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Sample records for affect reproductive physiology

  1. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  2. Evidence that elevated water temperature affects the reproductive physiology of the European bullhead Cottus gobio.

    PubMed

    Dorts, Jennifer; Grenouillet, Gaël; Douxfils, Jessica; Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N M; Milla, Sylvain; Silvestre, Frédéric; Kestemont, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the average water temperature and alter the ecology and physiology of several organisms including fish species. To examine the effects of increased water temperature on freshwater fish reproduction, adult European bullhead Cottus gobio of both genders were maintained under three temperature regimes (T1: 6-10, T2: 10-14 and T3: 14-18°C) and assessed for gonad development (gonadosomatic index-GSI and gonad histology), sex steroids (testosterone-T, 17β-estradiol-E2 and 11-ketotestosterone-11-KT) and vitellogenin (alkali-labile phosphoprotein phosphorus-ALP) dynamics in December, January, February and March. The results indicate that a 8°C rise in water temperature (T3) deeply disrupted the gonadal maturation in both genders. This observation was associated with the absence of GSI peak from January to March, and low levels of plasma sex steroids compared with T1-exposed fish. Nevertheless, exposure to an increasing temperature of 4°C (T2) appeared to accelerate oogenesis with an early peak value in GSI and level of plasma T recorded in January relative to T1-exposed females. In males, the low GSI, reduced level of plasma 11-KT and the absence of GSI increase from January to March support the deleterious effects of increasing water temperature on spermatogenesis. The findings of the present study suggest that exposure to elevated temperatures within the context of climate warming might affect the reproductive success of C. gobio. Specifically, a 4°C rise in water temperature affects gametogenesis by advancing the spawning, and a complete reproductive failure is observed at an elevated temperature of 8°C. PMID:21638008

  3. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  4. Avian reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  5. Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Describes some unique features of marsupial reproduction which include (1) chromosomal sex determination, (2) reproductive system, (3) birth, (4) location, and (5) embryonic diapause. These features suggest that viviparity evolved separately in eutherian and marsupial stocks after their derivation from a common oviparous ancestor. Bibliography.…

  6. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  7. Developmental Exposure to Ethinylestradiol Affects Reproductive Physiology, the GnRH Neuroendocrine Network and Behaviors in Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Martini, Mariangela; Duittoz, Anne H.; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2), the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR) or pharmacological (PHARMACO) doses [0.1 and 1 μg/kg (body weight)/day respectively], from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs. PMID:26696819

  8. Crane reproductive physiology and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some unique features of crane reproduction, management, and conservation are described. Because cranes are sexually monomorphic, sexing is difficult and must be accomplished using behavior, laparoscopy, cloacal examination, genetic techniques, or fecal steroid analysis. Although husbandry techniques for cranes are similar to those used with other nondomestic birds, a number of basic characteristics, such as extreme aggressiveness, imprinting by the crane chick on man, a delayed molt in the immature crane, delayed sexual maturity, and infertility, pose special problems for the propagator. Artificial insemination is a practical solution to crane infertility. Vigorous captive management and propagation efforts must become increasingly important if several endangered crane species are to survive the continuing decline in wild populations. The ultimate goal is the restoration of suitable habitat and sustainable native populations.

  9. Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J

    2001-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1994, leptin, a protein hormone synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue, has been shown to regulate feed intake in several species including sheep and pigs. Although a nimiety of information exists regarding the physiological role of leptin in rodents and humans, the regulation and action of leptin in domestic animals is less certain. Emerging evidence in several species indicates that leptin may also affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Leptin receptor mRNA is present in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus of several species, including sheep. In rats, effects of leptin on GnRH, LH and FSH secretion have been inconsistent, with leptin exhibiting both stimulatory and inhibitory action in vivo and in vitro. Evidence to support direct action of leptin at the level of the gonad indicates that the leptin receptor and its mRNA are present in ovarian tissue of several species, including cattle. These leptin receptors are functional, since leptin inhibits insulin-induced steroidogenesis of both granulosa and thecal cells of cattle in vitro. Leptin receptor mRNA is also found in the testes of rodents. As with the ovary, these receptors are functional, at least in rats, since leptin inhibits hCG-induced testosterone secretion by Leydig cells in vitro. During pregnancy, placental production of leptin may be a major contributor to the increase in maternal leptin in primates but not rodents. However, in both primates and rodents, leptin receptors exist in placental tissues and may regulate metabolism of the fetal-placental unit. As specific leptin immunoassays are developed for domestic animals, in vivo associations may then be made among leptin, body energy stores, dietary energy intake and reproductive function. This may lead to a more definitive role of leptin in domestic animal reproduction. PMID:11872320

  10. Morphological and physiological changes during reproduction and their relationships to reproductive performance in a capital breeder.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Lourdais, Olivier; Lorioux, Sophie; Butler, Michael W; Davis, Jon R; Salin, Karine; Voituron, Yann; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-01-01

    Current reproductive effort typically comes at a cost to future reproductive value by altering somatic function (e.g., growth or self-maintenance). Furthermore, effects of reproduction often depend on both fecundity and stage of reproduction, wherein allocation of resources into additional offspring and/or stages of reproduction results in increased costs. Despite these widely accepted generalities, interindividual variation in the effects of reproduction is common-yet the proximate basis that allows some individuals to mitigate these detrimental effects is unclear. We serially measured several variables of morphology (e.g., musculature) and physiology (e.g., antioxidant defenses) in female Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni) throughout reproduction to examine how these traits change over the course of reproduction and whether certain physiological traits are associated with reduced effects of reproduction in some individuals. Reproduction in this capital breeder was associated with changes in both morphology and physiology, but only morphological changes varied with fecundity and among specific reproductive stages. During reproduction, we detected negative relationships between morphology and self-maintenance (e.g., increased muscle allocation to reproduction was related to reduced immune function). Additionally, females that allocated resources more heavily into current reproduction also did so during future reproduction, and these females assimilated resources more efficiently, experienced reduced detriments to self-maintenance (e.g., lower levels of oxidative damage and glucocorticoids) during reproduction, and produced clutches with greater hatching success. Our results suggest that interindividual variation in specific aspects of physiology (assimilation efficiency and oxidative status) may drive variation in reproductive performance. PMID:23799834

  11. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-04-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  12. Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Dominoni, Davide; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution. PMID:23407836

  13. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    PubMed

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation of worker

  14. Puerperium and lactation: Physiology of the reproductive system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes changes in the physiology of the female reproductive system during the period of recovery from childbirth and throughout lactation. Normal and abnormal clinical findings are described, together with evidence-based treatment options for normal care and problem management. Ute...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors on Reproductive Physiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Adewale, Heather B.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates. PMID:19587848

  16. Ant Genetics: Reproductive Physiology, Worker Morphology, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Friedman, D A; Gordon, D M

    2016-07-01

    Many exciting studies have begun to elucidate the genetics of the morphological and physiological diversity of ants, but as yet few studies have investigated the genetics of ant behavior directly. Ant genomes are marked by extreme rates of gene turnover, especially in gene families related to olfactory communication, such as the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons and the perception of environmental semiochemicals. Transcriptomic and epigenetic differences are apparent between reproductive and sterile females, males and females, and workers that differ in body size. Quantitative genetic approaches suggest heritability of task performance, and population genetic studies indicate a genetic association with reproductive status in some species. Gene expression is associated with behavior including foraging, response to queens attempting to join a colony, circadian patterns of task performance, and age-related changes of task. Ant behavioral genetics needs further investigation of the feedback between individual-level physiological changes and socially mediated responses to environmental conditions. PMID:27050321

  17. Queen and young larval pheromones impact nursing and reproductive physiology of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Kirsten S; Le Conte, Yves; Page, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Several insect pheromones are multifunctional and have both releaser and primer effects. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), the queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) and e-beta-ocimene (eβ), emitted by young worker larvae, have such dual effects. There is increasing evidence that these multifunctional pheromones profoundly shape honey bee colony dynamics by influencing cooperative brood care, a fundamental aspect of eusocial insect behavior. Both QMP and eβ have been shown to affect worker physiology and behavior, but it has not yet been determined if these two key pheromones have interactive effects on hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development, actively used in caring of larvae, and ovary activation, a component of worker reproductive physiology. Experimental results demonstrate that both QMP and eβ significantly suppress ovary activation compared to controls but that the larval pheromone is more effective than QMP. The underlying reproductive anatomy (total ovarioles) of workers influenced HPG development and ovary activation, so that worker bees with more ovarioles were less responsive to suppression of ovary activation by QMP. These bees were more likely to develop their HPG and have activated ovaries in the presence of eβ, providing additional links between nursing and reproductive physiology in support of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis. PMID:25395721

  18. Reproductive Physiology in Young Men Is Cumulatively Affected by FSH-Action Modulating Genetic Variants: FSHR -29G/A and c.2039 A/G, FSHB -211G/T

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Punab, Anna Maria; Poolamets, Olev; Vihljajev, Vladimir; Žilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Matulevičius, Valentinas; Laan, Maris

    2014-01-01

    Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) was reported to modulate gene expression and reproductive parameters in women, but data in men is limited. We aimed to bring evidence to the effect of FSHR -29G/A variants in men. In Baltic young male cohort (n = 982; Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians; aged 20.2±2.0 years), the FSHR -29 A-allele was significantly associated with higher serum FSH (linear regression: effect 0.27 IU/L; P = 0.0019, resistant to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) and showed a non-significant trend for association with higher LH (0.19 IU/L) and total testosterone (0.93 nmol/L), but reduced Inhibin B (−7.84 pg/mL) and total testes volume (effect −1.00 mL). Next, we extended the study and tested the effect of FSHR gene haplotypes determined by the allelic combination of FSHR -29G/A and a well-studied variant c.2039 A/G (Asn680Ser, exon 10). Among the FSHR -29A/2039G haplotype carriers (A-Ser; haplotype-based linear regression), this genetic effect was enhanced for FSH (effect 0.40 IU/L), Inhibin B (−16.57 pg/mL) and total testes volume (−2.34 mL). Finally, we estimated the total contribution of three known FSH-action modulating SNPs (FSHB -211G/T; FSHR -29G/A, c.2039 A/G) to phenotypic variance in reproductive parameters among young men. The major FSH-action modulating SNPs explained together 2.3%, 1.4%, 1.0 and 1.1% of the measured variance in serum FSH, Inhibin B, testosterone and total testes volume, respectively. In contrast to the young male cohort, neither FSHR -29G/A nor FSHR haplotypes appeared to systematically modulate the reproductive physiology of oligozoospermic idiopathic infertile patients (n = 641, Estonians; aged 31.5±6.0 years). In summary, this is the first study showing the significant effect of FSHR -29G/A on male serum FSH level. To account for the genetic effect of known common polymorphisms modulating FSH-action, we suggest haplotype-based analysis of FSHR SNPs

  19. Experience Modulates the Reproductive Response to Heat Stress in C. elegans via Multiple Physiological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Devin Y.; Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Natural environments are considerably more variable than laboratory settings and often involve transient exposure to stressful conditions. To fully understand how organisms have evolved to respond to any given stress, prior experience must therefore be considered. We investigated the effects of individual and ancestral experience on C. elegans reproduction. We documented ways in which cultivation at 15°C or 25°C affects developmental time, lifetime fecundity, and reproductive performance after severe heat stress that exceeds the fertile range of the organism but is compatible with survival and future fecundity. We found that experience modulates multiple aspects of reproductive physiology, including the male and female germ lines and the interaction between them. These responses vary in their environmental sensitivity, suggesting the existence of complex mechanisms for coping with unpredictable and stressful environments. PMID:26713620

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  1. Behavioural and physiological consequences of male reproductive trade-offs in edible dormice ( Glis glis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice ( Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.

  2. The Neuroendocrine physiology of female reproductive aging: an update

    PubMed Central

    Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Nejat, Edward; Dicken, Cary

    2010-01-01

    The transition into menopause is a complex process that affects fertility and increases the risk for a number of health problems in aging women that include, but are not limited to osteoporosis, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. Improved nutrition and enhanced access to medical care have increased the average lifespan for women in developed countries, and many will spend more than one third of their life in a post-menopausal state. Epidemiological studies indicate that a delayed natural menopause confers longevity and decelerates the appearance of much age-related morbidity, suggesting that developing treatments to delay menopause would significantly improve quality of life for women. Although menopause is ultimately defined by ovarian follicular exhaustion, several lines of scientific evidence in humans and animals now suggest that dysregulation of estradiol feedback mechanisms and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction contributes to the onset and progression of reproductive senescence, independent of ovarian failure. This article provides a brief update on our current understanding of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the onset of and transition into female reproductive senescence. PMID:20570066

  3. Transcriptomic response to injury sheds light on the physiological costs of reproduction in ant queens.

    PubMed

    von Wyschetzki, Katharina; Lowack, Helena; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is widespread among multicellular organisms. As an important exception, the reproductive females of perennial social insects (ants, honeybees, termites) are simultaneously highly fertile and very long-lived relative to their nonreproductive nestmates. The observation that increased fecundity is not coupled with decreased lifespan suggests that social insect queens do not have to reallocate resources between reproduction and self-maintenance. If queens have to compensate for the costs of reproduction on the level of the individual, the activation of other energy-demanding physiological processes might force them to reduce the production of eggs. To test this hypothesis in ant queens, we increased immunity costs by injury and measured the effect of this treatment on egg-laying rates and genomewide gene expression. Amputation of both middle legs led to a temporary decrease in egg-laying rates and affected the expression of 947 genes corresponding to 9% of the transcriptome. The changes comprised the upregulation of the immune and wound healing response on the one hand, and the downregulation of germ cell development, central nervous system development and learning ability on the other hand. Injury strongly influenced metabolism by inducing catabolism and repressing amino acid and nitrogen compound metabolism. By comparing our results to similar transcriptomic studies in insects, we found a highly consistent upregulation of immune genes due to sterile and septic wounding. The gene expression changes, complemented by the temporary decline of egg-laying rates, clearly reveal a trade-off between reproduction and the immune response in social insect queens. PMID:26880273

  4. REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUATIC EXPOSURE TO TRENBOLONE, AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive and Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exposure to Trenbolone, an Environmental Androgen (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientific...

  5. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  6. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    PubMed

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production. PMID:17803646

  7. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology

  8. Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology.

    PubMed

    Narayan, E J

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive endocrinology utilizes non-invasive biological samples (such as faeces, urine, hair, aquatic media, and saliva) for the quantification of hormones in wildlife. Urinary-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radio-immunoassay have enabled the rapid quantification of reproductive and stress hormones in amphibians (Anura: Amphibia). With minimal disturbance, these methods can be used to assess the ovarian and testicular endocrine functions as well as physiological stress in captive and free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring has therefore greatly advanced our knowledge of the functioning of the stress endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis) and the reproductive endocrine system (the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis) in the amphibian physiological stress response, reproductive ecology, health and welfare, and survival. Biological (physiological) validation is necessary for obtaining the excretory lag time of hormone metabolites. Urinary-based EIA for the major reproductive hormones, estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males, can be used to track the reproductive hormone profiles in relationship to reproductive behaviour and environmental data in free-living anurans. Urinary-based corticosterone metabolite EIA can be used to assess the sublethal impacts of biological stressors (such as invasive species and pathogenic diseases) as well as anthropogenic induced environmental stressors (e.g. extreme temperatures) on free-living populations. Non-invasive endocrine methods can also assist in the diagnosis of success or failure of captive breeding programmes by measuring the longitudinal patterns of changes in reproductive hormones and corticosterone within captive anurans and comparing the endocrine profiles with health records and reproductive behaviour. This review paper focuses on the reproductive and the stress endocrinology of anurans and demonstrates the uses of non-invasive endocrinology for

  9. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Dai; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed “social physiology.” Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e., social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH) in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e., sociogenomics) in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals. PMID:24782780

  10. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  11. Reproductive interference between Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria affects reproductive success in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Hettyey, Attila; Vági, Balázs; Kovács, Tibor; Ujszegi, János; Katona, Patrik; Szederkényi, Márk; Pearman, Peter B; Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that reproductive interference between heterospecifics can seriously affect individual fitness; support from field studies for such an effect has, however, remained scarce. We studied reproductive interference in 25 natural breeding ponds in an area where two ranid frogs, Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria, co-occur. The breeding seasons of the two species usually overlap and males of both species are often found in amplexus with heterospecific females, even though matings between heterospecifics produce no viable offspring. We estimated species abundance ratios based on the number of clutches laid and evaluated fertilization success. In ponds with low spatial complexity and a species abundance ratio biased towards R. temporaria, the average fertilization success of R. dalmatina eggs decreased, while this relationship was not detectable in spatially more complex ponds. Fertilization success of R. temporaria did not decrease with increasing relative numbers of heterospecifics. This asymmetry in fitness effects of reproductive interference may be attributed to R. temporaria males being more competitive in scramble competition for females than R. dalmatina males. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that in natural breeding populations of vertebrates interference among heterospecifics has the potential to substantially lower reproductive success at the population level, which may in turn affect population dynamics. PMID:25138258

  12. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  13. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    PubMed Central

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  14. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  15. Integrating Multimedia Instructional Design Principles with Complex Physiological Concepts in Reproductive Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oki, Angela Christine

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effect of digital multimedia presentations as a method to teach complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The digital presentations developed for this research consisted of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) animations, scriptmessaging and narration. The topics were "Mammalian Ovarian…

  16. Effects of defoliation and shading on the physiological cost of reproduction in silky locoweed Oxytropis sericea

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Takashi Y.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Kudo, Gaku

    2012-01-01

    Background The production of flowers, fruits and seeds demands considerable energy and nutrients, which can limit the allocation of these resources to other plant functions and, thereby, influence survival and future reproduction. The magnitude of the physiological costs of reproduction depends on both the factors limiting seed production (pollen, ovules or resources) and the capacity of plants to compensate for high resource demand. Methods To assess the magnitude and consequences of reproductive costs, we used shading and defoliation to reduce photosynthate production by fully pollinated plants of a perennial legume, Oxytropis sericea (Fabaceae), and examined the resulting impact on photosynthate allocation, and nectar, fruit and seed production. Key Results Although these leaf manipulations reduced photosynthesis and nectar production, they did not alter photosynthate allocation, as revealed by 13C tracing, or fruit or seed production. That photosynthate allocation to reproductive organs increased >190 % and taproot mass declined by 29 % between flowering and fruiting indicates that reproduction was physiologically costly. Conclusions The insensitivity of fruit and seed production to leaf manipulation is consistent with either compensatory mobilization of stored resources or ovule limitation. Seed production differed considerably between the two years of the study in association with contrasting precipitation prior to flowering, perhaps reflecting contrasting limits on reproductive performance. PMID:22021817

  17. The high cost of reproduction in sea otters necessitates unique physiological adaptations.

    PubMed

    Thometz, Nicole M; Kendall, Traci L; Richter, Beau P; Williams, Terrie M

    2016-08-01

    Superimposed on inherently high basal metabolic demands, the additional energetic requirements of reproduction can push female sea otters beyond physiological limits. Indeed, the resulting energy imbalance contributes to disproportionately high rates of mortality at the end of lactation in this species. To examine and quantify metabolic changes associated with reproduction, we measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of a female sea otter across gestation, lactation and non-reproductive periods. Concurrently, measurements were made on a non-breeding control female. Our results suggest that RMR declines during gestation. Conversely, RMR increases during lactation, reaches a peak at 3-4 months postpartum, and remains elevated until weaning. Combining these direct measurements with published data, we found the cost of pup rearing to be significantly higher than previously estimated. High baseline energy demands and limited energy reserves, combined with significant lactation and pup rearing costs, appear to necessitate metabolic and thermal lability during key reproductive stages. PMID:27489214

  18. Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response

    PubMed Central

    BERNAT, EDWARD; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; BENNING, STEPHEN D.; TELLEGEN, AUKE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of affective intensity and thematic content of foreground photographic stimuli on various physiological response systems. This was accomplished by assessing responses to pictures that varied systematically in these parameters. Along with overall effects of picture valence reported in previous work, we found effects of thematic content (i.e., specific nature of objects/events depicted) for all measures except heart rate. In addition, we found that the magnitude of startle blink, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle reactions increased with increasing affective intensity of pictures. Additionally, for these three measures, intensity effects also interacted with effects of picture content. These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate—and in some cases interactive—modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures. PMID:16629689

  19. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  20. The flight physiology of reproductives of Africanized, European, and hybrid honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jon F; Taylor, Orley R; Hall, H Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Neotropical African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata), in the process of spreading throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, hybridize with and mostly replace European honeybees (primarily Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis mellifera ligustica). To help understand this process, we studied the effect of lineage (African, European, or hybrid) on the flight physiology of honeybee reproductives. Flight metabolic rates were higher in queens and drones of African lineage than in European or hybrid bees, as has been previously found for foraging workers. These differences were associated with higher thorax/body mass ratios and higher thorax-specific metabolic rates in African lineage bees. Queens were reared in common colonies, so these metabolic and morphological differences are likely to be genetic in origin. African drones had higher wing beat frequencies and thorax temperatures than European or hybrid bees. Hybrids were intermediate for many parameters, but hybrid queen mass-specific flight metabolic rates were low relative to Africans and were nonlinearly affected by the proportion of African lineage, consistent with some negative heterosis for this trait. PMID:15778935

  1. Effects of supplement type on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred females.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W; Lamb, G C

    2007-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the performance and physiological responses of forage-fed beef females supplemented with either a molasses-based (ML) or a citrus pulp-based (CT) supplement. In Exp. 1, BW gain, reproductive performance, and concentrations of blood urea N (BUN), plasma glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and progesterone (P4) were assessed in 60 Brahman x Angus heifers supplemented 3 times weekly with either ML or CT. Supplement intakes were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Reproductive performance was not affected by treatments, but mean BW gain was greater (P < 0.01) for heifers fed CT than for those fed ML (0.40 vs. 0.30 kg/d). Mean plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and IGF-I were greater (P < 0.05) for heifers fed CT, whereas BUN was greater (P < 0.05) for heifers fed ML. Mean plasma P4 concentration did not differ between treatments, but both groups had lower plasma P4 concentrations during days that supplements were offered (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, forage DMI and concentrations of BUN, plasma glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and P4 were assessed in 24 Brahman x British mature cows supplemented with the same treatments described in Exp. 1. Overall forage DMI did not differ between treatments, but a day effect and a treatment x day interaction were detected (P < 0.05). Both groups consumed less forage during the days on which the supplements were offered (P < 0.01), and forage DMI for cows fed CT was less (P < 0.05) than for cows fed ML during those days. No differences were detected in any blood or plasma measurement. In addition, no differences in concentrations of P4 were detected between CT- and ML-fed cows. We concluded that CT-supplemented heifers had greater BW gain compared with ML-supplemented heifers, but no differences in reproductive performance were observed. We also observed that CT-supplemented cows had a greater variability in forage DMI compared with ML-supplemented cows. PMID:17526669

  2. DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (ptgs2) were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg) titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRβ levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg), maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs,) and ovulation (ptgs2), deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans. PMID:20419165

  3. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  4. ANDROGENS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS AFFECT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND PLAY BEHAVIOR IN THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In mammals, exposure to androgens early in development is essential for masculinization of the male reproductive phenotype. Male fetuses exposed to antiandrogens during perinatal life are permanently demasculinized in their morphology and physiology, whereas exposure to...

  5. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus).

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; Hahn, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins. PMID:22569115

  6. Non-photoperiodic regulation of reproductive physiology in the flexibly breeding pine siskin (Spinus pinus)

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Heather E.; Hahn, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to time reproduction to coincide with favorable conditions, animals use environmental cues to up- and down-regulate the reproductive axis appropriately. Although photoperiodic cues are one of the best studied of such environmental cues, animals also attend to others such as temperature, food availability, rainfall and social cues. Such non-photic cues are expected to be particularly important for tropical species and temperate-zone species that exhibit flexible or opportunistic breeding schedules. In this study, we investigate the use of non-photic cues, specifically food availability and social cues, to time the initiation of reproductive development in the pine siskin (Spinus pinus), a temperate-zone songbird with a flexible breeding schedule. Following winter solstice, males were housed on a 12L:12D photoperiod with either access to a preferred food, a potential mate (social cue), or both. Control birds received only maintenance diet and no mate. Access to a preferred food had a significant positive effect on testis size and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH). However, we found no effect of social treatment on reproductive development. The effect of the food treatment on reproductive development did not appear to result from effects on body mass or fat, as neither measure differed across treatments. The food treatment influenced not only reproductive physiology, but also reproductive behavior in this species, as access to seeds had a positive effect on affiliation of pairs. This study demonstrates that food is a potent stimulus for the initiation of reproductive development in pine siskins. PMID:22569115

  7. Comparative reproductive and physiological responses of northern bobwhite and scaled quail to water deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giuliano, W.M.; Patino, R.; Lutz, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    We compared reproductive and physiological responses of captive female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) under control and water deprivation conditions. Scaled quail required less food and water to reproduce successfully under control conditions than northern bobwhite. Additionally, in scaled quail, serum osmolality levels and kidney mass were unaffected by water deprivation, whereas in northern bobwhite, serum osmolality levels increased and kidney mass declined. This finding indicates that scaled quail may have osmoregulatory abilities superior to those of northern bobwhite. Under control conditions, northern bobwhite gained more body mass and produced more but smaller eggs than scaled quail. Under water deprivation conditions, northern bobwhite lost more body mass but had more laying bens with a higher rate of egg production than scaled quail. Our data suggest that northern bobwhite allocated more resources to reproduction than to body maintenance, while scaled quail apparently forego reproduction in favor of body maintenance during water deprivation conditions.

  8. Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal among Referred and Nonreferred Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2011-01-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the…

  9. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S. S.; Jung, S. W.; Jang, J. C.; Chung, W. L.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (p<0.05) at d 21 of lactation and body weight gain during lactation (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk. Therefore, these results indicated that high-energy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other

  10. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts.

    PubMed

    Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Jang, J C; Chung, W L; Jeong, J H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (p<0.05) at d 21 of lactation and body weight gain during lactation (p<0.01). No significant differences were observed in the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk. Therefore, these results indicated that high-energy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other

  11. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L.; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly. PMID:25994634

  12. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly.

    PubMed

    Plakke, Melissa S; Deutsch, Aaron B; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L; Morehouse, Nathan I

    2015-05-15

    Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly. PMID:25994634

  13. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. PMID:26949140

  14. Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María; Mejías, José; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function. PMID:26697222

  15. Physiologic Course of Female Reproductive Function: A Molecular Look into the Prologue of Life.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Joselyn; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María; Mejías, José; Rojas, Milagros; Morillo, Jessenia; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2015-01-01

    The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function. PMID:26697222

  16. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2 = 0.7664, P = 0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2 = 0.6406, P = 0.0001) and food intake (R2 = 0.784, P = 0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  17. Physiology of reproductive worker honey bees (Apis mellifera): insights for the development of the worker caste.

    PubMed

    Peso, Marianne; Even, Naïla; Søvik, Eirik; Naeger, Nicholas L; Robinson, Gene E; Barron, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    Reproductive and behavioural specialisations characterise advanced social insect societies. Typically, the honey bee (Apis mellifera) shows a pronounced reproductive division of labour between worker and queen castes, and a clear division of colony roles among workers. In a queenless condition, however, both of these aspects of social organisation break down. Queenless workers reproduce, forage and maintain their colony operating in a manner similar to communal bees, rather than as an advanced eusocial group. This plasticity in social organisation provides a natural experiment for exploring physiological mechanisms of division of labour. We measured brain biogenic amine (BA) levels and abdominal fat body vitellogenin gene expression levels of workers in queenright and queenless colonies. Age, ovary activation and social environment influenced brain BA levels in honey bees. BA levels were most influenced by ovary activation state in queenless bees. Vitellogenin expression levels were higher in queenless workers than queenright workers, but in both colony environments vitellogenin expression was lower in foragers than non-foragers. We propose this plasticity in the interacting signalling systems that influence both reproductive and behavioural development allows queenless workers to deviate significantly from the typical worker bee reaction norm and develop as reproductively active behavioural generalists. PMID:26715114

  18. Seminal Fluid-Mediated Inflammation in Physiology and Pathology of the Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Henry A.; Sales, Kurt J.; Katz, Arieh A.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a multifaceted process involving a host of resident and recruited immune cells that eliminate the insult or injury and initiate tissue repair. In the female reproductive tract (FMRT), inflammation-mediated alterations in epithelial, vascular, and immune functions are important components of complex physiological processes and many local and systemic pathologies. It is well established that intracoital and postcoital function of seminal fluid (SF) goes beyond nutritive support for the spermatozoa cells. SF, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins present in vast quantities in SF, have a role in localized immune modulation and regulation of pathways that can exacerbate inflammation in the FMRT. In sexually active women SF-mediated inflammation has been implicated in physiologic processes such as ovulation, implantation, and parturition while also enhancing tumorigenesis and susceptibility to infection. This review highlights the molecular mechanism by which SF regulates inflammatory pathways in the FMRT and how alterations in these pathways contribute to physiology and pathology of the female reproductive function. In addition, based on findings from TaqMan® 96-Well Plate Arrays, on neoplastic cervical cells treated with SF, we discuss new findings on the role of SF as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix. PMID:27446968

  19. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  20. Promoting Reproductive Options for HIV-Affected Couples in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Cohen, Craig R.; Murage, Alfred; Ong’ech, John; Kiarie, James; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    HIV-affected couples have unique challenges that require access to information and reproductive services which prevent HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and offspring while allowing couples to fulfill their reproductive goals. In high HIV prevalent regions of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-affected couples require multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) to enhance their reproductive healthcare options beyond contraception and prevention of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to include assistance in childbearing. The unique characteristics of the condom and its accepted use in conjunction with safer conception interventions allow HIV-serodiscordant couples an opportunity to maintain reproductive health, prevent HIV/STI transmission, and achieve their reproductive goals while timing conception. Rethinking the traditional view of the condom and incorporating a broader reproductive health perspective of HIV-affected couples into MPT methodologies will impact demand, acceptability, and uptake of these future technologies. PMID:25335844

  1. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep during various physiological/reproductive phases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A.; Kumar, P.; Singh, M.; Vasishta, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during various reproductive phases viz. anestrus, breeding season and post partum period. Haematology revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) RBC as well as haematocrit values in pregnant animals (n=23) during breeding season than during other reproductive phases. The number of platelets were significantly lower (P<0.05) and MCH, MCHC values were statistically higher (P<0.05) during postpartum period than during other reproductive phases. Blood biochemistry revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma cholesterol (83.98±3.68 mg/dl), plasma calcium (71.06±1.52 mg/l), magnesium (18.21±0.53 mg/l), potassium (5.10±0.13 mEq/l) and significantly lower (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma total protein (5.75±0.31 gm/dl), globulin (3.04±0.29 gm/dl) and sodium (138.83±1.83 mEq/l) during postpartum period in comparison to other reproductive phases. Endocrine profile revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) serum estrogen (60.97±1.24 pg/ml) and T4 (6.0±0.27 µg/ml) concentrations during postpartum phase. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05) serum progesterone (5.16±0.76 ng/ml) as well as TSH (0.70±0.14 µg/ml) concentration were recorded during pregnancy. From the study it can be concluded that physiological status significantly affects the blood metabolic and endocrine profile in Gaddi sheep. PMID:26623374

  2. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western Himalayan Gaddi sheep during various physiological/reproductive phases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Kumar, P; Singh, M; Vasishta, N K

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during various reproductive phases viz. anestrus, breeding season and post partum period. Haematology revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) RBC as well as haematocrit values in pregnant animals (n=23) during breeding season than during other reproductive phases. The number of platelets were significantly lower (P<0.05) and MCH, MCHC values were statistically higher (P<0.05) during postpartum period than during other reproductive phases. Blood biochemistry revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma cholesterol (83.98±3.68 mg/dl), plasma calcium (71.06±1.52 mg/l), magnesium (18.21±0.53 mg/l), potassium (5.10±0.13 mEq/l) and significantly lower (P<0.05) concentrations of plasma total protein (5.75±0.31 gm/dl), globulin (3.04±0.29 gm/dl) and sodium (138.83±1.83 mEq/l) during postpartum period in comparison to other reproductive phases. Endocrine profile revealed significantly higher (P<0.05) serum estrogen (60.97±1.24 pg/ml) and T4 (6.0±0.27 µg/ml) concentrations during postpartum phase. Similarly, significantly higher (P<0.05) serum progesterone (5.16±0.76 ng/ml) as well as TSH (0.70±0.14 µg/ml) concentration were recorded during pregnancy. From the study it can be concluded that physiological status significantly affects the blood metabolic and endocrine profile in Gaddi sheep. PMID:26623374

  3. Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. Methods and Findings The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US$20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US$509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US$1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict. PMID:19513098

  4. Integrating multimedia instructional design principles with complex physiological concepts in reproductive science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Angela Christine

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation examines the effect of digital multimedia presentations as a method to teach complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The digital presentations developed for this research consisted of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) animations, scriptmessaging and narration. The topics were "Mammalian Ovarian Follicular Dynamics", "The Physiology of the Menstrual Cycle", and "The Physiology of Parturition". In all four experiments, participants were randomly assigned to treatment groups and learning was measured with multiple-choice tests. Experiment 1 determined if type of animation impacted learning about the physiology of the menstrual cycle. The treatments were: 3-D and 2-D animation (n = 110), 2-D animation only (n = 109) and no animation (n = 108). All three presentations were 14 minutes. No treatment effects were found (p > 0.05), indicating that student performance was not influenced by animation type. In experiment 2, the influence of added narrative explanations about the physiology of parturition was determined. The delivery time for the two treatments was 14 minutes (n = 164) and 24 minutes (n = 157), respectively. There were no differences between treatment groups (p > 0.05), indicating that concise explanations were as effective as elaborate explanations. Experiment 3 determined the influence of a digital presentation on knowledge retention of follicular dynamics over the course of a semester. Treatments were: a digital presentation (n = 23) or a classroom lecture captured on video (n = 23). Students completed three tests during the semester. Students in the multimedia group outperformed students in the video lecture group on all three tests (p < 0.05). A fourth experiment determined if the multimedia modules could be effective for teaching physiological concepts to patients with varied educational backgrounds attending an Ob-Gyn clinic. Patients either read a booklet (n = 57) or viewed a multimedia presentation (n = 65) about

  5. Metabolic stressors and signals differentially affect energy allocation between reproduction and immune function.

    PubMed

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Cooper, Candace L; Demas, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Most free-living animals have finite energy stores that they must allocate to different physiological and behavioral processes. In times of energetic stress, trade-offs in energy allocation among these processes may occur. The manifestation of trade-offs may depend on the source (e.g., glucose, lipids) and severity of energy limitation. In this study, we investigated energetic trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems by experimentally limiting energy availability to female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) with 2-deoxy-d-glucose, a compound that disrupts cellular utilization of glucose. We observed how glucoprivation at two levels of severity affected allocation to reproduction and immunity. Additionally, we treated a subset of these hamsters with leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a direct signal of available fat stores, in order to determine how increasing this signal of fat stores influences glucoprivation-induced trade-offs. We observed trade-offs between the reproductive and immune systems and that these trade-offs depended on the severity of energy limitation and exogenous leptin signaling. The majority of the animals experiencing mild glucoprivation entered anestrus, whereas leptin treatment restored estrous cycling in these animals. Surprisingly, virtually all animals experiencing more severe glucoprivation maintained normal estrous cycling throughout the experiment; however, exogenous leptin resulted in lower antibody production in this group. These data suggest that variation in these trade-offs may be mediated by shifts between glucose and fatty acid utilization. Collectively, the results of the present study highlight the context-dependent nature of these trade-offs, as trade-offs induced by the same metabolic stressor can manifest differently depending on its intensity. PMID:25125082

  6. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions. PMID:11070641

  7. The Physiological Role of Arcuate Kisspeptin Neurons in the Control of Reproductive Function in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beale, K.E.; Kinsey-Jones, J.S.; Gardiner, J.V.; Harrison, E.K.; Thompson, E.L.; Hu, M.H.; Sleeth, M.L.; Sam, A.H.; Greenwood, H.C.; McGavigan, A.K.; Dhillo, W.S.; Mora, J.M.; Li, X.F.; Franks, S.; Bloom, S.R.; O'Byrne, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin plays a pivotal role in pubertal onset and reproductive function. In rodents, kisspeptin perikarya are located in 2 major populations: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). These nuclei are believed to play functionally distinct roles in the control of reproduction. The anteroventral periventricular nucleus population is thought to be critical in the generation of the LH surge. However, the physiological role played by the ARC kisspeptin neurons remains to be fully elucidated. We used bilateral stereotactic injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding kisspeptin antisense into the ARC of adult female rats to investigate the physiological role of kisspeptin neurons in this nucleus. Female rats with kisspeptin knockdown in the ARC displayed a significantly reduced number of both regular and complete oestrous cycles and significantly longer cycles over the 100-day period of the study. Further, kisspeptin knockdown in the ARC resulted in a decrease in LH pulse frequency. These data suggest that maintenance of ARC-kisspeptin levels is essential for normal pulsatile LH release and oestrous cyclicity. PMID:24424033

  8. Allopregnanolone as a Mediator of Affective Switching in Reproductive Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Reproductive mood disorders, including premenstrual dysphoria (PMD) and postpartum depression (PPD), are characterized by affective dysregulation that occurs during specific reproductive states. The occurrence of illness onset during changes in reproductive endocrine function has generated interest in the role of gonadal steroids in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders, yet the mechanisms by which the changing hormone milieu triggers depression in susceptible women remain poorly understood. Objectives This review focuses on one of the neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone – allopregnanolone (ALLO) – that acutely regulates neuronal function and may mediate affective dysregulation that occurs concomitant with changes in reproductive endocrine function. We describe the role of the ‘neuroactive’ steroids estradiol and progesterone in reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders to highlight the potential mechanisms by which ALLO might contribute to their pathophysiology. Finally, using existing data, we test the hypothesis that changes in ALLO levels may trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women. Results Although there is no reliable evidence that basal ALLO levels distinguish those with PMD or PPD from those without, existing animal models suggest potential mechanisms by which specific reproductive states may unmask susceptibility to affective dysregulation. Consistent with these models, initially euthymic women with PMD and those with a history of PPD show a negative association between depressive symptoms and circulating ALLO levels following progesterone administration. Conclusions Existing animal models and our own preliminary data suggest that ALLO may play an important role in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders by triggering affective dysregulation in susceptible women. PMID:24846476

  9. The Reproductive System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Reproductive System. Health Occupations Education Module. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the reproductive system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use…

  10. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  11. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, C

    1987-01-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction. PMID:3319549

  12. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. PMID:26332268

  13. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: The current status of heat shock in early embryonic survival and reproductive efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium entitled “The Current Status of Heat Shock in Early Embryonic Survival and Reproductive Efficiency” was held at the Joint ADSA-CSAS-AMPA-WSAS-ASAS Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona, July 15 to 19, 2012. In recent years, data has accumulated suggesting a role for...

