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Sample records for affect school attendance

  1. Different school placements following language unit attendance: which factors affect language outcome?

    PubMed

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Botting, Nicola; Knox, Emma; Simkin, Zoë

    2002-01-01

    The study compared the outcomes of two groups of children who were attending language unit provision at 7 years of age. Of 242 children in the original study, 62 (28%) transferred to mainstream school placements at age 8 years. These children were then closely matched to children still attending language unit provision at this age using measures of non-verbal IQ, expression and comprehension. These two groups of children were compared on outcome at 11 years in the areas of language skill, non-verbal IQ and social behaviour. Teacher/speech-language therapist opinions of placement were also examined as factors affecting outcome. Results show that children who moved to mainstream provision at 8 years were more likely to be attending mainstream at 11 years, although the majority received extra support. No further differences were evident in outcome according to placement type. However, there was a main effect of teacher/therapist opinion on outcome--children whose teachers were not entirely happy with the 8-year placement performed more poorly at 11 years on language measures. There were no differences on any other measures. The findings suggest that follow-on placements for children attending language units need to be more closely in line with teacher's opinions and that more flexibility needs to be evident in school placement policy in order that appropriate educational settings can be arranged.

  2. School Counselors Improving Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, LaWanda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of interventions used to address attendance issues at a middle school located in the Southern United States. School-wide interventions were implemented to address absenteeism of all students and individual interventions were implemented to address absenteeism with targeted students. An explanation of each…

  3. Pathways through Secondary School in a Comprehensive System: Does Parental Education and School Attended Affect Students' Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    As the Australian labour market restructured during the 1980s and 1990s, Year 12 retention rates more than doubled between 1983 and 1993 secondary schools diversified to include vocational education and training programs as alternative pathways through school. From a human capital perspective, the completion of vocational qualifications in school…

  4. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools

  5. Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Nielsen, H S

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia.... The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school."

  6. Ready for School? Trauma Exposure and Mental Health in a Group of War-Affected Ugandan Adolescents Re-Attending School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jon-Hakon; Sorensen, Peer Moller; Waaktaar, Trine

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess trauma-related symptoms and mental health among war-exposed Ugandan adolescents (n = 81) as a basis for planning their re-attendance at school. Self-reports of exposure to traumatic events, trauma-related symptoms, and indicators of mental health were collected. While about half of the youths (51.9%)…

  7. An Analysis of Florida's School Districts' Attendance Policies and their Relationship to High School Attendance Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Ryan Turner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental correlational study was to determine the relationship between the type of attendance policies in the high schools of the 67 Florida school districts, the size of the school district (number of high school students), the socioeconomic status SES) of the school district, and the average daily attendance rate of…

  8. Anxiety as a risk factor for school absenteeism: what differentiates anxious school attenders from non-attenders?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a major risk factor for problematic school absenteeism. However, most anxious students attend school. What differentiates anxious attenders from non-attenders? Method High school students (N = 865) were assigned to groups based on anxiety and absenteeism scores. These groups were then tested for differences in risk factor profiles using discriminant analysis. Results Anxious school attenders were less affected by negative personality traits, total number of risk factors, social anxiety, panic, and behavioural and family problems. They also displayed greater resilience. Conclusions This study indicates that the risk for problematic school absenteeism increases as the number of risk factors aggregate and that treatment for anxious school refusal should be based on a profile of the individual's risk factors. PMID:23886245

  9. Does Attendance Kindergarten Affect on Pupils' Mathematics Achievement of Primary School in Makkah, Saudi Arabia? And What Are the Teachers' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashkary, Samera Y.; Robinson, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are any significant differences in the mathematical attainment of pupils' grade one of primary school in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A) between those pupils who had attended kindergarten and their peers who had not, and whether this effect continued into the second and third grades in…

  10. The Impact of Mass School Immunization on School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggs-Stayner, Kathleen S.; Purdy, Teresa R.; Go, Gailya N.; McLaughlin, Natalie C.; Tryzynka, Penny S.; Sines, Joyce R.; Hlaing, Thein

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact a free, on-site influenza immunization program could have on attendance in Title 1 schools. Four Title 1 elementary schools participated in the study. Students at 2 schools were offered free FluMist[R] immunizations on site, and students at 2 control schools were not. Compliance on receiving…

  11. 38 CFR 3.667 - School attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... institution and a claim for such benefits is filed within 1 year from the child's 18th birthday. (2) Pension... child's 18th birthday, and if a claim for benefits is filed within 1 year from the child's 18th birthday... evidence of such school attendance is filed within 1 year from that date. (b) Vacation periods. A child...

  12. International Determinants of Private School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

  13. 38 CFR 3.667 - School attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) Pension or compensation may be paid from a child's 18th birthday based upon school attendance if the child was at that time pursing a course of instruction at an approved educational institution and a claim for such benefits is filed within 1 year from the child's 18th birthday. (2)...

  14. 38 CFR 3.667 - School attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) Pension or compensation may be paid from a child's 18th birthday based upon school attendance if the child was at that time pursing a course of instruction at an approved educational institution and a claim for such benefits is filed within 1 year from the child's 18th birthday. (2)...

  15. 38 CFR 3.667 - School attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) Pension or compensation may be paid from a child's 18th birthday based upon school attendance if the child was at that time pursing a course of instruction at an approved educational institution and a claim for such benefits is filed within 1 year from the child's 18th birthday. (2)...

