Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Mixture in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Bromfield, John J; Klemp, Kara C; Meng, Chun-Xia; Wolfe, Andrew; Zoeller, R Thomas; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-01

    Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0.2% ethanol control vehicle via their drinking water from gestational day 11 through birth. This prenatal exposure to oil and gas operation chemicals suppressed pituitary hormone concentrations across experimental groups (prolactin, LH, FSH, and others), increased body weights, altered uterine and ovary weights, increased heart weights and collagen deposition, disrupted folliculogenesis, and other adverse health effects. This work suggests potential adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to these oil and gas operation chemicals, with adverse outcomes observed even in the lowest dose group tested, equivalent to concentrations reported in drinking water sources. These endpoints suggest potential impacts on fertility, as previously observed in the male siblings, which require careful assessment in future studies. PMID:27560547

  10. Idiosyncratic Variables Affecting Functional Analysis Outcomes: A Review (2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Dube, William V.

    2013-01-01

    Although typical functional analyses often produce clear outcomes, some studies have reported ambiguous results that cannot be interpreted. Such undifferentiated outcomes may occur if test conditions do not include relevant antecedent or consequent events. Clinicians then may try to modify the functional analysis conditions to include those events. Hanley, Iwata, and McCord (2003) reviewed the functional analysis literature through the year 2000 and described idiosyncratic variables included in modified functional analyses. The objective of the present review was to present a quantitative analysis of idiosyncratic antecedents and consequences in modified functional analyses during the past decade (2001 to 2010). We discuss the range of stimulus parameters tested and the assessment strategies used for informing the modified analysis conditions. PMID:24114110

  11. Psychosocial outcome following genetic risk counselling for familial colorectal cancer. A comparison of affected patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Jost, R; Haunstetter, C M; Sattel, H; Schroeter, C; Bertsch, U; Cremer, F; Kienle, P; Tariverdian, M; Kloor, M; Gebert, J; Brechtel, A

    2008-11-01

    Few studies have reported prospective data on psychosocial outcomes after genetic counselling in families with suspected hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). This prospective study examines the impact of multidisciplinary risk counselling on the psychosocial outcome of 139 affected cancer patients and 233 family members without cancer at risk for HNPCC. Participants completed questionnaires specific to HNPCC before and 8 weeks after attending the familial cancer clinic. Affected patients' levels of distress were closely related to their health status and exceeded that of unaffected individuals, as did worry regarding their relatives' risk. A significant reduction in general anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), distress specific to familial CRC (Impact of Events Scale) and general cancer worry (Distress Hereditary Disorder) was demonstrated after counselling in both affected patients and unaffected individuals. Reduction in distress was more pronounced in affected patients given a high risk of HNPCC compared with those at intermediate risk. Among unaffected individuals, distress declined regardless of what clinical risk they were assigned. Their perceptions of risk and cancer-related threat declined, while confidence in effective surveillance increased. These results suggest the beneficial effects of multidisciplinary counselling even when high-risk information is conveyed. A patient's previous cancer experience is likely to contribute to clinically relevant distress (15% of those patients), indicating the need for appropriate counselling. PMID:18954412

  12. Method of induction could affect emotional outcomes: comment on markey, chin, vanepps, and loewenstein (2014 ).

    PubMed

    Bench, Shane W; Yaugher, Ashley C; Lench, Heather C

    2015-04-01

    Markey, Chin, Vanepps, and Loewenstein (2014) demonstrated six methods for the induction of boredom. However, a clear and testable definition of boredom should be established prior to experimental manipulation of the construct. Defining boredom from a functional emotion perspective is one approach that affords a definition separable from the outcomes associated with boredom and insight into which manipulations may effectively target the construct. PMID:25730196

  13. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ≤ 25 prism diopters (Δ) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10Δ of exophoria/tropia and 5Δ of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16Δ) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5Δ) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  14. Cross-reactive immunologic material status affects treatment outcomes in Pompe disease infants.

    PubMed

    Kishnani, Priya S; Goldenberg, Paula C; DeArmey, Stephanie L; Heller, James; Benjamin, Danny; Young, Sarah; Bali, Deeksha; Smith, Sue Ann; Li, Jennifer S; Mandel, Hanna; Koeberl, Dwight; Rosenberg, Amy; Chen, Y-T

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease, which is usually fatal if onset occurs in infancy. Patients synthesize a non-functional form of GAA or are unable to form native enzyme. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe patients but may be less effective in cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the influence of CRIM status on outcome in 21 CRIM-positive and 11 CRIM-negative infantile Pompe patients receiving rhGAA. Patients were from the clinical setting and from clinical trials of rhGAA, were 6 months of age, were not invasively ventilated, and were treated with IV rhGAA at a cumulative or total dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks. Outcome measures included survival, invasive ventilator-free survival, cardiac status, gross motor development, development of antibodies to rhGAA, and levels of urinary Glc(4). Following 52 weeks of treatment, 6/11 (54.5%) CRIM-negative and 1/21 (4.8%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated (p<0.0001). By age 27.1 months, all CRIM-negative patients and 4/21 (19.0%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated. Cardiac function and gross motor development improved significantly more in the CRIM-positive group. IgG antibodies to rhGAA developed earlier and serotiters were higher and more sustained in the CRIM-negative group. CRIM-negative status predicted reduced overall survival and invasive ventilator-free survival and poorer clinical outcomes in infants with Pompe disease treated with rhGAA. The effect of CRIM status on outcome appears to be mediated by antibody responses to the exogenous protein. PMID:19775921

  15. Cross-reactive immunologic material status affects treatment outcomes in Pompe disease infants

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, Priya S.; Goldenberg, Paula C.; DeArmey, Stephanie L.; Heller, James; Benjamin, Danny; Young, Sarah; Bali, Deeksha; Smith, Sue Ann; Li, Jennifer S.; Mandel, Hanna; Koeberl, Dwight; Rosenberg, Amy; Chen, Y-T