  14. Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists. PMID:23124333

  15. Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Russell, Andrew F

    2012-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been studied intensively to understand the associations between physiological stress and reproductive skew in animal societies. However, we have little appreciation of the range of either natural levels within and among individuals, or the associations among dominance status, reproductive rate and GCs levels during breeding. To address these shortcomings, we examined variation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGC) during breeding periods in free-ranging female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over 11 years. The vast majority of variation in fGC levels was found within breeding events by the same female (~87%), with the remaining variation arising among breeding events and among females. Concentrations of fGC generally tripled as pregnancy progressed. However, females with a high reproductive rate, defined as those conceiving within a month following parturition (mean = 9 days postpartum), showed significant reductions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition. Despite these reductions, females with a high reproductive rate had higher fGC levels at conception of the following litter than those breeding at a low rate. After controlling for the higher reproductive rate of dominants, we found no association between levels of fGC and either age or dominance status. Our results suggest that one should be cautious about interpreting associations between dominance status, reproductive skew and GCs levels, without knowledge of the natural variation in GCs levels within and among females. PMID:22210199

  16. Zinc deficiency affects physiological and anatomical characteristics in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Ruiz, Hugo A; Neves, Julio C L; Ventrella, Marília C; Araújo, Wagner L

    2015-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in several plant physiological processes. Therefore, it is important to identify Zn deficiencies promptly--before extensive damage occurs to the plant. The diagnostic tools that are used to identify Zn deficiencies are very important in areas where Zn deficiencies occur. Such diagnostic tools are vital for nutritional management and fertilizer recommendations. The current study investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on maize plants by recording a number of physiological and anatomical parameters. A Zn omission trial (from 0 to 22 days) was carried out to produce plants that had varying degrees of Zn deficiency. Typical symptoms of Zn deficiency (e.g. chlorotic stripes and purple shades on the edges and leaf sheath) appeared 16 days after the omission of Zn from nutrient solutions. As the time of Zn omission increased, there were significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximal efficiency of photosystem I (evaluated by Fv/Fm), biomass (dry weight) and Zn concentrations in plants. Zinc-deficient plants also had a lower vascular bundle proportion coupled with a higher stomata density. These physiological and anatomical changes negatively impacted plant growth. Moreover, they occurred before visible symptoms of Zn deficiency were observed. Zinc concentrations were recorded for younger leaves, rather than for more mature leaves, which is usually recommended for plant analysis. The results demonstrate that the analysis of Zn in young leaves of maize is a very sensitive indicator of Zn status. PMID:26135475

  17. Physiological tremor enhanced by manoeuvres affecting the segmental stretch reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R R; Hagbarth, K E

    1980-01-01

    In view of recent evidence that physiological tremor can be enhanced by positive feedback via the segmental stretch reflex, several manoeuvres and procedures were employed to enhance the finger and hand tremor of healthy subjects--the purpose being to determine if tremorogenic effects, at least in part, are due to increase efficacy of the stretch reflex servo. Mechanical events during tremor (and during voluntary or electrically induced muscle twitches) were recorded together with EMG activity from wrist and finger flexor muscles and discharges from primary spindle endings in these muscles. Physiological tremor can be enhanced not only by manoeuvres which increase the gain of segmental stretch reflexes (Jendrassik manoeuvre) but also by manoeuvres which increase the contrast in spindle firing during stretch versus shortening phases of tremor, thus enhancing reflex modulation. Effects of the latter type can be achieved by procedures which alter mechanical twitch properties of extrafusal fibres (isoproterenol infusions and fatigue) and by procedures which involve application of spindle stimuli acting preferentially during stretch phases of tremor movements (muscle vibrations). Physiological tremor, which can be temporarily enhanced by an externally applied muscle perturbation, also becomes accentuated by those small "pseudo-myoclonic" jerks which occur in all normal subjects attempting to perform slow, smooth movements. PMID:7373322

  18. Positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal among referred and nonreferred youths.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E; Catanzaro, Salvatore J

    2011-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the practical utility of the measures. Scores on the PANAS-C Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) scales and the PH-C were compared for a general sample of schoolchildren (n = 226), a group of students referred for special education services (n = 83), and youths on an inpatient psychiatric unit (n = 37). Expected patterns of scores emerged for the general school and referred school samples, although only scores on the PH-C were statistically significantly different. Differences in scores between the general school and inpatient samples were significant for all 3 scales. Differences in scores between the referred school and inpatient samples were significant for the NA scale and the PH-C but not for the PA scale. In addition, we used traditional self-report measures to form groups of normal, anxious, depressed, and mixed anxious and depressed youths. Again, predicted general patterns of PA, NA and PH scores were supported, although statistical differences were not always evident. In particular, scores on the PH-C for the anxious and depressed groups were inconsistent with predictions. Possible reasons related to sample and scale issues are discussed. Finally, preliminary cutoff scores were proposed for the PANAS-C scales and the PH-C. PMID:21744972

  19. Clonal Patch Size and Ramet Position of Leymus chinensis Affected Reproductive Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive allocation is critically important for population maintenance and usually varies with not only environmental factors but also biotic ones. As a typical rhizome clonal plant in China's northern grasslands, Leymus chinensis usually dominates the steppe communities and grows in clonal patches. In order to clarify the sexual reproductive allocation of L. chinensis in the process of the growth and expansion, we selected L. chinensis clonal patches of a range of sizes to examine the reproductive allocation and allometric growth of the plants. Moreover, the effects of position of L. chinensis ramets within the patch on their reproductive allocation were also examined. Clonal patch size and position both significantly affected spike biomass, reproductive tiller biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio. From the central to the marginal zone, both the spike biomass and reproductive tiller biomass displayed an increasing trend in all the five patch size categories except for reproductive tiller biomass in 15–40m2 category. L. chinensis had significantly larger SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio in marginal zone than in central zone of clonal patches that are larger than 15 m2 in area. Regression analysis showed that the spike biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio were negatively correlated with clonal patch size while patch size showed significantly positive effect on SEED/SPIKE biomass ratio, but the reproductive tiller biomass and SEED/TILLER biomass ratio were not dependent on clonal patch size. The relationships between biomass of spike and reproductive tiller, between mature seed biomass and spike biomass and between mature seed biomass and reproductive tiller biomass were significant allometric for all or some of patch size categories, respectively. The slopes of all these allometric relationships were significantly different from 1. The allometric growth of L. chinensis is patch size-dependent. This finding will be helpful for developing appropriate practices for

  20. How does childhood socioeconomic hardship affect reproductive strategy? Pathways of development

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Mark S.; Sear, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In high‐income populations, evidence suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage early in life is correlated with reproductive strategy. Children growing up in unfavorable rearing environments tend to experience earlier sexual maturity and first births. Earlier first births may be associated with higher fertility, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and larger family size have rarely been tested. The pathways through which early disadvantage influences reproduction are unknown. We test whether physiological factors link childhood adversity to age at first birth and total children. Methods Using data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a 1947 British birth cohort, we developed path models to identify possible physiological traits linking childhood socioeconomic status, and poor housing standards, to two reproductive outcomes: age at first birth and total children. We explored birth weight, weight gain after birth, childhood illnesses, body mass index at age 9, age at menarche, and adult height as possible mediators. Results We found direct, negative effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and housing on age at first birth, and of housing on fertility. Although we found links between childhood disadvantage and menarche and height, neither of these were significantly correlated with either reproductive outcome. Age at first birth completely mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and total fertility, which we believe has not been empirically demonstrated before. Conclusions While there are some links between childhood adversity and child health, we find little evidence that physiological pathways, such as child health and growth, link early childhood adversity to reproductive outcomes in this relatively well‐nourished population. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:356–363, 2016. © 2015 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26407916

  1. Allocation, stress tolerance and carbon transport in plants: how does phloem physiology affect plant ecology?

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica A; Clearwater, Michael J; Haines, Dustin F; Klein, Tamir; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Sevanto, Sanna; Turgeon, Robert; Zhang, Cankui

    2016-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of carbon transport in whole plant physiology and its impact on plant-environment interactions and ecosystem function, relatively little research has tried to examine how phloem physiology impacts plant ecology. In this review, we highlight several areas of active research where inquiry into phloem physiology has increased our understanding of whole plant function and ecological processes. We consider how xylem-phloem interactions impact plant drought tolerance and reproduction, how phloem transport influences carbon allocation in trees and carbon cycling in ecosystems and how phloem function mediates plant relations with insects, pests, microbes and symbiotes. We argue that in spite of challenges that exist in studying phloem physiology, it is critical that we consider the role of this dynamic vascular system when examining the relationship between plants and their biotic and abiotic environment. PMID:26147312

  2. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  3. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  4. Evidence of detrimental effects of environmental contaminants on growth and reproductive physiology of white sturgeon in impounded areas of the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feist, G.W.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gundersen, D.T.; Foster, E.P.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether wild white sturgeon from the Columbia River (Oregon) were exhibiting signs of reproductive endocrine disruption. Fish were sampled in the free-flowing portion of the river (where the population is experiencing reproductive success) and from three reservoirs behind hydroelectric dams (where fish have reduced reproductive success). All of the 18 pesticides and almost all of the 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were analyzed in livers and gonads were detected in at least some of the tissue samples. Metabolites of p,p???-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) [p,p???-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p???-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD)] were consistently found at relatively high levels in fish. Some males and immature females showed elevated plasma vitellogenin; however, concentrations were not correlated with any of the pesticides or PCBs analyzed. Negative correlations were found between a number of physiologic parameters and tissue burdens of toxicants. Plasma triglycerides and condition factor were negatively correlated with total DDT (DDD + DDE + DDT), total pesticides (all pesticides detected - total DDT), and PCBs. In males, plasma androgens and gonad size were negatively correlated with total DDT, total pesticides, and PCBs. Fish residing in the reservoir behind the oldest dam had the highest contaminant loads and incidence of gonadal abnormalities, and the lowest triglycerides, condition factor, gonad size, and plasma androgens. These data suggest that endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be accumulating behind dams over time. Overall, results of this study indicate that exposure to environmental contaminants may be affecting both growth and reproductive physiology of sturgeon in some areas of the Columbia River.

  5. Evidence of detrimental effects of environmental contaminants on growth and reproductive physiology of white sturgeon in impounded areas of the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Feist, Grant W; Webb, Molly A H; Gundersen, Deke T; Foster, Eugene P; Schreck, Carl B; Maule, Alec G; Fitzpatrick, Martin S

    2005-12-01

    This study sought to determine whether wild white sturgeon from the Columbia River (Oregon) were exhibiting signs of reproductive endocrine disruption. Fish were sampled in the free-flowing portion of the river (where the population is experiencing reproductive success) and from three reservoirs behind hydroelectric dams (where fish have reduced reproductive success). All of the 18 pesticides and almost all of the 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were analyzed in livers and gonads were detected in at least some of the tissue samples. Metabolites of p,p -dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) [p,p -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and p,p -1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD)]were consistently found at relatively high levels in fish. Some males and immature females showed elevated plasma vitellogenin; however, concentrations were not correlated with any of the pesticides or PCBs analyzed. Negative correlations were found between a number of physiologic parameters and tissue burdens of toxicants. Plasma triglycerides and condition factor were negatively correlated with total DDT (DDD + DDE + DDT), total pesticides (all pesticides detected - total DDT), and PCBs. In males, plasma androgens and gonad size were negatively correlated with total DDT, total pesticides, and PCBs. Fish residing in the reservoir behind the oldest dam had the highest contaminant loads and incidence of gonadal abnormalities, and the lowest triglycerides, condition factor, gonad size, and plasma androgens. These data suggest that endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be accumulating behind dams over time. Overall, results of this study indicate that exposure to environmental contaminants may be affecting both growth and reproductive physiology of sturgeon in some areas of the Columbia River. PMID:16330346

  6. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  7. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  8. Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiwei; Hong, Sungho; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin, and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e., linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted) varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents) and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells. PMID:26594148

  9. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  10. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF THE BPG AXIS IN FATHEAD MINNOWS: PREDICTING EFFECTS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL EXPOSURE ON REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes development and application of a physiologically-based computational model that simulates the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis and other endpoints important in reproduction such as concentrations of sex steroid hormones, 17-estradiol, testosterone, a...

  11. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ≥10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ≥30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ≥30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  12. The disadvantages of mating outside home: How breeding in captivity affects the reproductive success of seahorses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faleiro, Filipa; Narciso, Luís

    2013-04-01

    In captivity, husbandry conditions are distinct from those experienced by fish in the wild and may have a significant effect on reproductive success. This study evaluates the effect of supportive breeding (i.e., breeding animals in captivity using wild parents) on some quantitative and qualitative aspects of the reproductive success of the long-snouted seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus. Wild and captive broods were compared in terms of juvenile number, size, condition and fatty acid profile at birth. Reproductive investment and breeding success of H. guttulatus decreased considerably in captivity. Juveniles from captive broods were fewer in number, smaller, generally thinner and with lower fatty acid contents (per juvenile) than those from wild broods, although their fatty acid composition (μg mg- 1 DW or %TFA) was not significantly affected. Although not greatly encouraging, the poor reproductive performance of captive seahorses should not, however, efface the potential of supportive breeding as a tool for seahorse conservation. Enhanced conditions and long-term breeding in captivity will allow to improve the reproductive success of the species and the quality of the fingerlings.

  13. Effects of protein supplementation frequency on physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Perry, G A; Jump, D B; Lytle, K A; Bohnert, D W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if frequency of protein supplementation impacts physiological responses associated with reproduction in beef cows. Fourteen nonpregnant, nonlactating beef cows were ranked by age and BW and allocated to 3 groups. Groups were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design, containing 3 periods of 21 d and the following treatments: 1) soybean meal supplementation daily (D), 2) soybean meal supplementation 3 times/week (3WK), and 3) soybean meal supplementation once/week (1WK). Within each period, cows were assigned to an estrus synchronization protocol: 100 μg of GnRH + controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) containing 1.38 g of progesterone (P4) on d 1, 25 mg of PGF2α on d 8, and CIDR removal + 100 μg of GnRH on d 11. Grass-seed straw was offered for ad libitum consumption. Soybean meal was individually supplemented at a daily rate of 1 kg/cow (as-fed basis). Moreover, 3WK was supplemented on d 0, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, and 18 whereas 1WK was supplemented on d 4, 11, and 18. Blood samples were collected from 0 (before) to 72 h after supplementation on d 11 and 18 and analyzed for plasma urea-N (PUN). Samples collected from 0 to 12 h were also analyzed for plasma glucose, insulin, and P4 (d 18 only). Uterine flushing fluid was collected concurrently with blood sampling at 28 h for pH evaluation. Liver biopsies were performed concurrently with blood sampling at 0, 4, and 28 h and analyzed for mRNA expression of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS-I; h 28) and CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (h 0 and 4 on d 18). Plasma urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. 3WK from 20 to 72 h and greater (P < 0.01) for 1WK vs. D from 16 to 48 h and at 72 h after supplementation (treatment × hour interaction, P < 0.01). Moreover, PUN concentrations peaked at 28 h after supplementation for 3WK and 1WK (P < 0.01) and were greater (P < 0.01) at this time for 1WK vs. 3WK and D and for 3WK vs. D. Expression of CPS-I was

  14. Photoperiodic effects on seasonal physiology, reproductive status and hypothalamic gene expression in young male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tavolaro, F M; Thomson, L M; Ross, A W; Morgan, P J; Helfer, G

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal or photoperiodically sensitive animals respond to altered day length with changes in physiology (growth, food intake and reproductive status) and behaviour to adapt to predictable yearly changes in the climate. Typically, different species of hamsters, voles and sheep are the most studied animal models of photoperiodism. Although laboratory rats are generally considered nonphotoperiodic, one rat strain, the inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rat, has been shown to be sensitive to the length of daylight exposure by changing its physiological phenotype and reproductive status according to the season. The present study aimed to better understand the nature of the photoperiodic response in the F344 rat. We examined the effects of five different photoperiods on the physiological and neuroendocrine responses. Young male F344 rats were held under light schedules ranging from 8 h of light/day to 16 h of light/day, and then body weight, including fat and lean mass, food intake, testes weights and hypothalamic gene expression were compared. We found that rats held under photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day showed increased growth and food intake relative to rats held under photoperiods of ≤ 10 h of light/day. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis confirmed that these changes were mainly the result of a change in lean body mass. The same pattern was evident for reproductive status, with higher paired testes weight in photoperiods of ≥ 12 h of light/day. Accompanying the changes in physiological status were major changes in hypothalamic thyroid hormone (Dio2 and Dio3), retinoic acid (Crabp1 and Stra6) and Wnt/β-Catenin signalling genes (sFrp2 and Mfrp). Our data demonstrate that a photoperiod schedule of 12 h of light/day is interpreted as a stimulatory photoperiod by the neuroendocrine system of young male F344 rats. PMID:25443173

  15. Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

  16. Is It Worth Lying For? Physiological and Emotional Implications of Recalling Deceptive Affection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Sean M.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explored the risks of affectionate expressions in romantic relationships by examining the physiological and emotional implications of recalled expressed deceptive affectionate messages to romantic partners. Ninety-nine participants were assigned to one of three conditions: deceptive affection, honest affection, or plans with a…

  17. Impacts of meloxicam administration before temporary calf weaning on physiological and reproductive responses of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Peres, R F G; Cipriano, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Marques, R S; Rodrigues, M C; Carvalho, R S; Bohnert, D W; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate temperament, physiological, and reproductive variables in beef cows assigned to an estrus synchronization + timed AI protocol including eCG administration, 48-h temporary calf weaning (TCW), or TCW + meloxicam administration. A total of 943 lactating, multiparous, nonpregnant Nelore cows, allocated into 8 groups of approximately 120 cows each, were assigned to the experiment. Groups were maintained in individual pastures and assigned to the following estrus synchronization + timed AI protocol: a 2-mg injection of estradiol benzoate and an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR) on d 0, a 12.5-mg injection of PGF on d 7, CIDR removal in addition to a 0.6-mg injection of estradiol cypionate on d 9, and timed AI on d 11. Within each group, cows were randomly assigned on d 9 to 1) TCW from d 9 to 11 (TCW-CON; = 317), 2) no TCW and a 300-IU injection of eCG on d 9 (NOTCW; = 311), and 3) TCW-CON in addition to meloxicam administration (intramuscular; 0.5 mg/kg BW) on d 9 (TCW-MEL; = 315). Cow BW and BCS were assessed on d 0. On d 9 and 11, blood samples were collected, and cow temperament was evaluated via chute score and exit velocity. Pregnancy status was verified 30 d after timed AI via transrectal ultrasonography. No treatment differences were detected ( ≥ 0.23) for cow age, days postpartum, BW, and BCS on d 0 of the estrus synchronization + timed AI protocol. No treatment effects were detected ( ≥ 0.41) for any of the temperament variables evaluated. A treatment × day interaction was detected ( = 0.02) for serum cortisol concentrations, which were similar ( = 0.55) between treatments on d 9 but greater ( ≤ 0.05) in TCW-CON and TCW-MEL compared with NOTCW cows on d 11. No treatment effects were detected ( = 0.90) for serum haptoglobin concentrations, which decreased from d 9 to 11 in all treatments (day effect; < 0.01). No treatment differences were detected ( = 0.84) for pregnancy rates to timed AI

  18. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mowry, Annelise V.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Sirman, Aubrey E.; Potts, Wayne K.; Hood, Wendy R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage. PMID:27537547

  19. Impacts of environmental pressures on the reproductive physiology of subpopulations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Meyer, Jordana M.; Bird, Jed; Adendorff, John; Schulte, Bruce A.; Santymire, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Black rhinoceros are an icon for international conservation, yet little is known about their physiology due to their secretive nature. To overcome these challenges, non-invasive methods were used to monitor rhinoceros in two sections of Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, namely Addo and Nyathi. These sections were separated by a public road, and the numbers of elephants, predators and tourists were higher in Addo. Faecal samples (n = 231) were collected (from July 2007 to November 2010) from known individuals and analysed for progestagen and androgen metabolite (FPM and FAM, respectively) concentrations. As biotic factors could impact reproduction, we predicted that demographics, FPM and FAM would vary between sections and with respect to season (calendar and wet/dry), climate and age of the rhinoceros. Mean FPM concentrations from pregnant females were seven times higher (P < 0.05) than samples from non-pregnant rhinoceros. Positive relationships were found between monthly temperatures and FPM from non-pregnant females (r2 = 0.25, P = 0.03) and the percentage of calves born (r = 0.609, P = 0.04). Although FAM peaked in the spring, when the majority of calves (40%) were conceived, no seasonal patterns in male androgen concentrations were found with respect to month of conception and parturition. Females in Addo had a longer inter-calving interval and were less likely to be pregnant (P < 0.05) compared with those in Nyathi. The biotic stressors (e.g. predators and more competitors) within Addo section could be affecting the reproductive physiology of the rhinoceros negatively. Enhanced knowledge about how black rhinoceros populations respond to environmental stressors could guide management strategies for improving reproduction. PMID:27293618

  20. Impacts of environmental pressures on the reproductive physiology of subpopulations of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis bicornis) in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Meyer, Jordana M; Bird, Jed; Adendorff, John; Schulte, Bruce A; Santymire, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    Black rhinoceros are an icon for international conservation, yet little is known about their physiology due to their secretive nature. To overcome these challenges, non-invasive methods were used to monitor rhinoceros in two sections of Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, namely Addo and Nyathi. These sections were separated by a public road, and the numbers of elephants, predators and tourists were higher in Addo. Faecal samples (n = 231) were collected (from July 2007 to November 2010) from known individuals and analysed for progestagen and androgen metabolite (FPM and FAM, respectively) concentrations. As biotic factors could impact reproduction, we predicted that demographics, FPM and FAM would vary between sections and with respect to season (calendar and wet/dry), climate and age of the rhinoceros. Mean FPM concentrations from pregnant females were seven times higher (P < 0.05) than samples from non-pregnant rhinoceros. Positive relationships were found between monthly temperatures and FPM from non-pregnant females (r (2) = 0.25, P = 0.03) and the percentage of calves born (r = 0.609, P = 0.04). Although FAM peaked in the spring, when the majority of calves (40%) were conceived, no seasonal patterns in male androgen concentrations were found with respect to month of conception and parturition. Females in Addo had a longer inter-calving interval and were less likely to be pregnant (P < 0.05) compared with those in Nyathi. The biotic stressors (e.g. predators and more competitors) within Addo section could be affecting the reproductive physiology of the rhinoceros negatively. Enhanced knowledge about how black rhinoceros populations respond to environmental stressors could guide management strategies for improving reproduction. PMID:27293618

  1. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  2. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  3. Hippocampal morphology is differentially affected by reproductive experience in the mother.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy and mothering result in a number of hormonal, neurological, and behavioral changes that are necessary to ensure reproductive success. With subsequent reproductive experience (multiparity and mothering), further neurological and behavioral changes may result. Recent research has shown that previous motherhood enhances both hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and long-term potentiation (LTP); together with decreases in hippocampus volumes during pregnancy it is suggested that the hippocampus is affected by pregnancy and/or mothering. The present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of reproductive experience (nulli, primi-, and multiparity and mothering) on dendritic morphology in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Brains were stained with a modified version of the single-section Golgi impregnation technique, and dendritic length, number of branch points, and spine density was analyzed for apical and basal regions of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Primiparity and/or mothering resulted in dendritic remodeling in both the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions, and multiparity resulted in enhanced spine density in the basal CA1 region, which was positively correlated with number of male pups in a litter. These findings point to the effect of reproductive experience and offspring on plasticity in the hippocampus, an area not traditionally associated with motherhood. PMID:16216005

  4. Long-term impacts of poaching on relatedness, stress physiology, and reproductive output of adult female african elephants.

    PubMed

    Gobush, K S; Mutayoba, B M; Wasser, S K

    2008-12-01

    Widespread poaching prior to the 1989 ivory ban greatly altered the demographic structure of matrilineal African elephant (Loxodonta africana) family groups in many populations by decreasing the number of old, adult females. We assessed the long-term impacts of poaching by investigating genetic, physiological, and reproductive correlates of a disturbed social structure resulting from heavy poaching of an African elephant population in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, prior to 1989. We examined fecal glucocorticoid levels and reproductive output among 218 adult female elephants from 109 groups differing in size, age structure, and average genetic relatedness over 25 months from 2003 to 2005. The distribution in group size has changed little since 1989, but the number of families with tusked old matriarchs has increased by 14.2%. Females from groups that lacked an old matriarch, first-order adult relatives, and strong social bonds had significantly higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those from groups with these features (all females R(2)= 0.31; females in multiadult groups R(2)= 0.46). Females that frequented isolated areas with historically high poaching risk had higher fecal glucocorticoid values than those in low poaching risk areas. Females with weak bonds and low group relatedness had significantly lower reproductive output (R(2)[U]=0.21). Females from disrupted groups, defined as having observed average group relatedness 1 SD below the expected mean for a simulated unpoached family, had significantly lower reproductive output than females from intact groups, despite many being in their reproductive prime. These results suggest that long-term negative impacts from poaching of old, related matriarchs have persisted among adult female elephants 1.5 decades after the 1989 ivory ban was implemented. PMID:18759771

  5. Caterpillar biomass depends on temperature and precipitation, but does not affect bird reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöll, Eva Maria; Ohm, Judith; Hoffmann, Konstantin Frank; Hille, Sabine Marlene

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes in phenological events appear as temperatures are increasing: In deciduous forests bud burst, hatching of herbivorous caterpillars, egg laying and nestling time of birds when feeding chicks on caterpillars, may differentially shift into early season and alter synchronization. If timing of bird reproduction has to match with short periods of food availability, phenological mismatch could negatively affect reproductive success. Using a unique empirical approach along an altitudinal temperature gradient, we firstly asked whether besides temperature, also precipitation and leaf phenology interplay and affect caterpillar biomass, since impacts of rainfall on caterpillars have been largely neglected so far. Secondly, we asked whether abundance of caterpillars and thereby body mass of great tit nestlings, which are mainly fed with caterpillars, vary along the altitudinal temperature gradient. We demonstrated that next to temperature also precipitation and leaf phenology affected caterpillar biomass. In our beech forest, even along altitudes, caterpillars were available throughout the great tit breeding season but in highly variable amounts. Our findings revealed that although timing of leaf phenology and great tit breeding season were delayed with decreasing temperature, caterpillars occurred synchronously and were not delayed according to altitude. However, altitude negatively affected caterpillar biomass, but body mass of fledglings at high altitude sites was not affected by lower amounts of caterpillar biomass. This might be partially outweighed by larger territory sizes in great tits.

  6. Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machtinger, Erika T.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

  7. Should weaning be the start of the reproductive cycle in hyper-prolific sows? A physiological view.

    PubMed

    Kemp, B; Soede, N M

    2012-08-01

    Normally, sows are in anoestrus during lactation and start their new cycle at the day of weaning. Modern hybrid primiparous sows that suckle large numbers of piglets may lose substantial amounts of body reserves during lactation. This compromises follicle development during lactation. As modern sows have short weaning-to-oestrus intervals, these compromised follicles are recruited for ovulation directly after weaning, resulting in lower ovulation rates and lower embryo survival. Postponing or skipping first oestrus after weaning in primiparous sows may help to limit the negative consequences of lactation on subsequent reproduction. Multiparous sows may have very high litter sizes, especially after long lactations as applied in organic sows. These high litter sizes compromise piglet birthweight and survival and subsequent performance. Inducing lactation oestrus in multiparous sows may help to limit litter size and improve piglet survival and performance. This study discusses physiological and reproductive effects of extending the start of a new pregnancy after lactation in primiparous sows and induction of lactation oestrus in multiparous sows. We thereby challenge the view that weaning is an ideal start for the reproductive cycle in modern sows. PMID:22827387

  8. Physiological and biochemical changes of females of Piracanjuba, subjected to induced reproduction.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, M A; Costa, F G; de Carvalho, S; Seiva, F R F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to compare the level of fish female stress during induced reproduction with pituitary extract by two different methods, natural and semiextruded. The reproductive efficiency was 62.5% in the seminatural treatment and 100% in the extruded. Obtained egg volume was 5200 ml and 4000 ml, for seminatural and extruded treatments respectively. The mean number of eggs was 46.7 for the seminatural and 52.0 and for the extruded treatment. The percentage of viable eggs was, respectively, 87.2% and 8.17% for the natural treatment and extruded semimethods. Blood samples were collected to quantify cortisol and glucose levels, as well as red cell series and lymphocyte count. Fishes submitted to induction procedures showed elevated cortisol and glucose levels, compared to the control animals. The results for haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count showed no significant differences among groups. Significant differences found in the number of lymphocytes and monocytes suggest the general adaptation syndrome. Our results suggest the reproductive induction process with extrusion of gametes as a more stressful method than seminatural reproduction process. PMID:26719107

  9. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  10. Does the inclusion of protease inhibitors in the insemination extender affect rabbit reproductive performance?

    PubMed

    Casares-Crespo, L; Vicente, J S; Talaván, A M; Viudes-de-Castro, M P

    2016-03-15

    The bioavailability of buserelin acetate when added to the seminal dose appears to be determined by the activity of the existing aminopeptidases. Thus, the addition of aminopeptidase inhibitors to rabbit semen extenders could be a solution to decrease the hormone degradation. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the protease activity inhibition on rabbit semen quality parameters and reproductive performance after artificial insemination. Seminal quality was not affected by the incubation with protease inhibitors, being the values of motility, viability, and acrosome integrity not significantly different between the protease inhibitors and the control group. In addition, seminal plasma aminopeptidase activity was inhibited in a 55.1% by the protease inhibitors. On the other hand, regarding the effect of protease inhibitors on reproductive performance, our results showed that the presence of protease inhibitors affected the prolificacy rate (9.2 ± 0.26 and 9.3 ± 0.23 vs. 8.2 ± 0.22 total born per litter for negative control, positive control, and aminopeptidase inhibitors group, respectively; P < 0.05), having this group one kit less per delivery. We conclude that the addition of a wide variety of protease inhibitors in the rabbit semen extender negatively affects prolificacy rate. Therefore, the development of new extenders with specific aminopeptidase inhibitors would be one of the strategies to increase the bioavailability of GnRH analogues without affecting the litter size. PMID:26639641

  11. Effects of photoperiod and food restriction on the reproductive physiology of female California mice

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Michael Q.; Knight, Jennifer A.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Many temperate-zone animals use changes in photoperiod to time breeding. Shorter term cues, like food availability, are integrated with photoperiod to adjust reproductive timing under unexpected conditions. Many mice of the genus Peromyscus breed in the summer. California mice (Peromyscus californicus), however, can breed year round, but tend to begin breeding in the winter. Glial cells may be involved in transduction of environmental signals that regulate gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) activity. We examined the effects of diet and photoperiod on reproduction in female California mice. Mice placed on either short days (8L:16D) or long days (16L:8D) were food restricted (80% of normal intake) or fed ad libitum. Short day-food restricted mice showed significant regression of the reproductive system. GnRH-immunoreactivity was increased in the tuberal hypothalamus of long day-food restricted mice. This may be associated with the sparing effect long days have when mice are food restricted. The number of GFAP-immunoreactive fibers in proximity to GnRH nerve terminals correlated negatively with uterine size in ad libitum but not food restricted mice, suggesting diet may alter glial regulation of the reproductive axis. There was a trend towards food restriction increasing uterine expression of c-fos mRNA, an estrogen dependent gene. Similar to other seasonally breeding rodents, short days render the reproductive system of female California mice more susceptible to effects of food restriction. This may be vestigial, or it may have evolved to mitigate consequences of unexpectedly poor winter food supplies. PMID:22245263

  12. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  13. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  14. Photoperiod- and Triiodothyronine-dependent Regulation of Reproductive Neuropeptides, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Peripheral Physiology in Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Banks, Ruth; Delibegovic, Mirela; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2016-06-01

    Seasonal trade-offs in reproduction and immunity are ubiquitous in nature. The mechanisms that govern transitions across seasonal physiological states appear to involve reciprocal switches in the local synthesis of thyroid hormone. In long-day (LD) summer-like conditions, increased hypothalamic triiodothyronine (T3) stimulates gonadal development. Alternatively, short-day (SD) winter-like conditions increase peripheral leukocytes and enhance multiple aspects of immune function. These data indicate that the localized effects of T3 in the hypothalamus and leukocytes are photoperiod dependent. We tested the hypothesis that increased peripheral T3 in SD conditions would increase aspects of reproductive physiology and inhibit immune function, whereas T3 injections in LD conditions would facilitate aspects of immune function (i.e., leukocytes). In addition, we also examined whether T3 regulates hypothalamic neuropeptide expression as well as hypothalamic and splenic proinflammatory cytokine expression. Adult male Siberian hamsters were maintained in LD (15L:9D) or transferred to SD (9L:15D) for 8 weeks. A subset of LD and SD hamsters was treated daily with 5 µg T3 for 2 weeks. LD and SD controls were injected with saline. Daily T3 administration in SD hamsters (SD+T3) resulted in a rapid and substantial decrease in peripheral leukocyte concentrations and stimulated gonadal development. T3 treatment in LD (LD+T3) had no effect on testicular volumes but significantly increased leukocyte concentrations. Molecular analyses revealed that T3 stimulated interleukin 1β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the spleen and inhibited RFamide Related Peptide-3 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Moreover, there was a photoperiod-dependent decrease in splenic tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression. These findings reveal that T3 has tissue-specific and photoperiod-dependent regulation of seasonal rhythms in reproduction and immune function. PMID:26984896

  15. Reproductive status, endocrine physiology and chemical signaling in the Neotropical, swarm-founding eusocial wasp Polybia micans

    PubMed Central

    Kelstrup, Hans C.; Hartfelder, Klaus; Nascimento, Fabio S.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    In the evolution of caste-based societies in Hymenoptera, the classical insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids were co-opted into new functions. Social wasps, which show all levels of sociality and lifestyles, are an ideal group in which to study such functional changes. Virtually all studies on the physiological mechanisms underlying reproductive division of labor and caste functions in wasps have been done on independent-founding paper wasps, and the majority of these studies have focused on species specially adapted for overwintering. The relatively little-studied tropical swarm-founding wasps of the Epiponini (Vespidae) are a diverse group of permanently social wasps, with some species maintaining caste flexibility well into the adult phase. We investigated the behavior, reproductive status, JH and ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph, ecdysteroid content of the ovary and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the caste-monomorphic, epiponine wasp Polybia micans Ducke. We found that the JH titer was not elevated in competing queens from established multiple-queen nests, but increased in lone queens that lack direct competition. In queenless colonies, JH titer rose transiently in young potential reproductives upon challenge by nestmates, suggesting that JH may prime the ovaries for further development. Ovarian ecdysteroids were very low in workers but higher and correlated with the number of vitellogenic oocytes in the queens. Hemolymph ecdysteroid levels were low and variable in both workers and queens. Profiles of P. micans CHCs reflected caste, age and reproductive status, but were not tightly linked to either hormone. These findings show a significant divergence in hormone function in swarm-founding wasps compared with independently founding ones. PMID:24744417

  16. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  17. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus newmani (Copepoda: Calanoida) is deleteriously affected by diatom blooms A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Pierson, James J.; Leising, Andrew W.

    2005-11-01

    Copepod secondary production has traditionally been linked to the spring diatom bloom in temperate and high latitudes, but laboratory studies have recently challenged this view and have shown either reduced fecundity or viability of offspring when copepods were fed high concentrations of - mostly unialgal - diatoms. However, field evidence that diatoms affect copepod reproduction is still scarce. We analyzed the reproductive response of a common, small calanoid copepod of the boreal Pacific, Pseudocalanus newmani, to spring diatom blooms in Dabob Bay, a semi-enclosed fjord of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abundance patterns, egg production rates, egg hatching success, and naupliar viability of the egg-carrying copepod were examined between February and early May in the years 2002-2004. The population underwent strong variations in abundance during both years, with high abundance of all stages from February to mid-March, but dramatically decreasing individual numbers later in spring. A recovery to higher numbers occurred in July. While egg production rates were independent of chlorophyll concentrations, the reproductive success of P. newmani was negatively affected by certain phytoplankton bloom conditions. Hatching success and - more markedly - naupliar survival were reduced following peaks of Thalassiosira species that were producing anti-mitotic aldehydes, but were high during periods when phytoplankton blooms were more diverse or dominated by other prey taxa including diatoms. As a consequence, recruitment of the naupliar population was considerably affected by the Thalassiosira blooms. This study shows for the first time that the so-called diatom effect operates in nature when all prerequisites - (1) high concentration of aldehyde producers, (2) few prey alternatives, and (3) feeding of copepods on these algae - are given. However, the effect was transient in Dabob Bay and may be so in other pelagic ecosystems. It remains to discern the potential sources of

  18. Food availability affects onset of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Mangel, Marc; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment on the onset of reproduction and reproductive performance (productivity at first breeding) in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska. Birds were born and raised in nests with supplemented food (‘fed’) or unsupplemented control nests (‘unfed’), and later recruited into either fed or unfed nests. Fed chicks grew faster than unfed chicks, and males grew faster than females. Birds were more likely to reproduce at younger ages when recruiting into fed nests. Faster growth during development tended to increase age at recruitment in all individuals. Social rank of individuals also affected age at recruitment: B-chicks recruited earlier than A-chicks and singletons recruited later than A- and B-chicks. Productivity increased with the age at recruitment and growth rate as chick, but much of the variability remained unexplained. We conclude that results of this study at least partially support predictions of life-history theory: younger age at first breeding for kittiwakes that experienced suboptimal natal conditions, as well as greater productivity of early recruiting kittiwakes that grew in control nests compared with those that grew in food-supplemented nests. PMID:23576791

  19. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. PMID:22380551

  20. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  1. Reproductive hacking

    PubMed Central

    Dustin Rubinstein, C; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through “hacking” a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  2. Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species. PMID:25229944

  3. The Physiologic Response to Stress and its Effects on Swine Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When exposed to a stressor, swine invoke behavioral and physiologic responses which are designed to enable the individual to cope with the negative effects of the stressor. The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is increased resulting in elevated corticotropic releasing factor (CRF)...