  16. Out of School: A Phenomenological Exploration of Extended Non-Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Matt; Bishop, Felicity L.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "extended non-attendance" ("school phobia" or "school refusal") was distinguished from truancy early in the twentieth century, and refers to children who fear school and avoid attending. Despite much subsequent research, outcomes for those affected remain poor, and their voices remain largely absent…

  17. A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youth Who Attend Religiously Affiliated Schools and Their Nonreligious-School-Attending Counterparts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…

  18. Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…

  19. School Attendance and Attainment: Poor Attenders' Perceptions of Schoolwork and Parental Involvement in Their Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Because of established links with attainment, the UK government has, over the last ten years, developed policies to improve school attendance. Legislation now makes school attendance a parental responsibility. In the small-scale study reported in this article, Anne Sheppard, manager of an Education Welfare Service Team in North Yorkshire,…

  20. School Characteristics that Influence Student Attendance: Experiences of Students in a School Avoidance Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reasons that four high school students who had previously refused to attend school willingly attended an alternative K-12 school for students with special needs. The two research questions that framed this study were (a) why do students who refused to attend their regular schools willingly attend Brookfield Park? and (b) in…

  1. Family income, school attendance, and academic achievement in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Taryn W; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

  2. Shifting Attendance Trajectories from Middle to High School: Influences of School Transitions and Changing School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examine patterns of school attendance across middle and high school with a diverse sample of 8,908 students (48% female; 54% Latino, 31% White, 13% African American, 2% Asian American). Attendance declined from middle through high school, but this overall pattern masked important variations. In total, 44% of students maintained their attendance trajectories from middle to high school (11% stable high, 19% high-decreasing, 10% mid-decreasing, 4% low-decreasing), and shifting attendance trajectories often signaled greater school disengagement (38% shifted to poorer attendance trajectories, 18% experienced improved attendance trajectories). Transition experiences, school structural characteristics, and the divergence between students’ middle and high schools provided insights into which students recovered, becoming more engaged in high school versus those who became more disconnected. Implications for identifying and intervening with disengaged youth are discussed. PMID:24364827

  3. Indicated Truancy Interventions: Effects on School Attendance among Chronic Truant Students. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; McCrea, Katherine Tyson; Pigott, Terri D.; Kelly, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to examine the effects of interventions on school attendance to inform policy, practice, and research. The questions guiding this study were: (1) Do truancy programs with a goal of increasing student attendance for truant youth affect school attendance behaviors of elementary and secondary students…

  4. Strategies to Increase Student Attendance at an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick-Doria, Geraldine Ann

    2013-01-01

    This action research study addressed the need to increase student attendance at an elementary school. Previously, this school's Average Daily Attendance (ADA) has been 92%. With having nearly 900 students, there are approximately 70 daily absences, 1,400 monthly absences, and 13,000 yearly absences. To address the challenge, the researcher…

  5. Children's Economic Activities and Primary School Attendance in Rural Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Carol A. M.

    To investigate whether low school attendance rates in Guatemala (about 35% of primary school aged children do not attend) are due primarily to the need for children in low income families to contribute to family income or child care and other housekeeping tasks, time use data were collected in 4 rural villages from mothers of 369 children, aged…

  6. Extended School Non-Attenders' Views: Developing Best Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Isabel Rose; Purcell, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of legislation and research initiatives concerning children's participation in decision-making, there is less research in this area with regard to extended school non-attenders. Using semi-structured interviews, this research explores how the views of children and their families who have experienced school non-attendance can…

  7. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  8. Shifting Attendance Trajectories from Middle to High School: Influences of School Transitions and Changing School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examine patterns of school attendance across middle and high school with a diverse sample of 8,908 students (48% female; 54% Latino, 31% White, 13% African American, 2% Asian American). Attendance declined from middle through high school, but this overall pattern masked important variations. In total, 44% of students…

  9. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  10. Predicting the College Attendance Rate of Graduating High School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    An important element of school counseling is providing assessments on the collective future needs and activities of a graduating school class. The College Attendance Rate (CAR) is defined here as the proportion of seniors graduating from a given high school, during a given year, that will enroll full-time at an academic college sometime during the…

  11. Understandings and misconceptions of biology concepts held by students attending small high schools and students attending large high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.

    Do students from small high schools show fewer understandings and more misconceptions of biology concepts than students attending large high schools? Fifty students attending large high schools (enrollments exceeding 900 students) and fifty students attending small high schools (enrollments less than 150 students) were randomly selected and than evaluated on their understandings and misunderstandings of four biology concepts: diffusion, homeostasis, food production in plants, and classification of animals and plants. Students attending small high schools showed less instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. These differences could be related to a higher percentage of students in large schools capable of formal operations; sound understanding of diffusion and homeostasis required students to use formal operations. No difference was observed between the large and small school samples for the concepts of food production in plants and classification of plants and animals. Students in the small school sample lived in agricultural communities and their daily experiences allowed them to develop some understanding of food production in plants and prevented instances of misunderstandings from being developed. Classification of animals and plants required concrete operations to understand; therefore, students in small schools were capable of developing sound understanding as well as students from large schools.

  12. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  13. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lolita

    1973-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  14. School Factors Associated with School Refusal- and Truancy-Related Reasons for School Non-Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havik, Trude; Bru, Edvin; Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate how students' perceptions of relationships with peers at school and teachers' classroom management are associated with school refusal-related reasons and truancy-related reasons for school non-attendance. The study included controls for emotional stability and relevant parental variables. A student…

  15. 20 CFR 219.55 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... school attendance for child age 18. The child will be asked to submit (on a form furnished by the Board... is attending school full-time and is not being paid by an employer to attend school; and (b)...

  16. School Attendance and the District Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert-Guillory, Julie

    2009-01-01

    House Bill 1 became a major piece of legislation in Texas a few years ago. It was designed primarily to address public school finance, property tax relief, public school accountability, and education-related matters. This piece of legislation has forced districts to manage their finances very differently, undergo budget reductions, and continue…

  17. Longitudinal Attendance Patterns: Developing High School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeneberger, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    The elementary and middle grades are a time of great developmental changes with the potential to impact children's longer-term growth. As students progress through their formal schooling during these time periods, the potential exists for children either to follow a course of healthy development associated with positive outcomes or to experience…

  18. Student Preparation Workbook for Outdoor School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfillan, Warren C.; And Others

    Sixth grade students can prepare for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Outdoor School experience by completing the workbook designed to provide fundamental information about soil, water, plant, and animal resources. The workbook begins with an introduction to environmental manners, after which a section is devoted to each resource area. The glossary…

  19. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a student age 18 or over, we may ask for evidence you are attending school. We may also ask for... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child...

  20. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a student age 18 or over, we may ask for evidence you are attending school. We may also ask for... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child...