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease, which is usually fatal if onset occurs in infancy. Patients synthesize a non-functional form of GAA or are unable to form native enzyme. Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA (rhGAA) prolongs survival in infantile Pompe patients but may be less effective in cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the influence of CRIM status on outcome in 21 CRIM-positive and 11 CRIM-negative infantile Pompe patients receiving rhGAA. Patients were from the clinical setting and from clinical trials of rhGAA, were ≤6 months of age, were not invasively ventilated, and were treated with IV rhGAA at a cumulative or total dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg/2 weeks. Outcome measures included survival, invasive ventilator-free survival, cardiac status, gross motor development, development of antibodies to rhGAA, and levels of urinary Glc4. Following 52 weeks of treatment, 6/11 (54.5%) CRIM-negative and 1/21 (4.8%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated (p < 0.0001). By age 27.1 months, all CRIM-negative patients and 4/21 (19.0%) CRIM-positive patients were deceased or invasively ventilated. Cardiac function and gross motor development improved significantly more in the CRIM-positive group. IgG antibodies to rhGAA developed earlier and serotiters were higher and more sustained in the CRIM-negative group. CRIM-negative status predicted reduced overall survival and invasive ventilator-free survival and poorer clinical outcomes in infants with Pompe disease treated with rhGAA. The effect of CRIM status on outcome appears to be mediated by antibody responses to the exogenous protein. PMID:19775921

  16. Nonsurgical scar management of the face: does early versus late intervention affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2013-01-01

    Special emphasis is placed on the clinical management of facial scarring because of the profound physical and psychological impact of facial burns. Noninvasive methods of facial scar management include pressure therapy, silicone, massage, and facial exercises. Early implementation of these scar management techniques after a burn injury is typically accepted as standard burn rehabilitation practice, however, little data exist to support this practice. This study evaluated the timing of common noninvasive scar management interventions after facial skin grafting in children and the impact on outcome, as measured by scar assessment and need for facial reconstructive surgery. A retrospective review of 138 patients who underwent excision and grafting of the face and subsequent noninvasive scar management during a 10-year time frame was conducted. Regression analyses were used to show that earlier application of silicone was significantly related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores, specifically in the subscales of vascularity and pigmentation. Early use of pressure therapy and implementation of facial exercises were also related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale vascularity scores. No relationship was found between timing of the interventions and facial reconstructive outcome. Early use of silicone, pressure therapy, and exercise may improve scar outcome and accelerate time to scar maturity. PMID:23816994

  17. Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect the outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair?

    PubMed

    Blomquist, J; Solheim, E; Liavaag, S; Baste, V; Havelin, L I

    2014-12-01

    To achieve pain control after arthroscopic shoulder surgery, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a complement to other analgesics. However, experimental studies have raised concerns that these drugs may have a detrimental effect on soft tissue-to-bone healing and, thus, have a negative effect on the outcome. We wanted to investigate if there are any differences in the clinical outcome after the arthroscopic Bankart procedure for patients who received NSAIDs prescription compared with those who did not. 477 patients with a primary arthroscopic Bankart procedure were identified in the Norwegian shoulder instability register and included in the study. 32.5% received prescription of NSAIDs post-operatively. 370 (78%) of the patients answered a follow-up questionnaire containing the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI). Mean follow-up was 21 months. WOSI at follow-up were 75% in the NSAID group and 74% in the control group. 12% of the patients in the NSAID group and 14% in the control group reported recurrence of instability. The reoperation rate was 5% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Prescription of short-term post-operative NSAID treatment in the post-operative period did not influence on the functional outcome after arthroscopic Bankart procedures. PMID:24750379

  18. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Lane, Suzanne M; Smith, Cynthia R; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C; Barry, Kevin P; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S; Rosel, Patricia E; Rowles, Teresa K; Speakman, Todd R; Townsend, Forrest I; Tumlin, Mandy C; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-11-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50-55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate-severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0-92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. PMID:26538595

  19. Reproductive outcome and survival of common bottlenose dolphins sampled in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Suzanne M.; Smith, Cynthia R.; Mitchell, Jason; Balmer, Brian C.; Barry, Kevin P.; McDonald, Trent; Mori, Chiharu S.; Rosel, Patricia E.; Rowles, Teresa K.; Speakman, Todd R.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Tumlin, Mandy C.; Wells, Randall S.; Zolman, Eric S.; Schwacke, Lori H.

    2015-01-01

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabit bays, sounds and estuaries across the Gulf of Mexico. Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, studies were initiated to assess potential effects on these ecologically important apex predators. A previous study reported disease conditions, including lung disease and impaired stress response, for 32 dolphins that were temporarily captured and given health assessments in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA. Ten of the sampled dolphins were determined to be pregnant, with expected due dates the following spring or summer. Here, we report findings after 47 months of follow-up monitoring of those sampled dolphins. Only 20% (95% CI: 2.50–55.6%) of the pregnant dolphins produced viable calves, as compared with a previously reported pregnancy success rate of 83% in a reference population. Fifty-seven per cent of pregnant females that did not successfully produce a calf had been previously diagnosed with moderate–severe lung disease. In addition, the estimated annual survival rate of the sampled cohort was low (86.8%, 95% CI: 80.0–92.7%) as compared with survival rates of 95.1% and 96.2% from two other previously studied bottlenose dolphin populations. Our findings confirm low reproductive success and high mortality in dolphins from a heavily oiled estuary when compared with other populations. Follow-up studies are needed to better understand the potential recovery of dolphins in Barataria Bay and, by extension, other Gulf coastal regions impacted by the spill. PMID:26538595

  20. Outcomes of in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic diagnosis: an analysis of the United States Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance Data, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jeani; Boulet, Sheree L.; Jeng, Gary; Flowers, Lisa; Kissin, Dmitry M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the characteristics of IVF cycles for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was used and to evaluate indications for PGD and treatment outcomes associated with this procedure as compared with cycles without PGD with the data from the U.S. National ART Surveillance System. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting None. Patient(s) Fresh autologous cycles that involved transfer of at least one embryo at blastocyst when available. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) PGD indications and age-specific reproductive outcomes. Result(s) There were a total of 97,069 non-PGD cycles and 9,833 PGD cycles: 55.6% were performed for aneuploidy screening (PGD Aneuploidy), 29.1% for other reasons (PGD Other), and 15.3% for genetic testing (PGD Genetic). In comparison to non-PGD cycles, PGD Aneuploidy cycles showed a decreased odds of miscarriage among women 35–37 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45–0.87) and women >37 years (aOR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43–0.70); and an increased odds of clinical pregnancy (aOR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05–1.34), live-birth delivery (aOR 1.43; 95% CI, 1.26–1.62), and multiple-birth delivery (aOR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.52–2.57) among women >37 years. Conclusion(s) Aneuploidy screening was the most common indication for PGD. Use of PGD was not observed to be associated with an increased odds of clinical pregnancy or live birth for women <35 years. PGD for aneuploidy was associated with a decreased odds of miscarriage for women >35 years, but an increased odds of a live-birth and a multiple live-birth delivery among women >37 years. PMID:26551441