  4. BORON IN THE TYPICAL DIET: A PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE FOR BONE HEALTH, REPRODUCTION AND INSULIN METABOLISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron has long been recognized as essential for all higher plants and is essential for at least some species in all phylogenetic kingdoms. Therefore, it is not surprising that diets very low in boron perturb physiological processes in humans as well as animal models of human nutrition including, fr...

  5. Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuids, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local inhibition of gonadal activity by glucocorticoids. As the latter has not been tested in birds yet, we tested if corticosterone directly inhibits ovarian steroid synthesis under in vitro conditions. We hypothesized that degradation of corticosterone by follicular cells impairs their ability to synthesize reproductive hormones due to either inhibition of enzymes or competition for common co-factors. Therefore, we first established whether follicles degrade corticosterone. Follicular tissue was harvested from freshly euthanized laying hens and incubated with radiolabelled corticosterone. Radioactive metabolites were visualized and quantified by autoradiography. Follicles converted corticosterone in a time-dependent manner into metabolites with a higher polarity than corticosterone. The predominant metabolite co-eluted with 20β-dihydrocorticosterone. Other chicken tissues mostly formed the same metabolite when incubated with corticosterone. In a second experiment, follicles were incubated with either progesterone or dehydroepiandrosterone. Corticosterone was added in increasing dosages up to 1000 ng per ml medium. Corticosterone did not inhibit the conversion of progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone into a number of different metabolites, including 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone. In conclusion, avian tissues degrade corticosterone mostly to 20β-dihydrocorticosterone and even high corticosterone dosages do not affect follicular hormone production under in vitro conditions. PMID:23333751

  6. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Anne E.; Routledge, Edwin J.; Jones, Catherine S.; Noble, Leslie R.; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment. PMID:27448327

  7. Do local adaptation and the reproductive tactic of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affect offspring metabolic capacities?

    PubMed

    Rossignol, O; Dodson, J J; Marquilly, C; Guderley, H

    2010-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is an iteroparous, anadromous species that exhibits some of the greatest within-population variability in size and age at maturity of all vertebrates. In the conditional reproductive strategy of salmonids, the male reproductive tactic expressed is believed to depend on an individual male's status relative to others in the population and therefore depends on his capacity to attain a physiological threshold, the exact nature of which is unknown. Although the threshold is influenced by local biotic and abiotic conditions, it is likely to be under genetic control. Our study examined whether the early growth, muscle metabolic capacities, routine metabolic rate, and spontaneous swimming of salmon alevins reared in laboratory conditions varied with the population of origin, maternal investment, and the paternal reproductive tactic. Our experimental design allowed us to establish that neither the population of origin nor the paternal reproductive tactic influenced the physiological capacities of alevins. The strong influence of the mother on alevin metabolic capacities suggests that the bioenergetic differences in metabolic capacities, realized metabolic rates, and activity levels that could eventually dictate the reproductive tactic of male offspring may originate in maternal effects. PMID:20350165

  8. Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP3R, the first intracellular Ca2+ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP3R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP3R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP3R counterparts. Expression of an NH2-terminal Dj.IP3R region (amino acid residues 223–585) recovered high affinity 3H-IP3 binding (0.9 ± 0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP3 coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP3R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP3R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP3R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology. PMID:23481272

  9. Mammalian neurohormones: potential significance in reproductive physiology of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murch, Susan; Saxena, Praveen

    2002-10-01

    Melatonin and serotonin are indoleamine neurohormones that function as photoperiod signals in many species and have recently been found in St. John's wort, a medicinal plant used in the treatment of depression. There is no known role for melatonin in higher plants but melatonin functions as a signal of changes in photoperiod in other species. In the current study, serotonin and melatonin were quantified during flower development. Higher concentrations of serotonin were found in flower buds at the tetrad stage of microspore development and higher melatonin concentrations were detected during uninucleate mircosporogenesis. Additionally, the regeneration potential of isolated anthers was highest in the same stage that had elevated melatonin concentrations. These data provide the first evidence of the presence of melatonin during flower development and raise many questions about the potential roles of serotonin and melatonin as regulatory molecules in the reproductive flexibility of higher plants.

  10. Elevated corticosterone levels decrease reproductive output of chick-rearing Adélie penguins but do not affect chick mass at fledging

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Study of physiological mechanisms can help us to understand how animals respond to changing environmental conditions. In particular, stress hormones (i.e. glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone) are described as mediating resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of an experimental increase in baseline corticosterone levels on the breeding effort and the reproductive output of chick-rearing male Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae). The number of chicks per nest, their body mass, and their size were monitored throughout the study. Direct observations allowed measurement of the time spent foraging at sea and caring for the young on the nest. At the end of the treatment, blood samples were collected for isotope analysis. Although all birds raised at least one chick, reproductive output was decreased by 42% in corticosterone-treated birds compared with control birds. The increase in corticosterone levels during the guard stage did not affect the mass of surviving chicks or the brood mass at fledging. Corticosterone-treated males spent on average 21% more time at the nest than control birds. However, the duration of foraging trips was similar between both groups. In addition, the similarity of isotopic signatures suggests that both groups foraged at similar locations and ingested the same prey species. The detailed on-land behaviour of birds should be examined in further studies to clarify the possible links between corticosterone levels, brooding time, and reproductive output. Understanding the relationships between glucocorticoids, fitness, and ultimately population dynamics is fundamental to enabling conservation physiology as a discipline to be successful in helping to manage species of conservation concern. PMID:27293591

  11. The dual origins of affect in nightmares: the roles of physiological homeostasis and memory.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Strong negative affect is a key and distressing ingredient of nightmares. Affect in nightmares arises either from the new generation of affective states due to physiological imbalances that occur during sleep or from the reactivation of affect-laden memories. The disruption of physiological balance produces a negative hedonic state, restoration of this balance produces a positive hedonic state, and when balance is attained, a neutral hedonic state results. As a result, hedonic states provoke behaviors in defense of homeostasis, then guide and terminate them. When, due to inadvertent behavior, a pronounced disruption of homeostasis occurs after sleep onset, the resultant strong negative hedonic state is likely to precipitate a nightmare and may lead to awakening. During normal wakefulness, associations of the interplay between stimuli and behaviors that disrupt homeostasis, those that restore homeostasis, and the affective states generated in the process, are committed to memory as affecto-cognitive ensembles. Sleep serves to build or rebuild neural architecture to effect development or to compensate for use- or disease-related wear (e.g. repair oxidative damage). Dreaming serves to synchronize or resynchronize such modified neural circuits with each other and those not modified. Hence, during dreaming, affecto-cognitive ensembles may get reactivated as part of the synchronization process. Where such an ensemble contains strong negative affect (i.e., due to strong affect generated during the original experience), a nightmare may be precipitated. Although both can occur throughout life, the latter type of nightmare is more likely in adults and the former in young children. For the latter memory-based behavioral therapy and for the former education and care are expected to be useful. For both types of nightmare, because strong negative affect is deemed dependent on noradrenergic outflow from the locus coeruleus, the administration of alpha-adrenergic antagonists will

  12. Disruption of amylase genes by RNA interference affects reproduction in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Huvet, Arnaud; Béguel, Jean-Philippe; Cavaleiro, Nathalia Pereira; Thomas, Yoann; Quillien, Virgile; Boudry, Pierre; Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Fabioux, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Feeding strategies and digestive capacities can have important implications for variation in energetic pathways associated with ecological and economically important traits, such as growth or reproduction in bivalve species. Here, we investigated the role of amylase in the digestive processes of Crassostrea gigas, using in vivo RNA interference. This approach also allowed us to investigate the relationship between energy intake by feeding and gametogenesis in oysters. Double-stranded (ds)RNA designed to target the two α-amylase genes A and B was injected in vivo into the visceral mass of oysters at two doses. These treatments caused significant reductions in mean mRNA levels of the amylase genes: -50.7% and -59% mRNA A, and -71.9% and -70.6% mRNA B in 15 and 75 µg dsRNA-injected oysters, respectively, relative to controls. Interestingly, reproductive knock-down phenotypes were observed for both sexes at 48 days post-injection, with a significant reduction of the gonad area (-22.5% relative to controls) and germ cell under-proliferation revealed by histology. In response to the higher dose of dsRNA, we also observed reductions in amylase activity (-53%) and absorption efficiency (-5%). Based on these data, dynamic energy budget modeling showed that the limitation of energy intake by feeding that was induced by injection of amylase dsRNA was insufficient to affect gonadic development at the level observed in the present study. This finding suggests that other driving mechanisms, such as endogenous hormonal modulation, might significantly change energy allocation to reproduction, and increase the maintenance rate in oysters in response to dsRNA injection. PMID:25883379

  13. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-03-22

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of 'environmental sex determination'. PMID:17251109

  14. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of ‘environmental sex determination’. PMID:17251109

  15. Factors affecting reproductive success in three entomophilous orchid species in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Vojtkó, Anna E; Sonkoly, Judit; Lukács, Balázs András; Molnár V, Attila

    2015-06-01

    The reproductive success of orchids is traditionally estimated by determining the fruit-set of individuals. Here, we investigated both the fruit and the seed production of three orchid species and the factors that may affect individual fruit-set, like pollination strategy, individual traits or the annual amount of precipitation. The species [Dactylorhiza sambucina (L.) Soó, Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb.) P. F. Hunt & Summerhayes and Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. M. Richard] were studied in three consecutive years (2010-2012) in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. All three species were proved to be non-autogamous by a bagging experiment. Data analyses showed significant differences between seed numbers but not between fruit-sets of species. There was no statistical difference in individual reproductive success between wet and dry years, however, the effect of the annual amount of precipitation is significant on the population level. Comparison of published fruit-set data revealed accordance with our results in P. bifolia, but not in D. sambucina and D. majalis. We assume that the surprisingly high fruit-set values of the two Dactylorhiza species may be due to the fact that the pollination crisis reported from Western European countries is not an actual problem in the Bükk Mountains, Hungary. PMID:26081278

  16. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Sonja V; Rueda, Carolina; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Visser, Marcel E

    2011-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues from sprouting vegetation and the consequent abundance of invertebrate prey, although dependent on temperature, may provide supplementary environmental cues per se. This hypothesis was investigated in breeding pairs of great tits kept in outdoor aviaries. In spring, experimental pairs were provided with access to leafing birch branches and caterpillars as a visual food cue, while control pairs were provided with non-leafing branches. Observations were made on the onset of laying and on concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) at regular intervals to monitor changes in reproductive function. The onset of egg laying was not advanced by the presence of leafing branches and caterpillars. LH concentrations increased during the course of the study, but phenological cues did not affect plasma LH levels in females and males. Early spring vegetation, such as the leafing of birch branches, and the appearance of caterpillar prey do not appear to play a significant role in fine-tuning the onset of egg laying in great tits. PMID:21993796

  17. Second-Hand Eating? Maternal perception of the food environment affects reproductive investment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Tonia S.; Gainer, Renee; Dohm, Erik D.; Johnson, Maria S.; Wyss, J. Michael; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little information exists on how perception of the food (or ‘energetic’) environment affects body composition and reproductive investment. We test the hypothesis that female mice, who are themselves consuming standard chow diets, but who are exposed to conspecifics eating a rich “cafeteria diet”, will exhibit altered weight gain and reproductive investment. Design and Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were raised on a cafeteria diet. At maturity, subjects were switched to a standard chow diet and their cage-mate was assigned to consume either a cafeteria diet (treatment, n=20), or standard chow (control, n=20). Subjects were mated, and pups raised to weaning. Subjects and pups were analyzed for body composition. Results Treatment had no discernable effect on dam body weight or composition, but caused pups to have lower body weight (p=0.036), and less fat mass (p=0.041). We found a nearly significant treatment effect on ‘time to successful reproduction’ (avg. 55 vs. 44 days) likely due to increased failed first pregnancies (14/19 versus 8/19, p=0.099). Conclusions These data indicate that perceived food environment (independent of the diet actually consumed) can produce small pups with less body fat, and possibly induce difficulties in pregnancy for dams. Replication and mechanistic studies should follow. PMID:25864567

  18. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  19. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P < 0.01) ADG compared with control heifers (0.50 vs. 0.58 kg/d, respectively). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy, however, was hastened (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively) in acclimated heifers compared with control. Acclimated heifers had reduced chute score (P < 0.01) and concentrations of cortisol (P < 0.01) and P4 (P = 0.03; prepubertal heifers only) compared with control heifers after the acclimation period (1.37 vs. 1.84 for chute score; 37.8 vs. 50.5 ng/mL of cortisol; 0.52 vs

  20. Young Children’s Affective Responses to Another’s Distress: Dynamic and Physiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A. J.; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children’s affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another’s distress. In two samples (Nstudy1 = 75; Nstudy2 = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  1. Young children's affective responses to another's distress: dynamic and physiological features.

    PubMed

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A J; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children's affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another's distress. In two samples (N(study1) = 75; N(study2) = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  2. Human reproductive issues in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Jennings, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    A review of reproductive functioning in animal species studied during space flight demonstrated that most species were affected significantly by the absence of gravity and/or the presence of radiation. These two factors induced alterations in normal reproductive functioning independently of, as well as in combination with, each other. Based on animal models, several potential problem areas regarding human reproductive physiology and functioning in the space environment were identified. While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier.

  3. Ocean Acidification Affects Hemocyte Physiology in the Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi).

    PubMed

    Meseck, Shannon L; Alix, Jennifer H; Swiney, Katherine M; Long, W Christopher; Wikfors, Gary H; Foy, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to determine if there would be a difference in hematology, selected immune functions, and hemocyte pH (pHi), under two different, future ocean acidification scenarios (pH = 7.50, 7.80) compared to current conditions (pH = 8.09) for Chionoecetes bairdi, Tanner crab. Hemocytes were analyzed after adult Tanner crabs were held for two years under continuous exposure to acidified ocean water. Total counts of hemocytes did not vary among control and experimental treatments; however, there were significantly greater number of dead, circulating hemocytes in crabs held at the lowest pH treatment. Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. Crab hemolymph pH (pHe) averaged 8.09 and did not vary among pH treatments. There was no significant difference in internal pH (pHi) within hyalinocytes among pH treatments and the mean pHi (7.26) was lower than the mean pHe. In contrast, there were significant differences among treatments in pHi of the semi-granular+granular cells. Control crabs had the highest mean semi-granular+granular pHi compared to the lowest pH treatment. As physiological hemocyte functions changed from ambient conditions, interactions with the number of eggs in the second clutch, percentage of viable eggs, and calcium concentration in the adult crab shell was observed. This suggested that the energetic costs of responding to ocean acidification and maintaining defense mechanisms in Tanner crab may divert energy from other physiological processes, such as reproduction. PMID:26859148

  4. Ocean Acidification Affects Hemocyte Physiology in the Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi)

    PubMed Central

    Meseck, Shannon L.; Alix, Jennifer H.; Swiney, Katherine M.; Long, W. Christopher; Wikfors, Gary H.; Foy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to determine if there would be a difference in hematology, selected immune functions, and hemocyte pH (pHi), under two different, future ocean acidification scenarios (pH = 7.50, 7.80) compared to current conditions (pH = 8.09) for Chionoecetes bairdi, Tanner crab. Hemocytes were analyzed after adult Tanner crabs were held for two years under continuous exposure to acidified ocean water. Total counts of hemocytes did not vary among control and experimental treatments; however, there were significantly greater number of dead, circulating hemocytes in crabs held at the lowest pH treatment. Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. Crab hemolymph pH (pHe) averaged 8.09 and did not vary among pH treatments. There was no significant difference in internal pH (pHi) within hyalinocytes among pH treatments and the mean pHi (7.26) was lower than the mean pHe. In contrast, there were significant differences among treatments in pHi of the semi-granular+granular cells. Control crabs had the highest mean semi-granular+granular pHi compared to the lowest pH treatment. As physiological hemocyte functions changed from ambient conditions, interactions with the number of eggs in the second clutch, percentage of viable eggs, and calcium concentration in the adult crab shell was observed. This suggested that the energetic costs of responding to ocean acidification and maintaining defense mechanisms in Tanner crab may divert energy from other physiological processes, such as reproduction. PMID:26859148

  5. Coding Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Physiological Reproductive Traits in Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A linkage map of 40 linkage groups (LGs) was developed for brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, using an F2 interstrain hybrid progeny (n = 171) and 256 coding gene SNP developed specifically for brook charr and validated from a large (>1000) subset of putative SNP, as well as 81 microsatellite markers. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to reproduction functions, these fish were also phenotyped at six physiological traits, including spermatozoid head diameter, sperm concentration, plasma testosterone, plasma 11-keto-testosterone, egg diameter, and plasma 17β-estradiol. Five significant QTL were detected over four LGs for egg diameter and plasma 17β-estradiol concentration in females, and sperm concentration as well as spermatozoid head diameter in males. In females, two different QTLs located on LG 11 and LG 34 were associated with the egg number, whereas one QTL was associated with plasma 17β-estradiol concentration (LG 8). Their total percent variance explained (PVE) was 26.7% and 27.6%, respectively. In males, two QTL were also detected for the sperm concentration, and their PVE were estimated at 18.58% and 14.95%, respectively. The low QTL number, associated with the high PVE, suggests that the variance in these reproductive physiological traits was either under the control of one major gene or a small number of genes. The QTL associated with sperm concentration, plasma 17β-estradiol, and egg diameter appeared to be under a dominance effect, whereas the two others were under a negative additive effect. These results show that genes underlying the phenotypic variance of these traits are under different modes of action (additive vs. dominance) and may be used to predict an increase or a decrease in their phenotypic values in subsequent generations of selective breeding. Moreover, this newly developed panel of mapped SNP located in coding gene regions will be useful for screening wild populations, especially in the context of investigating the

  6. Effects of bovine somatotropin administration on growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of replacement beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Francisco, C L; Marques, R S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H

    2013-06-01

    This experiment compared growth, body composition, plasma IGF-I and leptin, and reproductive development of beef heifers receiving or not recombinant bovine ST (BST) beginning after weaning until the first breeding season. Fifty Angus × Hereford heifers (initial BW = 219 ± 2 kg; initial age = 208 ± 2 d), weaned at approximately 6 mo of age, were assigned to the experiment (d 0 to 210). On d 0, heifers were ranked by initial BW and age and assigned to 1) treatment with BST or 2) saline control. Heifers assigned to the BST treatment received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections containing 250 mg of sometribove zinc whereas control heifers received a 5-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% saline every 14 d. Treatments were initiated on d 14 and last administered on d 196. Heifers were maintained on separate pastures harvested for hay the previous summer according to treatment and received grass and alfalfa hay at a rate to provide a daily amount of 7.0 and 1.0 kg of DM per heifer, respectively. Heifer shrunk BW was collected on d 1 and 211 for heifer ADG calculation. Blood samples were collected weekly from d 0 to 210 for determination of plasma progesterone to estimate puberty attainment as well as plasma concentrations of IGF-I and leptin in selected samples. On d 0, 63, 133, and 189, heifers were evaluated for intramuscular marbling, LM depth, and backfat thickness via real-time ultrasonography. No treatment effects were detected (P = 0.27) for heifer ADG (0.49 vs. 0.51 kg/d for control and BST heifers, respectively; SEM = 0.02). Mean backfat thickness was lesser (P < 0.01) in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (3.56 vs. 3.92 mm, respectively; SEM = 0.08). Heifers receiving BST had greater plasma IGF-I concentrations compared with control cohorts 7 d after treatment administration (treatment × day interaction; P < 0.01). Mean plasma leptin concentrations were lesser (P = 0.05) in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (1.82 vs. 2.03 ng/mL, respectively; SEM = 0

  7. Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-02-01

    This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5% probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5% probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress. PMID:24859822

  8. Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-02-01

    This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress.

  9. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  10. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  11. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  12. Communalism Predicts Maternal Affect, Stress, and Physiology Better than Ethnicity and SES

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult SES. African American and European American women (N=297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better-understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications regarding culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and as a potentially important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed. PMID:20658883

  13. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential. PMID:21892611

  14. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening. PMID:18039047

  15. Genetically Determined Dosage of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Affects Male Reproductive Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Ẑilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Ausmees, Kristo; Matuleviĉius, Valentinas; Tsarev, Igor; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Context: The detailed role of FSH in contributing to male testicular function and fertility has been debated. We have previously identified the association between the T-allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; G/T, −211 bp from the mRNA start) and significantly reduced male serum FSH. Objective: In the current study, the T-allele carriers of the FSHB −211 G/T single nucleotide polymorphism represented a natural model for documenting downstream phenotypic consequences of insufficient FSH action. Design and Subjects: We genotyped rs10835638 in the population-based Baltic cohort of young men (n = 1054; GG carriers, n = 796; GT carriers, n = 244; TT carriers, n = 14) recruited by Andrology Centres in Tartu, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and Kaunas, Lithuania. Marker-trait association testing was performed using linear regression (additive, recessive models) adjusted by age, body mass index, smoking, and recruitment center. Results: Serum hormones directly correlated with the T-allele dosage of rs10835638 included FSH (additive model, P = 1.11 × 10−6; T-allele effect, −0.41 IU/liter), inhibin-B (P = 2.16 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −14.67 pg/ml), and total testosterone (P = 9.30 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −1.46 nmol/liter). Parameters altered only among TT homozygotes were reduced testicular volume (recessive model, P = 1.19 × 10−4; TT genotype effect, −9.47 ml) and increased serum LH (P = 2.25 × 10−2; TT genotype effect, 1.07 IU/liter). The carrier status of rs10835638 alternative genotypes did not affect sperm motility and morphology, calculated free testosterone, serum SHBG, and estradiol concentrations. Conclusion: We showed for the first time that genetically determined low FSH may have wider downstream effects on the male reproductive system, including impaired testes development, altered testicular hormone levels (inhibin-B, total testosterone, LH), and affected male reproductive potential. PMID:21733993

  16. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mateiu, Ramona V; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  17. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona V.; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  18. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. PMID:26061167

  19. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter; van Loon, Jack J W A; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. PMID:26061167

  20. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  1. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  2. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  3. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, V.I.; Sokur, T.N.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. We have concentrated on two well-defined areas: the Chechersky district of the Gomel region in Belorussia and the Polessky district of the Kiev region in the Ukraine. A number of investigations were carried out on 688 pregnant women and their babies, and data were obtained from 7000 labor histories of the development of newborns for a period of 8 years (3 years before the accident and 5 years after it). Parameters examined included birth rate, thyroid pathology, extragenital pathology such as anemias, renal disorders, hypertension, and abnormalities in the metabolism of fats, complications of gestation, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, perinatal morbidity and mortality, stillbirths and early neonatal mortality, infections and inflammatory diseases, neurological symptoms and hemic disturbances in both mothers and infants, trophic anomalies, and biochemical and structural changes in the placenta. Several exogenous, complicating influences were also considered such as psycho-emotional factors, stress, lifestyle changes, and others caused directly by the hazardous situation and by its consequences such as treatment, removal from affected areas, etc. 9 figs.

  4. Prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects reproductive outcomes in female mice.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Sarah; Rattan, Saniya; Brehm, Emily; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal DEHP exposure affects female reproduction. To test this hypothesis, pregnant female CD-1 mice were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DEHP (20 μg/kg/day-750 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 11-birth. Pups were counted, weighed, and sexed at birth, ovaries were subjected to evaluations of follicle numbers on postnatal days (PNDs) 8 and 21, and fertility was evaluated at 3-9 months. The results indicate that prenatal DEHP exposure increased male-to-female ratio compared to controls. Prenatal DEHP exposure also increased preantral follicle numbers at PND 21 compared to controls. Further, 22.2% of the 20 μg/kg/day treated animals took longer than 5 days to get pregnant at 3 months and 28.6% of the 750 mg/kg/day treated animals lost some of their pups at 6 months. Thus, prenatal DEHP exposure alters F1 sex ratio, increases preantral follicle numbers, and causes some breeding abnormalities. PMID:25765777

  5. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-04-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  6. The effect of choice on the physiology of emotion: An affective startle modulation study

    PubMed Central

    Genevsky, Alexander; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The affective startle modulation task has been an important measure in understanding physiological aspects of emotion and motivational responses. Research utilizing this method has relied primarily on a ‘passive’ viewing paradigm, which stands in contrast to everyday life where much of emotion and motivation involves some active choice or agency. The present study investigated the role of choice on the physiology of emotion. Eighty-four participants were randomized into ‘choice’ (n=44) or ‘no-choice’ (n=40) groups distinguished by the ability to choose between stimuli. EMG eye blink responses were recorded in both anticipation and stimulus viewing. Results indicated a significant attenuation of the startle magnitude in choice condition trials (relative to no-choice) across all picture categories and probe times. We interpret these findings as an indication that the act of choice may decrease one’s defensive response, or conversely, lacking choice may heighten the defensive response. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22285891

  7. Breathing hypoxic gas affects the physiology as well as the diving behaviour of tufted ducks.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Butler, Patrick J; Woakes, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    We measured the effects of exposure to hypoxia (15% and 11% oxygen) and hypercapnia (up to 4.5% carbon dioxide) on rates of respiratory gas exchange both between and during dives in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula, to investigate to what extent these may explain changes in diving behaviour. As found in previous studies, the ducks decreased dive duration (t(d)) and increased surface duration when diving from a hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mix. In the hypercapnic conditions, oxygen consumption during the dive cycle was not affected. Oxygen uptake between dives was reduced by only 17% when breathing a hypoxic gas mix of 11% oxygen. However, estimates of the rate of oxygen metabolism during the foraging periods of dives decreased nearly threefold in 11% oxygen. Given that tufted ducks normally dive well within their aerobic dive limits and that they significantly reduced their t(d) during hypoxia, it is not at all clear why they make this physiological adjustment. PMID:15778946

  8. acj6: a gene affecting olfactory physiology and behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, R K; Carlson, J

    1991-01-01

    Mutations affecting olfactory behavior provide material for use in molecular studies of olfaction in Drosophila melanogaster. Using the electroantennogram (EAG), a measure of antennal physiology, we have found an adult antennal defect in the olfactory behavioral mutant abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (acj6). The acj6 EAG defect was mapped to a single locus and the same mutation was found to be responsible for both reduction in EAG amplitude and diminished behavioral response, as if reduced antennal responsiveness to odorant is responsible for abnormal chemosensory behavior in the mutant. acj6 larval olfactory behavior is also abnormal; the mutation seems to alter cellular processes necessary for olfaction at both developmental stages. The acj6 mutation exhibits specificity in that visual system function appears normal in larvae and adults. These experiments provide evidence that the acj6 gene encodes a product required for olfactory signal transduction. Images PMID:1905022

  9. Cognitive, affective, and physiological expressions of anxiety symptomatology among Mexican migrant farmworkers: predictors and generational differences.

    PubMed

    Hovey, Joseph D; Magaña, Cristina G

    2002-06-01

    Scant research has examined the mental health of migrant farmworkers in the United States. The purposes of the present study were threefold: to assess the prevalence levels of anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican migrant farmworkers in the Midwest United States; to examine the relationship between acculturative stress and anxiety; and to determine the variables that significantly predict anxiety. High levels were found for overall anxiety and in the cognitive, affective, and physiological expressions of anxiety. Elevated acculturative stress, low self esteem, ineffective social support, lack of control and choice in the decision to live a migrant farmworker lifestyle, low religiosity, and high education were significantly related to high anxiety levels. The overall findings suggest that Mexican migrant farmworkers who experience high acculturative stress may be at risk for developing anxiety-related disorders. The findings highlight the necessity of establishing prevention and treatment services for migrant farmworkers that increase levels of emotional support, self esteem, and coping skills. PMID:12046676

  10. Anatomical, physiological and experimental factors affecting the bioavailability of sc administered large biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous route of administration is highly desirable for protein therapeutics. It improves patient compliance and quality of life1,2, while reducing healthcare cost2. Recent evidence also suggests that sc administration of protein therapeutics can increase tolerability to some treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) by administering it subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy SCIG), which will reduce fluctuation in plasma drug concentration3. Furthermore, sc administration may reduce the risk of systemic infections associated with iv infusion1,2. This route, however, has its challenges especially for large multi-domain proteins. Poor bioavailability and poor scalability from preclinical models are often cited. This commentary will discuss barriers to sc absorption as well as physiological and experimental factors that could affect pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered large protein therapeutics in preclinical models. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model is proposed as a potential tool to address the issue of scalability of sc pharmacokinetic from preclinical models to humans PMID:25411114

  11. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  12. Can aircraft noise less than or equal 115 to dBA adversely affect reproductive outcome in USAF women?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, P. A.

    1985-06-01

    It has been suggested, mainly through animal studies, that exposure to high noise levels may be associated with lower birth weight, reduced gestational length and other adverse reproductive outcomes. Few studies have been done on humans to show this association. The Air Force employs pregnant women in areas where there is a high potential for exposure to high noise levels. This study proposes a method to determine if there is an association between high frequency noise levels or = 115 dBA and adverse reproductive outcomes through a review of records and self-administered questionnaires in a case-comparison design. Prevelance rates will be calculated and a multiple logistic regression analysis computed for the independent variables that can affect reproduction.

  13. Creep-feeding to stimulate metabolic imprinting in nursing beef heifers: impacts on heifer growth, reproductive and physiological variables.

    PubMed

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Rodrigues, M C; Bradley, J S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H; Johnson, S E; Bohnert, D W

    2015-09-01

    This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus × Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140 ± 3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding period (day 1 to 51), and on days 112 and 326. On days 0, 51, 111, 187, 261, and 325, jugular blood was collected and real-time ultrasonography for longissimus muscle depth and backfat thickness assessment was performed. Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 113 to 323 for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Liver and subcutaneous fat biopsies were performed on days 51, 111, 261 and 325. Average daily gain was greater (P<0.01) for MI than CON from day 1 to 51, tended (P=0.09) to be greater for CON than MI from day 112 to 326, while BW on day 326 was similar between treatments. On day 51, MI had greater (P ⩽ 0.01) plasma IGF-I and glucose concentrations, as well as mRNA expression of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase and adipose fatty acid synthase than CON. On days 261 and 325, plasma insulin concentrations were greater (P ⩽ 0.03) in CON than MI. Mean mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-I and adipose peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were

  14. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population

    PubMed Central

    Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M.; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were ‘good’ prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  15. Conditions during adulthood affect cohort-specific reproductive success in an Arctic-nesting goose population.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    Variation in fitness between individuals in populations may be attributed to differing environmental conditions experienced among birth (or hatch) years (i.e., between cohorts). In this study, we tested whether cohort fitness could also be explained by environmental conditions experienced in years post-hatch, using 736 lifelong resighting histories of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) marked in their first winter. Specifically, we tested whether variation in age at first successful reproduction, the size of the first successful brood and the proportion of successful breeders by cohort was explained by environmental conditions experienced on breeding areas in west Greenland during hatch year, those in adulthood prior to successful reproduction and those in the year of successful reproduction, using North Atlantic Oscillation indices as proxies for environmental conditions during these periods. Fifty-nine (8%) of all marked birds reproduced successfully (i.e., were observed on wintering areas with young) only once in their lifetime and 15 (2%) reproduced successfully twice or thrice. Variation in age at first successful reproduction was explained by the environmental conditions experienced during adulthood in the years prior to successful reproduction. Birds bred earliest (mean age 4) when environmental conditions were 'good' prior to the year of successful reproduction. Conversely, birds successfully reproduced at older ages (mean age 7) if they experienced adverse conditions prior to the year of successful reproduction. Hatch year conditions and an interaction between those experienced prior to and during the year of successful reproduction explained less (marginally significant) variation in age at first successful reproduction. Environmental conditions did not explain variation in the size of the first successful brood or the proportion of successful breeders. These findings show that conditions during adulthood prior to the year of

  16. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual. PMID:24586315

  17. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual. PMID:24586315

  18. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrators (body snatchers). I quantify growth, reproductive effort, and expected extrinsic mortality for several species that, despite being different species, use the same species' phenotype for growth and survival. These are eight trematode parasitic castrators—the individuals of which infect and take over the bodies of the same host species—and their uninfected host, the California horn snail. Results As predicted, across species, growth decreased with increased extrinsic mortality, while reproductive effort increased with increased extrinsic mortality. The trematode parasitic castrator species (operating stolen host bodies) that were more likely to be killed by dominant species allocated less to growth and relatively more to current reproduction than did species with greater life expectancies. Both genders of uninfected snails fit into the patterns observed for the parasitic castrator species, allocating as much to growth and to current reproduction as expected given their probability of reproductive death (castration by trematode parasites). Additionally, species differences appeared to represent species-specific adaptations, not general plastic responses to local mortality risk. Conclusions Broadly, this research illustrates that parasitic castrator guilds can allow unique comparative tests discerning the forces promoting adaptive evolution. The specific findings of this study support the hypothesis that extrinsic mortality influences species differences in growth and reproduction

  19. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. PMID:26422775

  20. Habitat Quality Affects Early Physiology and Subsequent Neuromotor Development of Juvenile Black-Capped Chickadees

    PubMed Central

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Avey, Marc T.; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Sturdy, Christopher B.; Otter, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  1. Habitat quality affects early physiology and subsequent neuromotor development of juvenile black-capped chickadees.

    PubMed

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D; Avey, Marc T; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sturdy, Christopher B; Otter, Ken A

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  2. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. PMID:26673934

  3. Effects of energy supplementation frequency and forage quality on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of replacement beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Vendramini, J M B; Arthington, J D

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare performance, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers consuming forages differing in nutritional quality and offered a low-starch energy supplement at 2 different frequencies. Forty-eight Brahman × British heifers (initial age = 294 ± 3 d) were allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen) which were randomly assigned to receive, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) low-quality hay [LQ; stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) with 8% CP and 81% NDF, DM basis] and daily supplementation (S7); 2) LQ and supplementation 3 times weekly (S3); 3) medium-quality hay [MQ; bermudagrass (C. dactylon) with 12% CP and 74% NDF, DM basis] and S7; and 4) MQ and S3. Throughout the study (d 0 to 120), hay was offered in amounts to ensure ad libitum access, and a supplement based on soybean hulls and wheat middlings was offered at weekly rates of 15.8 and 7.9 kg/heifer (DM basis) for LQ and MQ, respectively. Forage and total DMI were evaluated daily, from d 20 to 26, d 34 to 40, and d 48 to 54. Blood samples were collected weekly for determination of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples were also collected daily, from d 13 to 16, d 27 to 30, d 41 to 44, and d 55 to 58 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and NEFA. On d 60, heifers were reallocated by treatment into 4 paddocks and exposed to Angus bulls (1:12 bull:heifer ratio) until d 120. Date of conception was estimated retrospectively by subtracting gestation length (286 d) from the calving date. Heifers receiving S7 had similar (P = 0.52) ADG compared with S3 heifers (0.27 vs. 0.25 kg/d). Heifers provided S7 had less daily variation in hay DMI and plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and IGF-I compared with S3 cohorts (supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Similarly, heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S7 had less daily variation in total DMI, energy and protein

  4. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  5. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  6. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  7. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    PubMed Central

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  8. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  9. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  10. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  11. Benzyl isothiocyanate affects development, hatching and reproduction of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) applied at micromolar doses decreased Heterodera glycines J2 movement, H. glycines hatching, and reproduction of H. glycines on soybean, Glycine max. Direct exposure of J2 to 30 microM BITC caused an immediate decrease (17%; P < 0.05) in J2 movement relative to 1% methan...

  12. Within-species reproductive costs affect the asymmetry of satyrization in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yassin, A; David, J R

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how species interactions influence their distribution and evolution is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Theory suggests that asymmetric reproductive interference, in which one species induces higher reproductive costs on another species, may be more important in delimiting species boundaries than interspecific competition over resources. However, the underlying mechanisms of such asymmetry remain unclear. Here, we test whether differences in within-species reproductive costs determine the between-species asymmetry of costs using three allopatric Drosophila species belonging to the melanogaster subgroup. Our results support this hypothesis, especially in a pair of insular species. Males of one species that induce costs to their conspecific females led to a 5-fold increase of heterospecific females mortality with dead flies bearing spectacular large melanized wounds on their genitalia. Males of the other species were harmful neither to their conspecific nor heterospecific females. Comparative studies of within-species reproductive costs may therefore be a valuable tool for predicting between-species interactions and community structures. PMID:26538290

  13. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  14. Social Variables Affecting Mate Preferences, Copulation and Reproductive Outcome in a Pack of Free-Ranging Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  15. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafazzo, Simona; Bonanni, Roberto; Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  16. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, C F; García, M B; Ehlers, B K

    2013-05-01

    Investment in reproduction and growth represent a classic tradeoff with implication for life history evolution. The local environment can play a major role in the magnitude and evolutionary consequences of such a tradeoff. Here, we examined the investment in reproductive and vegetative tissue in 40 maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait values similar to those of the annuals, although it was significantly less plastic. We stress the importance of considering intraspecific variation in response to environmental change such as drought, as conspecific plants exhibited very different abilities and strategies to respond to high versus low water availability even among geographically close populations. PMID:23621367

  17. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  18. Pre-spawning parental stress affects channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus reproduction and subsequent progeny performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine fish handling procedures associated with seining, selecting, transportation, crowding, weighing, and stripping have shown to cause negative physiological responses to hatchery performance. In teleosts, cortisol is the main corticosteroid released during stress, and hence, plasma cortisol co...