  1. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  2. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  3. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  4. The Effects of Participation in School Instrumental Music Programs on Student Academic Achievement and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kevin O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether or not students that participated in a school sponsored instrumental music program had higher academic achievement and attendance than students that did not participate in a school sponsor instrumental music program. Units of measurement included standardized test scores and attendance, without taking into consideration…

  5. Connecting with Families to Improve Students' School Attendance: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Bethany M.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    School attendance is a rising issue in public schools. Students regularly absent from school can end up involved in destructive behaviors and dropout of school. Family characteristics are strong determining factors in students' school attendance. This presents the question, "Can family involvement improve public school students'…

  6. Mapping School Segregation: Using GIS to Explore Racial Segregation between Schools and Their Corresponding Attendance Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohoni, Deenesh; Saporito, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether student enrollment in nonneighborhood schools changes levels of racial segregation in public schools across urban school districts by comparing the racial composition of schools and their corresponding attendance area. This comparison was made possible by using geographic information systems (GIS) to link maps of elementary,…

  7. Barriers to School Attendance and Gender Inequality: Empirical Evidence from a Sample of Ghanaian Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Sharon; McCoy, Dana C.; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    Governments in sub-Saharan Africa have made marked efforts to increase school enrollment. Yet attendance and completion rates remain low, particularly for girls. This study examines the reasons that school children do not attend school in a sample of Ghanaian students. Girls were more likely to miss school because a family member was sick, whereas…

  8. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) of the ESEA, in rank order on the basis of the total number of children from low-income families in each area or school. (2)(i) In calculating the total number of children from low-income families, the LEA must include children from low-income families who attend private schools. (ii) To obtain a...

  9. A Response to Intervention Model to Promote School Attendance and Decrease School Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Graczyk, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regular school attendance is foundational to children's success but school absenteeism is a common, serious, and highly vexing problem. Researchers from various disciplines have produced a rich yet diverse literature for conceptualizing problematic absenteeism that has led to considerable confusion and lack of consensus about a…

  10. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

    In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

  11. Napa High School Attendance Policy. An Experiment to Reduce Unnecessary School Absences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fotinos, Tom

    This publication discusses the increasing problem of student absenteeism and describes an experimental school attendance policy that was implemented at Napa (California) High School in 1975. The policy designates a maximum of 12 absences per semester as the maximum allowable for each student under normal circumstances; after 13 absences from any…

  12. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    PubMed

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony.

  13. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14A AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day...

  14. Present and Accounted for: Measuring Attendance in Out-of-School-Time Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiester, Leila M.; Simpkins, Sandra D.; Bouffard, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence that youth programs have real benefits has prompted efforts to get young people in the door of out-of-school-time (OST) programs. Once youth are enrolled, attendance plays a key role in the participation equation. Children and youth will not benefit unless they attend programs regularly, and evidence is emerging that those who attend more…

  15. Development and Implementation of a New Attendance Policy at Napa High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Ronald L.

    The attendance policy outlined in this document succeeded in increasing attendance in Napa High School, California. The program focused on student absences due to truancy, not illness, although many of the illness absences reported were due to other, not-so-legitimate causes. The attendance program utilized a direct relationship between the…

  16. Strong, smart and bold strategies for improving attendance and retention in an after-school intervention.

    PubMed

    Markoe Hayes, Suzanne; Chapple, Sabrina; Ramirez, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    The Volunteers of America Greater Los Angeles (VOALA) Girls Inc. program is implementing and rigorously evaluating its Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy curriculum as part of a demonstration grant to identify effective teen pregnancy prevention programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health (OAH). A total of 517 participants from Title I urban middle and high schools were randomly assigned to either Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy (treatment) or Economic Literacy (control) in two cohorts. Programming occurred after school weekly at middle and high schools. Low attendance and loss of sample (attrition) are common challenges in after-school programming, negatively affecting both the ability of a program to be successful and the integrity of a randomized controlled trial. The current article discusses challenges encountered with recruitment, incentives, and school factors during a first cohort of youth and innovative implementation changes during a second cohort that resulted in increased attendance rates and decreased attrition rates. Commentary is provided by the OAH Project Officer as well as lessons learned after 2 years of implementing the program.

  17. 76 FR 16859 - Proposed Information Collection (Certification of School Attendance-REPS); Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Certification of School Attendance--REPS); Comment Request AGENCY... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Certification of School Attendance--REPS, VA...

  18. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  19. Differences in Students' Motivation to Attend College: Large versus Small High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horyna, Brittney; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between the variables: school size, motivation, and college attendance to determine if the size of a student's high school, along with his/her motivational tendencies, influenced the student's choice to pursue a college education. Data was gathered from college students attending a small mid-west…

  20. Comparison of Health-Risk Behaviors among Students Attending Alternative and Traditional High Schools in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen E.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research, over a decade old, suggests students attending alternative high schools (AHS) engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors. Data from the 2007 Minnesota Student Survey for students attending AHS ("n" = 2,847) and traditional high schools (THS; "n" = 87,468) were used for this cross-sectional analysis to…

  1. A MODEL FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AREAS UNDER SPECIFIED OBJECTIVES AND CONSTRAINTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'BRIEN, RICHARD J.