  1. The Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (Formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana Negatively Affect Cotton Aphid Reproduction under Both Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  2. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern. PMID:27293591

  3. Evidence for No Significant Impact of Müllerian Anomalies on Reproductive Outcomes of Twin Pregnancy in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sohyun; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Da Hee; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi-La; Shin, Joong Sik

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to evaluate the impact of congenital Müllerian anomalies (MA) on twin pregnancy after 24 gestational weeks in Korean women. All records of twin pregnancies in a large maternity hospital in Korea between January 2005 and July 2013 were analyzed. Patients with monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twins, non-Korean patients, patients with twins delivered prior to 24 gestational weeks, and patients with miscarriage of one fetus or intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) before 24 gestational weeks were excluded from data analysis. In total, 1,422 women with twin pregnancy were eligible for data analysis, including 17 (1.2%) who had a known congenital MA (septate uterus, bicornuate uterus, arcuate uterus, and unicornuate uterus). Except for the mode of conception, baseline demographics were similar between women with MA and those without MA. No significant differences were found in pregnancy outcomes of gestational age at delivery (p = .86), birth weight of smaller and larger twins (p = .54 and p = .65), and number of twins with birth weight <5th percentile for gestational age (p = .43).The rates of obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), placenta previa, cerclage, IUFD, and postpartum hemorrhage were not significantly different between the two groups either. We concluded that the presence of congenital MA may not increase obstetrical risks in outcomes of pregnancy of twins delivered after 24 gestational weeks. PMID:26880019

  4. Assisted reproductive outcomes in women with different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes: the predictive value of anti-Müllerian hormone.

    PubMed

    Ramezanali, Fariba; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Hemat, Mandana; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Jalali, Samaneh; Moini, Ashraf

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes (A, B, C and D) compared with a control group and the predictive values of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in PCOS phenotypes for main outcomes. This study evaluated 386 PCOS women and 350 patients with male factor infertility. Women with phenotypes A and C had significantly higher concentrations of AMH than those with phenotype B (P < 0.001). Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in the phenotype D group (53.3%) was higher than other groups (32.5%, 26.4% and 36.8%, respectively, in phenotypes A, B and C), but not to a significant level. Multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for women's age and body mass index, revealed that PCOS phenotypes A and B were associated with a decreased CPR compared with the control group (odds ratio [OR]: 0.46, confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.8, P = 0.007 and OR: 0.34, CI: 0.18-0.62, P = 0.001, respectively). It seems a combination of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation is associated with a negative impact on the CPR in these patients. These results demonstrated that AMH concentration is related to PCO morphology but not predictive for CPR and live birth rate. PMID:26968928

  5. The relationship between reproductive outcome measures in DDT exposed malaria vector control workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dalvie, Mohamed A; Myers, Jonathan E

    2006-01-01

    Background The utility of blood reproductive endocrine biomarkers for assessing or estimating semen quality was explored. Methods A cross-sectional study of 47 DDT exposed malaria vector control workers was performed. Tests included blood basal and post gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), lutenizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol (E2) and inhibin; a questionnaire (demographics and general medical history); a physical examination and semen analysis. Semen parameters were determined using either/or or both WHO or the strict Tygerberg criteria. Relationships between semen parameters and endocrine measures were adjusted for age, duration of abstinence before sampling, presence of physical abnormalities and fever in the last two months. All relationships between specific endocrine hormones were adjusted for age and basal SHBG. Results Multiple logistic regression showed a consistent positive relationship (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 8.2, CI:1.4–49.2) between low basal inhibin (<100 pg/ml) and low semen count (< 40 million) and density (< 20 million/ml); consistent positive, but weaker relationships (1> POR < 2) between abnormally low semen count as well as density and baseline and post GnRH FSH; and positive relationships (POR = 37, CI:2–655) between the prevalence of high basal estradiol (> 50 pg/ml) and abnormal morphology (proportion < 5%) and low motility (proportion <50%). Most of the expected physiological relationships between specific endocrines were significant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that low basal inhibin, elevated basal FSH and high basal E2 can serve as markers of impaired semen quality. PMID:16901337

  6. Class IIa histone deacetylases affect neuronal remodeling and functional outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kassis, Haifa; Shehadah, Amjad; Li, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Cui, Yisheng; Roberts, Cynthia; Sadry, Neema; Liu, Xianshuang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2016-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that stroke induces nuclear shuttling of class IIa histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). Stroke-induced nuclear shuttling of HDAC4 is positively and significantly correlated with improved indices of neuronal remodeling in the peri-infarct cortex. In this study, using a rat model for middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), we tested the effects of selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs on functional recovery and neuronal remodeling when administered 24hr after stroke. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 15-17/group) were subjected to 2 h MCAO and orally gavaged with MC1568 (a selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor), SAHA (a non-selective HDAC inhibitor), or vehicle-control for 7 days starting 24 h after MCAO. A battery of behavioral tests was performed. Lesion volume measurement and immunohistochemistry were performed 28 days after MCAO. We found that stroke increased total HDAC activity in the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to the contralateral hemisphere. Stroke-increased HDAC activity was significantly decreased by the administration of SAHA as well as by MC1568. However, SAHA significantly improved functional outcome compared to vehicle control, whereas selective class IIa inhibition with MC1568 increased mortality and lesion volume and did not improve functional outcome. In addition, MC1568 decreased microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2, dendrites), phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNFH, axons) and myelin basic protein (MBP, myelination) immunoreactivity in the peri-infarct cortex. Quantitative RT-PCR of cortical neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection revealed that MC1568, but not SAHA, downregulated CREB and c-fos expression. Additionally, MC1568 decreased the expression of phosphorylated CREB (active) in neurons. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs impairs neuronal remodeling and neurological outcome. Inactivation of CREB and c-fos by MC1568 likely contributes to