  19. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response. PMID:26180303

  20. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  1. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response. PMID:26180303

  2. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microcystins (MCs) are able to exert negative effects on the reproductive system of fish. However, few data are actually available on the effects of MC-LR on the reproductive system of female fish. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to 2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1) of MC-LR for 21 d, and its effects on oogenesis, sex hormones, transcription of genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and reproduction were investigated for the first time. It was observed that egg production significantly declined at ⩾ 10 μg L(-1) MC-LR. MC-LR exposure to zebrafish increased the concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) at 10 μg L(-1) level, whereas concentrations of E2, VTG and testosterone declined at 50 μg L(-1) MC-LR. The transcriptions of steroidogenic pathway gene (cyp19a, cyp19b, 17βhsd, cyp17 and hmgra) changed as well after the exposure and corresponded well with the alterations of hormone levels. A number of intra- and extra-ovarian factors, such as gnrh3, gnrhr1, fshβ, fshr, lhr, bmp15, mrpβ, ptgs2 and vtg1 which regulate oogenesis, were significantly changed with a different dose-related effect. Moreover, MC-LR exposure to female zebrafish resulted in decreased fertilization and hatching rates, and may suggest the possibility of trans-generational effects of MC-LR exposure. The results demonstrate that MC-LR could modulate endocrine function and oogenesis, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance in female zebrafish. These data suggest there is a risk for aquatic population living in MC polluted areas. PMID:25014902

  3. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  4. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  5. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  6. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased α1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp <0.5), (5) good reproductive tract health [normal uterine scan at d 45 pp; clear vaginal mucus discharge at first ovulation and at d 45 pp; resumed ovarian cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period (≥ d 35 pp)], and (6) adequate diet (to ensure increased glutathione peroxidase in wk 2 and 3 and increased magnesium in wk 4). Risk factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp

  7. A Single Hot Event That Does Not Affect Survival but Decreases Reproduction in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Extremely hot events (usually involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures in summer) are expected to increase in frequency in temperate regions under global warming. The impact of these events is generally overlooked in insect population prediction, since they are unlikely to cause widespread mortality, however reproduction may be affected by them. In this study, we examined such stress effects in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. We simulated a single extreme hot day (maximum of 40°C lasting for 3, 4 or 5 h) increasingly experienced under field conditions. This event had no detrimental effects on immediate mortality, copulation duration, mating success, longevity or lifetime fecundity, but stressed females produced 21% (after 3 or 4 h) fewer hatched eggs because of a decline in the number and hatching success of eggs laid on the first two days. These negative effects on reproduction were no longer evident in the following days. Male heat exposure led to a similar but smaller effect on fertile egg production, and exposure extended pre-mating period in both sexes. Our results indicate that a single hot day can have detrimental effects on reproduction, particularly through maternal effects on egg hatching, and thereby influence the population dynamics of diamondback moth. PMID:24116081

  8. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  9. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  10. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  11. DAF-16 and TCER-1 Facilitate Adaptation to Germline Loss by Restoring Lipid Homeostasis and Repressing Reproductive Physiology in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Amrit, Francis Raj Gandhi; Steenkiste, Elizabeth Marie; Ratnappan, Ramesh; Chen, Shaw-Wen; McClendon, T. Brooke; Kostka, Dennis; Yanowitz, Judith; Olsen, Carissa Perez; Ghazi, Arjumand

    2016-01-01

    Elimination of the proliferating germline extends lifespan in C. elegans. This phenomenon provides a unique platform to understand how complex metazoans retain metabolic homeostasis when challenged with major physiological perturbations. Here, we demonstrate that two conserved transcription regulators essential for the longevity of germline-less adults, DAF-16/FOXO3A and TCER-1/TCERG1, concurrently enhance the expression of multiple genes involved in lipid synthesis and breakdown, and that both gene classes promote longevity. Lipidomic analyses revealed that key lipogenic processes, including de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride production, desaturation and elongation, are augmented upon germline removal. Our data suggest that lipid anabolic and catabolic pathways are coordinately augmented in response to germline loss, and this metabolic shift helps preserve lipid homeostasis. DAF-16 and TCER-1 also perform essential inhibitory functions in germline-ablated animals. TCER-1 inhibits the somatic gene-expression program that facilitates reproduction and represses anti-longevity genes, whereas DAF-16 impedes ribosome biogenesis. Additionally, we discovered that TCER-1 is critical for optimal fertility in normal adults, suggesting that the protein acts as a switch supporting reproductive fitness or longevity depending on the presence or absence of the germline. Collectively, our data offer insights into how organisms adapt to changes in reproductive status, by utilizing the activating and repressive functions of transcription factors and coordinating fat production and degradation. PMID:26862916

  12. Reproductive physiology in eastern snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) exposed to runoff from a concentrated animal feeding operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eastern snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is widely distributed throughout the eastern and central U.S. and may be a useful model organism to study land use impacts on water quality. We compared the reproductive condition of C. serpentina from a pond impacted by runoff fr...

  13. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Juliana; Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of "high-quality" queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and "low-quality" queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone ("QMP") components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the "queen-specific" developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting that other external

  14. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queen Reproductive Potential Affects Queen Mandibular Gland Pheromone Composition and Worker Retinue Response

    PubMed Central

    Böröczky, Katalin; Schal, Coby; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the defining traits of honey bees (Apis mellifera), with non-reproductive tasks being performed by workers while a single queen normally monopolizes reproduction. The decentralized organization of a honey bee colony is maintained in large part by a bouquet of queen-produced pheromones, the distribution of which is facilitated by contact among workers throughout the hive. Previous studies have shown that the developmental fate of honey bee queens is highly plastic, with queens raised from younger worker larvae exhibiting higher measures of reproductive potential compared to queens raised from older worker larvae. We investigated differences in the chemical composition of the mandibular glands and attractiveness to workers of “high-quality” queens (i.e., raised from first instar worker larvae; more queen-like) and “low-quality” queens (i.e., raised from third instar worker larvae; more worker-like). We characterized the chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of high-quality queens and low-quality queens using GC-MS and used the worker retinue response as a measure of the attractiveness to workers of high-quality queens vs. low-quality queens. We found that queen quality affected the chemical profiles of mandibular gland contents differently across years, showing significant differences in the production of the queen mandibular pheromone (“QMP”) components HVA and 9-HDA in 2010, but no significant differences of any glandular compound in 2012. We also found that workers were significantly more attracted to high-quality queens than to low-quality queens in 2012, possibly because of increased attractiveness of their mandibular gland chemical profiles. Our results indicate that the age at which honey bee larvae enter the “queen-specific” developmental pathway influences the chemical composition of queen mandibular glands and worker behavior. However, these changes are not consistent across years, suggesting

  15. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  16. Factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the outer banks of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulte, Shiloh A.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2015-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to assess the factors affecting the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers Haematopus palliatus on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. We evaluated survival with respect to nesting island, year, time of season, brood age, distance to tide (m), presence of off-road vehicles and proximity of foraging habitat. The daily nest survival (mean 0.981, standard error [SE] 0.002) was affected by year and island, and declined over the nesting season. Mammals were responsible for 54% of identified nest failures. Daily brood survival (mean 0.981, SE 0.002) varied by island and increased non-linearly with age, with highest mortality in the seven days after hatching. Model results indicate direct access to foraging sites has a positive effect on brood survival, whereas presence of off-road vehicles has a negative effect. We studied chick behavior and survival using radio telemetry and direct observation and found that vehicles caused mortality and affected behavior and resource use by oystercatcher chicks. We identified the source of mortality for 37 radio-tagged chicks. Six (16%) were killed by vehicles, 21 (57%) by predators, and 10 (27%) by exposure and starvation. From 1995 to 2008, 25 additional oystercatcher chicks were found dead, 13 (52%) killed by vehicles. Chicks on beaches closed to vehicles used beach and intertidal zones more frequently than chicks on beaches open to vehicles. Chick predators included Great Horned Owls Bubo virginianus, Fish Crows Corvus ossifragus, cats Felis catus, mink Mustela vison, raccoons Procyon lotor, and ghost crabs Ocypode albicans. The factors affecting reproductive success differed between the incubation and chick-rearing stages.  Management actions that influence chick survival will have a larger effect on total productivity than actions affecting nest survival.

  17. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  18. Alloparenting experience affects future parental behavior and reproductive success in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Mathieu, Denise; Griffin, Luana; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the function of alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. We examined whether alloparental experience as juveniles enhanced later parental care and reproductive success in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a cooperatively breeding rodent. Juveniles cared for one litter of siblings (1EX), two litters of siblings (2EX) or no siblings (0EX). As adults, these individuals were mated to other 0EX, 1EX or 2EX voles, yielding seven different pair combinations, and we recorded measures of parental behaviors, reproductive success, and pup development. As juveniles, individuals caring for siblings for the first time were more alloparental; and as adults, 0EX females paired with 0EX males spent more time in the nest with their pups. Taken together, these results suggest that inexperienced animals spend more time in infant care. As parents, 1EX males spent more time licking their pups than 2EX and 0EX males. Pups with either a 1EX or 2EX parent gained weight faster than pups with 0EX parents during certain developmental periods. While inexperienced animals may spend more time in pup care, long-term benefits of alloparenting may become apparent in the display of certain, particularly important parental behaviors such as licking pups, and in faster weight gain of offspring. PMID:19732810

  19. Reproduction in the space environment: Part I. Animal reproductive studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, P. A.; Jennings, R. T.; Craigie, D.

    1990-01-01

    Mankind's exploration and colonization of the frontier of space will ultimately depend on men's and women's ability to live, work, and reproduce in the space environment. This paper reviews animal studies, from microorganisms to mammals, done in space or under space-simulated conditions, which identify some of the key areas which might interfere with human reproductive physiology and/or embryonic development. Those space environmental factors which impacted almost all species included: microgravity, artificial gravity, radiation, and closed life support systems. These factors may act independently and in combination to produce their effects. To date, there have been no studies which have looked at the entire process of reproduction in any animal species. This type of investigation will be critical in understanding and preventing the problems which will affect human reproduction. Part II will discuss these problems directly as they relate to human physiology.

  20. Combining mapping of physiological quantitative trait loci and transcriptome for cold tolerance for counteracting male sterility induced by low temperatures during reproductive stage in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Abe, Akira; Aoki, Naohiro; Koumoto, Takemasa; Sato, Masahiro; Yokoi, Shuji; Kuroda, Eiki; Endo, Takashi; Saeki, Ken-Ich; Nagano, Kuniaki

    2016-06-01

    Male sterility induced by low temperatures (LTs) during the reproductive stage is a major constraint for temperate zone rice. To detect physiological quantitative trait loci (QTLs), we modeled genotypic variation in the physiological processes involved in low temperature spikelet sterility on the basis of anther length (AL), a proxy for microspore and pollen grain number per anther. The model accounted for 83% of the genotypic variation in potential AL at normal temperature and the ability to maintain AL at LT. We tested the model on 208 recombinant inbred lines of cold-tolerant 'Tohoku-PL3' (PL3) × cold-sensitive 'Akihikari' (AH) for 2 years. QTLs for spikelet fertility (FRT) at LT were detected on chromosomes 5 (QTL for Cold Tolerance at Reproductive stage, qCTR5) and 12 (qCTR12). qCTR12 was annotated with the ability to maintain AL under LTs. qCTR5 was in a region shared with QTLs for culm length and heading date. Genome-wide expression analysis showed 798 genes differentially expressed in the spikelets between the parents at LTs. Of these, 12 were near qCTR5 and 23 were near qCTR12. Gene expression analysis confirmed two candidate genes for qCTR5 (O-methyltransferase ZRP4, Os05g0515600; beta-1,3-glucanase-like protein, Os05g0535100) and one for qCTR12 (conserved hypothetical protein, Os12g0550600). Nucleotide polymorphisms (21 deletions, 2 insertions and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms) in PL3 were found near the candidate conserved hypothetical protein (Os12g0550600) and upstream in PL3, but not in AH. Haplotype analysis revealed that this gene came from 'Kuchum'. The combination of mapping physiological QTLs with gene expression analysis can be extended to identify other genes for abiotic stress response in cereals. PMID:26607766

  1. Reproductive hazards in the microelectronics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, L.; Swan, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    There has been increased awareness of the potential for occupational and environmental exposures to hazardous substances to adversely affect reproductive outcome in men and women. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the clinician with some of the normal physiologic changes of pregnancy and how those may interact with working conditions in the electronics industry. It also reviews some of the data regarding potential reproductive hazards of substances and physical agents used in this industry. 11 references.

  2. Multivariate analysis of the effects of manganese on the reproductive physiology and behavior of the male house mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.E. Jr.; Laskey, J.W.

    1980-07-01

    Chronic exposure to Mn/sub 3/O/sub 4/ in the diet at 1050 ppM Mn retarded the sexual development and lowered reactive locomotor activity levels in male mice. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that testis, seminal vesicle, and preputial gland weights were significantly smaller as a result of Mn administration. These results support earlier observations of altered locomotor activity levels and reproductive development in male rats in the absence of other signs of toxicity.

  3. DESTAF: a database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Adam S; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Kaur, Mandeep; Sagar, Sunil; Seshadri, Sundararajan V; Schaefer, Ulf; Kamau, Allan A; Christoffels, Alan; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database. DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. PMID:22198179

  4. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  5. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees

    PubMed Central

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  6. Gonadal steroids and affective symptoms during in vitro fertilization: implication for reproductive mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Aharonov, Inbar; Ben Avi, Irit; Schreiber, Shaul; Amit, Ami; Weizman, Abraham; Azem, Foad

    2011-07-01

    Gonadal steroids (GSs) have been associated with the onset of a number of reproductive-related mood disorders in women, in which fluctuating or unstable hormonal levels are postulated to act as the trigger for the destabilization of mood. There is, however, rather limited direct clinical evidence that can link rapidly changing GS levels with the induction of mood symptoms. We aimed to study the effect of controlled and rapid GS fluctuations on mood in an in vivo model. Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (n=108) were assessed for depression and anxiety levels on 3 time points: during a low estradiol and progesterone baseline, during a gonadotropin stimulated estradiol-dominant phase, and after embryo transfer, during a progesterone-dominant low estrogen phase. Plasma levels for estrogen and progesterone were drawn on these time points. Symptoms of depression and anxiety significantly increased from baseline to the high estradiol levels but were not correlated with estrogen. The sharp drop from high estradiol levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to low levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly correlated with rising depression scores. The rise in progesterone levels from low levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to high levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly and inversely correlated with depression scores. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the role of estrogen in reproductive-related mood disorders involves an abrupt and precipitous drop in its plasma level that can precipitate negative mood states. This finding has implications on the treatment of GS-related mood disorders. PMID:21106297

  7. Behavioral Avoidance - Will Physiological Insecticide Resistance Level of Insect Strains Affect Their Oviposition and Movement Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Nansen, Christian; Baissac, Olivier; Nansen, Maria; Powis, Kevin; Baker, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural organisms, such as insect herbivores, provide unique opportunities for studies of adaptive evolutionary processes, including effects of insecticides on movement and oviposition behavior. In this study, Brassica leaves were treated with one of two non-systemic insecticides and exposed to two individual strains (referred to as single or double resistance) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (DBM) exhibiting physiological resistance. Behavioral responses by these two strains were compared as part of characterizing the relative effect of levels of physiological resistance on the likelihood of insects showing signs of behavioral avoidance. For each DBM strain, we used choice bioassays to quantify two possible types of behavioral avoidance: 1) females ovipositing predominantly on leaf surfaces without insecticides, and 2) larvae avoiding insecticide-treated leaf surfaces. In three-choice bioassays (leaves with no pesticide, 50% coverage with pesticide, or 100% coverage with pesticide), females from the single resistance DBM strain laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% insecticide coverage (both gamma-cyhalothrin and spinetoram). Females from the double resistance DBM strain also laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% gamma-cyhalothrin, while moths did not adjust their oviposition behavior in response to spinetoram. Larvae from the single resistance DBM strain showed a significant increase in mobility in response to both insecticides and avoided insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. On the other hand, DBM larvae from the double resistance strain showed a significant decrease in mobility in response to insecticides, and they did not avoid insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. Our results suggest that pest populations with physiological resistance may show behavioral avoidance, as resistant females avoided oviposition on

  8. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  9. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  10. Key Factors Affecting Reproductive Success of Thoroughbred Mares and Stallions on a Commercial Stud Farm.

    PubMed

    Lane, E A; Bijnen, Mlj; Osborne, M; More, S J; Henderson, Isf; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate factors contributing to fertility of thoroughbred mares, data from 3743 oestrous periods of 2385 mares were collected on a large thoroughbred farm in Ireland. Fourteen stallions (mean age 8.3 years; range 4-15 years) had bred 2385 mares (mean age 9.4 years; range 3-24 years). Maiden mares accounted for 12%, mares with a foal at foot for 64%, and barren, slipped or rested mares for 24% of the total. The mean pregnancy rate per cycle was 67.8% (68.6% in year 1 and 66.9% in year 2). Backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to develop two models to evaluate mare factors, including mare age, reproductive status, month of foaling, dystocia, month of cover, foal heat, cycle number, treatments, walk-in status and stallion factors including stallion identity, stallion age, shuttle status, time elapsed between covers and high stallion usage on the per cycle pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. Old age (p < 0.001) and cover within 20 days post-partum (p < 0.003) were associated with lowered pregnancy rates. High mare age (p < 0.05) and barren, slipped or rested reproductive status (p = 0.05) increased the likelihood of pregnancy loss. Uterine inflammation or infection, if appropriately treated, did not affect fertility. Only high usage of stallions (used more than 21 times in previous week) was associated with lowered (p = 0.009) pregnancy rates. However, shuttle stallions were more likely to have increased (p = 0.035) pregnancy survival, perhaps reflecting a bias in stallion selection. In conclusion, mare age exerted the greatest influence on fertility; nonetheless, thoroughbreds can be effectively managed to achieve high reproductive performance in a commercial setting. PMID:26815482

  11. CO2, Temperature, and Soil Moisture Interactions Affect NDVI and Reproductive Phenology in Old-Field Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, C.; Weltzin, J.; Norby, R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant community composition and ecosystem function may be altered by global atmospheric and climate change, including increased atmospheric [CO2], temperature, and varying precipitation regimes. We are conducting an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) utilizing open-top chambers to administer experimental treatments of elevated CO2 (+300 ppm), warming (+ 3 degrees Celsius), and varying soil moisture availability to experimental plant communities constructed of seven common old-field species, including C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. During 2004 we monitored plant community phenology (NDVI) and plant reproductive phenology. Early in the year, NDVI was greater in wet treatment plots, and was unaffected by main effects of temperature or CO2. This result suggests that early in the season warming is insufficient to affect early canopy development. Differences in soil moisture sustained throughout the winter and into early spring may constitute an important control on early canopy greenup. Elevated CO2 alleviated detrimental effects of warming on NDVI, but only early in the season. As ambient temperatures increased, elevated temperatures negatively impacted NDVI only in the dry plots. Wetter conditions ameliorate the effects of warming on canopy greenness during the warmer seasons of the year. Warming increased rates of bolting, number of inflorescences, and time to reproductive maturity for Andropogon virginicus (a C4 bunchgrass). Solidago Canadensis (a C3 late-season forb) also produced flowers earlier in elevated temperatures. Conversely, none of the C3 grasses and forbs that bolt or flower in late spring or early summer responded to temperature or CO2. Results indicate that warming and drought may impact plant community phenology, and plant species reproductive phenology. Clearly community phenology is driven by complex interactions among temperature, water, and CO2 that change throughout the season. Our data stresses the importance of

  12. The effects of season and devil facial tumour disease on the reproductive physiology of the male Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Keeley, T; McGreevy, P D; O'Brien, J K

    2012-01-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is the cause of the rapid decline of wild Tasmanian devils. Female devils are seasonal breeders with births peaking during autumn (i.e. March) but the degree of reproductive seasonality in male devils is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of season and DFTD on reproductive function in male devils (n=55). Testicular (1.90±0.23 g) and epididymal (0.90±0.06 g) weights were maximal during autumn and spring (P<0.05), whereas prostate (3.71±0.74 g) and Cowper's gland (0.68±0.22; 0.52±0.21 g) weights peaked during autumn (P<0.001). The motility of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymides extracted post-mortem was similar (P>0.05) across season and disease state (31.5±13.1% total motility). Testicular and epididymal weights were no different between animals displaying late or early-stage DTFD signs or disease-free animals (P>0.1). The accessory sex glands were larger in late-stage DFTD animals than in animals with early-stage disease signs or which were disease-free (P<0.01) but effects of season on this result can't be excluded. Serum testosterone concentrations peaked during summer (0.25±0.18 ng mL(-1)) but values were not different from the preceding and subsequent seasons (P>0.05), nor influenced by disease stage (P>0.1). Seasonal and DFTD-related changes in serum cortisol concentrations were not evident (P>0.1). Male devil reproduction does not appear to be restricted by season nor inhibited by DFTD. PMID:22935161

  13. Maternally transferred dioxin-like compounds can affect the reproductive success of European eel.

    PubMed

    Foekema, Edwin M; Kotterman, Michiel; de Vries, Pepijn; Murk, Albertinka J

    2016-01-01

    Reported concentrations of dioxin-like compounds accumulated in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) were used to perform a risk assessment for eel larval survival, taking into account a modeled amplification of tissue concentrations with a factor of 1.33 during spawning migration. The calculated concentrations of dioxin-like compounds finally deposited in the eggs were compared with the internal effect concentrations for survival of early life stages of the European eel; these concentrations, by lack of experimental data, were estimated from a sensitivity distribution based on literature data by assuming that eel larvae are among the 10% most sensitive teleost fish species. Given concentrations of dioxin-like contaminants and assuming a relatively high sensitivity, it can be expected that larvae from eggs produced by eel from highly contaminated locations in Europe will experience increased mortality as a result of maternally transferred dioxin-like contaminants. As historical persistent organic pollutant concentrations in eel tissue were higher, this impact must have been stronger in the past. Potential effects of other compounds or effects on the migration, condition, and fertility of the parental animals were not taken into account. It is important to further study the overall impact of contaminants on the reproductive success of the European eel as this may have been underestimated until now. PMID:26223357

  14. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  15. An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

  16. Convergence between Physiological, Facial and Verbal Self-Report Measures of Affective Empathy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Warden, David

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the degree of convergence between three different measures of vicarious affective responsiveness (affective empathy)--verbal self-report, facial expression and change in heart rate--in typically developing children (N=29, aged 8-10 years), when presented with an emotionally evocative film. Although convergence…

  17. Seasonal variation in reproductive physiological status in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) and its relationship with sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Coloma, M A; Toledano-Díaz, A; Castaño, C; Velázquez, R; Gómez-Brunet, A; López-Sebastián, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2011-12-01

    The present work examines the relationship between seasonal changes in testicular function, accessory gland size, and horn growth in Iberian ibexes, as well as the relationship between these changes and the resistance of ibex spermatozoa to freezing-thawing. The size of the bulbourethral glands and seminal vesicles showed pronounced monthly variation (P < 0.001), which was correlated positively with the plasma testosterone concentration (P < 0.001) and scrotal circumference (P < 0.001). The size of the accessory sex glands peaked during the autumn. Overall, semen quality was markedly improved during autumn and winter. When horn growth was at a minimum during autumn and winter, semen quality and accessory gland size were all increased compared to in spring and summer. However, increased plasma testosterone levels in the autumn were strongly associated with reduced sperm freezability; thus, the cryosurvival of spermatozoa collected during the autumn was poorer than at other times of the year. In winter, however, when the plasma testosterone concentration fell to baseline, the negative effects of cryopreservation on the percentage of motile spermatozoa and on the integrity of the plasma membrane of frozen-thawed sperm cells were significantly less intense (P < 0.05). These findings show a clear relationship between the functional and morphological status of the different parts of the reproductive tract that optimises reproductive function during the breeding season in the ibex male. They also show that winter is the most suitable season for the collection and cryopreservation of ibex spermatozoa. PMID:21855981

  18. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 {mu}g/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor {beta} was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis.

  19. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17α-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic progesterones and estrogens are broadly used bioactive pharmaceutical agents and have been detected in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the combined reproductive effects of megestrol acetate (MTA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to MTA (33, 100 or 333 ng/L), EE2 (10 ng/L) or a mixture of both (MTA + EE2: 33 + 10, 100 + 10 or 333 + 10 ng/L) for 21 days. Results demonstrated that egg production was significantly reduced by exposure to 10 ng/L EE2, but not MTA. However, a combined exposure to MTA and EE2 caused further reduction of fish fecundity compared to EE2 exposure alone, suggesting an additive effect on egg production when EE2 is supplemented with MTA. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in the females and 11-ketotestosterone in the males were significantly decreased in the groups exposed to EE2 or MTA alone compared with the solvent control, and the plasma concentrations of the three hormones were further reduced in the co-exposure groups relative to the MTA exposure group, but not the EE2 exposure group. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects on plasma concentrations in the co-exposures were predominantly caused by EE2. Furthermore, exposure to MTA and EE2 (alone or in combination) led to histological alterations in the ovaries (decreased vitellogenic/mature oocytes), but not in the testes. This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. PMID:27038209

  20. Developmental Methoxychlor Exposure Affects Multiple Reproductive Parameters and Ovarian: Folliculogenesis and Gene Expression in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Armenti, AnnMarie E.; Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Passantino, Lisa; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post-coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis. PMID:18848953

  1. Physiological variables affecting surface film formation by native lamellar body-like pulmonary surfactant particles.

    PubMed

    Hobi, Nina; Siber, Gerlinde; Bouzas, Virginia; Ravasio, Andrea; Pérez-Gil, Jesus; Haller, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is a surface active complex of lipids and proteins that prevents the alveolar structures from collapsing and reduces the work of breathing by lowering the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface (ALI). Surfactant is synthesized by the alveolar type II (AT II) cells, and it is stored in specialized organelles, the lamellar bodies (LBs), as tightly packed lipid bilayers. Upon secretion into the alveolar lining fluid, a large fraction of these particles retain most of their packed lamellar structure, giving rise to the term lamellar body like-particles (LBPs). Due to their stability in aqueous media, freshly secreted LBPs can be harvested from AT II cell preparations. However, when LBPs get in contact with an ALI, they quickly and spontaneously adsorb into a highly organized surface film. In the present study we investigated the adsorptive capacity of LBPs at an ALI under relevant physiological parameters that characterize the alveolar environment in homeostatic or in pathological conditions. Adsorption of LBPs at an ALI is highly sensitive to pH, temperature and albumin concentration and to a relatively lesser extent to changes in osmolarity or Ca(2+) concentrations in the physiological range. Furthermore, proteolysis of LBPs significantly decreases their adsorptive capacity confirming the important role of surfactant proteins in the formation of surface active films. PMID:24582711

  2. Factors Affecting the Reproduction, Recruitment, Habitat, and Population Dynamics of Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korschgen, Carl E., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  3. Acute exposure to gas-supersaturated water does not affect reproductive success of female adult chinook salmon late in maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, William L.; Maule, A.G.; Postera, A.; Peters, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    At times, total dissolved gas concentrations in the Columbia and Snake rivers have been elevated due to involuntary spill from high spring runoff and voluntary spill used as a method to pass juvenile salmonids over dams. The goal of this project was to determine if acute exposure to total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) affects the reproductive performance of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. During this study, adult female spring chinook salmon were exposed to mean TDGS levels of 114.1 % to 125.5%. We ended exposures at first mortality, or at the appearance of impending death. Based on this criterion, exposures lasted from 10 to 68 h and were inversely related to TDGS. There was no effect of TDGS on pre-spawning mortality or fecundity when comparing treatment fish to experimental controls or the general hatchery population four to six weeks after exposures. Egg quality, based on egg weight and egg diameter, did not differ between treatment and control fish. Fertilization rate and survival to eyed-stage was high (>94%) for all groups. With the exception of Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; BKD), no viral or bacterial fish pathogens were isolated from experimental fish. The prevalence (about 45%) and severity of R. salmoninarum did not differ among the groups or the general hatchery population. We conclude that these acute exposures to moderate levels of gas-supersaturated water-perhaps similar to that experienced by immigrating adult salmon as they approach and pass a hydropower dam on the Columbia River-did not affect reproductive success of female chinook salmon late in their maturation. These results are most applicable to summer and fall chinook salmon, which migrate in the summer/fall and spawn shortly after reaching their natal streams. Published in 2004 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sublethal effects of antibiosis resistance on the reproductive biology of two spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria spp.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Paola A; Miller, María F; Cardona, Cesar; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo; Montoya, James

    2008-04-01

    Several greenhouse experiments were used to measure how high levels of antibiosis resistance to nymphs in two interspecific Brachiaria (brachiariagrass) hybrids affect life history parameters of the spittlebugs Aeneolamia varia (F.) and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand), two of the most important spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species affecting Brachiaria production in Colombia. The A. varia-resistant hybrid CIAT 36062, the Z. carbonaria-resistant hybrid SX01NO/0102, and the susceptible accession CIAT 0654 were used to compare the effect of all possible combinations of food sources for nymphs and adults. Calculation of growth indexes showed a significant impact of antibiosis resistance on the biology of immature stages of both species. Median survival times of adults feeding on resistant genotypes did not differ from those recorded on the susceptible genotype, suggesting that factors responsible for high mortality of nymphs in the resistant hybrids did not affect adult survival. Rearing nymphs of A. varia on CIAT 36062 and of Z. carbonaria on SX01NO/0102 had deleterious sublethal effects on the reproductive biology of resulting adult females. It is concluded that high nymphal mortality and subsequent sublethal effects of nymphal antibiosis on adults should have a major impact on the demography of the two spittlebug species studied. PMID:18459425

  5. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  6. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jérôme D; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  7. Negative affect and 24-hour ambulatory physiological recordings as predictors of spontaneous improvement of medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Houtveen, Jan H; VAN Doornen, Lorenz J P

    2008-12-01

    The predictive value for spontaneous improvement in individuals suffering from medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) was explored of (1) anxiety and depression obtained from questionnaires, (2) negative affective states obtained from experience-sampling, and (3) ambulatory-assessed real-life physiological recordings. Sixty-seven individuals with MUS and 61 healthy controls were included. Twenty-four hour ambulatory recordings of cardiac autonomic activity, respiration, end-tidal CO(2) and saliva cortisol were combined with experience-sampling of somatic complaints and mood. Complaints were assessed again after one year. Although a reduction in symptoms (25%) was found, this could not be predicted from initial anxiety and depression. Improvement was somewhat related to relatively low diary reports of fatigue, especially in the late-afternoon and evening (3% variance explained). From the physiological measures only relatively high PetCO(2) values in the morning predicted improvement (5% explained). It was concluded that spontaneous recovery from MUS is hard to predict from self-reported distress and ambulatory physiological recordings. PMID:18771476

  8. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  9. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  10. Transport of root-derived CO2 via the transpiration stream affects aboveground tree physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, J.; McGuire, M. A.; Aubrey, D. P.; Teskey, R. O.; Steppe, K.

    2012-04-01

    Recent research on soil CO2 efflux has shown that belowground autotrophic respiration is largely underestimated using classical net CO2 flux measurements. Aubrey & Teskey (2009) found that in forest ecosystems a substantial portion of the CO2 released from root respiration remained within the root system and was transported aboveground in the stem via the transpiration stream. The magnitude of this upward movement of CO2 from belowground tissues suggested important implications for how we measure above- and belowground respiration. If a considerable fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported aboveground, where it might be fixed in woody and leaf tissues, then we are routinely underestimating the amount of C needed to sustain belowground tissues. In this study, we infused 13C labeled water into the base of field-grown poplar trees as a surrogate for root-respired CO2 to investigate the possible role of root-derived CO2 as substrate for carbon fixation. The label was transported upwards from the base of the tree toward the top. During its ascent, the 13C label was removed from the transpiration stream and fixed by chlorophyll-containing woody (young bark and xylem) and leaf (petiole) tissues. Moreover, based on 13C analysis of gas samples, we observed that up to 88 ± 0.10 % of the label applied was lost to the atmosphere by stem and branch efflux higher in the trees. Given that one-half of root-respired CO2 may follow this internal flux pathway (Aubrey & Teskey, 2009), we calculated that up to 44% of the root-respired CO2 could diffuse to the atmosphere once transported to the stem and branches. Thus, a large portion of CO2 that diffuses out of aboveground tissues may actually result from root respiration. Our results show that CO2 originating belowground can be transported internally to aboveground parts of trees, where it will have an important impact on tree physiology. Internal transport of CO2 indicates that the gas exchange approach to estimating above- and

  11. MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE MAGELLANIC PENGUIN (SPHENISCUS MAGELLANICUS) USING CHILLED-STORED SEMEN.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Justine K; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Steinman, Karen J; Dubach, Jean M; Robeck, Todd R

    2016-03-01

    Research was performed to increase our understanding of male Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) reproductive biology and to develop artificial insemination (AI) technology to assist with maintaining the species' genetic diversity. Seminal traits were characterized from seven males with noncontaminated ejaculates (n = 123) displaying high in vitro motion parameters, membrane integrity, and morphology. Seven females were maintained in nest sites that permitted visual, auditory, and tactile contact with their paired male but not copulation for 18.3 ± 2.4 days before egg lay. After cloacal AI (2.6 ± 0.4 inseminations/female) with semen chilled for up to 20.5 hr at 5°C, all females produced one to two fertile eggs, with the first oviposition occurring within 7 days of plasma progesterone concentrations exceeding 0.8 ng/ml. Overall fertility was 91.7%, hatchability was 63.6%, and genetic analyses confirmed that all embryos and hatchlings were sired by AI males. The heterospermic AI design demonstrated that eggs were fertilized by spermatozoa chilled for 1.5-19.8 hr before AI and were laid 4.5-11.5 days post AI. These results contribute new data on Magellanic penguin sperm biology and demonstrate that high fertility rates after AI of chilled semen can be achieved with females remaining in proximity to their paired mate. PMID:27010281

  12. Reproductive physiology in eastern snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) exposed to runoff from a concentrated animal feeding operation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jennifer L; Rogers-Burch, Sara; Leet, Jessica K; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2013-10-01

    The eastern snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) is widely distributed throughout the eastern and central US and is a useful model organism to study land-use impacts on water quality. We compared the reproductive condition of turtles from a pond impacted by runoff from land applied with animal manure from a concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) relative to animals from a control pond. Turtles from the CAFO site were heavier and had higher plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG, mean ± SE; females; 859 ± 115 vs. 401 ± 127 ng/mL from controls) and testosterone (T, males; 39 ± 7.0 vs. 3.8 ± 6.9 ng/mL from controls). No VTG was detected in males. Body mass was positively correlated with VTG and T. Our results suggest that nutrient pollution of the CAFO pond indirectly resulted in higher plasma VTG in females and T in males because of an increase in body mass. The population-level consequences of these effects are not clear, but could result in females producing larger clutches. PMID:24502728

  13. Surgical procedure affects physiological parameters in rat myocardial ischemia: need for mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Berg, O; Heimann, A; Darius, H; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Kempski, O; Meyer, J

    1999-02-01

    Several surgical approaches are being used to induce myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study investigated two different operative procedures in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats under sham conditions. A snare around the left coronary artery (LCA) was achieved without occlusion. Left lateral thoracotomy was performed in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats (tidal volume 8 ml/kg) with a respiratory rate of 90 strokes/min at different levels of O2 supplementation (room air and 30, 40, and 90% O2). All animals were observed for 60 min after thoracotomy. Rats operated with exteriorization of the heart through left lateral thoracotomy while breathing spontaneously developed severe hypoxia and hypercapnia despite an intrathoracic operation time of <1 min. Arterial O2 content decreased from 18.7 +/- 0.5 to 3.3 +/- 0.9 vol%. Lactate increased from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 5.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l. Significant signs of ischemia were seen in the electrocardiogram up to 60 min. Mechanically ventilated animals exhibited a spectrum ranging from hypoxia (room air) to hyperoxia (90% O2). In order not to jeopardize findings in experimental myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury models, stable physiological parameters can be achieved in mechanically ventilated rats at an O2 application of 30-40% at 90 strokes/min. PMID:9950847

  14. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Kammann, Ulrike; Hudjetz, Sebastian; Cofalla, Catrina; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Preuss, Thomas; Hollert, Henner

    2014-07-01

    As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24°C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:24727214

  15. Radiative and Physiological Effects of Increased CO2: How Does This Interaction Affect Climate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari

    2011-01-01

    Several climate models indicate that in a 2xCO2 environment, temperature and precipitation would increase and runoff would increase faster than precipitation. These models, however, did not allow the vegetation to increase its leaf density as a response to the physiological effects of increased CO2 and consequent changes in climate. Other assessments included these interactions but did not account for the vegetation downregulation to reduce plant's photosynthetic activity and as such resulted in a weak vegetation negative response. When we combine these interactions in climate simulations with 2xCO2, the associated increase in precipitation contributes primarily to increase evapotranspiration rather than surface runoff, consistent with observations, and results in an additional cooling effect not fully accounted for in previous 2xCO2 simulations. By accelerating the water cycle, this feedback slows but does not alleviate the projected warming, reducing the land surface warming by 0.6 C. Compared to previous studies, these results imply that long term negative feedback from CO2-induced increases in vegetation density could reduce temperature following a stabilization of CO2 concentration.