    THIS TECHNICAL NOTE, ONE OF A SERIES PUBLISHED ON THE URBAN EDUCATION MODEL, PRESENTS A MODEL FOR DETERMINING REQUIRED SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AREAS WHEN RESTRICTIONS HAVE BEEN PLACED ON THE RACIAL AND/OR SOCIAL COMPOSITION OF EACH SCHOOL PLANT. THESE ATTENDANCE AREAS ARE GENERATED IN A MANNER INSURING THE ASSIGNMENT OF STUDENTS WHICH MINIMIZES THE…

  2. Monitoring Chronic Absence: Regular Attendance Is Essential to Succeeding in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Regular attendance is essential to succeeding in school, and chronic absence--missing excessive amounts of school for any reason--can cause students to be off track academically. Developed in partnership with Attendance Works, this fact sheet analyzes data from the "Data for Action 2013" survey to discuss how states use data to monitor…

  3. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  4. Personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children attending elementary schools adjacent to industrial complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kun-Ho; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    The major deficiency in linking the effects of environmental exposure to children's health is the lack of data on the exposure of children to hazardous environmental pollutants. Accordingly, the present study compared the personal volatile organic compound (VOC) exposure of children from four elementary schools at different proximities to the Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) and adjacent to different traffic densities. The personal air concentrations of four VOCs (toluene, m, p-xylenes, and o-xylene) were significantly higher for the children attending the school (S1) closest to the boundary of the DDIC compared to the children attending the school (S2) further away. The DDIC was the likely primary cause for the elevated personal air concentrations of the four VOCs in the children attending the school nearest the DDIC. The personal exposure to toluene and methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) for the children attending the school near a major roadway with a high traffic density was significantly higher than that for the children attending the school near a roadway with a low traffic density. The difference in the breath concentrations was generally similar to the difference in the personal air concentrations among the children from the four schools. In contrast to the children attending schools in low-income areas, the children attending schools in high-income areas exhibited no significant difference in the concentrations of any of the target VOCs in the personal air and breath samples between the children living with and without a smoker in the home.

  5. School Readiness among Low-Income, Latino Children Attending Family Childcare versus Centre-Based Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…

  6. Closer to the Finish Line? Compulsory Attendance, Grade Attainment, and High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Wael S.

    2017-01-01

    High school graduation rates are a central policy topic in the United States and have been shown to be stagnant for the past three decades. Using student-level administrative data from New York City Public Schools, I examine the impact of compulsory school attendance on high school graduation rates and grade attainment, focusing the analysis on…

  7. Coloring outside the Lines: Racial Segregation in Public Schools and Their Attendance Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saporito, Salvatore; Sohoni, Deenesh

    2006-01-01

    Scholars have debated whether students' enrollment in private schools changes levels of racial segregation across urban school districts. The authors examine this issue by comparing the actual racial composition of schools with the racial composition of school-aged children living in the corresponding attendance areas. They do so by linking maps…

  8. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group leader ratings. Parent outcomes were based on interviewer ratings, behavioral observations, parent reports, and teacher ratings. Results of hierarchical linear models suggested that few family characteristics predicted attendance in this efficacy trial and that attendance was not related to changes in parenting over the year. However, several family characteristics predicted quality of participation in parent management training, and this in turn predicted changes in parental perceptions, warmth, physical punishment, and school involvement. From a clinical perspective, these findings suggest that it is not enough to get parents to attend sessions; it is also necessary to facilitate their active engagement in the therapeutic process. PMID:19485585

  9. How attendance and quality of participation affect treatment response to parent management training.

    PubMed

    Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; McMahon, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group leader ratings. Parent outcomes were based on interviewer ratings, behavioral observations, parent reports, and teacher ratings. Results of hierarchical linear models suggested that few family characteristics predicted attendance in this efficacy trial and that attendance was not related to changes in parenting over the year. However, several family characteristics predicted quality of participation in parent management training, and this in turn predicted changes in parental perceptions, warmth, physical punishment, and school involvement. From a clinical perspective, these findings suggest that it is not enough to get parents to attend sessions; it is also necessary to facilitate their active engagement in the therapeutic process.

  10. Increasing Attendance for Psychotherapy: Implementation Intentions and the Self-Regulation of Attendance-Related Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeran, Paschal; Aubrey, Richard; Kellett, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated an implementation intention intervention that aimed to increase attendance at scheduled, initial appointments for psychotherapy by helping clients to manage negative feelings about attendance. Participants received a postal questionnaire that measured their views about attending psychotherapy. One half of the sample was…

  11. [BMI of the children attending elementary schools in Tuzla Canton].

    PubMed

    Jusupović, Fatima; Juricić, Mojca; Rudić, Aida; Hazihalilović, Jasminka; Kasumović, Merima; Kalesic, Mirela

    2005-01-01

    BMI is frequently used in different studies as indicator of nutritional status. When BMI exceeds the limit values then it represents the risk factor leading to different diseases; therefore it is important to calculate BMI for young persons. In cases when BMI differs from the recommended value it is necessary to apply different measures in order to prevent diseases. The aim of this paper was to assess the present status and on the basis of the result obtained to assess the need for eventual preventive activities leading to healthy life stytes. This study was performed on a sample of 1544 school boys and girls aged eight, ten and fourteen attending first, third and seventh class of elementary school. The study covered four municipalities of Tuzla Canton: Tuzla, Lukavac, Gradanica and Kladanj, and both urban and rural areas. We used the method of anthropometric measurement (IBP International Biological Program) of body mass and body height, followed by calculation of BMI and statistical evaluation. This study found that the average BMI of girls and boys is increasinglongitudinally with the age, with significant change between 10 years and 14 years, without significant gen der difference. Boys aged eight have BMI 15.76, len years 16.52 and are similar to the BMI of girls aged eight 15.44 and ten years 16.59. Fourteen-year-old girls have BMI which is 19.54, higher than the BMI of boys at the same age which is 18.75. Having in mind the range of BMI percentile values for normal nutritional status (from 5 to 85) the values for eight years old boys ranged from 14.1 to 19.4, for ten-year-old boys from 13.4 to 19.2, and for fourteen-year-old boys from 13.6 to 19.5. The values for girls showed the following results; for eight-year-old girls the value ranged from 13.9 to 20.6; for ten-year-old girls t'rom 13.5 to 20.5 and fourteen-year-old girls from 13.7 to 19.6. In the sample there was 6.6% underweight children, and 15.2% overweight children, but the portion of overweight

  12. Association between Lifestyle and School Attendance in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with students' academic performance. Whether lifestyle factors were associated with medical students' school attendance was determined. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of 157 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate…

  13. The Views of Primary Pupils on School Attendance at Key Stage 2 in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken; Challoner, Caroline; Lancett, Ann; Jones, Glenda; Rhysiart, Gwion Ap; Challoner, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence on primary pupils' views on school attendance in Wales at Key Stage 2. The research was conducted as part of the specific evidence commissioned by the Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) for the National Behaviour and Attendance Review (NBAR) in Wales which was chaired by the lead author. The findings…