  7. Maternal First Trimester TSH Concentrations: Do They Affect Perinatal and Endocrine Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, M; Shafat, T; Erez, O; Lichtenstein, Y; Awesat, J; Novack, V; Tsur, A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to examine the distribution of 1(st) trimester TSH and evaluate its association with perinatal outcomes and future development of maternal thyrotoxicosis. This retrospective cohort study included data of all women without prior thyroid disease who delivered a singleton at our medical center from 1/2001 to 12/2011 and had a 1(st) trimester TSH<4.0 mU/l. Women were divided according to 1(st) trimester TSH concentrations into quartiles and by predefined TSH values (mU/l): 1) TSH<0.1; 2) TSH 0.11-0.2; 3) TSH 0.21-0.4; and 4) TSH 0.4-4. Obstetrical outcomes, hCG concentrations, and future thyroid status were collected from electronic medical records. A total of 13 841 women fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean maternal TSH concentration at 5 weeks of gestation was 2.09±0.83 mU/l and decreased to 1.29±0.87 mU/l in weeks 8-9 with an increase towards the end of the 1(st) trimester. Odds ratio for future thyrotoxicosis was 3.64 in the lowest compared to the highest TSH quartile and 10.03 in those with TSH<0.1 compared to TSH 0.41-4 mU/l. Rates of female fetuses were higher in the low TSH quartiles and in the lower TSH groups, however baby gender was not associated with increased risk of future thyrotoxicosis. Low maternal 1(st) trimester TSH quartiles or concentrations were not associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Only a minor fraction of pregnant women with a low first tirmester TSH subsequently developed future thyrotoxicosis. PMID:27351808

  8. Older Age Does Not Affect Healing Time and Functional Outcomes After Fracture Nonunion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ≥65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical

  9. Favorable outcome of patients affected by rhabdoid tumors due to rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS).

    PubMed

    Kordes, Uwe; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Modena, Piergiorgio; Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Reinhard, Harald; Hasselblatt, Martin; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Frühwald, Michael C

    2014-05-01

    Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome is usually associated with shorter survival in patients with malignant rhabdoid tumors regardless of anatomical origin. Here we present four children harboring truncating heterozygous SMARCB1/INI1 germline mutations with favorable outcome. All four patients received multi-modality treatment, three according to therapeutic recommendations by the EU-RHAB registry, two without radiotherapy, and mean event-free survival accounts for 7 years. In conclusion, intensive treatment with curative intent is justified for children with rhabdoid tumors even if an underlying rhabdoid predisposition syndrome is demonstrated. PMID:24123847

  10. Factors affecting post-flight behavior in primary reproductives of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Ihl; Bland, John M; Raina, Ashok K

    2004-06-01

    After swarming, reproductive dealates of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, run together in tandem. The tandem running is an age-related behavioral activity in C. formosanus. This behavior was not evoked in pre-flight alates less than 6-d-old that were artificially dealated. Female age was more important than male age for evoking tandem behavior. Females and males, older than 35 days, did not exhibit this behavior. Mating status was not important for female and male dealates to form the tandem pairs. The titers of the major tergal gland component, trilinolein, did not decline significantly and remained high, not only in virgin females, but also in mated females for a period of time after swarming. On the other hand, increasing amounts of the female-specific compound trilinolein were detected in male dealates 7, 14, and 42 days after pairing. This suggests that trilinolein in the females might be transferred to the males as a nuptial gift in C. formosanus. In addition, females have structurally different lateral setae that may constitute a morphological factor involved in the tandem behavior in this species. Covering the setae with dimethyl sulfoxide prevented the tandem behavior. PMID:15183283

  11. Factors Affecting the Reproduction, Recruitment, Habitat, and Population Dynamics of Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  12. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  13. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  14. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  15. Pediatric hydrocephalus: Does the shunt device pressure selection affect the outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Arvind; Sharma, Anuj; Gupta, Charitesh

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of low- versus medium-pressure shunts in pediatric hydrocephalus in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Forty patients of pediatric hydrocephalus were randomized into two groups. The Chhabra differential pressure VP shunt (low or medium) was inserted in every patient. Postoperative follow-up was performed for symptomatic improvement and radiological evaluation (by sonography or computed tomography scan) for ventricle hemispheric ratio (VHR). Comparative analysis of pre- and postoperative VHR and need of redo surgery for shunt malformation were carried out to establish outcomes. Results: Nineteen patients had a low-pressure and 21 patients had a medium-pressure shunt inserted. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 10 years. The average preoperative VHR in group A was 55.37%, which reduced to 40% postoperatively (P = 0.00005); likewise, the pre- and postoperative VHR in group B were 61.57% and 42%, respectively, which was statistically significant (P = 0.0006). The complications of shunts and incidence of redo shunt surgery in both groups were not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.5614). Conclusions: The study found no significant difference in the outcome of patients with low- or medium-pressure shunt placement in pediatric hydrocephalus. PMID:22529548

  16. Pretransfer computed tomography delays arrival to definitive care without affecting pediatric trauma outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Aodhnait S.; Antiel, Ryan M.; Polites, Stephanie F.; Ishitani, Michael B.; Moir, Christopher R.; Zielinski, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Children with thoracic or abdominal trauma, presenting to referring hospitals, may undergo CT imaging prior to transfer to a pediatric trauma center (PTC). We sought to determine if children who undergo pretransfer imaging experience a delay in definitive care and worse clinical outcomes. Methods Pediatric blunt trauma patients transferred to our level I PTC were identified in this IRB approved study. Those transferred with CT imaging of the chest or abdomen/pelvis prior to transfer were compared to those transferred without imaging. Results Of 246 patients with a mean age of 12.4 ± 5.3 years (64% male), 128 patients (52%) underwent chest (n = 85) and/or abdominal (n = 115) CT studies prior to transfer. Among those patients with pretransfer CT, 14% of CT scans were repeated. On multivariate analysis accounting for distance, time from injury to arrival at our PTC was significantly greater in children who underwent pretransfer CT (320 ± 216 vs. 208 ± 149 minutes, p < 0.001). Median length of stay (3 vs. 3 days) and mortality (3% vs. 3%) were similar between groups (all p > 0.05). Conclusions A substantial number of pediatric blunt trauma patients underwent CT scans prior to transfer, which is associated with a delay in transfer but not worse outcomes. PMID:26778842