  16. Phenotypic plasticity in growth and fecundity induced by strong population fluctuations affects reproductive traits of female fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Juha; Urpanen, Olli; Keskinen, Tapio; Huuskonen, Hannu; Sarvala, Jouko; Valkeajärvi, Pentti; Marjomäki, Timo J

    2016-02-01

    Fish are known for their high phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental variability, and this is particularly pronounced among salmonids in the Northern Hemisphere. Resource limitation leads to trade-offs in phenotypic plasticity between life-history traits related to the reproduction, growth, and survival of individual fish, which have consequences for the age and size distributions of populations, as well as their dynamics and productivity. We studied the effect of plasticity in growth and fecundity of vendace females on their reproductive traits using a series of long-term incubation experiments. The wild parental fish originated from four separate populations with markedly different densities, and hence naturally induced differences in their growth and fecundity. The energy allocation to somatic tissues and eggs prior to spawning served as a proxy for total resource availability to individual females, and its effects on offspring survival and growth were analyzed. Vendace females allocated a rather constant proportion of available energy to eggs (per body mass) despite different growth patterns depending on the total resources in the different lakes; investment into eggs thus dictated the share remaining for growth. The energy allocation to eggs per mass was higher in young than in old spawners and the egg size and the relative fecundity differed between them: Young females produced more and smaller eggs and larvae than old spawners. In contrast to earlier observations of salmonids, a shortage of maternal food resources did not increase offspring size and survival. Vendace females in sparse populations with ample resources and high growth produced larger eggs and larvae. Vendace accommodate strong population fluctuations by their high plasticity in growth and fecundity, which affect their offspring size and consequently their recruitment and productivity, and account for their persistence and resilience in the face of high

  17. Hydroxyl density affects the interaction of fibrinogen with silica nanoparticles at physiological concentration.

    PubMed

    Marucco, Arianna; Turci, Francesco; O'Neill, Luke; Byrne, Hugh J; Fubini, Bice; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    An increasing interest in the interaction between blood serum proteins and nanoparticles has emerged over the last years. In fact, this process plays a key role in the biological response to nanoparticles. The behavior of proteins at the biofluid/material interface is driven by the physico-chemical properties of the surface. However, much research is still needed to gain insight into the process at a molecular level. In this study, the effect of silanol density on the interaction of fibrinogen at physiological concentrations with silica nanoparticle/flat surfaces has been studied. Silica nanoparticles and silica wafers were modified and characterized to obtain a set of samples with different silanols density. The interaction with fibrinogen has been studied by evaluating the extent of coverage (bicinchoninic acid assay) and the irreversibility of adsorption (shift of the ζ potential). To clarify the molecular mechanism of fibrinogen/surface interactions, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (nanoparticles) and atomic force microscopy (wafers) were used. Finally the effect of fibrinogen on the agglomeration of nanoparticles has been evaluated by Flow Particle Image Analysis. The data reported here show that a minimal variation in the state of the silica surface modifies the adsorption behavior of fibrinogen, which appears mediated by a competition between protein/protein and protein/surface interactions. By comparing the data obtained on nanoparticles and silicon-supported silica layers, we found that hydrophilicity increases the tendency of fibrinogen molecules to interact with the surface rather than with other molecules, thus inhibiting fibrinogen self-assembly. This study contributes to the knowledge of the processes occurring at the surface/biological fluids interface, needed for the design of new biocompatible materials. PMID:24491335

  18. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5). PMID:23756043

  19. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  20. Reproductive physiology of the female Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus): Insights from the study of a zoological colony.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Schmitt, T L; Nollens, H H; Dubach, J M; Robeck, T R

    2016-01-01

    Eight captive female Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) were monitored over a 10week period, commencing at 5weeks prior to egg lay (EL), to increase our understanding of the species' reproductive biology. Females in cordoned nest sites underwent cloacal artificial insemination (AI) every 4-7days with different semen donors for each insemination. The EL interval was 97.9±3.6h (range: 84-108h) and paternity analyses revealed that conceptive inseminations occurred from 11.5 to 4.5days before oviposition. A biphasic pattern of estradiol, testosterone, progesterone and the biochemical analytes triglyceride, iron, calcium and phosphorus occurred in relation to EL, with values increasing (P<0.05) to maximal concentrations during the three weeks preceding oviposition, then decreasing (P<0.05) rapidly after oviposition completion. In comparison with post-lay (baseline) values, concentrations of estradiol and testosterone relative to the first oviposition were elevated at Week-5, and those of triglyceride, a yolk formation index, as well as iron, calcium and phosphorus, became elevated at Week-4 (P<0.05). Collective data indicate an estimated total egg formation interval of 29days, with oviducal transit of the ovulated ovum occurring over the majority of the ∼4day EL interval. These findings indicate that egg formation is prolonged with folliculogenesis initiated at 5weeks or more prior to oviposition. Consequently, the period of folliculogenesis and egg formation is estimated to overlap with the final ∼3weeks that wild females spend at sea prior to returning to land for breeding. PMID:26393312

  1. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-09-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000-6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10-12 mg fat/km which is 4-6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61-0.67 m s(-1), which is approximately 60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s(-1) and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols. PMID:20390348

  2. The physiology of massive zinc accumulation in the liver of female squirrelfish and its relationship to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hogstrand, C; Gassman, N J; Popova, B; Wood, C M; Walsh, P J

    1996-11-01

    It is well known that zinc is an essential micronutrient and, as a rule, organisms keep relatively constant low levels of zinc to maintain cellular functions. The squirrelfish family (Holocentridae) is the only known exception from this rule. Squirrelfish accumulate very high concentrations of zinc in the liver. In the present study, we demonstrate that, while female squirrelfish store large amounts of zinc in the liver and ovaries, the males show zinc levels that are typical for vertebrates. The zinc content of the diet is the same in males and females, and zinc is not lost from the liver during starvation. Thus, the difference between genders in zinc storage is not dependent upon the diet. Rather, there are at least two processes that contribute to the accumulation in females. First, females possess high levels of two major zinc-binding proteins: metallothionein (MT) and a novel female-specific zinc-binding protein (FZnBP). In females, but not in males, almost all MT is present in the hepatocyte nucleus. FZnBP is exclusively found in the hepatocyte cytosol of females. Second, hepatocytes of female squirrelfish have a high capacity to transport zinc across the plasma membrane. In addition to the liver, only the gonads of females showed unusually high concentrations of zinc. Administration of exogenous oestrogen to females decreases the hepatic zinc concentration while there is a matching increase in the zinc content of the ovaries. Thus, oestrogen may trigger a redistribution of zinc from liver to ovaries. Together, our findings suggest that female squirrelfish may be uniquely adapted to detoxify zinc and to utilize it as a macronutrient for processes related to reproduction. PMID:9114505

  3. Sex and proximity to reproductive maturity influence the survival, final maturation, and blood physiology of Pacific salmon when exposed to high temperature during a simulated migration.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Martins, Eduardo G; Clark, Timothy D; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Miller, Kristina M

    2012-01-01

    Some Pacific salmon populations have been experiencing increasingly warmer river temperatures during their once-in-a-lifetime spawning migration, which has been associated with en route and prespawn mortality. The mechanisms underlying such temperature-mediated mortality are poorly understood. Wild adult pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon were used in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effects of elevated water temperature on mortality, final maturation, and blood properties under controlled conditions that simulated a "cool" (13°C) and "warm" (19°C) freshwater spawning migration. After 10 d at 13°C, observed mortality was 50%-80% in all groups, which suggested that there was likely some mortality associated with handling and confinement. Observed mortality after 10 d at 19°C was higher, reaching ≥98% in male pink salmon and female pink and sockeye salmon. Thus, male sockeye salmon were the most thermally tolerant (54% observed mortality). Model selection supported the temperature- and sex-specific mortality patterns. The pink salmon were closer to reproductive maturation and farther along the senescence trajectory than sockeye salmon, which likely influenced their survival and physiological responses throughout the experiment. Females of both species held at 19°C had reduced plasma sex steroids compared with those held at 13°C, and female pink salmon were less likely to become fully mature at 19° than at 13°C. Male and female sockeye salmon held at 19°C had higher plasma chloride and osmolality than those held at 13°C, indicative of a thermally related stress response. These findings suggest that sex differences and proximity to reproductive maturity must be considered when predicting thermal tolerance and the magnitude of en route and prespawn mortality for Pacific salmon. PMID:22237290

  4. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  5. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  6. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part I: Physiological factors affecting therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, N R; Dolovich, M B

    2003-01-01

    As the end organ for the treatment of local diseases or as the route of administration for systemic therapies, the lung is a very attractive target for drug delivery. It provides direct access to disease in the treatment of respiratory diseases, while providing an enormous surface area and a relatively low enzymatic, controlled environment for systemic absorption of medications. As a major port of entry, the lung has evolved to prevent the invasion of unwanted airborne particles from entering into the body. Airway geometry, humidity, mucociliary clearance and alveolar macrophages play a vital role in maintaining the sterility of the lung and consequently are barriers to the therapeutic effectiveness of inhaled medications. In addition, a drug's efficacy may be affected by where in the respiratory tract it is deposited, its delivered dose and the disease it may be trying to treat. PMID:14616418

  7. Migratory carryover effects and endocrinological correlates of reproductive decisions and reproductive success in female albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Crossin, Glenn T; Phillips, Richard A; Trathan, Phil N; Fox, Derren S; Dawson, Alistair; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Williams, Tony D

    2012-04-01

    Physiological mechanisms mediating carryover effects, wherein events or activities occurring in one season, habitat, or life-history stage affect important processes in subsequent life-history stages, are largely unknown. The mechanism most commonly invoked to explain carryover effects from migration centres on the acquisition and utilization of resources (e.g. body mass, or individual 'condition'). However, other mechanisms are plausible, e.g. trade-offs reflecting conflict or incompatibility between physiological regulatory systems required for different activities or life-history stages (migration vs. reproduction). Here we show that in female black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophris) the decision to reproduce or to defer reproduction, made prior to their arrival at breeding colonies after long-distance migration, is associated with condition-related (body mass, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentrations) and hormonal (progesterone, testosterone, estrogen-dependent yolk precursors) traits. In contrast, reproductive success showed little association with condition but showed significant associations with the steroidogenic processes underlying follicle development. Specifically, success was determined by reproductive readiness via differences in steroid hormones and hormone-dependent traits. Successful albatrosses were characterized by high progesterone and high estradiol-dependent yolk precursor levels, whereas failed albatrosses had high testosterone and low yolk precursor levels. Results are discussed with reference to migratory carryover effects and how these can differentially affect the physiologies influencing reproductive decisions and reproductive success. PMID:22285395

  8. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

  9. Factors affecting reproductive performance of white-tailed deer subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination or natural mating.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel; Orta, Claudia G; Lozano, Eloy A; García, Jose E; Veliz, Francisco G; de Santiago, Angeles

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of several factors affecting fawning rate, litter size, litter weight and neonatal fawn mortality in white-tailed deer inseminated either transcervically or by means of laparoscopy. Oestrus synchronisation with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) was conducted in 130 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus texanus) during three reproductive seasons (2007-2009; 271 services) in a game-hunting ranch in a hot-arid environment (26°4' N, 101°25' W). Ninety additional non-treated does were exposed to bucks for natural mating. Fawning rate did not differ between AI methods (40.0 vs 45.0% for transcervical and laparoscopic AI, respectively). Overall fawning rate (proportion of all does fawning after FTAI and a subsequent period of buck exposure) did not differ between transcervical (89.5%), laparoscopic (80.3%) or natural (88.9%) insemination. Litter size per fawning doe was higher (P<0.05) in naturally-served does (1.65±0.48) than in transcervically-inseminated does (1.40±0.51) or in laparoscopically-inseminated does (1.48±0.50). The main conclusion was that no enhancement of fawning rate or litter size occurred as a result of intrauterine deposition of semen by laparoscopy compared with the transcervical insemination technique. PMID:23464502

  10. CO2 and fertility affect growth and reproduction but not susceptibility to aphids in field grown Solanum ptycanthum

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    In general, C3 annual plants respond positively in terms of growth, reproduction and biomass accrued when grown under elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, most studies documenting this response have been conducted in growth chambers where plants can be reared under conditions free form environmental stressors such as nutrient and water constraints, UV exposure and damage from pests. During the 1993 fieldseason, I grew 200 individuals of Solanum ptycanthum in an array of 10 outdoor, open-topped CO2 enclosures (5 @ 700 ppm CO2) at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI. Half of the plants were grown in a 50;50 mix of native C-horizon soil and topsoil (low fertility); the other half were grown in 100% topsoil (high-fertility). Plants were censused throughout the growing season for flower and fruit production, growth rate and degree of infestation of aphids. Fertility and CO2 both significantly affected production of flowers and fruits, but only fertility was significantly related to vegetative growth. Aphid infestation varied significantly among enclosures, but was not related to CO2 or fertility.

  11. Population sex-ratio affecting behavior and physiology of overwintering bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Sipari, Saana; Haapakoski, Marko; Klemme, Ines; Palme, Rupert; Sundell, Janne; Ylönen, Hannu

    2016-05-15

    Many boreal rodents are territorial during the breeding season but during winter become social and aggregate for more energy efficient thermoregulation. Communal winter nesting and social interactions are considered to play an important role for the winter survival of these species, yet the topic is relatively little explored. Females are suggested to be the initiators of winter aggregations and sometimes reported to survive better than males. This could be due to the higher social tolerance observed in overwintering females than males. Hormonal status could also affect winter behavior and survival. For instance, chronic stress can have a negative effect on survival, whereas high gonadal hormone levels, such as testosterone, often induce aggressive behavior. To test if the winter survival of females in a boreal rodent is better than that of males, and to assess the role of females in the winter aggregations, we generated bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations of three different sex ratios (male-biased, female-biased and even density) under semi-natural conditions. We monitored survival, spatial behavior and hormonal status (stress and testosterone) during two winter months. We observed no significant differences in survival between the sexes or among populations with differing sex-ratios. The degree of movement area overlap was used as an indicator of social tolerance and potential communal nesting. Individuals in male biased populations showed a tendency to be solitary, whereas in female biased populations there was an indication of winter aggregation. Females living in male-biased populations had higher stress levels than the females from the other populations. The female-biased sex-ratio induced winter breeding and elevated testosterone levels in males. Thus, our results suggest that the sex-ratio of the overwintering population can lead to divergent overwintering strategies in bank voles. PMID:26976741

  12. Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Michael; Arslan, Ruben C; Hagemeyer, Birk; Schönbrodt, Felix D; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2015-10-01

    According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. PMID:26280840

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin from Ancylostoma ceylanicum: evidence for a role in hookworm reproductive physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Allison C.; Harrison, Lisa M.; Kapulkin, Wadim; Jones, Brian F.; Sinha, Anindita; Savage, Amy; Villalon, Nicholas; Cappello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lectins comprise a family of related proteins that mediate essential cell functions through binding to carbohydrates. Within this protein family, C-type lectins are defined by the requirement of calcium for optimal biologic activity. Using reverse transcription PCR, a cDNA corresponding to a putative C-type lectin has been amplified from the hookworm parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The 550 nucleotide open reading frame of the Ancylostoma ceylanicum C-type Lectin-1 (AceCTL-1) cDNA corresponds to a 167 amino acid mature protein (18706 Da) preceded by a 17 amino acid secretory signal sequence. The recombinant protein (rAceCTL-1) was expressed in Drosophila S2 cells and purified using a combination of affinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Using in vitro carbohydrate binding studies, it was determined that rAceCTL-1 binds N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a common component of eukaryotic egg cell membranes. Using a polyclonal IgG raised against the recombinant protein, the native AceCTL-1 was identified in sperm and soluble protein extracts of adult male A. ceylanicum by immunoblot. Probing of adult hookworm sections with the polyclonal IgG demonstrated localization to the testes in males, as well as the spermatheca and developing embryos in females, consistent with its role as a sperm protein. Together, these data strongly suggest that AceCTL-1 is a male gender-specific C-type lectin with a function in hookworm reproductive physiology. PMID:17129620

  14. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success. PMID:23163395

  15. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  16. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    PubMed

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

  17. Comparison of the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts with phytoestrogens on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Juárez-Rojas, L; Hernández, A; Romero, C; López, G; Miranda, L; Guerrero-Aguilera, A; Solano, F; Hernández, E; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-10-01

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) and Leucaena leucocephala are widespread legumes, widely used to feed several livestock species and as food source for human populations in several countries. Both mesquite and Leucaena contain several phytoestrogens which might have potential estrogenic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the male rat. The effects of the extracts were compared with those of estradiol (E2) and of two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact male rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; Leucaena extract; E2; DAI; GEN. The results indicate that mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts disrupt male sexual behavior in a similar way to DAI and GEN, but less than E2. The main disruptor of sexual behavior was E2, however after 40 and 50days of administration, both extracts and phytoestrogens disrupted sexual behavior in a similar way to E2. The extracts also increased testicular germ cell apoptosis, decreased sperm quality, testicular weight, and testosterone levels, as phytoestrogens did, although these effects were less than those caused by estradiol. The number of seminiferous tubules with TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in extracts treated groups in a similar way to phytoestrogens groups, and E2 caused the greatest effect. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per tubule increased only in Leucaena extract and E2 groups, but not in mesquite- and phytoestrogens-treated groups. Spermatocytes and round spermatids were the TUNEL-positive cells observed in all experimental groups. This effect was associated with smaller testicular weights without atrophy in experimental groups compared with control. Testicular atrophy was only observed in estradiol-treated males. Testosterone decreased in males of all experimental groups, compared with control, this androgen was undetectable in E2

  18. CRF-Like Diuretic Hormone Negatively Affects Both Feeding and Reproduction in the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Dillen, Senne; Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Diuretic hormones (DH) related to the vertebrate Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) have been identified in diverse insect species. In the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, the CRF-like DH (CRF/DH) is localized in the same neurosecretory cells as the Ovary Maturating Parsin (OMP), a neurohormone that stimulates oocyte growth, vitellogenesis and hemolymph ecdysteroid levels in adult female locusts. In this study, we investigated whether CRF-like DH can influence feeding and reproduction in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. We identified two highly similar S. gregaria CRF-like DH precursor cDNAs, each of which also encodes an OMP isoform. Alignment with other insect CRF-like DH precursors shows relatively high conservation of the CRF/DH sequence while the precursor region corresponding to OMP is not well conserved. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that the precursor transcripts mainly occur in the central nervous system and their highest expression level was observed in the brain. Injection of locust CRF/DH caused a significantly reduced food intake, while RNAi knockdown stimulated food intake. Therefore, our data indicate that CRF-like DH induces satiety. Furthermore, injection of CRF/DH in adult females retarded oocyte growth and caused lower ecdysteroid titers in hemolymph and ovaries, while RNAi knockdown resulted in opposite effects. The observed effects of CRF/DH may be part of a wider repertoire of neurohormonal activities, constituting an integrating control system that affects food intake and excretion, as well as anabolic processes like oocyte growth and ecdysteroidogenesis, following a meal. Our discussion about the functional relationship between CRF/DH and OMP led to the hypothesis that OMP may possibly act as a monitoring peptide that can elicit negative feedback effects. PMID:22363645

  19. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings. PMID:25664768

  20. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of immune, reproductive and carcinogenic effects from contaminant exposure in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) across the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Rune; Gustavson, Kim; Sonne, Christian; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Rigét, Frank F; Pavlova, Viola; McKinney, Melissa A; Letcher, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) consume large quantities of seal blubber and other high trophic marine mammals and consequently have some of the highest tissue concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among Arctic biota. In the present paper we carried out a risk quotient (RQ) evaluation on OHC-exposed polar bears harvested from 1999 to 2008 and from 11 circumpolar subpopulations spanning from Alaska to Svalbard in order to evaluate the risk of OHC-mediated reproductive effects (embryotoxicity, teratogenicity), immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity (genotoxicity). This RQ evaluation was based on the Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept and a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling (PBPK) approach using OHC concentrations measured in polar bear adipose or liver tissue. The range of OHC concentrations within polar bear populations were as follows for adipose, sum polychlorinated biphenyls ∑PCBs (1797-10,537 ng/g lw), sum methylsulphone-PCB ∑MeSO2-PCBs (110-672 ng/g lw), sum chlordanes ∑CHLs (765-3477 ng/g lw), α-hexachlorocyclohexane α-HCH (8.5-91.3 ng/g lw), β-hexachlorocyclohexane β-HCH (65.5-542 ng/g lw), sum chlorbenzenes ∑ClBzs (145-304 ng/g lw), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ∑DDTs (31.5-206 ng/g lw), dieldrin (69-249 ng/g lw), polybrominated diphenyl ethers ∑PBDEs (4.6-78.4 ng/g lw). For liver, the perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) concentrations ranged from 231-2792 ng/g ww. The total additive RQ from all OHCs ranged from 4.3 in Alaska to 28.6 in East Greenland bears for effects on reproduction, immune health and carcinogenicity, highlighting the important result that the toxic effect threshold (i.e. RQ>1) was exceeded for all polar bear populations assessed. PCBs were the main contributors for all three effect categories, contributing from 70.6% to 94.3% of the total risk and a RQ between 3.8-22.5. ∑MeSO2-PCBs were the second highest effect contributor for reproductive and immunological effects (0.17

  1. Effects of implantation of hypertrophied androgenic glands on sexual characters and physiology of the reproductive system in the female red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, I; Katz, T; Abdu, U; Yehezkel, G; Sagi, A

    2001-03-01

    The role of the androgenic gland (AG), an organ unique to male Crustacea, in the development of sex characters and physiology of the reproductive system has not been fully documented in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. To investigate the role of the AG in this species, the effect of implanting hypertrophied AGs into immature female animals was followed. Of the female animals with AG implants, 91.6% developed male-like propodi, including the red patch characteristic of males of this species. The development of female secondary sex characteristics such as a wider abdomen, a wider endopod, and simple setation was inhibited. At the end of the experiment, the ovaries of the AG-implanted females contained mostly lipid-stage oocytes, with a small number of oocytes at the early yolk stage. The gonadosomatic index of the AG-implanted females was significantly lower than that of the control (sperm duct-implanted or sham-operated) females, which had mature oocytes with a well-defined perinuclear zone and yolk globules. An immunohistochemical test using an antibody developed against a 106-kDa secondary vitellogenic polypeptide showed only slight immunoreactivity in the oocytes of AG-implanted females compared with abundant immunoreactivity in control ovaries. In the polypeptide profile of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from the hemolymph of AG-implanted females, the 206- and 79-kDa secondary vitellogenesis-specific polypeptides were not found, whereas they were present in the profile of control females. In contrast, the female-specific 177-kDa polypeptide was present in the polypeptide profile of hemolymph HDL of both AG-implanted females and control females. It seems therefore that while secondary sex characters were masculinized under the influence of the implanted AG, the process of vitellogenesis was suppressed but not fully eliminated in the AG-implanted females. PMID:11254366

  2. Macrobenthic physiological responses to environmental fluctuations: the reproductive cycle and enzymatic polymorphism of a eurybathic sea-urchin on the northwestern Mediterranean continental shelf and slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Féral, Jean-Pierre; Ferrand, Jean-Guy; Guille, Alain

    1990-09-01

    Two hundred and twenty-seven sea-urchins, Brissopsis lyrifera, were collected in the Gulf of Lions between 60 and ca 1000 m depth, over a21/2 year period. The reproductive cycle was found to be independent of depth. Males and females were sexually mature at the end of summer. After a period of gonadal rest during winter, gametogenesis resumed at the beginning of spring. Specific enzymatic reactions on gut extracts, after PAA-electrophoresis, indicated that B. lyrifera is not a very polymorphic species and is generally homozygotic at the tested loci, except for esterases. Individual regrouping (discriminant factorial analysis) did not appear to be sensitive to the depth factor. On the contrary, a relationship between zymogrammes of the digestive tube and the sampling season was enhanced when sex and maturation stage were considered (main concerned activities: alkaline phosphatase ALK 1 and α-amylase AMY 1 and AMY 2), especially for females. These results indicate that enzymatic activities may be seasonal. They also indicate metabolic differences dependent upon the sex in somatic tissues, on one hand, and depending on environmental fluctuations on the other. Biological cycles are seasonal in the Mediterranean Sea, to 1000 m. In the case of B. lyrifera, a relationship could be established between flux increases of sediment carbon and sterols in winter and the beginning of gametogenesis. It is concluded that physiological signals, studied at different depths, would permit us to appreciate biological components of the margin ecosystem dynamics. This will also help define the place of life in the general oceanic fluxes (matter and energy).

  3. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes. PMID:24474811

  4. Reproductive allocation in plants as affected by elevated carbon dioxide and other environmental changes: a synthesis using meta-analysis and graphical vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianzhong; Taub, Daniel R; Jablonski, Leanne M

    2015-04-01

    Reproduction is an important life history trait that strongly affects dynamics of plant populations. Although it has been well documented that elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere greatly enhances biomass production in plants, the overall effect of elevated CO2 on reproductive allocation (RA), i.e., the proportion of biomass allocated to reproductive structures, is little understood. We combined meta-analysis with graphical vector analysis to examine the overall effect of elevated CO2 on RA and how other environmental factors, such as low nutrients, drought and elevated atmospheric ozone (O3), interacted with elevated CO2 in affecting RA in herbaceous plants. Averaged across all species of different functional groups and environmental conditions, elevated CO2 had little effect on RA (-0.9%). RA in plants of different reproductive strategies and functional groups, however, differed in response to elevated CO2. For example, RA in iteroparous wild species decreased by 8%, while RA in iteroparous crops increased significantly (+14%) at elevated CO2. RA was unaffected by CO2 in plants grown with no stress or in low-nutrient soils. RA decreased at elevated CO2 and elevated O3, but increased in response to elevated CO2 in drought-stressed plants, suggesting that elevated CO2 could ameliorate the adverse effect of drought on crop production to some extent. Our results demonstrate that elevated CO2 and other global environmental changes have the potential to greatly alter plant community composition through differential effects on RA of different plant species and thus affect the dynamics of natural and agricultural ecosystems in the future. PMID:25537120

  5. A physiological, rather than a superovulated, post-implantation environment can attenuate the compromising effect of assisted reproductive techniques on gene expression in developing mice embryos.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, E; Edriss, M A; Bakhtari, A; Jafarpour, F; Asgari, V; Hosseini, S M; Boroujeni, N Sadeghi; Hajian, M; Rahmani, H R; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2015-03-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) may perturb the pre-/peri-conception microenvironments, which subsequently threaten the health of offspring. This study aimed to investigate the effects of superovulation, vitrification, in vitro culture, and embryo transfer on the expression of epigenetic modulators, imprinted genes, and pluripotency markers in expanded blastocysts and Day-9.5 (D9.5) concepti. Results revealed that 53.4% (8/15) and 86.7% (13/15) of genes in the fetus and placenta, respectively, have similar patterns of transcription in all D9.5 concepti, despite the perturbed mRNA expression observed at the blastocyst stage for each embryo-production technique. These observations indicate a counterbalancing of the abnormal expression pattern analyzed at the blastocyst stage during post-implantation development, particularly when the uterus of a naturally synchronized foster mother is employed. Superovulation resulted in the most abnormal expression patterns compared to other treatment groups, although these same blastocysts were able to develop in a synchronized uterus. Thus, superovulation creates a hormonal environment that negatively affected gene expression and impairs fetal growth more adversely during post-implantation development than other ART protocols, such as in vitro culture, vitrification, or embryo transfer-although each did contribute negatively to the implantation and development process. Together, these results may have implications for treating infertility in humans. PMID:25728573

  6. Factors affecting reproductive success and life history parameters of Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from three host-associated populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentative releases of native natural enemies are viable strategies for suppression of crop pests. Appropriate mass rearing and release strategies rely on a thorough understanding of the reproductive biology of the natural enemy. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of parasitoid source ...

  7. Dehydration-stress affects vegetative reproduction and transcriptome profiles in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed that infests mainly range, recreational and right-of-way lands in the great plains of the US and Canada. Although spread occurs by both seeds and roots, the perennial nature of leafy spurge is attributed to vegetative reproduction from an abundance of under...

  8. Evaluation of quantitative trait loci affecting intramuscular fat and reproductive traits in pigs using marker-assisted introgression.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Ohnishi, C; Kikuchi, T; Kohira, K; Egawa, S; Terai, S; Nakamura, T; Arata, S; Komatsuda, A; Uemoto, Y

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) in an experimental backcross (BC) between Chinese Meishan pigs and commercial Duroc pigs. We performed marker-assisted introgression of two QTL for intramuscular fat (IMF) content (IMF population) and three QTL for reproductive traits (reproduction population) from a donor Meishan pig into a recipient Duroc pig. At the fourth BC generation of the IMF population and third BC generation of the reproduction population, carrier animals were selected for the production of animals homozygous for the QTL. Our previous studies have shown that the presence of a Meishan allele on the IMF QTL is associated with low IMF values, and the Meishan allele on the reproductive QTL is associated with large litters. In this study, the presence of a Duroc allele at the IMF QTL on SSC9 resulted in a 0.27% increase in IMF (additive effect = 0.27 ± 0.08), whereas the presence of a Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 resulted in a 0.34% increase in IMF (additive effect = -0.34 ± 0.09). The presence of the Meishan allele at the IMF QTL on SSC7 thus had the opposite effect to our previous studies, that is, increased IMF. In the reproduction population, we observed no differences between the genotypes of the three QTL in regard to number of corpora lutea or litter size. Marker-assisted introgression at these QTL is thus unlikely to result in an associated increase in litter size. These results show that it is possible to introgress alleles from other breeds into a selection population using molecular markers; any unexpected results might be associated with the genetic background. PMID:25099662

  9. How salinity and temperature combine to affect physiological state and performance in red knots with contrasting non-breeding environments.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Dekinga, Anne; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Masero, José A; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-08-01

    Migratory shorebirds inhabit environments that may yield contrasting salinity-temperature regimes-with widely varying osmoregulatory demands, even within a given species-and the question is: by which physiological means and at which organisational level do they show adjustments with respect to these demands? Red knots Calidris canutus winter in coastal areas over a range of latitudes. The nominal subspecies winters in salty areas in the tropics, whereas the subspecies Calidris canutus islandica winters in north-temperate regions of comparatively lower salinities and temperatures. In this study, both subspecies of red knot were acclimated to different salinity (28/40‰)-temperature (5/35 °C) combinations for 2-week periods. We then measured food/salt intakes, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass and temperature, fat and salt gland scores, gizzard mass, heat-shock proteins, heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio and plasma Na(+) to assess the responses of each taxon to osmoregulatory challenges. High salinity (HS)-warm-acclimated birds reduced food/salt intake, BMR, body mass, fat score and gizzard mass, showing that salt/heat loads constrained energy acquisition rates. Higher salt gland scores in saltier treatments indicated that its size was adjusted to higher osmoregulatory demands. Elevated plasma Na(+) and H/L ratio in high-salinity-warm-acclimated birds indicated that salt/heat loads might have a direct effect on the water-salt balance and stress responses of red knots. Subspecies had little or no effect on most measured parameters, suggesting that most adjustments reflect phenotypic flexibility rather than subspecific adaptations. Our results demonstrate how salinity and temperature affect various phenotypic traits in a migrant shorebird, highlighting the importance of considering these factors jointly when evaluating the environmental tolerances of air-breathing marine taxa. PMID:25851406

  10. Evaluation of non-genetic factors affecting calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of traditionally managed Sheko cattle in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bayou, E; Haile, A; Gizaw, S; Mekasha, Y

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate calf growth, reproductive performance and milk yield of Ethiopia Sheko cattle and to assess non-genetic factors affecting their performance in their home tract as a step towards designing sustainable cattle conservation and improvement strategy. All the growth traits considered in the study were significantly affected by all non-genetic factors considered except for the fixed effects of Agro ecological zones (AEZs) and season of birth which were not significant for post weaning daily gain. Calving interval (CI) and days open (DO) were significantly influenced by AEZs, season and dam parity. Cows that calved in lowland had shorter CI and DO than cows which calved in midland. Cows that calved in short rainy season had Short CI and DO than those calved during dry season or long rainy season. Cows which calved for the first time had the longest CI and DO from the other parities whereas cows on their fifth parity had the shortest CI and DO. AEZ significantly affected lactation milk yield (LMY) and lactation length (LL), but not significant on daily milk yield (DMY) and 305 days yield (305DY). Season was significant on all milk traits considered except DMY. Parity effect was significant on LMY and 305DY, whereas DMY and LL were not affected. The non-genetic factors had significant effects for all of the reproductive; and many of the growth and milk performance traits considered and hence will need to be considered in cattle breed improvement program. PMID:26543703

  11. Moisture source and diet affect development and reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two predatory anthocorids from Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; De Clercq, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  12. Moisture Source and Diet affect Development and Reproduction of Orius thripoborus and Orius naivashae, two Predatory Anthocorids from Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bonte, Jochem; Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Maes, Sara; Bonte, Maarten; Conlong, Des; Clercq, Patrick De

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture source and diet on the development and reproduction of the pirate bugs, Orius thripoborus (Hesse) and Orius naivashae (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) was examined in the laboratory. Both species had been collected in and around sugarcane fields in South Africa. Supplementing eggs of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with a green bean pod as a moisture source yielded better nymphal survival and faster development, as compared with free water encapsulated in Parafilm, suggesting that the predators may extract extra nutrients from the bean pod. The impact of two factitious foods and moist honey bee pollen on developmental and reproductive parameters of both predators was also investigated. The overall performance of both Orius species on E. kuehniella eggs and cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana Kellogg (Crustacea: Artemiidae) was better than on pollen. Nonetheless, a pollen diet alone allowed 66 and 78% of the nymphs of O. thripoborus and O. naivashae, respectively, to reach adulthood. Overall, developmental and reproductive performance of O. thripoborus on the tested diets was superior to that of O. naivashae. The implications of these findings for the mass production of these predators and their potential role in biological control programs in southern Africa are discussed. PMID:22935002

  13. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  14. The song of the old mother: Reproductive senescence in female drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Paige B; Obrik-Uloho, Oghenemine T; Phan, Mai H; Medrano, Christian L; Renier, Joseph S; Thayer, Joseph L; Wiessner, Gregory; Bloch Qazi, Margaret C

    2014-01-01

    Among animals with multiple reproductive episodes, changes in adult condition over time can have profound effects on lifetime reproductive fitness and offspring performance. The changes in condition associated with senescence can be particularly acute for females who support reproductive processes from oogenesis through fertilization. The pomace fly Drosophila melanogaster is a well-established model system for exploring the physiology of reproduction and senescence. In this review, we describe how increasing maternal age in Drosophila affects reproductive fitness and offspring performance as well as the genetic foundation of these effects. Describing the processes underlying female reproductive senescence helps us understand diverse phenomena including population demographics, condition-dependent selection, sexual conflict, and transgenerational effects of maternal condition on offspring fitness. Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive senescence clarifies the nature of life-history trade-offs as well as potential ways to augment and/or limit female fertility in a variety of organisms. PMID:25523082

  15. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26597628

  16. Changes of pathological and physiological indicators affecting drug metabolism in rats after acute exposure to high altitude

    PubMed Central

    LI, WENBIN; WANG, RONG; XIE, HUA; ZHANG, JUANHONG; JIA, ZHENGPING

    2015-01-01

    High altitude environments cause the human body to undergo a series of pathological, physiological and biochemical changes, which have a certain effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present study was to observe changes in factors affecting pharmacokinetics in rats following acute exposure to high altitude and return to low altitude. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The rats in group A were maintained at low altitude in Shanghai, 55 m above sea level; those in group B were acutely exposed to high altitude in Maqu, Gansu, 4,010 m above sea level; and those in group C were acutely exposed to high altitude and then returned to low altitude. Blood was collected from the orbit for the analysis of significant biochemical indicators and from the abdominal aorta for blood gas analysis. Brain, lung and kidney tissues were removed to observe pathological changes. In group B, the pH, buffer base (BB), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide content (ctCO2), oxygen saturation of arterial blood (sO2), oxygen tension of arterial blood (pO2), serum sodium (Na+) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total protein (TP) level were significantly reduced, and the carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood (pCO2), serum chloride (Cl−) concentration, serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly increased compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In group C, the pH, BB, BE, sO2, pO2, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum Na+ concentration, LDH activity and TP level were significantly reduced, and the pCO2, serum Cl− concentration, alanine transaminase activity, TBIL and urea levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those in group A. The Hb and ALP levels in group C were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05); and the TP, TBIL and urea levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that

  17. How Does Religious Affiliation Affect Women’s Attitudes Toward Reproductive Health Policy? Implications for the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Elizabeth W.; Hall, Kelli Stidham; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Background Supreme Court cases challenging the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandate for employer-provided reproductive health care have focused on religiously based opposition to coverage. Little is known about women’s perspectives on such reproductive health policies. Study Design Data were drawn from the Women’s Health Care Experiences and Preferences survey, a randomly selected, nationally representative sample of 1078 US women age 18–55. We examined associations between religious affiliation and attitudes toward employer-provided insurance coverage of contraception and abortion services, and the exclusion of religious institutions from this coverage. We used chi-square and multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Respondents self-identified as Baptist (18%), Protestant (Other Mainline, 17%), Catholic (17%), Other Christian (20%), Religious, Non-Christian (7%) or no affiliation (21%). Religious affiliation was associated with proportions of agreement for contraception (p = 0.03), abortion (p <0.01), and religious exclusion (p <0.01) policies. In multivariable models, differences in the odds of agreement varied across religious affiliations and frequency of service attendance. For example, compared to non-affiliated women, Baptists and Other Nondenominational Christians (but not Catholics) had lower odds of agreement with employer coverage of contraception (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4-0.1 and OR 0.57, CI 0.4–0.9, respectively); women who attended services weekly or more than weekly had lower odds of agreement (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.3–0.8 and OR 0.33, CI 0.2–0.6, respectively), compared to less frequent attenders. Conclusions Recent religiously motivated legal challenges to employer-provided reproductive health care coverage may not represent the attitudes of many religious women. PMID:25727764

  18. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  19. Neonatal exposure to 17α-ethynyl estradiol affects ovarian gene expression and disrupts reproductive cycles in female rats.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Kaori; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Zhang, Haolin; Usuda, Kento; Okazaki, Sachiko; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Midori; Watanabe, Gen

    2014-07-01

    Neonatal exposure to synthetic estrogen causes delayed reproductive dysfunction in female rats. Exposure to 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE, low: 20 and high: 2000 μg/kg) induced an abnormal estrous cycle during PND171-190 in low-dose and PND126-145 in high-dose group. At PND90 within normal estrous cycle, high-dose animals showed lack of LH surge and low of ovarian hormones in serum level. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that level of mRNA encoding luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) was higher in EE-treated ovaries than in control ovaries, and LHCGR protein colocalized with apoptosis-related proteins in the interstitial area of the ovary. At PND1, ovarian LHCGR mRNA levels were higher in EE-treated rats than in control rats, and direct induction of LHCGR expression by EE was observed in vitro. Our results indicate that neonatal exposure to EE induces irregular LHCGR expression in the immature ovary, which may influence the occurrence of delayed reproductive dysfunction in adult animals. PMID:24632129

  20. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success. 

  1. Honey bee stock genotypes do not affect the level of physiological responses to chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding honey bees (Apis mellifera) for physiological resistance to diseases is a highly desirable and environmentally safe approach to increasing colony survival. Selection of desirable traits is a critical element of any breeding program. In this study we investigate whether honey bee stocks dif...

  2. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring piglets at weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to compare the behaviour of sows in stalls and group housing systems, and the physiological indices of their offspring, 28 sows were randomly distributed into 2 systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into 3 groups with 4 sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls a...

  3. Growth, Yield, and Physiology of Sugarcane as Affected by Soil and Foliar Application of Silicon on Organic and Mineral Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), a Si accumulator plant, responds positively to application of Si in terms of cane and sucrose yield. However, data is limited on the response of sugarcane leaf physiology to Si application. Moreover, most of the published studies focused on soil (root) application with li...