  14. Tackling Behaviour and Attendance Issues in Schools in Wales: Implications for Training and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ken

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Welsh Assembly Government published its Report on the review of behaviour and attendance in schools in Wales. The National Behaviour and Attendance Review (NBAR) in Wales was chaired by the author of this paper. Both the Review and the Welsh Assembly Government's response contained recommendations related to the training and…

  15. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    PubMed Central

    Suss, A. L.; Tinkelman, B. K.; Freeman, K.; Friedman, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school attendance (poor vs. regular attendance) was related to health-risk behaviors by asking 122 subjects seen at a New York City Working Papers Clinic to complete both a 72-item questionnaire about their health-risk behaviors and the 58-item Coopersmith Self-Esteem School Form Inventory. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were performed. The poor and regular attenders of school differed significantly in only 5 out of 44 items pertaining to health-risk behaviors. Self-esteem measures for the two groups did not differ from one another or from national norms. In this sample, depression "in general" (global) and "at home," but not "at school," were associated significantly with suicidal thoughts/attempts and serious past life events (e.g. family conflict, sexual abuse). There were no significant associations between depression or self-esteem and illicit substance or alcohol use. We found few associations between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors in this sample of employment-seeking adolescents. The poor and regular attenders of school were similar in most aspects of their health-risk behaviors and self-esteem. PMID:8982520

  16. The Relationship of School Uniforms to Student Attendance, Achievement, and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Russell Edward

    2012-01-01

    This causal-comparative study examined the relationship of school uniforms to attendance, academic achievement, and discipline referral rates, using data collected from two high schools in rural southwest Georgia county school systems, one with a uniforms program and one without a uniforms program. After accounting for race and students with…

  17. New York State School Facilities and Student Health, Achievement, and Attendance: A Data Analysis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boese, Stephen; Shaw, John

    2005-01-01

    Students who attend schools with environmental hazards that impact indoor air quality are more likely to miss class, and therefore lose learning opportunities. Yet school environmental health and safety remains largely unregulated and there is no state or federal agency in charge of protecting children's environmental health in schools. This…

  18. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Fisher, Benjamin W.

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance,…

  19. "My Life Is a Rollercoaster": A Survey of Homeless Youth Who Attended an Alternative High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Abby; Nicholson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about long-term outcomes for homeless youth once they leave secondary school. The present study aimed to fill this gap. An online survey was completed by 29 ex-students who, during 1997-2011, attended a small alternative secondary school in an inner suburb of a large city in Australia. While at the school most achieved at least a…

  20. Time Series in Education: The Analysis of Daily Attendance in Two High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use of a time series approach to the analysis of daily attendance in two urban high schools over the course of one school year (2009-10). After establishing that the series for both schools were stationary, they were examined for moving average processes, autoregression, seasonal dependencies (weekly cycles),…

  1. Mind the Gap: How Students Differentially Perceive Their School's Attendance Policies in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saelzer, Christine; Lenski, Anna Eva

    2016-01-01

    Truant student behavior can be due to various reasons. Some of these reasons are located in schools. So far, little is known about how student perception of school rules is related to truancy. This study aims to identify types of school attendance policies and how these policies are associated with individual truancy. Self-reports from the German…

  2. Compulsory School Attendance: What Research Says and What It Means for State Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Whitfield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    During his 2012 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama offered several recommendations on education policy, including one specifying that all states increase the age of compulsory school attendance to 18. Approximately 25 percent of public school students in the U.S. don't obtain a regular high school diploma, a tragedy for them and a…

  3. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  4. School Asthma Screening and Case Management: Attendance and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moricca, Michelle L.; Grasska, Merry A.; BMarthaler, Marcia; Morphew, Tricia; Weismuller, Penny C.; Galant, Stanley P.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is related to school absenteeism and underperformance in elementary students. This pilot study assessed whether school nurse case management (CM) in children identified with asthma impacts academic performance and school absenteeism in one school. A validated questionnaire was used to identify children at risk for asthma and CM was provided…

  5. A Comparison of the Achievement Test Performance of Children Who Attended Montessori Schools and Those Who Attended Non-Montessori Schools in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hsin-Hui

    2009-01-01

    There are two purposes of the current study. First was to examine whether or not children in the elementary school in Taiwan who had received Montessori early childhood education obtain significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than children who attended non-Montessori pre-elementary programs. Second one was…

  6. A Study of Well-Being and School Satisfaction among Academically Talented Students Attending a Science High School in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Suk-Un; Moon, Sidney M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether academically talented adolescents attending a residential science high school in Korea had different levels of psychological well-being or school life satisfaction than their high-ability peers in regular high schools. The participating high-ability students (n=299) were in their second year of high…

  7. What Works after School? The Relationship between After-School Program Quality, Program Attendance, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leos-Urbel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between after-school program quality, program attendance, and academic outcomes for a sample of low-income after-school program participants. Regression and hierarchical linear modeling analyses use a unique longitudinal data set including 29 after-school programs that served 5,108 students in Grades 4 to 8…

  8. Personality Traits Affect Teaching Performance of Attending Physicians: Results of a Multi-Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. Method We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Results Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: −0.10, 95% CI: −0.15 to −0.05, P<0.001) and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p = 0.01). Conclusions Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of

  9. Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62-86 yr; hearing thresholds 11-73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  10. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Achievement, Attendance, and Discipline at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact block scheduling has on (a) student academic achievement, discipline, and attendance, and (b) administrator, teacher, and student perceptions. The study compared 2005-2010 data from a high school utilizing the A/B block schedule and a high school under a traditional schedule, in one suburban…

  11. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  12. A Study of the Fort Gay-Thompson School Attendance Area, Fort Gay, West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Richard O.; And Others

    The School Community Council of the Fort Gay-Thompson area (West Virginia), organized in May 1971, requested a study in order to look at its past, assess present needs, and plan for the future. The study of the Fort Gay-Thompson School Attendance Area was designed to: (1) describe the area; (2) analyze the characteristics of the people living…