  17. How does family drug treatment court participation affect child welfare outcomes?

    PubMed

    Gifford, Elizabeth Joanne; Eldred, Lindsey Morgan; Vernerey, Allison; Sloan, Frank Allen

    2014-10-01

    Parental substance use is a risk factor for child maltreatment. Family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) have emerged in the United States as a policy option to treat the underlying condition and promote family preservation. This study examines the effectiveness of FDTCs in North Carolina on child welfare outcomes. Data come from North Carolina records from child protection services, court system, and birth records. Three types of parental participation in a FDTC are considered: referral, enrolling, and completing an FDTC. The sample includes 566 children who were placed into foster care and whose parents participated in a FDTC program. Findings indicate that children of parents who were referred but did not enroll or who enrolled but did not complete had longer stays in foster care than children of completers. Reunification rates for children of completers were also higher. Outcomes for children in the referred and enrolled groups did not differ in the multivariate analyses. While effective substance use treatment services for parents may help preserve families, future research should examine factors for improving participation and completion rates as well as factors involved in scaling programs so that more families are served. PMID:24736039

  18. Sleep apnoea adversely affects the outcome in patients who undergo posterior lumbar fusion

    PubMed Central

    Stundner, O.; Chiu, Y-L.; Sun, X.; Ramachandran, S-K.; Gerner, P.; Vougioukas, V.; Mazumdar, M.; Memtsoudis, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of sleep apnoea, little information is available regarding its impact on the peri-operative outcome of patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. Using a national database, patients who underwent lumbar fusion between 2006 and 2010 were identified, sub-grouped by diagnosis of sleep apnoea and compared. The impact of sleep apnoea on various outcome measures was assessed by regression analysis. The records of 84 655 patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion were identified and 7.28% also had a diagnostic code for sleep apnoea. Compared with patients without sleep apnoea, these patients were older, more frequently female, had a higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of peri-operative complications, post-operative mechanical ventilation, blood transfusion, and intensive care. Patients with sleep apnoea also had longer and more costly periods of hospitalisation. In the regression analysis, sleep apnoea emerged as an independent risk factor for the development of peri-operative complications (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.50, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.38;1.62), blood transfusions (OR 1.12, CI 1.03;1.23), mechanical ventilation (OR 6.97, CI 5.90;8.23), critical care services (OR 1.86, CI 1.71;2.03), prolonged hospitalisation and increased cost (OR 1.28, CI 1.19;1.37; OR 1.10, CI 1.03;1.18). Patients with sleep apnoea who undergo posterior lumbar fusion pose significant challenges to clinicians. PMID:24493191

  19. Client Preferences Affect Treatment Satisfaction, Completion, and Clinical Outcome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of client preferences on treatment satisfaction, completion, and clinical outcome. Our search of the literature resulted in 34 empirical articles describing 32 unique clinical trials that either randomized some clients to an active choice condition (shared decision making condition or choice of treatment) or assessed client preferences. Clients who were involved in shared decision making, chose a treatment condition, or otherwise received their preferred treatment evidenced higher treatment satisfaction (ESd = .34; p < .001), increased completion rates (ESOR = 1.37; ESd = .17; p < .001), and superior clinical outcome (ESd = .15; p < .0001), compared to clients who were not involved in shared decision making, did not choose a treatment condition, or otherwise did not receive their preferred treatment. Although the effect sizes are modest in magnitude, they were generally consistent across several potential moderating variables including study design (preference versus active choice), psychoeducation (informed versus uninformed), setting (inpatient versus outpatient), client diagnosis (mental health versus other), and unit of randomization (client versus provider). Our findings highlight the clinical benefit of assessing client preferences, providing treatment choices when two or more efficacious options are available, and involving clients in treatment-related decisions when treatment options are not available. PMID:25189522

  20. How Group Factors Affect Adolescent Change Talk and Substance Use Outcomes: Implications for Motivational Interviewing Training

    PubMed Central

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Houck, Jon M.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Clients who verbalize statements arguing for change (change talk, CT) in psychotherapy are more likely to decrease alcohol and other drug use (AOD) compared to clients who voice statements in opposition of change (sustain talk, ST). Little is known about how CT and ST are expressed in groups where adolescents may vary in their AOD use severity and readiness to change. First, we examined how session content was associated with CT/ST, and then we looked at whether different subtypes of CT/ST were associated with subsequent AOD outcomes three months later. Audio recordings (N=129 sessions) of a 6-session group motivational interviewing (MI) intervention, Free Talk, were coded. Session content was not associated with CT; however, some session content was associated with higher percentages of ST (e.g., normative feedback). Subtypes of CT (Commitment and Reason) were associated with improved AOD outcomes, whereas Ability subtype remarks were related to increased marijuana use, intentions, and consequences. Findings offer helpful guidance for clinical training and narrow in on the type of CT to try to elicit in group MI sessions. Regardless of session content, adolescents can benefit from hearing CT during the group. PMID:25602608

  1. The Effects of Trauma History and Prenatal Affective Symptoms on Obstetric Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Emma Robertson; Putnam, Frank W; Pressman, Eva K; Rubinow, David R; Putnam, Karen T; Matthieu, Monica M; Gilchrist, Michelle A; Jones, Ian; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal maternal mood may inform the adverse obstetric outcomes seen in disadvantaged populations. The contribution of having a trauma history is not well studied. We examined the impact of trauma exposure and mood symptoms on obstetric outcomes in 358 women. Women with antecedent trauma were more likely to have a history of depression, odds ratio = 2.83, 95% confidence interval [1.81, 4.42], were younger at their first pregnancy, 18.86 years versus 20.10 years, and had a higher number of previous pregnancies, 2.01 versus 1.54, compared to those with no trauma exposure. Women with prenatal anxiety had significantly smaller babies than nonanxious women, 3,313.17 g, (SD = 441.58) versus 3,429.27 g, (SD = 437.82) Trauma history magnified the effects of maternal prenatal mood on birthweight; the moderating effect was limited to those who first experienced a trauma under 18 years of age. Childhood trauma exposure increased vulnerability for low birthweight delivery associated with prenatal mood disturbance. Screening pregnant women for trauma history and current mood symptoms is indicated. PMID:27276162

  2. User Experience of Mobile Interactivity: How Do Mobile Websites Affect Attitudes and Relational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media offer new opportunities for fostering communications between individuals and companies. Corporate websites are being increasingly accessed via smart phones and companies are scrambling to offer a mobile-friendly user experience on their sites. However, very little is known about how interactivity in the mobile context affects user…

  3. Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

  4. Marital Conflict and Child Outcomes: The Role of Children's Affect and Coping Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah E.; Clements, Mari L.