  4. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  5. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  6. Food availability and reproduction affects lipid and fatty acid composition of the brown mussel, Perna perna, raised in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Narváez, Mirle; Freites, L; Guevara, M; Mendoza, J; Guderley, H; Lodeiros, C J; Salazar, G

    2008-02-01

    We examined the influence of the reproductive cycle and environmental factors on variations of the condition index (CI), tissue dry mass, shell size, total lipid content, and relative percent of fatty acids in the mussel, Perna perna. Spat or juveniles were reared to commercial size (70 mm) in suspension culture in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela between May and October 2004. The dry mass of soft tissues and shell, a visual assessment of gonadal status and the organism lipid profile were established every fortnight. In parallel, we measured the environmental conditions, following chlorophyll a, salinity, temperature and seston levels. After an initial decrease, the CI rose and remained high until August after which it decreased continuously until October. Total lipid values also decreased initially, after which they showed two periods of rapid recuperation and depletion, the first between May and August and the second between August and October. Similar tendencies were noted in the fatty acids, C18:3n-3, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3. Correlation analysis found no significant relationships between environmental parameters and the variations in total lipids. However, significant correlations were noted between fatty acids and specific environmental parameters. In particular, temperature was inversely correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:0, C18:1n-9 and 20:5n-3. Chlorophyll a was positively correlated with C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7, C18:4n-3 and 20:4n-6. On the other hand, gametogenesis had an effect on C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-9 and C18:1n-7, while spawned and gonadal regression states had an effect on fatty acid 20:4n-6. Temperature and chlorophyll a levels strongly influenced the proportion of mussels spawning, suggesting that their influence upon lipid composition may be secondary to their impact upon reproduction. Despite the thermal stability of this tropical system, the lipid composition of mussels changed markedly during the study, reflecting the central role of diet

  7. Targeted disruption of the mouse prosaposin gene affects the development of the prostate gland and other male reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Morales, C R; Zhao, Q; El-Alfy, M; Suzuki, K

    2000-01-01

    The prosaposin gene encodes a 65-70 kilodalton (kd) protein, which is secreted or targeted to lysosomes. In lysosomes, prosaposin is the precursor of 4 activator proteins, designated saposins A, B, C, and D, which promote by acidic hydrolases, the degradation of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains. Mutations of the prosaposin gene have been linked to several lysosomal storage disorders. An animal model was recently developed by creating a null allele in embryonic stem cells through gene targeting in order to investigate the phenotypic diversity of prosaposin mutations, the involvement of this protein in lysosomal storage diseases, and to develop potential therapeutic approaches. Mutant homozygous mice die at 35-40 days of age and neurological disorders contribute to their early death. Secreted prosaposin is present in milk and in cerebrospinal and seminal fluids. In the nervous system, prosaposin exhibits a trophic activity. Examination of reproduc-tive organs in homozygous mutant males shows several abnormalities such as a decrease in testis size with reduced spermiogenesis, and an involution of the prostate, seminal vesicle, and epididymis, although levels of testosterone in blood remain normal. In the prostate of homozygous mutants, only basal cells appear to be present, whereas secretory cells are absent. The epithelia in efferent ducts is formed by ciliated cells, whereas heterozygotes exhibit a majority of nonciliated cells. Our data indicate that prosaposin is involved in the development and maintenance of male reproductive organs. In prostatic epithelium, targeted disruption of the prosaposin gene appears to inactivate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and to interfere with differentiation of secretory cells. PMID:11105903

  8. The Arabidopsis DSO/ABCG11 transporter affects cutin metabolism in reproductive organs and suberin in roots.

    PubMed

    Panikashvili, David; Shi, Jian Xin; Bocobza, Samuel; Franke, Rochus Benni; Schreiber, Lukas; Aharoni, Asaph

    2010-05-01

    Apart from its significance in the protection against stress conditions, the cuticular cover is essential for proper development of the diverse surface structures formed on aerial plant organs. This layer mainly consists of a cutin matrix, embedded and overlaid with cuticular waxes. Following their biosynthesis in epidermal cells, cutin and waxes were suggested to be exported across the plasma membrane by ABCG-type transporters such as DSO/ABCG11 to the cell wall and further to extracellular matrix. Here, additional aspects of DSO/ABCG11 function were investigated, predominantly in reproductive organs, which were not revealed in the previous reports. This was facilitated by the generation of a transgenic DSO/ABCG11 silenced line (dso-4) that displayed relatively subtle morphological and chemical phenotypes. These included altered petal and silique morphology, fusion of seeds, and changes in levels of cutin monomers in flowers and siliques. The dso-4 phenotypes corresponded to the strong DSO/ABCG11 gene expression in the embryo epidermis as well as in the endosperm tissues of the developing seeds. Moreover, the DSO/ABCG11 protein displayed polar localization in the embryo protoderm. Transcriptome analysis of the dso-4 mutant leaves and stems showed that reduced DSO/ABCG11 activity suppressed the expression of a large number of cuticle-associated genes, implying that export of cuticular lipids from the plasma membrane is a rate-limiting step in cuticle metabolism. Surprisingly, root suberin composition of dso-4 was altered, as well as root expression of two suberin biosynthetic genes. Taken together, this study provides new insights into cutin and suberin metabolism and their role in reproductive organs and roots development. PMID:20035035

  9. Androgen Receptor (AR) Physiological Roles in Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Lessons Learned from AR-Knockout Mice Lacking AR in Selective Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chawnshang; Lee, Soo Ok; Wang, Ruey-Sheng; Yeh, Shuyuan; Chang, Ta-Min

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgens/androgen receptor (AR) signaling is involved primarily in the development of male-specific phenotypes during embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, sexual behavior, and fertility during adult life. However, this signaling has also been shown to play an important role in development of female reproductive organs and their functions, such as ovarian folliculogenesis, embryonic implantation, and uterine and breast development. The establishment of the testicular feminization (Tfm) mouse model exploiting the X-linked Tfm mutation in mice has been a good in vivo tool for studying the human complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, but this mouse may not be the perfect in vivo model. Mouse models with various cell-specific AR knockout (ARKO) might allow us to study AR roles in individual types of cells in these male and female reproductive systems, although discrepancies are found in results between labs, probably due to using various Cre mice and/or knocking out AR in different AR domains. Nevertheless, no doubt exists that the continuous development of these ARKO mouse models and careful studies will provide information useful for understanding AR roles in reproductive systems of humans and may help us to develop more effective and more specific therapeutic approaches for reproductive system-related diseases. PMID:23782840

  10. Reproductive Capability Is Associated with Lifespan and Cause of Death in Companion Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jessica M.; Creevy, Kate E.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a risky affair; a lifespan cost of maintaining reproductive capability, and of reproduction itself, has been demonstrated in a wide range of animal species. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Most cost-of-reproduction studies simply ask how reproduction influences age at death, but are blind to the subjects' actual causes of death. Lifespan is a composite variable of myriad causes of death and it has not been clear whether the consequences of reproduction or of reproductive capability influence all causes of death equally. To address this gap in understanding, we compared causes of death among over 40,000 sterilized and reproductively intact domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. We found that sterilization was strongly associated with an increase in lifespan, and while it decreased risk of death from some causes, such as infectious disease, it actually increased risk of death from others, such as cancer. These findings suggest that to understand how reproduction affects lifespan, a shift in research focus is needed. Beyond the impact of reproduction on when individuals die, we must investigate its impact on why individuals die, and subsequently must identify the mechanisms by which these causes of death are influenced by the physiology associated with reproductive capability. Such an approach may also clarify the effects of reproduction on lifespan in people. PMID:23613790

  11. Reproductive capability is associated with lifespan and cause of death in companion dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is a risky affair; a lifespan cost of maintaining reproductive capability, and of reproduction itself, has been demonstrated in a wide range of animal species. However, little is understood about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Most cost-of-reproduction studies simply ask how reproduction influences age at death, but are blind to the subjects' actual causes of death. Lifespan is a composite variable of myriad causes of death and it has not been clear whether the consequences of reproduction or of reproductive capability influence all causes of death equally. To address this gap in understanding, we compared causes of death among over 40,000 sterilized and reproductively intact domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris. We found that sterilization was strongly associated with an increase in lifespan, and while it decreased risk of death from some causes, such as infectious disease, it actually increased risk of death from others, such as cancer. These findings suggest that to understand how reproduction affects lifespan, a shift in research focus is needed. Beyond the impact of reproduction on when individuals die, we must investigate its impact on why individuals die, and subsequently must identify the mechanisms by which these causes of death are influenced by the physiology associated with reproductive capability. Such an approach may also clarify the effects of reproduction on lifespan in people. PMID:23613790

  12. Low-shear modeled microgravity: a global environmental regulatory signal affecting bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; LeBlanc, Carly L.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Hammond, Timothy; Pierson, Duane L.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria inhabit an impressive variety of ecological niches and must adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions. While numerous environmental signals have been examined for their effect on bacteria, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and gravity have only been investigated to a limited extent. However, several important studies have demonstrated a key role for the environmental signals of low shear and/or microgravity in the regulation of bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis [Chem. Rec. 1 (2001) 333; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (2000) 33; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4090; J. Ind. Microbiol. 18 (1997) 22; Curr. Microbiol. 34(4) (1997) 199; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(3-4) (2001) 384; Infect Immun. 68(6) (2000) 3147; Cell 109(7) (2002) 913; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(11) (2002) 5408; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(21) (2002) 13807]. The response of bacteria to these environmental signals, which are similar to those encountered during prokaryotic life cycles, may provide insight into bacterial adaptations to physiologically relevant conditions. This review focuses on the current and potential future research trends aimed at understanding the effect of the mechanical forces of low shear and microgravity analogues on different bacterial parameters. In addition, this review also discusses the use of microgravity technology to generate physiologically relevant human tissue models for research in bacterial pathogenesis.

  13. The restricted ovulator chicken strain: An oviparous vertebrate model of reproductive dysfunction caused by a gene defect affecting an oocyte-specific receptor

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, R.G.; Bauer, R.; Schneider, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    A unique non-laying strain of chickens with heritable hyperlipidemia and aortic atherosclerosis was first described in 1974. Subsequent work established that the phenotype results from a naturally occurring point mutation in the gene specifying the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor, a 95-kDa membrane protein which normally mediates the massive uptake of the main circulating hepatically-synthesized yolk precursors, VLDL and vitellogenin. As a result, hens of the mutant strain termed “restricted ovulator” (R/O) have approximately 5-fold elevations in circulating cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with normal layers, and hepatic lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis are markedly attenuated due to feedback inhibition. R/O hens also exhibit hyperestrogenemia, hypoprogesteronemia, elevated circulating gonadotropins, and up-regulated pituitary progesterone receptor mRNA and isoforms. The ovaries of R/O hens are abnormal in that they lack a follicular hierarchy and contain many small preovulatory follicles of various colors, shapes, and sizes. However, since R/O hens occasionally lay eggs, it is possible that endocytic receptors other than the VLDL receptor may be able to facilitate oocyte growth and/or that yolk precursor uptake can occur via a nonspecific bulk process. A mammalian model of impaired fecundity with abnormal lipoprotein metabolism also has been described, but different mechanisms are likely responsible for its reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, as our understanding of the molecular physiology and biochemistry of avian oocyte growth continues to expand, in part due to studies of the R/O model, new analogies may emerge between avian and mammalian systems, which ultimately could help to answer important questions in reproductive biology. PMID:23123285

  14. The Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (Formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana Negatively Affect Cotton Aphid Reproduction under Both Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  15. The impact of reproduction on the stress axis of free-living male northern red backed voles (Myodes rutilus).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Dantzer, Ben; Boonstra, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis culminates in the release of glucocorticoids (henceforth CORT), which have wide-reaching physiological effects. Three hypotheses potentially explain seasonal variation in CORT. The enabling hypothesis predicts that reproductive season CORT exceeds post-reproductive season CORT because CORT enables reproductive investment. The inhibitory hypothesis predicts the opposite because CORT can negatively affect reproductive function. The costs of reproduction hypothesis predicts that HPA axis condition declines over and following the reproductive season. We tested these hypotheses in wild male red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) during the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons. We quantified CORT levels in response to restraint stress tests consisting of three blood samples (initial, stress-induced, and recovery). Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor mRNA levels in the brain were also quantified over the reproductive season. Total CORT (tCORT) in the initial and stress-induced samples were greater in the post-reproductive than in the reproductive season, which supported the inhibitory hypothesis. Conversely, free CORT (fCORT) did not differ between the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons, which was counter to both the enabling and inhibitory hypotheses. Evidence for HPA axis condition decline in CORT as well as GR and MR mRNA over the reproductive season (i.e. costs of reproduction hypothesis) was mixed. Moreover, all of the parameters that showed signs of declining condition over the reproductive season did not also show signs of declining condition over the post-reproductive season suggesting that the costs resulting from reproductive investment had subsided. In conclusion, our results suggest that different aspects of the HPA axis respond differently to seasonal changes and reproductive investment. PMID:26188715

  16. The Trauma of Peer Abuse: Effects of Relational Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety Disorder on Physiological and Affective Reactions to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood, and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74) were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball) were recorded. Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure. Conclusion: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats. PMID:24672491

  17. Factors affecting post-flight behavior in primary reproductives of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Ihl; Bland, John M; Raina, Ashok K

    2004-06-01

    After swarming, reproductive dealates of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, run together in tandem. The tandem running is an age-related behavioral activity in C. formosanus. This behavior was not evoked in pre-flight alates less than 6-d-old that were artificially dealated. Female age was more important than male age for evoking tandem behavior. Females and males, older than 35 days, did not exhibit this behavior. Mating status was not important for female and male dealates to form the tandem pairs. The titers of the major tergal gland component, trilinolein, did not decline significantly and remained high, not only in virgin females, but also in mated females for a period of time after swarming. On the other hand, increasing amounts of the female-specific compound trilinolein were detected in male dealates 7, 14, and 42 days after pairing. This suggests that trilinolein in the females might be transferred to the males as a nuptial gift in C. formosanus. In addition, females have structurally different lateral setae that may constitute a morphological factor involved in the tandem behavior in this species. Covering the setae with dimethyl sulfoxide prevented the tandem behavior. PMID:15183283

  18. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  19. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  20. Knowledge and Beliefs about Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology among Mexican-Origin Women in the U.S.A: Implications for Effective Oral Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Amastae, Jon; Potter, Joseph E.; Hopkins, Kristine; Grossman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Inherent in many reproductive health and family planning programmes is the problematic assumption that the body, its processes, and modifications to it are universally experienced in the same way. This paper addresses contraceptive knowledge and beliefs among Mexican-origin women, based upon data gathered by the qualitative component of the Border Contraceptive Access Study. Open-ended interviews explored the perceived mechanism of action of the pill, side effects, non-contraceptive benefits, and general knowledge of contraception. Findings revealed complex connections between traditional and scientific information. Use of medical terms (“hormone”) illustrated attempts to integrate new information with existing knowledge and belief systems. Conclusions address concerns that existing information and services may not be sufficient if population-specific knowledge and beliefs are not assessed and addressed. Findings can contribute to the development of effective education, screening, and reproductive health services. PMID:23464742

  1. Dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol affect the gonad development and reproductive performance of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiying; Li, Baoshan; Liu, Xudong; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Shixin; Zhang, Limin

    2014-03-01

    The present trial was conducted with starry flounder Platichthys stellatus broodstock to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin A, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol on the gonadal development and reproductive performance. 8 000 IU/kg diet vitamin A (VA group), 500 mg/kg diet ascorbic acid (Vcpp group), or 250 mg/kg diet α-tocopherol (α-TA group) was added into basal diet to create 3 vitamin experimental diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to 450 starry flounder broodstock for 104 days. Samples were collected weekly. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) of 3 vitamin experimental groups first decreased and then increased. Maximum GSI of Vcpp group was higher than that of α-TA group but lower than that of VA group. The spawning periods of 3 vitamin experimental groups lasted 49, 56, and 45 days, respectively. No mature eggs were observed in the control group during the trial. The absolute fecundity (AF) and relative fecundity (RF) of α-TA group was higher than that of Vcpp group but lower than that of VA group. The results suggest that different vitamins play different roles in the fish reproductive process. Vitamin A stimulated the maturation of the ovary, ascorbic acid prolonged the spawning period, and α-tocopherol affected the development of the eggs.

  2. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-04-01

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting. PMID:27065168

  3. Shoot ionome to predict the synergism and antagonism between nutrients as affected by substrate and physiological status.

    PubMed

    Pii, Youry; Cesco, Stefano; Mimmo, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    The elemental composition of a tissue or organism is defined as ionome. However, the combined effects on the shoot ionome determined by the taxonomic character, the nutrient status and different substrates have not been investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that phylogenetic variation of monocots and dicots grown in iron deficiency can be distinguished by the shoot ionome. We analyzed 18 elements in barley, cucumber and tomato and in two substrates (hydroponic vs soil) with different nutritional regimes. Multivariate analysis evidenced a clear separation between the species. In hydroponic conditions the main drivers separating the species are non essential-nutrients as Ti, Al, Na and Li, which were positively correlated with macro- (P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mo, B). The separation between species is confirmed when plants are grown on soil, but the distribution is determined especially by macronutrients (S, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (B). A number of macro (Mg, Ca, S, P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) contribute to plant growth and several other important physiological and metabolic plant activities. The results reported here confirmed that the synergism and antagonism between them and other non-essential elements (Ti, Al, Si, Na) define the plant taxonomic character. The ionome profile might thus be exploited as a tool for the diagnosis of plants physiological/nutritional status but also in defining biofortification strategies to optimize both mineral enrichment of staple food crops and the nutrient input as fertilizers. PMID:26004913

  4. Conditional deletion of the relaxin receptor gene in cells of smooth muscle lineage affects lower reproductive tract in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-04-01

    Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1(+/-) females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  5. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    PubMed

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks. PMID:19475647

  6. Investigating the influence of nitrate nitrogen on post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar reproductive physiology in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 8-month trial was carried out to assess the effects of NO3-N on a variety of performance and physiological outcomes in post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (initial weight 102 plus or minus 1 g) reared in six replicated laboratory-scale water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Three RAS r...

  7. Sex differences in the physiology of eating.

    PubMed

    Asarian, Lori; Geary, Nori

    2013-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  8. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    PubMed Central

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  9. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: Results of a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Gaylord, Susan A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned < $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. 37 participants completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable members of society. PMID:20648913

  10. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  11. Velocity, safety, or both? How do balance and strength of goal conflicts affect drivers' behaviour, feelings and physiological responses?

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Daffy, Martin; Brandenburg, Stefan; Beliavski, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Motivational models of driving behaviour agree that choice of speed is modulated by drivers' goals. Whilst it is accepted that some goals favour fast driving and others favour safe driving, little is known about the interplay of these conflicting goals. In the present study, two aspects of this interplay are investigated: the balance of conflict and the strength of conflict. Thirty-two participants completed several simulated driving runs in which fast driving was rewarded with a monetary gain if the end of the track was reached. However, unpredictably, some runs ended with the appearance of a deer. In these runs, fast driving was punished with a monetary loss. The ratio between the magnitudes of gains and losses varied in order to manipulate the balance of conflict. The absolute magnitudes of both gains and losses altered the strength of conflict. Participants drove slower, reported an increase in anxiety-related feelings, and showed indications of physiological arousal if there was more money at stake. In contrast, only marginal effects of varying the ratio between gains and losses were observed. Results confirm that the strength of a safety-velocity conflict is an important determinant of drivers' behaviour, feelings, and physiological responses. The lack of evidence for the balance of conflict playing a role suggests that in each condition, participants subjectively weighted the loss higher than the gain (loss aversion). It is concluded that the interplay of the subjective values that drivers attribute to objective incentives for fast and safe driving is a promising field for future research. Incorporating this knowledge into motivational theories of driving behaviour might improve their contribution to the design of adequate road safety measures. PMID:23523895

  12. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  13. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  14. Reproductive ecology of predaceous Heteroptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive ecology entails relating the physiology and behavior of an organism to its environment and the community in which it lives. Terrestrial predatory Heteroptera (including Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Miridae, Nabidae, Pentatomidae, Phymatidae, and Reduviidae) display a wide range of reproduc...

  15. The Absence of Pupylation (Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification) Affects Morphological and Physiological Differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Duchateau, Magalie; Gominet, Myriam; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Mazodier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein turnover is essential in all living organisms for the maintenance of normal cell physiology. In eukaryotes, most cellular protein turnover involves the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, in which proteins tagged with ubiquitin are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. In contrast, most bacteria lack a proteasome but harbor proteases for protein turnover. However, some actinobacteria, such as mycobacteria, possess a proteasome in addition to these proteases. A prokaryotic ubiquitination-like tagging process in mycobacteria was described and was named pupylation: proteins are tagged with Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) and directed to the proteasome for degradation. We report pupylation in another actinobacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor. Both the morphology and life cycle of Streptomyces species are complex (formation of a substrate and aerial mycelium followed by sporulation), and these bacteria are prolific producers of secondary metabolites with important medicinal and agricultural applications. The genes encoding the pupylation system in S. coelicolor are expressed at various stages of development. We demonstrated that pupylation targets numerous proteins and identified 20 of them. Furthermore, we established that abolition of pupylation has substantial effects on morphological and metabolic differentiation and on resistance to oxidative stress. In contrast, in most cases, a proteasome-deficient mutant showed only modest perturbations under the same conditions. Thus, the phenotype of the pup mutant does not appear to be due solely to defective proteasomal degradation. Presumably, pupylation has roles in addition to directing proteins to the proteasome. IMPORTANCE Streptomyces spp. are filamentous and sporulating actinobacteria, remarkable for their morphological and metabolic differentiation. They produce numerous bioactive compounds, including antifungal, antibiotic, and antitumor compounds. There is therefore considerable interest in

  16. A primate-specific, brain isoform of KCNH2 affects cortical physiology, cognition, neuronal repolarization and risk of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huffaker, Stephen J; Chen, Jingshan; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Sambataro, Fabio; Yang, Feng; Mattay, Venkata; Lipska, Barbara K; Hyde, Thomas M; Song, Jian; Rujescu, Dan; Giegling, Ina; Mayilyan, Karine; Proust, Morgan J; Soghoyan, Armen; Caforio, Grazia; Callicott, Joseph H; Bertolino, Alessandro; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Chang, Jay; Ji, Yuanyuan; Egan, Michael F; Goldberg, Terry E; Kleinman, Joel E; Lu, Bai; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2009-05-01

    Organized neuronal firing is crucial for cortical processing and is disrupted in schizophrenia. Using rapid amplification of 5' complementary DNA ends in human brain, we identified a primate-specific isoform (3.1) of the ether-a-go-go-related K(+) channel KCNH2 that modulates neuronal firing. KCNH2-3.1 messenger RNA levels are comparable to full-length KCNH2 (1A) levels in brain but three orders of magnitude lower in heart. In hippocampus from individuals with schizophrenia, KCNH2-3.1 expression is 2.5-fold greater than KCNH2-1A expression. A meta-analysis of five clinical data sets (367 families, 1,158 unrelated cases and 1,704 controls) shows association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in KCNH2 with schizophrenia. Risk-associated alleles predict lower intelligence quotient scores and speed of cognitive processing, altered memory-linked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals and increased KCNH2-3.1 mRNA levels in postmortem hippocampus. KCNH2-3.1 lacks a domain that is crucial for slow channel deactivation. Overexpression of KCNH2-3.1 in primary cortical neurons induces a rapidly deactivating K(+) current and a high-frequency, nonadapting firing pattern. These results identify a previously undescribed KCNH2 channel isoform involved in cortical physiology, cognition and psychosis, providing a potential new therapeutic drug target. PMID:19412172

  17. Do targeted written comments and the rubric method of delivery affect performance on future human physiology laboratory reports?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Zachary S; Wilds, Gabriel P; Mangum, Joshua E; Hocker, Austin D; Dawson, Sierra M

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how students performed on weekly two-page laboratory reports based on whether the grading rubric was provided to the student electronically or in paper form and the inclusion of one- to two-sentence targeted comments. Subjects were registered for a 289-student, third-year human physiology class with laboratory and were randomized into four groups related to rubric delivery and targeted comments. All students received feedback via the same detailed grading rubric. At the end of the term, subjects provided consent and a self-assessment of their rubric viewing rate and preferences. There were no differences in laboratory report scores between groups (P = 0.86), although scores did improve over time (P < 0.01). Students receiving targeted comments self-reported viewing their rubric more often than students that received no comments (P = 0.02), but the viewing rate was independent of the rubric delivery method (P = 0.15). Subjects with high rubric viewing rates did not have higher laboratory report grades than subjects with low viewing rates (P = 0.64). When asked about their preference for the future, 43% of respondents preferred the same method again (electronic or paper rubric) and 25% had no preference. We conclude that although student laboratory report grades improved over time, the rate and degree of improvement were not related to rubric delivery method or to the inclusion of targeted comments. PMID:27445286

  18. RNAi-mediated downregulation of poplar plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) changes plasma membrane proteome composition and affects leaf physiology.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhen; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uehlein, Norbert; Zimmer, Ina; Mühlhans, Stefanie; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Palme, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Block, Katja

    2015-10-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are one subfamily of aquaporins that mediate the transmembrane transport of water. To reveal their function in poplar, we generated transgenic poplar plants in which the translation of PIP genes was downregulated by RNA interference investigated these plants with a comprehensive leaf plasma membrane proteome and physiome analysis. First, inhibition of PIP synthesis strongly altered the leaf plasma membrane protein composition. Strikingly, several signaling components and transporters involved in the regulation of stomatal movement were differentially regulated in transgenic poplars. Furthermore, hormonal crosstalk related to abscisic acid, auxin and brassinosteroids was altered, in addition to cell wall biosynthesis/cutinization, the organization of cellular structures and membrane trafficking. A physiological analysis confirmed the proteomic results. The leaves had wider opened stomata and higher net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates as well as greater mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). Based on these results, we conclude that PIP proteins not only play essential roles in whole leaf water and CO2 flux but have important roles in the regulation of stomatal movement. PMID:26248320

  19. "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior": Correction to Dufner et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior" by Michael Dufner, Ruben C. Arslan, Birk Hagemeyer, Felix D. Schönbrodt and Jaap J. A. Denissen (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 109[4], 662-676). In this article an erroneous statement was made regarding the high cutoff filter for the EMG raw signal. The high cutoff filter reported in Appendix B in the Technical Details of the EMG Recording Procedure section should be 300 Hz. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-37761-001.) According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281355

  20. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  1. Peri-pubertal administration of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) affects reproductive organ development in male but not female Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Wallace, Shannon M; Carroll, Erica E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrotriazolone (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO) is an insensitive munition that has demonstrated effects on reproductive organs in adult male rats. NTO was administered to male (0, 250, and 500milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg-day)) and female (0, 500, and 1000mg/kg-day) Sprague-Dawley rats (15/sex/group) via oral gavage from weaning through post-natal day 53/54 and 42/43, respectively. Age and body mass at vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PPS), as well as all measures of estrous cyclicity were not affected by treatment with NTO. Males treated with NTO exhibited reductions in testis mass associated with tubular degeneration/atrophy. Less pronounced reductions in accessory sex organ masses were also observed in the 500mg/kg-day group. Treatment with NTO did not affect thyroid hormone or testosterone levels. These findings suggest that NTO is not acting as an estrogen or thyroid active compound, but may indicate effects on steroidogenesis and/or direct testicular toxicity. PMID:25962730

  2. A Combined Approach to Heat Stress Effect on Male Fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: From the Physiological Consequences on Spermatogenesis to the Reproductive Adjustment of Females Mated with Stressed Males

    PubMed Central

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:25807005

  3. Metals and female reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P; Banerjee, R; Nath, S; Das, S; Banerjee, S

    2015-07-01

    Research into occupational exposure of metals and consequences of reproductive systems has made imperative scientific offerings in the preceding few decades. Early research works focused on possible effects on the reproductive functions rather than the complete reproductive health of the woman. Later, it was realized that metals, as reproductive toxins, may also induce hormonal changes affecting other facets of reproductive health such as the menstrual cycle, ovulation, and fertility. Concern is now shifting from considerations for the pregnant woman to the entire spectrum of occupational health threats and thus reproductive health among women. PMID:25425549

  4. The effects of ingested mammalian blood factors on vector arthropod immunity and physiology

    PubMed Central

    Pakpour, Nazzy; Akman-Anderson, Leyla; Vodovotz, Yoram; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The blood feeding behavior of disease-transmitting arthropods creates a unique intersection between vertebrate and invertebrate physiology. Here, we review host blood-derived factors that persist through blood digestion to affect the lifespan, reproduction, and immune responses of some of the most common arthropod vectors of human disease. PMID:23370408

  5. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  6. Testing the synergistic effects of GnRH and testosterone on the reproductive physiology of pre-adult pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

    PubMed

    Crossin, G T; Hinch, S G; Cooke, S J; Patterson, D A; Lotto, A G; Van Der Kraak, G; Zohar, Y; Klenke, U; Farrell, A P

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the hypothalmic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and testosterone (T) co-treatment stimulates both the hypothalmo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalmo-pituitary-interrenal axes, the reproductive and osmoregulatory responses of pre-adult pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were compared after GnRH and T administration either alone or in combination. Relative to controls, neither GnRH nor T treatment resulted in significantly greater ovarian or testicular growth, but co-treatment significantly increased ovarian growth after 5 months. Interestingly, the stimulation was undetectable after 3 months. However, once daily photoperiod began shortening after the summer solstice, c. 2 months before the natural spawning date, GnRH+T-treated females were stimulated to produce larger ovaries. Final fish body length and the size of individual eggs did not differ among treatment groups. GnRH+T eggs, however, showed signs of advanced vitellogenesis relative to GnRH-treated and control eggs, whereas T-treated eggs became atretic. Testis size increased significantly from initial values and most males were spermiating, but this growth and development were independent of hormone treatments. Final plasma ion, metabolite and cortisol concentrations did not differ among treatment groups. It is concluded that GnRH+T co-treatment was effective in stimulating female but not male maturation. GnRH and T treatment, however, presumably had little effect on the hypothalmo-pituitary-interrenal axis as observed by ionoregulatory status. PMID:20738702

  7. Molecular and physiological properties of bacteriophages from North America and Germany affecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ina; Lurz, Rudi; Kube, Michael; Quedenau, Claudia; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Geider, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    For possible control of fire blight affecting apple and pear trees, we characterized Erwinia amylovora phages from North America and Germany. The genome size determined by electron microscopy (EM) was confirmed by sequence data and major coat proteins were identified from gel bands by mass spectroscopy. By their morphology from EM data, φEa1h and φEa100 were assigned to the Podoviridae and φEa104 and φEa116 to the Myoviridae. Host ranges were essentially confined to E. amylovora, strains of the species Erwinia pyrifoliae, E. billingiae and even Pantoea stewartii were partially sensitive. The phages φEa1h and φEa100 were dependent on the amylovoran capsule of E. amylovora, φEa104 and φEa116 were not. The Myoviridae efficiently lysed their hosts and protected apple flowers significantly better than the Podoviridae against E. amylovora and should be preferred in biocontrol experiments. We have also isolated and partially characterized E. amylovora phages from apple orchards in Germany. They belong to the Podoviridae or Myoviridae with a host range similar to the phages isolated in North America. In EM measurements, the genome sizes of the Podoviridae were smaller than the genomes of the Myoviridae from North America and from Germany, which differed from each other in corresponding nucleotide sequences. PMID:21791029

  8. Persistent overexpression of SERCA2a affects bladder functions under physiological conditions, but not in bladder outlet obstruction-induced sub-acute pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsushi; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Obata, Koji; Hirayama, Akihide; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Takaki, Miyako

    2014-01-01

    A functional impairment of the bladder and heart in a decompensated state caused by a pressure overload is accompanied by a decrease in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2). The beneficial effects of SERCA2 overexpression in preserving cardiac functions have been previously reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of overexpressed SERCA2 on bladder functions under physiological and pathological conditions using partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in SERCA2a transgenic Wistar rats (TG). Bladder cystometry and western blot analysis were performed using the wild-type Wistar rats (WT), TG, and BOO models (WTBOO and TGBOO). Persistent overexpression of SERCA2 induces reduced bladder compliance without hypertrophy in TG. BOO induces reduced bladder compliance and hypertrophy in WT and TG in the sub-acute phase, but persistent overexpression of SERCA2a in TG does not aggravate the bladder compliance and hypertrophy. In conclusion, SERCA2a overexpression affects bladder functions under physiological conditions, but not in BOO-induced sub-acute pathological conditions. PMID:24037709

  9. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  10. Deficiency in silicon uptake affects cytological, physiological, and biochemical events in the rice--Bipolaris oryzae interaction.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; DaMatta, Fábio M; Mielli, Mateus V B; Pereira, Sandra C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how a defect in the active uptake of silicon (Si) affects rice resistance to brown spot. Plants from a rice mutant (low silicon 1 [lsi1]) and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara), growing in hydroponic culture with (+Si; 2 mM) or without (-Si) Si, were inoculated with Bipolaris oryzae. Si concentration in leaf tissue of cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant increased by 381 and 263%, respectively, for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The incubation period was 6 h longer in the presence of Si. The area under brown spot progress curve for plants from cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant was reduced 81 and 50%, respectively, in the presence of Si. The reduced number of brown epidermal cells on leaves from cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant supplied with Si contributed to the lower lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. The concentration of total soluble phenolics in cv. Oochikara supplied with Si (values of 4.2 to 15.4 μg g(-1) fresh weight) was greater compared with plants not supplied with Si (values of 1.9 to 11.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight). The concentration of lignin was also important to the resistance of cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant. Polyphenoloxidase activity did not contribute to the resistance of cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant to brown spot, regardless of Si supply. Peroxidase and chitinase activities were higher in cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant supplied with Si. These results bring novel evidence of the involvement of Si in a more complex defense mechanism than simply the formation of a physical barrier to avoid or delay fungal penetration. PMID:20879842

  11. Reproductive strategies in snakes.

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies. PMID:12803888

  12. DISRUPTED FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY FOLLOWING NEONATAL EXPOSURE TO PHYTOESTROGENS OR ESTROGEN SPECIFIC LIGANDS IS ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED GNRH ACTIVATION AND KISSPEPTIN FIBER DENSITY IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Heather L.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that estrogen administration during neonatal development can advance pubertal onset and prevent the maintenance of regular estrous cycles in female rats. This treatment paradigm also eliminates the preovulatory rise of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). It remains unclear, however, through which of the two primary forms of the estrogen receptor (ERα or ERβ) this effect is mediated. It is also unclear whether endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can produce similar effects. Here we compared the effect of neonatal exposure to estradiol benzoate (EB), the ERα specific agonist 1,3,5-tris(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT), the ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and the naturally occurring EDCs genistein (GEN) and equol (EQ) on pubertal onset, estrous cyclicity, GnRH activation, and kisspeptin content in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei. Vaginal opening was significantly advanced by EB and GEN. By ten weeks post-puberty, irregular estrous cycles were observed in all groups except the control group. GnRH activation, as measured by the percentage of immunopositive GnRH neurons that were also immunopositive for Fos, was significantly lower in all treatment groups except the DPN group compared to the control group. GnRH activation was absent in the PPT group. These data suggest that neonatal exposure to EDCs can suppress GnRH activity in adulthood, and that ERα plays a pivotal role in this process. Kisspeptins (KISS) have recently been characterized to be potent stimulators of GnRH secretion. Therefore we quantified the density of KISS immunolabeled fibers in the AVPV and ARC. In the AVPV, KISS fiber density was significantly lower in the EB and GEN groups compared to the control group but only in the EB and PPT groups in the ARC. The data suggest that decreased stimulation of GnRH neurons by KISS could be a mechanism by which EDCs can impair female reproductive function. PMID:18656497

  13. An introduction to reproduction in pharaonic Egypt.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive science is a new-born medical speciality compared with other specialities such as surgery or dentistry. However, infertility and obstetrical complications commonly diagnosed in the 20th century have a history as old as medicine itself. In an attempt to distance themselves from the African and Middle-Eastern roots of our culture, the European intellectuals of the 18th and 19th century have written the history of the democratic world starting with the Greco-Roman period. Egyptian medicine has influenced the medicine of neighbouring civilisations, including the culture of ancient Greece and its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilisation. The aim of this review is to give credit to these early researchers, who often concluded with extremely accurate observations and to present their colourful and sometimes controversial contribution to our knowledge of reproductive anatomy, physiology and pathology. PMID:12537807

  14. Impact of stress on oocyte quality and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Shilpa; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Pandey, Ashutosh N; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-01-01

    Stress is an important factor that affects physical and mental status of a healthy person disturbing homeostasis of the body. Changes in the lifestyle are one of the major causes that lead to psychological stress. Psychological stress could impact the biology of female reproduction by targeting at the level of ovary, follicle and oocyte. The increased level of stress hormone such as cortisol reduces estradiol production possibly by affecting the granulosa cell functions within the follicle, which results deterioration in oocyte quality. Adaptation of lifestyle behaviours may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ovary, which further affects female reproduction. Balance between level of ROS and antioxidants within the ovary are important for maintenance of female reproductive health. Physiological level of ROS modulates oocyte functions, while its accumulation leads to oxidative stress (OS). OS triggers apoptosis in majority of germ cells within the ovary and even in ovulated oocytes. Although both mitochondria- as well as death-receptor pathways are involved in oocyte apoptosis, OS-induced mitochondria-mediated pathway plays a major role in the elimination of majority of germ cells from ovary. OS in the follicular fluid deteriorates oocyte quality and reduces reproductive outcome. On the other hand, antioxidants reduce ROS levels and protect against OS-mediated germ cell apoptosis and thereby depletion of germ cells from the ovary. Indeed, OS is one of the major factors that has a direct negative impact on oocyte quality and limits female reproductive outcome in several mammalian species including human. PMID:27026099

  15. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) directly affects the feeding and reproduction behavior of its vector, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a recently discovered member of the genus Fijivirus and it is transmitted by the rice whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). It was found that SRBSDV infected vectors might contribute negatively to the WBPH population, although the longer nymphal period might benefit viral acquisition, transmission and increase infection rate. The interaction between SRBSDV and its vector need to be further explored to gain better understanding of the dispersal of WBPH and the spread of virus disease, in particular the feeding and reproduction behavior of viruliferous WBPH. Methods Newly hatched nymphs of WBPH were fed on healthy rice plant after feeding on SRBSDV-infected rice plants for 2 h, and newly emerged adults were numbered and tested. Feeding behaviors of WBPH adults were monitored electronically within a Faraday cage using a Giga-4 DC EPG amplifier. The newly emerged adults were paired, and the fecundity and egg hatchability were investigated. WBPH was molecularly identified for SRBSDV when they dead. According to the identification results, data on viruliferous and non-viruliferous WBPH were collected and analyzed. Results Feeding behavior of viruliferous WBPH was different from those of non-viruliferous WBPH. Frequency of phloem sap ingestion of viruliferous WBPH increased significantly, however the total feeding duration did not increase markedly. When both WBPH parents were infected with SRBSDV, their fecundity and hatchability of the eggs produced were significant lower than those of normal WBPH parents. However, if only one of the parents was viruliferous, fecundity and egg hatchability were only slightly affected. Conclusions Viruliferous WBPH fed on the phloem more frequently than non-viruliferous WBPH and can thus contribute to virus transmission. When both vector parents are viruliferous fecundity and hatchability of the eggs were significantly reduced. However when only

  16. Growth performance and reproductive traits at first parity of New Zealand white female rabbits as affected by heat stress and its alleviation under Egyptian conditions.