  13. School Attendance Patterns, Unmet Educational Needs, and Truancy: A Chronological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines chronological patterns of attendance and academic performance of urban students who are identified as truants in Grade 8. A chronological review of 42 student records, from school entry through Grade 8, identified high frequencies of absenteeism and academic performance issues beginning at school entry and, in many cases,…

  14. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  16. School (Non-)Attendance and "Mobile Cultures": Theoretical and Empirical Insights from Indigenous Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout Quicke, Sarah; Biddle, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians are significantly and substantially less likely to be attending school on a given day than their non-Indigenous counterparts. This has been shown to have long-term consequences for the development of the mainstream literacy and numeracy skills associated with formal schooling, as well…

  17. Students' College Preparation Level Based on Quality Factors of the High School Attended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    The present qualitative study examined the views and perspectives of five Executive Directors of Admissions of Midwestern colleges and universities to seek data on high school students' college preparation level based on the quality factors of the high school they attended. Interviews were conducted using multiple open-ended questions on various…

  18. Unnamed Witness Number 1 Now Attending the Texas Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schey, Peter A.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes a 1982 Supreme Court decision in which a Texas statute that authorized local school districts to deny enrollment in public schools to children who were not "legally admitted" to the United States was judged to violate the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection clause. (MJL)

  19. Attending to the Noise: Applying Chaos Theory to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Zinga, Mario

    The Common Knowledge: Pittsburgh (CK:P), a technology-based project, introduced the Internet into all levels of the Pittsburgh Public Schools during 1993-97. This is a case study of the ideology, strategies, and process of the CK:P project describes the project's activities, examines the project in light of school-reform literature, and uses its…

  20. Handbook on Services to Pupils Attending Nonpublic Schools. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Nonpublic School Services.

    This handbook interprets New York's education laws that require each public school district to provide permanent and requested noninstructional services for resident nonpublic school pupils. Each chapter describing a service includes a question and answer section; the document's final pages list legal citations and education department contacts.…

  1. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  2. Motion Picture Attendance and Factors Influencing Movie Selection among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    In an audience research study, 64 high school students responded to a questionnaire concerning their movie attendance habits and the importance of ten variables to their decision-making process when choosing a movie to see. The results indicated that 26.6% attended movies once a month, 23.4% twice monthly, 6.3% three times a month, 4.7% four times…

  3. Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? REL 2014-005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland recently raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014-15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016-17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education, a member of Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic's…

  4. 76 FR 54810 - Submission for Review: 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49 AGENCY: U..., Verification of Full-Time School Attendance. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13... to (202) 395-6974. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-49, Verification of Full-Time School...

  5. Community Schools--Results that Turn around Failing Schools: Test Scores, Attendance, Graduation and College-Going Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Community Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Great strides have been made by community school initiatives across the nation in their efforts to impact student achievement, attendance, student engagement, graduation rates, parent involvement and more. Data on community schools is growing and the authors encourage readers to review research reports and syntheses on results. The results…

  6. The Effects of Part-Time Employment on High School Students' Grade Point Averages and Rate of School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffez, Jack

    To determine what effects employment will have on high school students' grade point averages and rate of school attendance, the author involved fifty-six students in an experiment. Twenty-eight students were employed part-time under the Youth Incentive Entitlement Project (YIEP). The twenty-eight students in the control group were eligible for…

  7. Relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes are important indicators of school effectiveness and long-term student outcomes. "Multi-tiered systems of support" (MTSS), such as "School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports" (SWPBIS), have emerged as potentially effective frameworks for addressing student needs and…

  8. Understandings and Misconceptions of Biology Concepts Held by Students Attending Small High Schools and Students Attending Large High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William D.; Marek, Edmund A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of school size to understanding of scientific concepts. Results indicated that students in small high schools had fewer instances of understanding and more instances of misunderstanding of the concepts of diffusion and homeostasis. No difference was observed for concepts related to food production in plants and…

  9. Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G; Nevin, N; Mikkelsen, M; Karadima, G; Petersen, M; Kelly, M; O'Sullivan, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome.
METHODS—Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland.
RESULTS—Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10-4). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10-6), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County

  10. Psychosocial Profile of Gifted Adolescents Attending a Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz-Villegas, Gabriela; Acle-Tomasini, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current models in the study of giftedness such as the Triadic Interdependence define it as a favorable outcome of the interaction between intrinsic (intellectual capacity, creativity and motivation) and extrinsic (family, peers, and school) factors. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to identify and establish a profile…

  11. Comparison of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative and traditional high schools in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karen E; McMorris, Barbara J; Kubik, Martha Y

    2013-10-01

    Previous research, over a decade old, suggests students attending alternative high schools (AHS) engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors. Data from the 2007 Minnesota Student Survey for students attending AHS (n = 2,847) and traditional high schools (THS; n = 87,468) were used for this cross-sectional analysis to compare prevalence estimates, adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and free and reduced lunch, for 28 health-risk behaviors. Students attending AHS were significantly more likely than students attending THS to report engaging in all behaviors related to unintentional injury and violence, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, and sexual activity, and were significantly less likely to report participating in physical activity, including sports teams. Students attending AHS continue to engage in high levels of health-risk behaviors as compared to their peers in THS. Updated national prevalence data were needed, as well as studies examining the role of protective factors in the lives of students attending AHS.