    This study examined young children's affective distress and behavioral responses to parental marital conflict. Forty-eight 4-year-olds and their parents participated in the study. Mothers and fathers independently completed measures of marital conflict, children's reactions to marital conflict, and child behavior problems, while the children…

  5. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Methods Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Results Each forum demonstrated stakeholders’ capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around ‘equity’ and ‘patient responsibility’, culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Conclusions Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical

  6. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    PubMed

    Klop-Toker, Kaya; Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  7. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a possible bioindicator of epigenetic factors present in drinking water that may affect reproductive function: is chorion an issue?

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sales, M; García-Ximénez, F; Espinós, F J

    2015-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have been monitored in stream waters, raw and finished waters and wastewater effluents. Most of these contaminants, such as epigenetic substances, have been detected at very low levels. Unfortunately, their complete monitoring and/or removal are very difficult, given the increasing presence of new contaminants and due to analytical and economic considerations. For this reason, bioindicators are used as an alternative to monitor their presence. To this end, zebrafish is being used to assess certain contaminants in water quality studies. As our long-term aim is to determine if zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used to detect environmental epigenetic factors in drinking waters with effects on human reproduction, an initial question is whether the chorion could interfere with the possible action of epigenetic factors in two reproductive events: genital ridge formation and migration of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) to these genital ridges. In the first experiment, we attempted to partially degrade the chorion of mid blastula transition (MBT) embryos with pronase, with acceptable survival rates at 5 days post fertilisation (dpf), with the group exposed for 15 min giving the best survival results. As denuded early embryos require a specific culture medium, in the next experiment embryo survival was evaluated when they were cultured up to 5 dpf in drinking waters from six different sources. Results showed a negative effect on embryo survival at 5 dpf from several waters but not in others, thus distorting the survival outcomes. These results suggest using embryos with the chorion intact from the outset when drinking waters from different sources are to be tested. PMID:24598355

  8. We Made Your Bed, Why Won’t You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn’t breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  9. Conditional deletion of the relaxin receptor gene in cells of smooth muscle lineage affects lower reproductive tract in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-04-01

    Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1(+/-) females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  10. Activation of less affected corticospinal tract and poor motor outcome in hemiplegic pediatric patients: a diffusion tensor tractography imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Son, Su Min

    2015-01-01

    The less affected hemisphere is important in motor recovery in mature brains. However, in terms of motor outcome in immature brains, no study has been reported on the less affected corticospinal tract in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the condition of the less affected corticospinal tract and motor function in hemiplegic pediatric patients. Forty patients with hemiplegia due to perinatal or prenatal injury (13.7 ± 3.0 months) and 40 age-matched typically developing controls were recruited. These patients were divided into two age-matched groups, the high functioning group (20 patients) and the low functioning group (20 patients) using functional level of hemiplegia scale. Diffusion tensor tractography images showed that compared with the control group, the patient group of the less affected corticospinal tract showed significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value. Significantly increased fiber number and significantly decreased fractional anisotropy value in the low functioning group were observed than in the high functioning group. These findings suggest that activation of the less affected hemisphere presenting as increased fiber number and decreased fractional anisotropy value is related to poor motor function in pediatric hemiplegic patients. PMID:26889198

  11. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    PubMed

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  12. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  13. Factors affecting the postoperative limb alignment and clinical outcome after Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Ju; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Hong Chul

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the postoperative mechanical axis deviation and clinical outcome according to bearing size, femoral component position, and tibial resection angle after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). A total of 104 patients with 124 knees underwent Oxford phase 3 UKA. The overall changes in mechanical axis deviation and tibiofemoral angle were significantly different according to bearing size (P = .001 and < .001), but they were not significantly different according to the tibial resection angle and femoral component position. The postoperative mechanical axis fell into the zone C or zone 2 in 108 knees (87%) and into the zone 3 or zone 4 in 16 cases (13%). One hundred eight cases, which had the mechanical axis passing the zone C or zone 2, did not show any progression of arthritis. Limb alignment is a function of the thickness of the bearing rather than alignments of femoral and tibial implant. PMID:22285234

  14. Factors affecting treatment outcome in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A retrospective analysis from South India

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sahil; Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Yadalla, Dayakar; Rajagopalan, Jayagayathri; Velis, Girish Bharat; Talele, Deepti; Kushwaha, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate outcomes for different treatment modalities in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in an Indian population. Design: Retrospective, interventional, case series. Materials and Methods: In an institutional setting, case records of patients with CNLDO from January 2008 to 2012, were reviewed, and data on patient demographics, clinical presentation, and treatment details (sac massage, probing, and/or dacryocystorhinostomy) were recorded. Success of treatment was defined as complete resolution of symptoms and negative regurgitation on pressure over lacrimal sac (ROPLAS) area. Results: Two hundred and ninety-eight eyes of 240 patients with a mean age of 22.2 ± 26.14 months (median = 12 months, interquartile range = 17) were analyzed. Sac massage (n = 226) was successful in 67 eyes (30%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that children with mucoid ROPLAS were almost 6 times more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 5.55 vs. clear ROPLAS, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.35–13.09, P < 0.001) to experience failure of sac massage. Overall probing (n = 193) was successful for 143 (74%) eyes. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older children were 25% more likely to experience probing failure (OR = 1.25 for every 6 months increment in age, 95%, CI = 1.09–1.42, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Sac massage is successful in only a third of our patients and those with mucoid ROPLAS are more likely to experience failure. Probing is successful in three-quarter of our subjects, and its success declines with a progressive increase in age. Lower socioeconomic status, poor general health, and recurrent respiratory infections are unique to our population and may influence outcomes. PMID:26654998

  15. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  16. Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabiiti, Wilber; Robertson, Emma; Beale, Mathew A.; Johnston, Simon A.; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Loyse, Angela; Jarvis, Joseph N.; Gilbert, Andrew S.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Harrison, Thomas S.; May, Robin C.; Bicanic, Tihana