    PubMed

    Marai, I F; Ayyat, M S; Abd el-Monem, U M

    2001-12-01

    Exposing growing and adult New Zealand White (NZW) female rabbits to severe heat stress (temperature-humidity index = 28.9) during summer adversely affected their growth and reproductive traits. The traits that declined significantly (p < 0.01) were the live body weight, daily weight gain and feed intake of growing rabbits, and the litter size and litter weight at weaning (p < 0.05) and the pre-weaning weight gain of pups (p < 0.01) for adult females. The conception rate declined considerably with heat stress. The declines in the values of the digestibility coefficients due to heat stress were 7.9% (p < 0.05) for dry matter (DM), 8.1% (p < 0.05) for crude protein (CP) and 1.0% for crude fibre (CF). The traits that increased significantly (p < 0.01) due to heat stress were water intake, water/feed ratio and rectal temperature in growing rabbits and pre-weaning mortality for adult females. Alleviation of heat stress in the growing and adult female NZW rabbits was more efficient with drinking cool water (10-15 degrees C; between 10:00 and 17:00) than with supplementation with palm oil (as a source of energy) or natural clay (as a natural enhancer to growth and milk production). Supplying the animals with cool drinking water gave the highest body weight and weight gain, conception rate, litter size and weight and digestibility coefficients for DM and CP and the lowest rectal temperature, respiration rate and pre-weaning mortality. The loss in rabbit production pertaining to heat stress estimated from the percentages of decline in conception rate x pre-weaning mortality x litter weight at weaning was 73.0%. The provision of cool water restored 11/12 of heat loss. PMID:11770200

  17. Incubation Patterns in a Central-Place Forager Affect Lifetime Reproductive Success: Scaling of Patterns from a Foraging Bout to a Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Akiko; Elliott, Kyle H.; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Crump, Doug; Gaston, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-lived seabirds face a conflict between current and lifelong reproductive success. During incubation shifts, egg neglect is sometimes necessary to avoid starvation, but may compromise the current reproductive attempt. However, factors underlying this decision process are poorly understood. We focus on the ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus, an alcid with exceptionally long incubation shift lengths, and test the impact of environmental factors on incubation shift length in relation to reproductive success. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an information theoretic approach, we show that incubation shift length was a strong predictor of reproductive success for ancient murrelets at Reef Island, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada during the 2007 and 2008 breeding seasons. The most important factors explaining an individual's shift length were egg size, wind speed and the length of the mate's previous shift. Wind speed and tide height were the two most important factors for determining foraging behavior, as measured by dive frequency and depth. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates that (i) species-specific reproductive strategies interact with environmental conditions such as wind speed to form multiple incubation patterns and (ii) maintaining regular incubation shifts is an essential component of reproductive success. PMID:21423631

  18. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  19. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Darren T; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2007-06-15

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 microg L(-1) NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 microg L(-1) 17beta-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long-term, "organizational" effects on life-history events in salmonids. PMID:17626455

  20. A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14 kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prabhash K.; Singh, Dushyant; Singh, Sangram; Khan, M. Y.; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14 kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0 µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops. PMID:24860667

  1. Advances in human reproductive ecology.

    PubMed

    Ellison, P T

    1994-01-01

    Human reproductive ecology pertains to reproduction biology and changes due to environmental influences. The research literature relies on clinical, epidemiological, and demographic analysis. The emphasis is on normal, nonpathological states and a broad range of ecological conditions. This review focused on the importance of age and energetic stress from ecological conditions rather than dieting or self-directed exercise in changing female fecundity. The literature on male reproductive ecology is still small but growing. J.W. Wood provided a comprehensive overview of the field. Natural fertility, as defined by Henry, is the lack of parity-specific fertility limitation. There is evidence that fertility can vary widely in natural fertility populations. There are consistent age patterns among different natural fertility populations. Doring found that there was higher frequency of anovulatory and luteal insufficiency in cycles during perimenarche and perimenopausal periods. Infertility studies have shown declines in pregnancy rates in women over the age of 30 years. Ovum donation evaluations have found both uterine age and ovarian and oocyte age to be related to the probability of a successful pregnancy. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and the endometrial thickness are important predictors of ovarian capacity and related to age and declining fecundity. Much of the literature on fecundity is derived from women with impaired reproductive physiology. In Lipson and Ellison's study of healthy women, average follicular and average luteal estradiol values declined with increasing subject age. Low follicular levels were correlated with smaller follicular size, low oocyte fertilizability, reduced endometrial thickness, and low pregnancy rates. Comparisons across populations have shown that populations experience declines in luteal function with age, but levels of luteal functions varied widely. Chronic conditions which slow growth and delay reproductive maturation may impact

  2. Mechanical Signaling in Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Soledad; Chang, Sydney; Barzilai, Joshua J.; Leppert, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    The organs of the female reproductive system are among the most dynamic tissues in the human body, undergoing repeated cycles of growth and involution from puberty through menopause. To achieve such impressive plasticity, reproductive tissues must respond not only to soluble signals (hormones, growth factors, and cytokines) but also to physical cues (mechanical forces and osmotic stress) as well. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the process of mechanotransduction—how signals are conveyed from the extracellular matrix that surrounds the cells of reproductive tissues to the downstream molecules and signaling pathways that coordinate the cellular adaptive response to external forces. Our objective was to examine how mechanical forces contribute significantly to physiological functions and pathogenesis in reproductive tissues. We highlight how widespread diseases of the reproductive tract, from preterm labor to tumors of the uterus and breast, result from an impairment in mechanical signaling. PMID:25001021

  3. Breeding and Housing Laboratory Rats and Mice in the Same Room Does Not Affect the Growth or Reproduction of Either Species

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Chang, Fon T; Festing, Michael F W

    2009-01-01

    Few data exist regarding the effects of long-term housing of rats and mice in the same secondary enclosure. Historical reproductive and growth data were compared for colonies of mice and rats maintained in open-topped cages in either single-species or dual-species barrier rooms. This analysis included reproductive parameters (litter size at birth, litter size at weaning, and pups missing at weaning) collected from 33 colonies of mice comprising 500 to 38,500 breeding females and 28 colonies of rats totaling 350 to 4,600 breeding females, and representative samples from 28 colonies of each species were analyzed for weight gain from weaning to adulthood. The presence or absence of the other species was not associated with statistically significant differences in weight gain or any of the reproductive parameters. These results suggest that breeding colonies of rats and mice of the same health status can be housed in the same room without a negative effect on the growth and reproduction of either species. PMID:19807969

  4. “I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead”: Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background. We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24–57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on “family planning” and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Discussion. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention. PMID:27051664

  5. JNK pathway inhibition selectively primes pancreatic cancer stem cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis without affecting the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rhea, P. Robyn; Kettlun, Claudia; Heinemann, Mitja L.; Ruetering, Jennifer; Vykoukal, Jody; Alt, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Successful treatment of solid cancers mandates targeting cancer stem cells (CSC) without impact on the physiology of normal tissue resident stem cells. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling has been shown to be of importance in cancer. We test whether JNK inhibition would sensitize pancreatic CSCs to induction of apoptosis via low-dose TNFα-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Design Effects of JNK inhibition (JNKi) were evaluated in vitro in functional assays, through mRNA and protein expression analysis, and in in vivo mouse studies. CSCs were enriched in anoikis-resistant spheroid culture and analyzed accordingly. Results We confirmed that the JNK pathway is an important regulatory pathway in pancreatic cancer stem cells and further found that JNK inhibition downregulates the decoy receptor DcR1 through IL-8 signaling while upregulating pro-apoptotic death receptors DR4/5, thereby sensitizing cells - even with acquired TRAIL-resistance - to apoptosis induction. Treatment of orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts with either gemcitabine, JNKi or TRAIL alone for 4 weeks showed only modest effects compared to control, while the combination of JNKi and TRAIL resulted in significantly lower tumor burden (69%; p < 0.04), reduced numbers of circulating tumor cells, and less distant metastatic events, without affecting the general health of the animals. Conclusions The combination of JNKi and TRAIL significantly impacts on CSCs, but leaves regular tissue-resident stem cells unaffected – even under hypoxic stress conditions. This concept of selective treatment of pancreatic CSCs warrants further evaluation. PMID:26840266

  6. Variation in cuticular hydrocarbon signatures, hormonal correlates and establishment of reproductive dominance in a polistine wasp.

    PubMed

    Sledge, M F; Trinca, I; Massolo, A; Boscaro, F; Turillazzi, S

    2004-01-01

    In many social insects the relationship between reproductive dominance and physiological correlates is poorly understood. Recent evidence now strongly suggests that cuticular hydrocarbons are important in reproductive differentiation in these societies where they are used as signals of ovarian activity in reproductive females. In this study we investigated the relationship between reproductive dominance, size of the corpora allata (CA, producer of Juvenile Hormone, JH) and the proportions of cuticular hydrocarbons present on the cuticle in overwintering foundresses and both associative (polygynous) and solitary (monogynous) pre-emergence colonies of the social wasp Polistes dominulus. Size of the CA was positively correlated with ovarian development in polygynous colonies. In contrast, solitary foundresses possessed significantly smaller CAs than dominant foundresses from polygynous nests, yet ovarian activity was similar for both female types. CA size variation was associated with variation in cuticular hydrocarbon proportions. Overwintering, solitary, dominant and subordinate (from associative nests) females all possessed distinctive cuticular chemical profiles revealed by multivariate discriminant analyses. Our data indicate that the social environment strongly affects reproductive physiology in this wasp, and we discuss the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in reproductive signaling in P. dominulus and other social insects. PMID:15037095

  7. Reproduction and advances in reproductive studies in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, Katarina; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse among species, even within the same phylogenetic clade. Due to this, it has been difficult to directly apply reproductive technologies developed in human and livestock to genetically manage ex situ wildlife, including carnivores. To date, more common, closely related species, e.g., domestic cats, dogs and ferrets have served as valuable models for developing reproductive technologies for managing rare, endangered carnivores. Artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation have already been successfully used to manage ex situ populations in some carnivore species, such as the black-footed ferret, cheetah and giant panda. However, technologies aiming at preserving genetics of valuable females have not been fully developed in carnivores, due to the lack of fundamental knowledge about reproductive anatomy and physiology, gamete development, embryogenesis and cryopreservation. The present chapter is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on current knowledge about carnivore reproduction, with emphasis on species diversity in reproductive mechanisms. The second part highlights the progress in reproductive science and related technologies made during the last decade. In addition, we provide examples of how reproductive technologies can contribute to carnivore management and conservation. Although carnivores are comprised of 19 families, we will only focus our attention on four taxonomic groups, including felids, canids, ursids and mustelids. PMID:25091912

  8. Effects of environmental pollutants on the reproduction and welfare of ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, S. M.; Evans, N. P.; Bellingham, M.; Sharpe, R. M.; Cotinot, C.; Mandon-Pepin, B.; Loup, B.; Sinclair, K. D.; Lea, R. G.; Pocar, P.; Fischer, B.; van der Zalm, E.; Hart, K.; Schmidt, J.-S.; Amezaga, M. R.; Fowler, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants comprise a wide range of synthetic organic compounds and heavy metals, which are dispersed throughout the environment, usually at low concentrations. Exposure of ruminants, as for all other animals, is unavoidable and while the levels of exposure to most chemicals are usually too low to induce any physiological effects, combinations of pollutants can act additively or synergistically to perturb multiple physiological systems at all ages but particularly in the developing foetus. In sheep, organs affected by pollutant exposure include the ovary, testis, hypothalamus and pituitary gland and bone. Reported effects of exposure include changes in organ weight and gross structure, histology and gene and protein expression but these changes are not reflected in changes in reproductive performance under the conditions tested. These results illustrate the complexity of the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on the reproductive axis, which make it difficult to extrapolate between, or even within, species. Effects of pollutant exposure on the thyroid gland, immune, cardiovascular and obesogenic systems have not been shown explicitly, in ruminants, but work on other species suggests that these systems can also be perturbed. It is concluded that exposure to a mixture of anthropogenic pollutants has significant effects on a wide variety of physiological systems, including the reproductive system. Although this physiological insult has not yet been shown to lead to a reduction in ruminant gross performance, there are already reports indicating that anthropogenic pollutant exposure can compromise several physiological systems and may pose a significant threat to both reproductive performance and welfare in the longer term. At present, many potential mechanisms of action for individual chemicals have been identified but knowledge of factors affecting the rate of tissue exposure and of the effects of combinations of chemicals on physiological systems

  9. Reproductive and Locomotory Capacities of Caenorhabditis elegans Were Not Affected by Simulated Variable Gravities and Spaceflight During the Shenzhou-8 Mission

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Luo, Sang; Liu, Yongding; Li, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Reproduction and locomotion are essential features of animals that help to facilitate their interaction with the surrounding environment. Previous studies have produced inconsistent results on behavioral response to spaceflight by the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in liquid culture. Using standard agar-based nematode growth medium (NGM), we show here that both reproductive and locomotory capacities of C. elegans were not significantly changed by centrifuge-produced hypergravity or clinostat-simulated microgravity. To investigate the effect of actual spaceflight on C. elegans, a nematode test unit was specifically designed to maintain its normal growth on solid NGM slides and to allow automatic RNA fixation on board the Shenzhou-8 spaceflight. We did not detect alteration in either brood size of immediate progenies from postflight nematodes or locomotory behavior, including speed of locomotion, frequency of reversals, and rate of body bends of space-flown nematodes collected directly from nematode test units. Our results provide clear evidence that the nematode test unit is an appropriate apparatus for nematode growth on standard NGM and can be used for on-orbit analysis of C. elegans, including onboard RNA fixation for molecular analysis and real-time video acquisition for behavioral analysis, which are critical for further studies in unmanned spaceflight and outer space exploration. Key Words: Spaceflight—Hypergravity—Microgravity—Caenorhabditis elegans—Behavior—Reproduction. Astrobiology 13, 617–625. PMID:23837604

  10. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  11. Physiological adaptations of small mammals to desert ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Schwimmer, Hagit; Haim, Abraham

    2009-12-01

    Adaptations of animals to the xeric environment have been studied in various taxonomic groups and across several deserts. Despite the impressive data that have been accumulated, the focus in most of these studies is mainly on the significance of one variable at a time. Here, we attempt to integrate between responses of several physiological systems, challenged by increasing diet and water salinity and extreme temperatures, acquired in different studies of thermo and osmo-regulatory adaptations, of small rodents, to the xeric environment. Studies have shown differential thermoregulatory responses to increased dietary salinity, which were attributed to habitat and habits of the relevant species. In the thermoregulatory studies, a potential adaptive significance of low metabolic rate was demonstrated. From an evolutionary point of view, the most important adaptation is in the timing of reproduction, as it enables the transfer of genetic properties to the next generation in an unpredictable ecosystem, where reproduction might not occur every year. Results in this aspect show that increased dietary salinity, through an increase in vasopressin plasma levels, plays an important role as a regulator of the reproductive system. We assume that the amount of food existing in the habitat and the amount of reserves in the animal in the form of white adipose tissue are important for reproduction. Photoperiod affects all studied physiological responses, emphasizing the importance of pre-acclimation to seasonal characteristics. We summarize the existing data and suggest neuro-endocrine pathways, which have a central role in these adaptations by affecting thermoregulation, osmoregulation and reproduction to create the optimal response to xeric conditions. These hypotheses can be used as the basis for future studies. PMID:21392308

  12. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  13. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    PubMed

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. PMID:20884138

  14. The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), a state characterized by an imbalance between pro-oxidant molecules including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant defenses, has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. The adverse effects of OS on sperm quality and functions have been well documented. In females, on the other hand, the impact of OS on oocytes and reproductive functions remains unclear. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants can lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and unexplained infertility. Pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia, can also develop in response to OS. Studies have shown that extremes of body weight and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use can promote excess free radical production, which could affect fertility. Exposures to environmental pollutants are of increasing concern, as they too have been found to trigger oxidative states, possibly contributing to female infertility. This article will review the currently available literature on the roles of reactive species and OS in both normal and abnormal reproductive physiological processes. Antioxidant supplementation may be effective in controlling the production of ROS and continues to be explored as a potential strategy to overcome reproductive disorders associated with infertility. However, investigations conducted to date have been through animal or in vitro studies, which have produced largely conflicting results. The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART) will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success. Future randomized controlled clinical trials on humans are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms through which OS affects female

  15. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. PMID:20888156

  16. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    PubMed

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  17. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    PubMed

    Klop-Toker, Kaya; Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  18. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a possible bioindicator of epigenetic factors present in drinking water that may affect reproductive function: is chorion an issue?

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sales, M; García-Ximénez, F; Espinós, F J

    2015-06-01

    Emerging organic contaminants have been monitored in stream waters, raw and finished waters and wastewater effluents. Most of these contaminants, such as epigenetic substances, have been detected at very low levels. Unfortunately, their complete monitoring and/or removal are very difficult, given the increasing presence of new contaminants and due to analytical and economic considerations. For this reason, bioindicators are used as an alternative to monitor their presence. To this end, zebrafish is being used to assess certain contaminants in water quality studies. As our long-term aim is to determine if zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be used to detect environmental epigenetic factors in drinking waters with effects on human reproduction, an initial question is whether the chorion could interfere with the possible action of epigenetic factors in two reproductive events: genital ridge formation and migration of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) to these genital ridges. In the first experiment, we attempted to partially degrade the chorion of mid blastula transition (MBT) embryos with pronase, with acceptable survival rates at 5 days post fertilisation (dpf), with the group exposed for 15 min giving the best survival results. As denuded early embryos require a specific culture medium, in the next experiment embryo survival was evaluated when they were cultured up to 5 dpf in drinking waters from six different sources. Results showed a negative effect on embryo survival at 5 dpf from several waters but not in others, thus distorting the survival outcomes. These results suggest using embryos with the chorion intact from the outset when drinking waters from different sources are to be tested. PMID:24598355

  19. We Made Your Bed, Why Won’t You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn’t breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  20. Social cues are unlikely to be the single cause for early reproduction in urban European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Van't Hof, Thomas J; Partecke, Jesko

    2015-04-01

    Despite urban ecology being an established field of research, there is still surprisingly little information about the relative contribution of specific environmental factors driving the observed changes in the behavior and physiology of city dwellers. One of the most reported effects of urbanization is the advanced phenology observed in birds. Many factors have been suggested to underline such effect, including warmer microclimate, anthropogenic food supply and light pollution. Since social stimuli are known to affect reproductive timing and breeding density is usually higher in urban populations compared to rural ones, we experimentally tested whether social interactions could advance the onset of reproduction in European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We housed male blackbirds of rural and urban origins with or without a conspecific female, and recorded their seasonal variation in gonadal size and production of luteinizing hormone (LH). Paired and unpaired males of both urban and rural origins did not significantly differ in their timing of gonadal growth. Moreover, rural and urban birds did not differ in their response to the social stimuli, rather they became reproductively active at the same time, a result that confirms previous studies that attributed the difference in reproductive timing observed in the field to phenotypic plasticity. We conclude that social stimuli do not contribute substantially to the observed early onset of reproductive physiology in urban bird species, rather other factors such as light pollution are likely to be stronger drivers of these physiological changes. PMID:25619949

  1. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    PubMed

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  2. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  3. Stress and the reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Toufexis, D; Rivarola, M A; Lara, H; Viau, V

    2014-09-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For example, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, whereas activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology, as well as behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors such as oestrogen receptor (ER)α that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilised by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine into the ovary, which produces a noncyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increases 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain the heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioural phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hyporesponsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects

  4. Stress and the Reproductive Axis

    PubMed Central

    Toufexis, Donna; Rivarola, Maria Angelica; Lara, Hernan; Viau, Victor

    2014-01-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For instance, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, while activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology and behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors like ERα that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilized by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine (NE) into the ovary, which produces a non-cyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increase 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioral phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hypo-responsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects of oestrogen, and changes in 5-HT

  5. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GnRH-agonist implantation in prepubertal tomcats on sexual behavior, reproductive performance, and expression of testicular LH receptor (LHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) and also to compare the testicular characteristics, LHR and FSHR expression between prepubertal and adult tomcats. In experiment 1, 3-month-old tomcats (n = 6/group) were either treated with or left without 4.7 mg deslorelin implants. Semen collection and evaluation were performed just before castration at 48 weeks after treatment; removed testes were analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. We were able to collect semen from six non-treated cats, whereas in treated cats, semen was uncollectable. The results revealed that sexual behavior was absent in the implanted cats throughout the study period. Testicular volume was found to decrease from 30 weeks after treatment onward in the implanted cats compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Semen production was found only in non-implanted cats. Testicular tissue score, seminiferous tubule diameter, and LHR protein expression were found lower in the implanted cats (P < 0.05), but no differences were observed in mRNA expression of LHR and protein expression of FSHR between groups. The mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in the implanted (P < 0.05) compared to control cats. In experiment 2, testes from prepubertal (n = 6) and adult (n = 6) male cats were collected after castration and analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. No differences were observed in the protein expression of LHR and FSHR between the two groups, whereas mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in prepubertal cats (P < 0.05). Testicular and epididymal weight, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and the testicular grade were higher in the adult compared to prepubertal cats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, deslorelin implants suppressed protein expression of LHR and enhanced mRNA expression of FSHR along with suppression

  6. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout history, humans have celebrated the beauty and fertility of flowering plants. In addition to their aesthetic appeal, flowers contain the reproductive organs of the plant and are therefore essential for sexual propagation of plant life. Our dependence on flowering is illustrated by the die...

  7. Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Programs Reproductive Dysfunction in Female Mice Offspring Through Adverse Effects on the Neuroendocrine Axis.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Cari; Davis, Joseph; Fisher, Thomas; Segal, Thalia; Petti, Marilena; Sun, Yan; Wolfe, Andrew; Neal-Perry, Genevieve

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency affects more than 1 billion people worldwide with a higher prevalence in reproductive-aged women and children. The physiological effects of maternal VitD deficiency on the reproductive health of the offspring has not been studied. To determine whether maternal VitD deficiency affects reproductive physiology in female offspring, we monitored the reproductive physiology of C57BL/6J female offspring exposed to diet-induced maternal VitD deficiency at three specific developmental stages: 1) in utero, 2) preweaning, or 3) in utero and preweaning. We hypothesized that exposure to maternal VitD deficiency disrupts reproductive function in exposed female offspring. To test this hypothesis, we assessed vaginal opening and cytology and ovary and pituitary function as well as gonadotropin and gonadal steroid levels in female offspring. The in utero, preweaning, and in utero and preweaning VitD deficiency did not affect puberty. However, all female mice exposed to maternal VitD deficiency developed prolonged and irregular estrous cycles characterized by oligoovulation and extended periods of diestrus. Despite similar gonadal steroid levels and GnRH neuron density, females exposed to maternal VitD deficiency released less LH on the evening of proestrus. When compared with control female offspring, there was no significant difference in the ability of females exposed to maternal VitD deficiency to respond robustly to exogenous GnRH peptide or controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. These findings suggest that maternal VitD deficiency programs reproductive dysfunction in adult female offspring through adverse effects on hypothalamic function. PMID:26741195

  8. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fry, D M

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. PMID:8593865

  9. Brain serotonin, psychoactive drugs, and effects on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ayala, María Elena

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin, a biogenic amine, is present in significant amounts in many structures of the CNS. It is involved in regulation of a wide variety of physiological functions, such as sensory and motor functions, memory, mood, and secretion of hormones including reproductive hormones. It has also been implicated in the etiology of a range of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and eating disorders, along with other conditions such as obesity and migraine. While some drugs that affect serotonin, such as fenfluramine and fluoxetine, have been successfully used in treatment of a range of psychiatric diseases, others, such as the amphetamine analogues MDMA and METH, are potent psychostimulant drugs of abuse. Alterations in serotonergic neurons caused by many of these drugs are well characterized; however, little is known about the reproductive consequences of such alterations. This review evaluates the effects of drugs such as MDMA, pCA, fenfluramine, and fluoxetine on serotonergic transmission in the brain, examines the relationships of these drug effects with the neuroendocrine mechanisms modulating reproductive events such as gonadotropin secretion, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior in animal models, and discusses possible reproductive implications of these drugs in humans. PMID:20021359

  10. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p`-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. 85 refs.

  11. Reproductive effects in birds exposed to pesticides and industrial chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, D M

    1995-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agricultural chemicals and industrial waste disposal results in adverse effects on reproduction of exposed birds. The diversity of pollutants results in physiological effects at several levels, including direct effects on breeding adults as well as developmental effects on embryos. The effects on embryos include mortality or reduced hatchability, failure of chicks to thrive (wasting syndrome), and teratological effects producing skeletal abnormalities and impaired differentiation of the reproductive and nervous systems through mechanisms of hormonal mimicking of estrogens. The range of chemical effects on adult birds covers acute mortality, sublethal stress, reduced fertility, suppression of egg formation, eggshell thinning, and impaired incubation and chick rearing behaviors. The types of pollutants shown to cause reproductive effects include organochlorine pesticides and industrial pollutants, organophosphate pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and in a fewer number of reports, herbicides, and fungicides. o,p'-DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mixtures of organochlorines have been identified as environmental estrogens affecting populations of gulls breeding in polluted "hot spots" in southern California, the Great Lakes, and Puget Sound. Estrogenic organochlorines represent an important class of toxicants to birds because differentiation of the avian reproductive system is estrogen dependent. PMID:8593865

  12. Molecular basis for regulating seasonal reproduction in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Animals that inhabit mid- to high-latitude regions exhibit various adaptive behaviors, such as migration, reproduction, molting and hibernation in response to seasonal cues. These adaptive behaviors are tightly regulated by seasonal changes in photoperiod, the relative day length vs night length. Recently, the regulatory pathway of seasonal reproduction has been elucidated using quail. In birds, deep brain photoreceptors receive and transmit light information to the pars tuberalis in the pituitary gland, which induces the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid-stimulating hormone locally activates thyroid hormone via induction of type 2 deiodinase in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Thyroid hormone then induces morphological changes in the terminals of neurons that express gonadotropin-releasing hormone and facilitates gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. In mammals, light information is received by photoreceptors in the retina and neurally transmitted to the pineal gland, where it inhibits the synthesis and secretion of melatonin, which is crucial for seasonal reproduction. Importantly, the signaling pathway downstream of light detection and signaling is fully conserved between mammals and birds. In fish, the regulatory components of seasonal reproduction are integrated, from light detection to neuroendocrine output, in a fish-specific organ called the saccus vasculosus. Various physiological processes in humans are also influenced by seasonal environmental changes. The findings discussed herein may provide clues to addressing human diseases, such as seasonal affective disorder. PMID:27068698

  13. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  14. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  15. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  16. Plant reproduction in spaceflight environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Kuang, A.; Porterfield, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    Because plant reproduction is a complex developmental process there are many possible sites of perturbation by the unusual environments of orbital spacecraft. Previous long-duration experiments on Soviet platforms shared features of slowed development through the vegetative stage of plant growth and aborted reproductive function. Our goal has been to understand how special features of the spaceflight environment impact physiological function and reproductive development. In a series of short-duration experiments in the Shuttle mid-deck we studied early reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Pollen and ovule development aborted at an early stage in the first experiment on STS-54 which utilized closed plant growth chambers. Post-flight analysis suggested that the plants may have been carbon dioxide limited. Subsequent experiments utilized carbon dioxide enrichment (on STS-51) and cabin air flow-through with an air exchange system (on STS-68). Both modifications allowed pollen and ovule development to occur normally on orbit, and full reproductive development up to the stage of an immature seed occurred on STS-68. However, analysis of plant roots from these experiments demonstrated a limitation in rootzone aeration in the spaceflight material that was not mitigated by these procedures. In the future, additional resources (crew time, upgraded flight hardware, and special platforms) will invite more elaborate, long-duration experimentation. On the ISS, a variable speed centrifuge and upgraded plant habitats will permit detailed experiments on the role of gravity in shaping the plant micro-environment, and what influence this plays during reproduction.

  17. Neuronal basis of reproductive dysfunctions associated with diet and alcohol: From the womb to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gawałek, Monika; Sliwowska, Joanna H

    2015-06-01

    The theory that individuals are born as tabula rasa and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception is no longer true. Studies suggest that experience is gained as early as in the mother's womb. Moreover, environmental stressors like alcohol or inadequate diet can affect physiological systems such as the hypothalmic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The effects of these stressors can manifest as alterations in sexual development and adult reproductive functions. In this review, we consider and compare evidence from animal models and human studies demonstrating the role of environmental stressors (alcohol and under- or overnutrition) on the HPG axis. We review the role of alcohol and inadequate diet in prenatal reproductive system programming and consider specific candidate neurons in the adult hypothalamus through which reproductive function is being regulated. Finally, we review evidence from animal studies on the role that alcohol and diet play in fertility and reproductive disorders. We conclude that in order to better understand reproductive failure in animals and humans we need to consider in utero development and pay more attention to early life experience when searching for the origins of reproductive diseases. PMID:26051454

  18. Reproduction reduces photosynthetic capacity in females of the subdioecious Honckenya peploides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Vilas, Julia; Retuerto, Rubén

    2011-03-01

    As a consequence of the different reproductive functions performed by the sexes, sexually dimorphic/polymorphic plants may exhibit gender-related variations in the energy and resources allocated to reproduction, and in the physiological processes that underlie these differences. This study investigated whether the sexes of the subdioecious plant Honckenya peploides differ in ecophysiological traits related to photosynthetic capacity and whether possible differences depend on reproductive status and on the plant's position (edge or centre) in the population. We registered in three sites in NW Spain, the sex and density of shoots of two segregated clumps of plants. These clumps represent an extreme case of sex-ratio variation across space, with separated single-sex clumps of plants. In two of these sites we measured photosynthetic efficiencies, chlorophyll content, and specific leaf areas. In females, reproduction reduced photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll content and increased the specific leaf area, which is a key leaf trait related to photosynthetic capacity. In males, no differences due to reproduction were detected. The position within the clump affected the specific leaf area of the shoots, with shoots growing at the edge having the lowest values, regardless of the sex. Finally, the effects of position in photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content where highly variable among clumps. We conclude that the differential effects of reproduction on sexes may entail different costs that could be crucial in the outcome of interactions between them, contributing to their spatial segregation.

  19. Conditional Deletion of the Relaxin Receptor Gene in Cells of Smooth Muscle Lineage Affects Lower Reproductive Tract in Pregnant Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M.; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1+/− females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  20. Differential effects of inbreeding and selection on male reproductive phenotype associated with the colonization and laboratory maintenance of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females is paramount to the success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically modified male mosquitoes. However mosquito colonization and laboratory maintenance have the potential to negatively affect male genotypic and phenotypic quality through inbreeding and selection, which in turn can decrease male mating competitiveness in the field. To date, very little is known about the impact of those evolutionary forces on the reproductive biology of mosquito colonies and how they ultimately affect male reproductive fitness. Methods Here several male reproductive physiological traits likely to be affected by inbreeding and selection following colonization and laboratory rearing were examined. Sperm length, and accessory gland and testes size were compared in male progeny from field-collected females and laboratory strains of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto colonized from one to over 25 years ago. These traits were also compared in the parental and sequentially derived, genetically modified strains produced using a two-phase genetic transformation system. Finally, genetic crosses were performed between strains in order to distinguish the effects of inbreeding and selection on reproductive traits. Results Sperm length was found to steadily decrease with the age of mosquito colonies but was recovered in refreshed strains and crosses between inbred strains therefore incriminating inbreeding costs. In contrast, testes size progressively increased with colony age, whilst accessory gland size quickly decreased in males from colonies of all ages. The lack of heterosis in response to crossing and strain refreshing in the latter two reproductive traits suggests selection for insectary conditions. Conclusions These results show that inbreeding and selection differentially affect reproductive traits in laboratory strains overtime and that

  1. Blockage of the Neonatal Leptin Surge Affects the Gene Expression of Growth Factors, Glial Proteins, and Neuropeptides Involved in the Control of Metabolism and Reproduction in Peripubertal Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Vázquez, María Jesús; Gertler, Arieh; Argente, Jesús; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Leptin (Lep) is important in the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control. Because both Lep and metabolism influence pubertal development, we hypothesized that early changes in Lep signaling could also modulate hypothalamic (HT) systems involved in reproduction. We previously demonstrated that a single injection of a Lep antagonist (Antag) on postnatal day (PND)9, coincident with the neonatal Lep peak, induced sexually dimorphic modifications in trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the HT on PND13. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the alterations induced by Lep antagonism persist into puberty. Accordingly, male and female rats were treated with a pegylated super Lep Antag from PND5 to PND9 and killed just before the normal appearance of external signs of puberty (PND33 in females and PND43 in males). There was no effect on body weight, but in males food intake increased, subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased and HT neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA levels were reduced, with no effect in females. In both sexes, the Antag increased HT mRNA levels of the kisspeptin receptor, G protein-coupled recepter 54 (Gpr54). Expression of the Lep receptor, trophic factors, and glial markers were differently affected in the HT of peripubertal males and females. Lep production in adipose tissue was decreased in Antag-treated rats of both sexes, with production of other cytokines being differentially regulated between sexes. In conclusion, in addition to the long-term effects on metabolism, changes in neonatal Lep levels modifies factors involved in reproduction that could possibly affect sexual maturation. PMID:25856428

  2. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  3. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms. PMID:19249025

  4. Anatomy & Physiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  5. Physiologically-Indexed and Self-Perceived Affective Empathy in Conduct-Disordered Children High and Low on Callous-Unemotional Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Warden, David

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) was employed to compare vicarious affective arousal across three groups of children (aged 7.6 - 11, N = 95): Conduct Disordered (CD) elevated on Callous-Unemotional traits ("CD/CU"), CD low on CU traits ("CD-only"), and "typically-developing" controls, matched in age, gender and socioeconomic background. While watching an emotion…

  6. Inflammation in Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gerson; Goldsmith, Laura T.; Taylor, Robert N.; Bellet, Dominique; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders account for a significant percentage of gynecologic disease, particularly in reproductive age women. Inflammation is a basic method by which we respond to infection, irritation, or injury. Inflammation is now recognized as a type of nonspecific immune response, either acute or chronic. In gynecology, inflammation leads to anatomic disorders primarily as a result of infectious disease; however inflammation can affect ovulation and hormone production as well as be associated with endometriosis. Similarly, immune cell trafficking is an important component of cyclic endometrial development in each menstrual cycle. These immune cells are required for endometrial function, producing a vast array of inflammatory cytokines. Inflammation alters endometrial receptivity, however it may also play a role in tissue repair and remodeling. Finally, inflammation affects the trophoblast and trophoblast—endometrial interaction. Some components of the immune response are required for optimal fertility and normal tissue remodeling. A better understanding of the necessary role of inflammation in reproduction will allow more rational and targeted treatment of inflammatory disorders in reproductive medicine. PMID:19208790

  7. Pulsatile control of reproduction.

    PubMed

    1984-08-18

    An aspect of the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction to emerge in the past decade is the pulsatile nature of hormone secretion. The pulse generator is in the central nervous system -- in the medial basal region of the hypothalamus. It works by a synchronous firing of entire populations of endocrine neurons, which discharge a quantum of the decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the portal blood capillaries which then carry it to the anterior pituitary gland. In man, episodic secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, especially luteinizing hormone (LH) is considered to imply a preceding pulsatile GnRH stimulus also, though this cannot be observed directly. This LH pattern is characterized by discrete bursts (pulses) separated by periods of little or no secretion. It is observalbe at all stages and states of reproductive life, being most evident at high secretion rates (e.g., at midcycle and after menopause). The pulse frequency is important and leads to the possibility of physiological and pharmacological control of pituitary-gonadal function by frequency modulation. Physiologically, pulses of LH secretion occur every 1-2 hours. The need for pulsatility in therapeutic GnRH stimulation of the pituitary also has been established following the early days of GnRH therapy when both constant and infrequent administration were found to be ineffective. Pulsatile GnRH therapy through portable pumps delivering small doses subcutaneously or intravenously every 1-2 hours has now been successfully applied to the treatment of anovulatory infertility, male hypogonadism, and the initiation of puberty. Supraphysiological GnRH stimulation, whether through increased frequency or amplitude or use of the "superactive" agonist analogues, produces a seemingly paradoxical inhibition of gonadotropin secretion. Although a postreceptor effect has been proposed, the mechanism appears to be a "down-regulation" of the GnRH receptors. Normally, the gaps between the physiological

  8. Effect of mussel reproductive status on biomarker responses to PAHs: Implications for large-scale monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Albentosa, Marina; Campillo, Juan A; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, Angeles; Bellas, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers are useful tools to assess biological effects of pollutants and have been extensively used in monitoring programs to determine ecosystem health. In these programs, a wide range of environmental conditions are covered and sometimes, obtained data are difficult to interpret because of natural variables are affecting biomarker responses. Among these variables, musseĺs reproductive status has been considered one of the most changing variables between sites in a monitoring survey. Thus, the main aim of this work was to identify the effect that mussel reproductive status has on biomarker responses. For that purpose, mussels sampled at two periods in the reproductive cycle (reproductive and resting stages) were conditioned to the same laboratory conditions and exposed to fluoranthene (FLU) for three weeks. Studied biomarkers covering a wide range of organism responses were included: bioaccumulation, physiological rates (clearance rate -CR-, absorption efficiency -AE-, respiration rate -RR- and their integration in the scope for growth -SFG-), antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide-dismutase -SOD-, catalase -CAT-, glutathione reductase -GR-, glutathione peroxidase -GPx-, glutathione-S-tranferase -GST-) and biochemical damage responses (lipid membrane peroxidation -LPO-). The results obtained evidenced that the levels of the biomarkers studied (RR, SOD, CAT and GPx) were higher at reproductive than at resting stage. On the other hand, the effect of toxicant was observed in SFG, CAT and GPx but this effect was only detected during the resting period. Moreover, there was a deterioration of mussel gonadal tissue with FLU exposure during reproductive stage. FLU accumulation in mussel tissues was also dependent of the reproductive status with higher internal concentrations during resting than reproductive period. In conclusion, there was a strong effect of reproductive status on studied biomarkers which seems to mask the effect of FLU at reproductive stage. The

  9. Modifications of the chemical structure of phenolics differentially affect physiological activities in pulvinar cells of Mimosa pudica L. I. Multimode effect on early membrane events.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Françoise; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Saeedi, Saed; Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Chollet, Jean-Francois; Roblin, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A study of the structure-activity relationship carried out on several benzoic acid-related phenolics indicates that this type of compounds hinders the osmocontractile reaction of pulvinar cells in the range of 0-100%. Tentatively, we tried to find a way that could explain this differential action. With this aim, the relationship between the inhibitory effect and important molecular physico-chemical parameters (namely lipophilicity and degree of dissociation) was drawn. In addition, the effect of a variety of these compounds was investigated on their capacity to modify the electrical transmembrane potential and induce modifications in proton fluxes. Finally, using plasma membrane vesicles purified from pulvinar tissues, we examined the effects of some selected compounds on the proton pump activity and catalytic activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Taken together, the results indicate that a modification of the molecular structure of phenolics may induce important variation in the activity of the compound on these early membrane events. Among the tested phenolics, salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) are of particuler note, as they showed atypical effects on the physiological processes studied. PMID:25306527

  10. Physiological and pathophysiological factors affecting the expression and activity of the drug transporter MRP2 in intestine. Impact on its function as membrane barrier.