  12. Every School Day Counts: The Forum Guide to Collecting and Using Attendance Data. NFES 2009-804

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum on Education Statistics, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Forum guide offers best practice suggestions on collecting and using student attendance data to improve performance. It includes a standard set of codes to make attendance data comparable across districts and states. There are real-life examples of how attendance information has been used by school districts. Chapter 1 discusses the…

  13. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does

  14. Family Environment, Coping, and Mental Health in Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Day Schools

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645

  15. Achievement of Elementary School Students and Attendance in Preschool Programs in Johnson County, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Emogene

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in achievement scores exist between students who attended the Johnson County School System preschool program and those who did not as measured by standardized TCAP achievement test Reading/Language Arts and Math scores of students in the third and fourth grades. The variables of grade…

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  17. What Makes a Difference? Factors Related to Postsecondary School Attendance for Young People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee

    This paper presents findings of a 6-year study exploring factors contributing to postsecondary school attendance or nonattendance by youth with disabilities based on data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) for 8,000 students, ages 13 through 21, with disabilities. Factors found to be related to…

  18. The Peer Relationships of Primary School Pupils with Poor Attendance Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The research study presented in this article was conducted because of the surprising paucity of research findings on the effect of significant absence from primary school on peer relationships. Participants in the study were Year 6 pupils, 140 of whom had attendance records of 80% or less in both Years 2 and 6. Of the 140, 133 were matched with…

  19. The Differential Effects of Parental Involvement on High School Completion and Postsecondary Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Terris

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the impact of parental involvement on a number of student achievement, motivation, and engagement outcomes, but the extent to which parental involvement influences high school completion and postsecondary attendance has received less attention in the literature. Filling that gap, this study replicates and extends…

  20. School Behavior and Attendance during the First Year of Treatment for Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stehbens, James A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated school behavior and attendance of children with cancer (N=36) and hemophilia (N=26). Teacher ratings of students' behavior showed no differences before and after treatment. Children with cancer were absent four times more than healthy children; absenteeism of hemophiliacs was twice the normal rate. Academic performance was negatively…

  1. My Rock: Black Women Attending Graduate School at a Southern Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Participants in this phenomenological study were 11 Black women who received an undergraduate degree from a historically Black college or university and were currently attending graduate school at a southern predominantly White university. This study investigated the adjustment experiences of these women to life on a southern predominantly White…

  2. Examining Life Goals and School Attendance Rates of Afghan Students Receiving Higher Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bek, Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    This research is a descriptive study carried out to examine the relations between life goals and school attendance levels among Afghan students receiving higher education in Turkey. In total there were 198 Afghan students that participated in the study. Among which 159 were male and 39 female. All of these students were studying in 16 Turkish…

  3. Attainment of Developmental Tasks by Adolescents with Hearing Loss Attending Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2014-01-01

    The investigators compared the perceived attainment of developmental tasks by 181 German adolescents with hearing loss and 254 peers without hearing loss. The adolescents with hearing loss were attending special schools for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. On average, the two groups perceived similar levels of success across the assessed…

  4. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Approval of School Attendance) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... ages of 18 and 23 attending school. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the proposed..., disability pension, and death pension are entitled to benefits for eligible children between the ages of 18... in entitlement factors, including marriages, a change in course of instruction and termination...

  5. Attendance, Achievement and Participation: Young Carers' Experiences of School in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; McArthur, Morag; Morrow, Ros

    2009-01-01

    Schools play an important part in the lives of children and young people who have caring responsibilities for a family member with an illness, disability, alcohol or other drug problem or mental health condition but many of these "young carers" report difficulty in attending, achieving and participating in education. This qualitative…

  6. Arithmetical Thinking in Children Attending Special Schools for the Intellectually Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Gota

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on spontaneous and progressive knowledge building in ''the arithmetic of the child.'' The aim is to investigate variations in the behavior patterns of eight pupils attending a school for the intellectually disabled. The study is based on the epistemology of radical constructivism and the methodology of multiple clinical…

  7. Mental Calculation Strategies of a Student Attending a Special School for the Intellectually Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumiati, Rumi; Wright, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Pat was a 19-year-old attending a Special School for the Intellectually Disabled in Indonesia. She was interviewed by the first author regarding her mental calculation strategies when solving 1- and 2-digit addition and subtraction problems. Results indicate that she was able to see ten as a unit composed of ten ones and was facile in using…

  8. Funding To Attend Graduate School in the United States: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Patricia

    This report presents information on funds available for foreign graduate students wishing to attend graduate school in the United States. An opening paragraph notes that the information was gathered by administrators who work with the evaluation and training of international graduate students to prepare them for graduate teaching assistantships.…

  9. Parental Involvement in Middle School Predicting College Attendance for First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Khanh; Rush, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this report examined the relationship between parental involvement in eighth grade and college attendance by eight years after high school for students whose parents have no college education (i.e., first-generation students; n = 1,358) in comparison to students whose parents have some…

  10. Do Generalist Parenting Programmes Improve Children's Behaviour and Attendance at School? The Parents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan; Shaw, Jacquelene

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that parenting programmes can be an effective intervention in changing behaviour and parent-child interactions. However, less attention has been given to the impact of these programmes in relation to improving attendance and behaviour at school. Lynne Rogers, lecturer in teacher education specialising in the…

  11. Challenging Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Multiple Disabilities Attending Special Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to understand the profile of and the factors which impact upon challenging behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and multiple disabilities (MD). Teachers of 322 and 132 children with ASD and MD, respectively, attending special schools in Singapore, completed the Developmental Behavior Checklist, Teacher…

  12. 34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? 694.6 Section 694.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) GAINING EARLY...

  13. 34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? 694.6 Section 694.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) GAINING EARLY...

  14. 34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? 694.6 Section 694.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) GAINING EARLY...

  15. 34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? 694.6 Section 694.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) GAINING EARLY...

  16. 34 CFR 694.6 - Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may provide GEAR UP services to students attending private schools? 694.6 Section 694.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION GAINING EARLY AWARENESS AND...