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality globally. High fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis and poor fungal clearance during treatment are recognized adverse prognostic markers; however, the underlying pathogenic factors that drive these clinical manifestations are incompletely understood. We profiled a large set of clinical isolates for established cryptococcal virulence traits to evaluate the contribution of C. neoformans phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis. Methods. Sixty-five C. neoformans isolates from clinical trial patients with matched clinical data were assayed in vitro to determine murine macrophage uptake, intracellular proliferation rate (IPR), capsule induction, and laccase activity. Analysis of the correlation between prognostic clinical and host immune parameters and fungal phenotypes was performed using Spearman’s r, while the fungal-dependent impact on long-term survival was determined by Cox regression analysis. Results. High levels of fungal uptake by macrophages in vitro, but not the IPR, were associated with CSF fungal burden (r = 0.38, P = 0.002) and long-term patient survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.2–5.5, P = 0.012). High-uptake strains were hypocapsular (r = –0.28, P = 0.05) and exhibited enhanced laccase activity (r = 0.36, P = 0.003). Fungal isolates with greater laccase activity exhibited heightened survival ex vivo in purified CSF (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001) and resistance to clearance following patient antifungal treatment (r = 0.39, P = 0.003). Conclusion. These findings underscore the contribution of cryptococcal-phagocyte interactions and laccase-dependent melanin pathways to human clinical presentation and outcome. Furthermore, characterization of fungal-specific pathways that drive clinical manifestation provide potential targets for the development of therapeutics and the management of CM. Funding. This work

  17. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-03-01

    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  18. Formative evaluation of a participatory women's group intervention to improve reproductive and women's health outcomes in rural Bangladesh: a controlled before and after study

    PubMed Central

    Harris-Fry, Helen A; Azad, Kishwar; Younes, Leila; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Hossen, Munir; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Women's groups using participatory methods reduced newborn mortality in rural areas of low income countries. Our study assessed a participatory women's group intervention that focused on women's health, nutrition and family planning. Methods The study was conducted in three districts in Bangladesh between October 2011 and March 2013, covering a population of around 230 000. On the basis of allocation for the preceding cluster randomised trials, three unions per district were randomly allocated to receive a women's group intervention and three per district were control clusters. Outcomes included unmet need for family planning, morbidity, dietary diversity, night blindness, healthcare decision-making and knowledge of sexual and reproductive health, nutrition and anaemia. A difference-in-difference analysis was used to adjust for secular trends and baseline differences between women taking part in the intervention and a random sample from control clusters. Results We interviewed 5355 (91% response rate) women before the intervention and 5128 after (96% response rate). There were significant improvements in women's dietary diversity score (increase of 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.3)) and participation in healthcare decision-making (proportion increase (95% CI) 14.0% (10.6% to 17.4%)). There were also increases in knowledge about: contraception (4.2% (2.0% to 6.3%)), ways to treat (55.4% (52.2% to 58.5%)) and prevent (71.0% (68.0% to 74.1%)) sexually transmitted infections, nutrition (46.6% (43.6% to 49.6%)) and anaemia prevention (62.8% (60.9% to 64.6%)). There were no significant differences in unmet need for family planning, morbidity or night blindness. Conclusions Participatory women's groups have considerable potential to improve women's health knowledge, but evidence of impact on certain outcomes is lacking. Further formative work and intervention development is needed to optimise the impact of this approach for women's health. PMID:26739272

  19. Propofol or Thiopental sodium in patients undergoing reproductive assisted technologies: Differences in hemodynamic recovery and outcome of oocyte retrieval: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jarahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Jouya, Reza; Mousavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Dehghan-tezerjani, Mohammad; Behdad, Shekoofa; Soltani, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thiopental sodium and Propofol are two widely-used drugs in the induction of anesthesia in assisted reproductive technology (ART). However, the side effects and outcome of recovery from anesthesia of these drugs on ART have not been identified yet. Objective: This study aimed at investigating the side effects and hemodynamic effects of using thiopental sodium and propofal as well as effects of these drugs on pregnancy outcome in ART cycles. Materials and Methods: In this double blinded) randomized controlled trial, 90 woman candidate for ART were randomly divided into two groups. 47 patients received Propofol (2.5 mg/kg) and 43 patients received thiopental (5mg/kg) for anesthesia induction. The entry hemodynamic parameters of the patients were documented. During the anesthesia process, hemodynamic parameters were checked at five-minute intervals. Results: The results of the study showed a statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of their response to verbal stimulation (p<0.001), the normalization time of the rate and quality of breathing (p<0.001), nausea (p<0.001), and vomiting (p<0.001). Also, in comparison with the other group, all these parameters were better in Propofol group. There was found no significant difference between two groups in terms of other variables. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, Propofol has fewer known side effects. Vomiting and nausea as two known side effect of anesthesia are significantly lower in patients receiving Propofol than patients who received thiopental. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT201303135393N2 This article extracted from M.D. thesis. (Reza Jouya) PMID:24799865

  20. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John H

    2014-07-01

    A re-emergence of research on EEG-neurofeedback followed controlled evidence of clinical benefits and validation of cognitive/affective gains in healthy participants including correlations in support of feedback learning mediating outcome. Controlled studies with healthy and elderly participants, which have increased exponentially, are reviewed including protocols from the clinic: sensory-motor rhythm, beta1 and alpha/theta ratios, down-training theta maxima, and from neuroscience: upper-alpha, theta, gamma, alpha desynchronisation. Outcome gains include sustained attention, orienting and executive attention, the P300b, memory, spatial rotation, RT, complex psychomotor skills, implicit procedural memory, recognition memory, perceptual binding, intelligence, mood and well-being. Twenty-three of the controlled studies report neurofeedback learning indices along with beneficial outcomes, of which eight report correlations in support of a meditation link, results which will be supplemented by further creativity and the performing arts evidence in Part II. Validity evidence from optimal performance studies represents an advance for the neurofeedback field demonstrating that cross fertilisation between clinical and optimal performance domains will be fruitful. Theoretical and methodological issues are outlined further in Part III. PMID:24125857