    PubMed

    Arana, Maite R; Tocchetti, Guillermo N; Rigalli, Juan P; Mottino, Aldo D; Villanueva, Silvina S M

    2016-07-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium functions as a selective barrier to absorb nutrients, electrolytes and water, but at the same time restricts the passage into the systemic circulation of intraluminal potentially toxic compounds. This epithelium maintains its selective barrier function through the presence of very selective and complex intercellular junctions and the ability of the absorptive cells to reject those compounds. Accordingly, the enterocytes metabolize orally incorporated xenobiotics and secrete the hydrophilic metabolites back into the intestinal lumen through specific transporters localized apically. In the recent decades, there has been increasing recognition of the existence of the intestinal cellular barrier. In the present review we focus on the role of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2, ABCC2) in the apical membrane of the enterocytes, as an important component of this intestinal barrier, as well as on its regulation. We provide a detailed compilation of significant contributions demonstrating that MRP2 expression and function vary under relevant physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Because MRP2 activity modulates the availability and pharmacokinetics of many therapeutic drugs administered orally, their therapeutic efficacy and safety may vary as well. PMID:27109321

  11. Research on gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.; Dahl, A. O.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of gravitational plant physiology was studied through aspects of plant development (in ARABIDOPSIS) and of behavior (in HELIANTHUS) as these were affected by altered g experience. The effect of increased g levels on stem polarity (in COLEUS) was also examined.

  12. Relevance of vitamin D in reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Janelle; Torrealday, Saioa; Neal Perry, Genevieve; Pal, Lubna

    2012-01-01

    The steroid hormone vitamin D is historically recognized for its relevance to bone health and calcium homeostasis. Recent years have witnessed a shift in focus to non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D; in this latter context, an accruing body of literature attests to a relevance of vitamin D to reproductive physiology. This article reviews the existing data about the diverse and previously underappreciated roles for vitamin D in reproductive health. A large body of available literature suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be detrimental to reproductive biology. However, given that our appreciation of vitamin D's role in reproductive physiology is almost entirely shaped by ‘associative’ studies and that data based on prospective interventional trials are limited, these concepts remain predominantly conjectural. Exact mechanisms whereby vitamin D may participate in the regulation of reproductive physiology remain far from clear. This review underscores a need for appropriately designed intervention trials to address the existing knowledge gaps and to delineate the specific roles of vitamin D signaling in reproductive biology. PMID:22824625

  13. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  14. Adult neurogenesis and reproductive functions in mammals.

    PubMed

    Migaud, Martine; Butruille, Lucile; Duittoz, Anne; Pillon, Delphine; Batailler, Martine

    2016-07-01

    During adulthood, the mammalian brain retains the capacity to generate new cells and new neurons in particular. It is now well established that the birth of these new neurons occurs in well-described sites: the hippocampus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, as well as in other brain regions including the hypothalamus. In this review, we describe the canonical neurogenic niches and illustrate the functional relevance of adult-born neurons of each neurogenic niche in the reproductive physiology. More specifically, we highlight the effect of reproductive social stimuli on the neurogenic processes and conversely, the contributions of adult-born neurons to the reproductive physiology and behavior. We next review the recent discovery of a novel neurogenic niche located in the hypothalamus and the median eminence and the compelling evidence of the link existing between the new-born hypothalamic neurons and the regulation of metabolism. In addition, new perspectives on the possible involvement of hypothalamic neurogenesis in the control of photoperiodic reproductive physiology in seasonal mammals are discussed. Altogether, the studies highlighted in this review demonstrate the potential role of neurogenesis in reproductive function and emphasize the importance of increasing our knowledge on the regulation processes and the physiological relevance of these adult-born neurons. This constitutes a necessary step toward a potential manipulation of these plasticity mechanisms. PMID:27177964

  15. Biological markers of male reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, L.L.; Mattison, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    Reproduction is a complex, stepwise series of processes that begins with gametogenesis, continues through gamete interaction, implantation, embryonic development, growth, parturition, and postnatal adaptation, and is completed with the development and sexual maturation of the newly formed organism. These reproductive processes do not take place in a chemically pristine environment, but rather in an environment increasingly contaminated with the products and by-products of the chemical age in which we live. Some environmental pollutants are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to the reproductive system, but most have not been adequately tested for reproductive toxicity. Just as reproduction is complex, biological mechanisms underlying toxicology are similarly complex and involve absorption, distribution, metabolism (toxification and/or detoxification), excretion, and repair. The synthesis of these sciences into the relatively nascent science of reproductive toxicology includes teratology, pharmacology, epidemiology, and occupational and environmental health. Female reproductive function (especially pregnancy outcome) has historically been the focus of attention, but there is increasing interest in the effects of chemical exposure on male reproductive function. Several reports have documented the physiology, biochemistry, and toxicology of male mammalian reproduction, and evaluated susceptibility of the male to the effects of exogenous chemicals.

  16. Is reproductive ageing controlled by the brain?

    PubMed

    Gore, Andrea C

    2007-08-01

    Female reproductive function is controlled by complex interactions of the brain, pituitary gland and ovary. Each of these organs produces unique hormones, and each hormone acts upon the other organs to affect a response. Differentiating the causes and the consequences of reproductive senescence in mammals is thus a 'chicken and egg' puzzle. Surprisingly, recent evidence indicates a more important role for the brain in the initiation and transition to reproductive senescence. PMID:17620108

  17. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. PMID:24945995

  18. The physiologic state of Escherichia coli O157:H7 does not affect its detection in two commercial real-time PCR-based tests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Schmidt, John W; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    Multiplex real-time PCR detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an efficient molecular tool with high sensitivity and specificity for meat safety assurance. The Biocontrol GDS(®) and DuPont Qualicon BAX(®)-RT rapid detection systems are two commercial tests based on real-time PCR amplification with potential applications for quantification of specific E. coli O157:H7 gene targets in enriched meat samples. However, there are arguments surrounding the use of these tests to predict pre-enrichment concentrations of E. coli O157:H7, as well as arguments pertaining to the influence of non-viable cells causing false positive results. The present study attempts to illustrate the effects of different bacterial physiologic states and the presence of non-viable cells on the ability of these systems to accurately measure contamination levels of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. While the PCR threshold cycle (C(T)) values of these assays showed a direct correlation with the number of bacteria present in pure cultures, this was not the case for ground beef samples spiked with various levels of injured or healthy cells. Furthermore, comparison of post-enrichment cell densities of bacteria did not correlate with injured or healthy cell numbers inoculated before enrichment process. Ground beef samples spiked with injured or healthy cells at different doses could not be distinguished by C(T) values from either assay. In addition, the contribution of nonviable cells in generating positive real-time PCR signals was investigated using both assays on pre-enriched and post-enriched beef samples, but only if inoculated at levels of 10(6) cells/sample or higher, which are levels not typically seen in ground beef. PMID:23200653

  19. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  20. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  1. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. vs. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the United States Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through “composition of matter” claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing, and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. PMID:24989832

  2. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2014-10-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the US Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through 'composition of matter' claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. PMID:24989832

  3. Measures of physiological stress: a transparent or opaque window into the status, management and conservation of species?

    PubMed Central

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E.; Boonstra, Rudy; Sheriff, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation physiology proposes that measures of physiological stress (glucocorticoid levels) can be used to assess the status and future fate of natural populations. Increases in glucocorticoids may reflect a more challenging environment, suggesting that the influence of human activities on free-living animals could be quantified by measuring glucocorticoids. Biomedical studies suggest that chronic increases in glucocorticoids can have detrimental effects on survival and reproduction, which could influence the viability of populations. Here, we discuss the use of measurements of glucocorticoids in conservation physiology. We first provide an overview of the different methods to quantify glucocorticoids and their utility in conservation physiology. We then discuss five questions we think are essential for conservation physiologists to address. We highlight how intrinsic (e.g. sex, reproductive status, age, recent experiences) and ecological factors (e.g. predation, food availability, snowfall) can, by themselves or through their interactions with anthropogenic disturbances, affect the physiological stress response and mask any general patterns about the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on glucocorticoids. Using a meta-analysis, we show that anthropogenic disturbances are consistently associated with increased glucocorticoids regardless of the type of human disturbance. We also show that males may be more sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances than females and that faecal glucocorticoids, but not baseline plasma glucocorticoids, consistently increase in response to anthropogenic disturbances. Finally, we discuss how increases in glucocorticoids in free-living animals can sometimes enhance survival and reproduction. Unfortunately, our literature analysis indicates that this observation has not yet gained traction, and very few studies have shown that increases in glucocorticoid levels resulting from anthropogenic disturbances decrease survival or reproduction

  4. Integrating oxidative ecology into conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; González-Acuña, Daniel; Polito, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists have recently shown great interest in using physiological markers as indicators of the health of animal populations. In this context, the measurement of markers of oxidative balance, such as antioxidant defences and oxidative damage, may be a valuable tool. Indeed, at the individual level, antioxidant defences are positively associated with fertility and survival probability, while elevated oxidative damage during reproduction or growth may negatively affect recruitment and survival. Therefore, variation in oxidative balance is likely to influence demographic processes. This suggests that conservationists may be able to use oxidative markers to monitor population health. Yet, the connection between these markers and demographic parameters first needs to be established. We present here preliminary results obtained in colonies of breeding Gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), showing that antioxidant defences strongly reflect population trends. However, population trend was not related to oxidative damage. This suggests that in the context of the emerging field of conservation physiology, antioxidant defences may represent a key parameter to monitor population health. We therefore exhort other research teams to assess the generality of this finding in other biological models, especially in species of conservation concern. PMID:27293588

  5. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  6. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  7. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  8. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  9. Chemosignals, Hormones and Mammalian Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Petrulis, Aras

    2013-01-01

    Many mammalian species use chemosignals to coordinate reproduction by altering the physiology and behavior of both sexes. Chemosignals prime reproductive physiology so that individuals become sexually mature and active at times when mating is most probable and suppress it when it is not. Once in reproductive condition, odors produced and deposited by both males and females are used to find and select individuals for mating. The production, dissemination and appropriate responses to these cues are modulated heavily by organizational and activational effects of gonadal sex steroids and thereby intrinsically link chemical communication to the broader reproductive context. Many compounds have been identified as “pheromones” but very few have met the expectations of that term: a unitary, species-typical substance that is both necessary and sufficient for an experience-independent behavioral or physiological response. In contrast, most responses to chemosignals are dependent or heavily modulated by experience, either in adulthood or during development. Mechanistically, chemosignals are perceived by both main and accessory (vomeronasal) olfactory systems with the importance of each system tied strongly to the nature of the stimulus rather than to the response. In the central nervous system, the vast majority of responses to chemosignals are mediated by cortical and medial amygdala connections with hypothalamic and other forebrain structures. Despite the importance of chemosignals in mammals, many details of chemical communication differ even among closely related species and defy clear categorization. Although generating much research and public interest, strong evidence for the existence of a robust chemical communication among humans is lacking. PMID:23545474

  10. Lectin-functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for reproductive improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Semen ejaculates contain heterogeneous sperm populations that can jeopardize male fertility. Recent development of nanotechnology in physiological systems may have applications in reproductive biology. Here, we used magnetic nanoparticles as a novel strategy for sperm purification to imp...

  11. GENDER BASED DIFFERENCES IN ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basic differences in male versus female reproductive physiology lead to differentials in their respective susceptibilities to chemical insult as evidenced by a variety of observations. As individuals undergo maturation from prenatal sex differentiation through pubertal developme...

  12. Manipulating reproductive effort leads to changes in female reproductive scheduling but not oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Aloise King, Edith D; Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The trade-off between reproductive investment and lifespan is the single most important concept in life-history theory. A variety of sources of evidence support the existence of this trade-off, but the physiological costs of reproduction that underlie this relationship remain poorly understood. The Free Radical Theory of Ageing suggests that oxidative stress, which occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of damaging Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and protective antioxidants, may be an important mediator of this trade-off. We sought to test this theory by manipulating the reproductive investment of female mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and measuring the effects on a number of life history and oxidative stress variables. Females with a greater reproductive load showed no consistent increase in oxidative damage above females who had a smaller reproductive load. The groups differed, however, in their food consumption, reproductive scheduling and mean offspring mass. Of particular note, females with a very high reproductive load delayed blastocyst implantation of their second litter, potentially mitigating the costs of energetically costly reproductive periods. Our results highlight that females use strategies to offset particularly costly periods of reproduction and illustrate the absence of a simple relationship between oxidative stress and reproduction. PMID:24324867

  13. Thyroid diseases and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mintziori, G; Anagnostis, P; Toulis, K A; Goulis, D G

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are very common in women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women with thyroid disorders that are currently seeking fertility, undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) or being pregnant. Normal thyroid function is essential for normal function of the gonadal axis, thus important in maintaining normal reproductive capacity. On the contrary, any type of thyroid dysfunction may reduce the likelihood of pregnancy; the latter can be restored to normal after appropriate treatment. Over eight million children have been born as a result of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) since 1978. As these procedures are becoming more common in clinical practice, the exact impact of thyroid status on reproductive outcomes as well as that of drugs used in ART on thyroid function has to be fully elucidated. Maternal thyroid function is crucial, especially during the first weeks of gestation, for offspring's wellness and brain development. On the other hand, normal physiological mechanisms during gestation can have a major impact on maternal thyroid function. As human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-like effect, high hCG concentrations are associated with thyroid stimulation, both functionally (lower serum TSH concentrations) and anatomically (increased thyroid volume). Although the association between maternal hypothyroidism and increased perinatal morbidity has been described for over a century, more recently, even the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as recurrent abortions and placental abruption. This is of major clinical significance, as anti-thyroid antibodies are surprisingly prevalent in pregnancy, especially during the first two trimesters. PMID:22278068

  14. The reproductive tracts of two malaria vectors are populated by a core microbiome and by gender- and swarm-enriched microbial biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Segata, Nicola; Baldini, Francesco; Pompon, Julien; Garrett, Wendy S.; Truong, Duy Tin; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Levashina, Elena A.; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    Microbes play key roles in shaping the physiology of insects and can influence behavior, reproduction and susceptibility to pathogens. In Sub-Saharan Africa, two major malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii, breed in distinct larval habitats characterized by different microorganisms that might affect their adult physiology and possibly Plasmodium transmission. We analyzed the reproductive microbiomes of male and female An. gambiae and An. coluzzii couples collected from natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA sequencing on dissected tissues revealed that the reproductive tracts harbor a complex microbiome characterized by a large core group of bacteria shared by both species and all reproductive tissues. Interestingly, we detected a significant enrichment of several gender-associated microbial biomarkers in specific tissues, and surprisingly, similar classes of bacteria in males captured from one mating swarm, suggesting that these males originated from the same larval breeding site. Finally, we identified several endosymbiotic bacteria, including Spiroplasma, which have the ability to manipulate insect reproductive success. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the reproductive microbiome of important human disease vectors, and identifies a panel of core and endosymbiotic bacteria that can be potentially exploited to interfere with the transmission of malaria parasites by the Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27086581

  15. The reproductive tracts of two malaria vectors are populated by a core microbiome and by gender- and swarm-enriched microbial biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Segata, Nicola; Baldini, Francesco; Pompon, Julien; Garrett, Wendy S; Truong, Duy Tin; Dabiré, Roch K; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Levashina, Elena A; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    Microbes play key roles in shaping the physiology of insects and can influence behavior, reproduction and susceptibility to pathogens. In Sub-Saharan Africa, two major malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii, breed in distinct larval habitats characterized by different microorganisms that might affect their adult physiology and possibly Plasmodium transmission. We analyzed the reproductive microbiomes of male and female An. gambiae and An. coluzzii couples collected from natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA sequencing on dissected tissues revealed that the reproductive tracts harbor a complex microbiome characterized by a large core group of bacteria shared by both species and all reproductive tissues. Interestingly, we detected a significant enrichment of several gender-associated microbial biomarkers in specific tissues, and surprisingly, similar classes of bacteria in males captured from one mating swarm, suggesting that these males originated from the same larval breeding site. Finally, we identified several endosymbiotic bacteria, including Spiroplasma, which have the ability to manipulate insect reproductive success. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of the reproductive microbiome of important human disease vectors, and identifies a panel of core and endosymbiotic bacteria that can be potentially exploited to interfere with the transmission of malaria parasites by the Anopheles mosquito. PMID:27086581

  16. Hypoxaemia affects male reproduction: a case study of how to differentiate between primary and secondary hypoxic testicular toxicity due to chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter

    2013-07-01

    Classification for fertility is based on two conditions, namely on evidence of an adverse effect on sexual function and fertility and that the effect is not secondary to other toxic effects. To decide on an adverse effect is a relatively simple day-to-day decision in toxicology but whether this effect is secondary often leads to serious controversy. As the seminiferous epithelium operates on the verge of hypoxia, oxygen deficit can lead to secondary impairment of testicular function. This is well known from healthy mountaineers exposing themselves to high altitude. They have reduced blood oxygen content that goes in parallel with impairment of testicular function and this effect remains for some time in spite of a compensatory polycythaemia. Similar findings are described for experimental animals exposed to hypobaric oxygen/high altitude. In addition, testicular function is affected in severe diseases in humans associated with systemic oxygen deficit like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sickle cell disease or beta-thalassaemia as well as in transgenic animals simulating haemolytic anaemia or sickle cell disease. The problem of insufficient oxygen supply as the underlying cause for testicular impairment has received relatively little attention in toxicology, mainly because blood oxygen content is generally not measured in these animal experiments. The difficulties associated with the decision whether testicular toxicity is primary or secondary to hypoxia are exemplified by the results of inhalation studies with nickel subsulphide and gallium arsenide (GaAs). Both of these particulate substances lead to severe lung toxicity that might impair oxygen uptake, but testicular toxicity is only observed with GaAs. This may first be explained by different effects on the blood: nickel subsulphide inhalation leads to a compensatory erythropoiesis that may mitigate pulmonary lack of oxygen uptake. In contrast, GaAs exposure is associated with microcytic haemolytic

  17. Dynamic Reciprocity Between Cells and Their Microenvironment in Reproduction1

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Jeffrey T.; Segal, Thalia R.; Chang, Sydney; Jorge, Soledad; Segars, James H.; Leppert, Phyllis C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynamic reciprocity (DR) refers to the ongoing, bidirectional interaction between cells and their microenvironment, specifically the extracellular matrix (ECM). The continuous remodeling of the ECM exerts mechanical force on cells and modifies biochemical mediators near the cell membrane, thereby initiating cell-signaling cascades that produce changes in gene expression and cell behavior. Cellular changes, in turn, affect the composition and organization of ECM components. These continuous interactions are the fundamental principle behind DR, and its critical role throughout development and adult tissue homeostasis has been extensively investigated. While DR in the mammary gland has been well described, we provide direct evidence that similar dynamic interactions occur in other areas of reproductive biology as well. In order to establish the importance of DR in the adaptive functioning of the female reproductive tract, we present our most current understanding of DR in reproductive tissues, exploring the mammary gland, ovary, and uterus. In addition to explaining normal physiological function, investigating DR may shed new light into pathologic processes that occur in these tissues and provide an exciting opportunity for novel therapeutic intervention. PMID:25411389

  18. Reproductive and developmental effects of phthalate diesters in females

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Vanessa R.; Chambers, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Phthalate diesters, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become prevalent contaminants in the environment. Human exposure is ubiquitous and higher phthalate metabolite concentrations documented in patients using medications with phthalate-containing slow release capsules raises concerns for potential health effects. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that phthalate exposure can modulate circulating hormone concentrations and thus may be able to adversely affect reproductive physiology and the development of estrogen sensitive target tissues. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological and experimental animal literature examining the relationship between phthalate exposure and adverse female reproductive health outcomes. The epidemiological literature is sparse for most outcomes studied and plagued by small sample size, methodological weaknesses, and thus fails to support a conclusion of an adverse effect of phthalate exposure. Despite a paucity of experimental animal studies for several phthalates, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence to suggest that phthalates are reproductive toxicants. However, we note that the concentrations needed to induce adverse health effects are high compared to the concentrations measured in contemporary human biomonitoring studies. We propose that the current patchwork of studies, potential for additive effects and evidence of adverse effects of phthalate exposure in subsequent generations and at lower concentrations than in the parental generation support the need for further study. PMID:23405971

  19. Water Quality Influences Reproduction in Female Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) from Eight Florida Springs

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Thea M.; Miller, Hilary D.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of freshwater ecosystems with nitrate is a growing global concern. Although nitrate pollution is recognized as a cause of aquatic eutrophication, few studies have examined the possible physiological impacts of nitrate exposure. In this study, we surveyed several reproductive variables of viviparous female Gambusia holbrooki (Poeciliidae) captured from eight springs in Florida. The eight springs represent a gradient of nitrate contamination (1–5 mg/L nitrate–nitrogen). We had two objectives in this study: to describe reproductive biology of female mosquitofish in the springs and to understand reproductive variation in the context of water quality, particularly the nitrate concentration. Our data show a significant negative association between nitrate and both dry weight of developing embryos and rate of reproductive activity among mature females. In addition, variation in Gambusia condition index and embryo number and dry weight was related to temperature variation, and hepatic weight was negatively related to dissolved oxygen concentration. Finally, we observed that many of the measured reproductive variables were interrelated and changeable, depending on gestational stage. Specifically, we provide evidence that maternal support of the embryo occurs at least during the first two thirds of gestation and that female fecundity is affected by an apparent tradeoff between embryo size and embryo number. PMID:16818249

  20. Living in the now: physiological mechanisms to tolerate a rapidly changing environment.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Gretchen E; Todgham, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide has resulted in scientific projections of changes in global temperatures, climate in general, and surface seawater chemistry. Although the consequences to ecosystems and communities of metazoans are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting expected changes in animal communities is an understanding of species' vulnerability to a changing environment. For example, environmental stressors may affect a particular species by driving that organism outside a tolerance window, by altering the costs of metabolic processes under the new conditions, or by changing patterns of development and reproduction. Implicit in all these examples is the foundational understanding of physiological mechanisms and how a particular environmental driver (e.g., temperature and ocean acidification) will be transduced through the animal to alter tolerances and performance. In this review, we highlight examples of mechanisms, focusing on those underlying physiological plasticity, that operate in contemporary organisms as a means to consider physiological responses that are available to organisms in the future. PMID:20148670

  1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) first appeared in the late 1980s, though serologic evidence indicates that it had been circulating in swine for some time prior to being recognized. PRRS has since become a highly significant infectious disease affecting swine production worldwid...

  2. Conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2014-01-01

    Global change presents a huge and exciting challenge to the study of thermal physiology. The implication of thermoregulatory strategies and abilities for the survival of individuals and species, are of high importance for predicting species response to global change challenges and ways to mitigate them, and for conservation acts. A good example of such a study is the paper by Cooper and Withers in this issue.1

  3. Insulin: its Role in the Central Control of Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Sliwowska, Joanna H.; Fergani, Chrysanthi; Gawałek, Monika; Skowronska, Bogda; Fichna, Piotr; Lehman, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin has long been recognized as a key regulator of energy homeostasis via its actions at the level of the brain, but in addition, plays a role in regulating neural control of reproduction. In this review, we consider and compare evidence from animal models demonstrating a role for insulin for physiological control of reproduction by effects on GnRH/LH secretion. We also review the role that insulin plays in prenatal programming of adult reproduction, and consider specific candidate neurons in the adult hypothalamus by which insulin may act to regulate reproductive function. Finally, we review clinical evidence of the role that insulin may play in adult human fertility and reproductive disorders. Overall, while insulin appears to have a significant impact on reproductive neuroendocrine function, there are many unanswered questions regarding its precise sites and mechanisms of action, and their impact on developing and adult reproductive neuroendocrine function. PMID:24874777

  4. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. PMID:26568488

  5. Context-dependent effects of parental effort on malaria infection in a wild bird population, and their role in reproductive trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Sarah C L; Wood, Matthew J; Sheldon, Ben C

    2010-09-01

    Although trade-offs between reproductive effort and other fitness components are frequently documented in wild populations, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Parasitism has been suggested to mediate reproductive trade-offs, yet only a limited number of parasite taxa have been studied, and reproductive effort-induced changes in parasitism are rarely linked to trade-offs observed in the same population. We conducted a brood size manipulation experiment in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) infected with malaria (Plasmodium) parasites, and used quantitative PCR to measure changes in parasitaemia. In one of two years investigated, parasitaemia increased as a result of brood enlargement, and was also positively associated with two other indicators of reproductive effort: clutch size and single parenthood. These associations between both experimental and naturally varying reproductive effort and parasitaemia suggest that immune control of chronic malaria infections can be compromised when parents are working hard. Brood size manipulation significantly affected the number of independent offspring produced, which was maximised when brood size was unchanged. Moreover, when parents were infected with one of two common Plasmodium species, the shape of this trade-off curve was more pronounced, suggesting that parasitic infection may exacerbate the trade-off between quantity and quality of offspring. Although the involvement of parasites in survival costs of reproduction has received much attention, these results suggest their role in other commonly documented reproductive trade-offs, such as that between number and quality of offspring, warrants further study. PMID:20625768

  6. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. )

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  7. Reproductive health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Mark C; Ross, Lawrence S

    2014-02-01

    Most patients in the United States with reproductive health disorders are not covered by their health insurance for these problems. Health insurance plans consider reproductive care as a lifestyle choice not as a disease. If coverage is provided it is, most often, directed to female factor infertility and advanced reproductive techniques, ignoring male factor reproductive disorders. This article reviews the history of reproductive health care delivery and its present state, and considers its possible future direction. PMID:24286778

  8. Invited review: Recommendations for reporting intervention studies on reproductive performance in dairy cattle: Improving design, analysis, and interpretation of research on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Lean, Ian J; Lucy, Matthew C; McNamara, John P; Bradford, Barry J; Block, Elliot; Thomson, Jennifer M; Morton, John M; Celi, Pietro; Rabiee, Ahmad R; Santos, José E P; Thatcher, William W; LeBlanc, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidence from the medical, veterinary, and animal science literature demonstrates that there is substantial room for improvement of the clarity, completeness, and accuracy of reporting of intervention studies. More rigorous reporting guidelines are needed to improve the quality of data available for use in comparisons of outcomes (or meta-analyses) of multiple studies. Because of the diversity of factors that affect reproduction and the complexity of interactions between these, a systematic approach is required to design, conduct, and analyze basic and applied studies of dairy cattle reproduction. Greater consistency, clarity, completeness, and correctness of design and reporting will improve the value of each report and allow for greater depth of evaluation in meta-analyses. Each of these benefits will improve understanding and application of current knowledge and better identify questions that require additional modeling or primary research. The proposed guidelines and checklist will aid in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of intervention studies. We propose an adaptation of the REFLECT (Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety) statement to provide guidelines and a checklist specific to reporting intervention studies in dairy cattle reproduction. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that will assist investigators to produce studies with greater internal and external validity that can more often be included in systematic reviews and global meta-analyses. Such studies will also assist the development of models to describe the physiology of reproduction. PMID:26387020

  9. Mammalian reproduction: an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Bronson, F H

    1985-02-01

    The objectives of this paper are to organize our concepts about the environmental regulation of reproduction in mammals and to delineate important gaps in our knowledge of this subject. The environmental factors of major importance for mammalian reproduction are food availability, ambient temperature, rainfall, the day/night cycle and a variety of social cues. The synthesis offered here uses as its core the bioenergetic control of reproduction. Thus, for example, annual patterns of breeding are viewed as reflecting primarily the caloric costs of the female's reproductive effort as they relate to the energetic costs and gains associated with her foraging effort. Body size of the female is an important consideration since it is correlated with both potential fat reserves and life span. Variation in nutrient availability may or may not be an important consideration. The evolutionary forces that have shaped the breeding success of males usually are fundamentally different from those acting on females and, by implication, the environmental controls governing reproduction probably also often differ either qualitatively or quantitatively in the two sexes. Mammals often live in habitats where energetic and nutrient challenges vary seasonally, even in the tropics. When seasonal breeding is required, a mammal may use a predictor such as photoperiod or a secondary plant compound to prepare metabolically for reproduction. A reasonable argument can be made, however, that opportunistic breeding, unenforced by a predictor, may be the most prevalent strategy extant among today's mammals. Social cues can have potent modulating actions. They can act either via discrete neural and endocrine pathways to alter specific processes such as ovulation, or they can induce nonspecific emotional states that secondarily affect reproduction. Many major gaps remain in our knowledge about the environmental regulation of mammalian reproduction. For one, we have a paucity of information about the

  10. Contributions of an animal scientist to reproductive biology.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W

    2011-08-01

    I became interested in biology as an undergraduate in a premedical curriculum but developed a passion for the field of reproductive biology because of a course in physiology of reproduction taken to meet requirements for admission to veterinary school. My career path changed, and I entered graduate school, obtained the Ph.D., and have enjoyed an academic career as a reproductive biologist conducting research in uterine biology and pregnancy in animal science departments at the University of Florida and at Texas A&M University. However, I have never allowed academic boundaries to interfere with research and graduate education as that is contrary to collegiality, the cornerstone of great universities. I consider that my major contributions to science include 1) identification of proteins secreted by cells of the uterine endometrium that are critical to successful establishment and maintenance of pregnancy; 2) discovery of steroids and proteins required for pregnancy recognition signaling and their mechanisms of action in pigs and ruminant species; 3) investigation of fetal-placental development and placental transport of nutrients, including water and electrolytes; 4) identification of linkages between nutrition and fetal-placental development; 5) defining aspects of the endocrinology of pregnancy; and 6) contributing to efforts to exploit the therapeutic value of interferon tau, particularly for treatment of autoimmune diseases. My current studies are focused on the role of select nutrients in the uterine lumen, specifically amino acids and glucose, that affect development and survival of the conceptus and translation of mRNAs and, with colleagues at Seoul National University, gene expression by the avian reproductive tract at key periods postovulation. Another goal is to understand stromal-epithelial cell signaling, whereby progesterone and estrogen act via uterine stromal cells that express receptors for sex steroids to stimulate secretion of growth factors (e

  11. Physiological factors affecting transformation of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Page, W J; Sadoff, H L

    1976-03-01

    Cells of Azotobacter vinelandii (ATCC 12837) can be transformed by exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid towards the end of exponential growth. Transformation occurs at very low frequencies when the deoxyribonucleic acid is purified or when the transformation is carried out in liquid medium. Optimal transformation occurs on plates of Burk nitrogen-free glucose medium containing either high phosphate (10 mM) or low calcium (0 to 0.29 mM) content. Higher levels of calcium are inhibitory, whereas magnesium ions are essential for transformation and growth. Extracellular polymer and capsule are increasingly inhibitory to transformation and are most abundant when the calcium content of the medium is high. Transformation is optimal at pH 7.0 to 7.1 and at 30 C, conditions which also coincide with minimal extracellular polymer production. Nonencapsulated strains are excellent transformation recipients. Glycine-induced pleomorphism reduces the transformation frequency and the degree of inhibition is dependent on the phosphate concentration of the medium. Rifampin resistance and shifts from adenine, hypoxanthine, uracil, and nitrogenase auxotrophy to prototrophy can be achieved. Although single marker transfer is always greater than double marker transfer, the data suggest that rifampin resistance is linked to hypoxanthine, adenine and uracil protorophy at intervals of increasing distance. Rifampin resistance did not appear to be linked to nitrogenase. PMID:3492

  12. EVA Physiology

    NASA Video Gallery

    An introduction to the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) in astronauts during EVA. This will include an explanation of Prebreathe Protocols (PB), to affect nitrogen washout as a primary risk mit...

  13. Reproductive problems of the work force.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, G D; Ravindran, J

    2000-03-01

    The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area. PMID:11072503

  14. Effects of elevated glucocorticoids on reproduction and development: relevance to endocrine disruptor screening.

    PubMed

    Witorsch, Raphael J

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis on mammalian male and female reproduction and development of offspring and its potential impact on the identification of endocrine disruptive chemicals by in vivo assays. In the adult male rat and baboon, stress suppresses testosterone secretion via a direct inhibitory effect of elevated glucocorticoids on Leydig cells. In adult female sheep, stress disrupts reproductive function via multi-stage mechanisms involving glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of LH secretion, LH action on the ovary and the action of estradiol on its target cells (e.g., uterus). While physiological concentrations of endogenous glucocorticoids are supportive of fetal development, excessive glucocorticoids in utero (i.e., maternal stress) adversely affect mammalian offspring by "programing" abnormalities that are primarily manifest postpartum. The influence of stress on reproduction and development can also be mediated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), a bi-directional oxidative:reductive pathway, which governs the balance between biologically active (reduced) endogenous glucocorticoid and inactive (oxidized) metabolites. This pathway is mediated primarily by two isozymes, 11β - HSD1 (reductase) and 11β-HSD2 (oxidase) which act both in an intracrine (intracellular) and endocrine (systemic) fashion. The 11β-HSD pathway appears to play a variety of physiological roles in mammalian reproduction and development and is a target for selected xenobiotics. The effects of the HPA axis on mammalian reproduction and development are potential confounders for in vivo bioassays in rodents employed to identify endocrine disruptive chemicals. Accordingly, consideration of the impact of the HPA axis should be incorporated into the design of bioassays for evaluating endocrine disruptors. PMID:26912073

  15. Physiological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  16. Effects of surgical implantation of temperature dataloggers on reproduction of captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yeen Ten; Gentes, Marie-Line; Parker, Dennilyn L; Larivière, Serge; Messier, François

    2004-12-01

    A total of 20 (14 females, six males) captive striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) with miniature temperature dataloggers implanted free in the abdominal cavity were examined for reproductive performance and pathology because of implants. Eleven of 12 female skunks reproduced successfully 45.9+/-3.7 days after surgery to remove implanted dataloggers. The pregnancy rate of 91.7% (11/12) was much higher than other captive studies and was comparable with that of wild skunks. Eight striped skunks (six males, two females) that were euthanatized and necropsied after having implants in the abdominal cavity for 5 mo showed no apparent pathology associated with the implant. Implantation of the intraperitoneal devices did not lead to complications in abdominal tissues. Neither implant nor surgery affected reproduction. We conclude that implanted dataloggers can safely be used in physiologic studies of striped skunks or possibly other small carnivores in captive or field studies. PMID:15732593

  17. Physiological responses to environmental factors related to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    Physiological procedures and instrumentation developed for the measurement of hemodynamic and metabolic parameters during prolonged periods of weightlessness are described along with the physiological response of monkeys to weightlessness. Specific areas examined include: cardiovascular studies; thyroid function; blood oxygen transport; growth and reproduction; excreta analysis for metabolic balance studies; and electrophoretic separation of creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes in human blood.

  18. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  19. Queen reproductive state modulates pheromone production and queen-worker interactions in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Sarah D.; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The mandibular glands of queen honeybees produce a pheromone that modulates many aspects of worker honeybee physiology and behavior and is critical for colony social organization. The exact chemical blend produced by the queen differs between virgin and mated, laying queens. Here, we investigate the role of mating and reproductive state on queen pheromone production and worker responses. Virgin queens, naturally mated queens, and queens instrumentally inseminated with either semen or saline were collected 2 days after mating or insemination. Naturally mated queens had the most activated ovaries and the most distinct chemical profile in their mandibular glands. Instrumentally inseminated queens were intermediate between virgins and naturally mated queens for both ovary activation and chemical profiles. There were no significant differences between semen- and saline-inseminated queens. Workers were preferentially attracted to the mandibular gland extracts from queens with significantly more activated ovaries. These studies suggest that the queen pheromone blend is modulated by the reproductive status of the queens, and workers can detect these subtle differences and are more responsive to queens with higher reproductive potential. Furthermore, it appears as if insemination substance does not strongly affect physiological characteristics of honeybee queens 2 days after insemination, suggesting that the insemination process or volume is responsible for stimulating these early postmating changes in honeybee queens. PMID:22476212

  20. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  1. Reproductive Resilience to Food Shortage in a Small Heterothermic Primate

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chroni