  1. Maternal Prenatal Positive Affect, Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Birth Outcomes: The PREDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuusinen, Tiina; Tuovinen, Soile; Villa, Pia; Hämäläinen, Esa; Laivuori, Hannele; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated whether maternal prenatal emotions are associated with gestational length and birth weight in the large PREDO Study with multiple measurement points of emotions during gestation. Methods Altogether 3376 pregnant women self-assessed their positive affect (PA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) and anxiety (Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, STAI) symptoms up to 14 times during gestation. Birth characteristics were derived from the National Birth Register and from medical records. Results One standard deviation (SD) unit higher PA during the third pregnancy trimester was associated with a 0.05 SD unit longer gestational length, whereas one SD unit higher CES-D and STAI scores during the third trimester were associated with 0.04–0.05 SD unit shorter gestational lengths (P-values ≤ 0.02), corresponding to only 0.1–0.2% of the variation in gestational length. Higher PA during the third trimester was associated with a significantly decreased risk for preterm (< 37 weeks) delivery (for each SD unit higher positive affect, odds ratio was 0.8-fold (P = 0.02). Mothers with preterm delivery showed a decline in PA and an increase in CES-D and STAI during eight weeks prior to delivery. Post-term birth (≥ 42 weeks), birth weight and fetal growth were not associated with maternal prenatal emotions. Conclusions This study with 14 measurements of maternal emotions during pregnancy show modest effects of prenatal emotions during the third pregnancy trimester, particularly in the weeks close to delivery, on gestational length. From the clinical perspective, the effects were negligible. No associations were detected between prenatal emotions and birth weight. PMID:26919119

  2. Parents' Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Karen P.; Black, Jessica J.; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Hannon, Tamara S.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Rofey, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth's ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC) model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20), BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white) participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24) = 2.15, p = 0.043). Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals. PMID:22970350

  3. Dose impaired relaxation of left ventricle affect early outcomes in CABG patients?

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Jamshid; Rezakhanloo, Fereshteh

    2010-01-01

    Although systolic dysfunction is revealed as a prognostic factor in cardiac surgery, the role of diastolic dysfunction as a predictive factor is less evaluated. In this retrospective study from 872 patients that underwent isolated coronary artery bypass graft (Jan 2008-Feb 2009), 388 patients had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (>50%). These are divided in two groups, Group 1: 361 patients without diastolic dysfunction (impaired relaxation) and Group 2: 27 patients with diastolic dysfunction (impaired relaxation). Mean age in group 1 was 57.72 year and in group 2 was 61.16 year (P = 0.07). Risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertention and dyslipidemia were similar. Although overall complication rate was higher in group 2 (11.1% vs. 2.8% P value 0.05), but when each complication was studied individually no significant statistical difference was found. Also no significant statistical difference was found in mortality (2.2% in group 1 vs 7.4% in group 2 P = 0.1). In conclusion, from clinical standpoint diastolic dysfunction can be an important factor in assessing surgical outcome in patients whom underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:21137652

  4. Factors affecting short- and long-term outcomes of manipulation under anaesthesia in patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Owen, John M; Sayers, Adrian E; Woods, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to evaluate and determine the factors that affect short- and long-term outcome following manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) of patients with adhesive capsulitis. Methods Patients recruited from January 1999 to January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed and classified as having primary or secondary adhesive capsulitis. All patients were assessed for range of movement (ROM) and Oxford Shoulder Scores (OSS) before and immediately postoperatively, as well as for OSS more than 1 year post MUA. Results In total, 295 patients (315 shoulders) were sequentially recruited, and information was collected at baseline, as well as at a mean follow-up of 28 days and 3.6 years. A significant improvement in OSS and ROM was noted 1 month post MUA (p < 0.0001) with females benefiting more than males (p < 0.0025). Long-term follow-up revealed that the improvement in OSS was maintained (p < 0.0001). Secondary adhesive capsulitis significantly reduced the efficacy of MUA as assessed by ROM (p < 0.0001). Other factors (age, initial ROM and OSS, and length of symptoms prior to MUA) did not significantly affect the outcome over the short- or long-term. Conclusions The findings of the present study show that all patient groups had a significantly improved ROM and OSS in the short-term with long-term maintenance of improved OSS.

  5. Severity of lung fibrosis affects early surgical outcomes of lung cancer among patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mimae, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norihiko; Takamochi, Kazuya; Aokage, Keiju; Shimada, Yoshihisa; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Okada, Morihito

    2016-07-01

    Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is defined as upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis, which are representative lung disorders that increase the prevalence of lung cancer. This unique disorder may affect the morbidity and mortality during the early period after surgery. The present study aimed to identify which clinicopathological features significantly affect early surgical outcomes after lung resection in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and in those with CPFE.We retrospectively assessed 2295 patients with NSCLC and found that 151 (6.6%) had CPFE. All were surgically treated between January 2008 and December 2010 at 4 institutions.The postoperative complication rates for patients with and without CPFE were 39% and 17%, respectively. The 90-day mortality rates were higher among patients with than without CPFE (7.9% vs 1%). Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was the main cause of death among 12 patients with CPFE who died within 90 days after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis selected CPFE, gender, age, and clinical stage as independent predictive factors for postoperative complications, and CPFE, clinical stage, and sex for 90-day mortality. The severity of lung fibrosis on preoperative CT images was an independent predictive factor for 90-day mortality among patients with CPFE.The key predictive factor for postoperative mortality and complications of lung resection for NSCLC was CPFE. The severity of lung fibrosis was the principal predictor of early outcomes after lung surgery among patients with CPFE and NSCLC. PMID:27442681

  6. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic and cognitive problems. Recent emerging evidences suggest that arsenic exposure affects the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and children’s health problems. Some epidemiological studies have reported that arsenic exposure induces premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. In animal studies, inorganic arsenic also causes fetal malformation, growth retardation, and fetal death. These toxic effects depend on dose, route and gestation periods of arsenic exposure. In males, inorganic arsenic causes reproductive dysfunctions including reductions of the testis weights, accessory sex organs weights, and epididymal sperm counts. In addition, inorganic arsenic exposure also induces alterations of spermatogenesis, reductions of testosterone and gonadotrophins, and disruptions of steroidogenesis. However, the reproductive and developmental problems following arsenic exposure are poorly understood, and the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we further investigated several possible mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26973968

  7. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, c