  17. A Plan for Improving Student Attendance at Brownsville Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Walter E.

    A project to raise the percentage of student attendance to 95 percent or above was initiated at Brownsville Junior High in Miami, Florida. The school is geographically located in a low socioeconomic area and the students are 80 percent black. The program included the use of community resources and incentives of frisbees, yo-yos, t-shirts,…

  18. Early Elementary Performance and Attendance in Baltimore City Schools' Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Faith; Olson, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at attendance in the early grades of elementary school. In particular, the authors focus on students enrolled in Pre-Kindergarten (PreK) and Kindergarten (K). They follow these young students over several years to determine their pattern of chronic absence (CA), defined as missing more than one-ninth of days enrolled, and their…

  19. Investigating Level of Mathematics Knowledge for Students Attending Vocational Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colakoglu, Nurdan

    2013-01-01

    Students attend mathematics courses in Turkey for totally 11 years, throughout education life ranging from primary school to university, including eight years in primary education and three years in secondary education (four years based on new arrangement); however, level of mathematic knowledge of students is upsetting when they reach university…

  20. Effect of Religious Attendance on Years of Schooling in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Madhu S.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the USA, the study demonstrates that an individual's completed years of schooling later in life is positively related to his/her frequency of religious attendance during youth. Using the propensity score matching technique, the study shows that this relationship is causal. This conclusion remains valid for youths of different…

  1. Assessing the Psychological Changes of Gifted Students Attending a Residential High School with an Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of…

  2. Elimination of Drooling by an Adolescent Student with Autism Attending Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Shannon; Harchik, Alan E.; Luiselli, James K.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated a multicomponent intervention that successfully eliminated drooling by a 17-year-old student with autism who attended a public high school. The student was taught to perform compensatory responses (wiping his mouth and swallowing saliva), received positive reinforcement for having a "dry mouth," and was given opportunities to monitor…

  3. 5 CFR 831.672 - Annuity for a child age 18 to 22 during full-time school attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... full-time school attendance. 831.672 Section 831.672 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Children's Annuities § 831.672 Annuity for a child age 18 to 22 during full-time school attendance. (a)...

  4. 77 FR 71200 - Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41 AGENCY: U.S... Full-Time School Attendance. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U... to (202) 395-6974. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-41, Initial Certification of Full-Time...

  5. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048

  6. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary educational aspirations. The data for this study came from two large national surveys--the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (N = 38,707 students; 51% male, 77% White, MAge = 14.72) and the School Survey on Crime and Safety (N = 10,340 schools; average student composition of 50% male, 57% White). The results provided no evidence that visible security measures had consistent beneficial effects on adolescents' academic outcomes; some security utilization patterns had modest detrimental effects on adolescents' academic outcomes, particularly the heavy surveillance patterns observed in a small subset of high schools serving predominantly low socioeconomic students. The findings of this study provide no evidence that visible security measures have any sizeable effects on academic performance, attendance, or postsecondary aspirations among U.S. middle and high school students.

  7. Race and Ethnic Differences in College Achievement: Does High School Attended Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim. PMID:23136447

  8. Race and Ethnic Differences in College Achievement: Does High School Attended Matter?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Tienda, Marta

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses 10 years of enrollment data at four Texas public universities to examine whether, to what extent, and in what ways high school attended contributes to racial and ethnic differences in college achievement. Like previous studies, we show that controlling for observable pre-college achievement variables (e.g. test scores, class rank) shrinks, but does not eliminate, sizable racial differences in college achievement. Fixed-effects models that take into account differences across high schools that minority and nonminority youth attend largely eliminate, and often reverse, black-white and Hispanic-white gaps in several measures of college achievement. Our results, which are quite robust across universities of varying selectivity, illustrate how high school quality foments race and ethnic inequality in postsecondary achievement. Leveling inequities in the quality of high schools that minority students attend is a long-run agenda, but remediation programs that compensate for instructional shortfalls at low performing high schools may help close achievement gaps in the interim.

  9. The Effects of Middle School Bullying and Victimization on Adjustment through High School: Growth Modeling of Achievement, School Attendance, and Disciplinary Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Marissa A.; Ojanen, Tiina; Gesten, Ellis L.; Smith-Schrandt, Heather; Brannick, Michael; Wienke Totura, Christine M.; Alexander, Lizette; Scanga, David; Brown, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The current 5-year longitudinal study examined the effects of middle school bullying and victimization on adolescent academic achievement, disciplinary referrals, and school attendance through high school (N = 2030; 1016 both boys and girls). Greater engagement in bullying behaviors was concurrently associated with lower achievement and school…

  10. Impact of the Accelerated Reader Technology-Based Literacy Program on Overall Academic Achievement and School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Terrance; VanderZee, Darrel; Rue, Tom; Swanson, Scott

    A study demonstrated the positive impact of school ownership of the Accelerated Reader (AR) technology-based literacy program on attendance and standardized test scores at a representative sample of 2,500 elementary, middle, and high schools. These schools were compared with approximately 3,500 schools of similar geographic and demographic…

  11. Do Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances Attending Schools for Special Education Have Lower Expectations Regarding the Transition to Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margraf, Hannah; Pinquart, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with emotional and behavioral disturbances (EBD) and those attending special schools tend to have poorer adult outcomes than adolescents without EBD and peers from regular schools. Using a four-group comparison (students with or without EBD from special schools and students with or without EBD from regular schools), the present study…

  12. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  13. Mainstream and Special School Attendance among a Dutch Cohort of Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    van Wouwe, Jacobus P.; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B. M.; Verkerk, Paul H.; van Dommelen, Paula; Fekkes, Minne

    2014-01-01

    Object To determine the level of mainstream education in a nationwide cohort of adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS), and to find characteristics related to mainstream or special school attendance. Method Dutch children with DS born in 1992, 1993 or 1994, were assessed when 16–19 years old. Parents scored school enrolment between the age of 4–18 years, general characteristics and the levels of intellectual disability using the Dutch Social Competence Rating Scale. Associations between disability and years in mainstream school were assessed by ordinal logistic regression, adjusting for sex and parental education. Results We collected data from 170 boys and 152 girls (response 63%); mean age 18.3 years (ranges 16.8–19.9). Intellectual disability was mostly moderate (43%). Most children (74%) entered mainstream education between 4 and 6 years of age. At 13 years 17% was in mainstream school and 7% stayed in up to 16 years. From the age of 8 years onwards the majority was in special education, while 6% never attended school. Girls were more often in mainstream school and stayed in longer. Level of disability was significantly associated with number of years in mainstream education. Conclusion Three out of four Dutch children with DS entered mainstream primary education, however late entry and high dropout are common. PMID:24638156

  14. Teacher Attendance Effects on Student Achievement: Research Study of Ohio Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Accountability for student learning and successful progression through each grade level has been a top priority concern for federal, state, and local educators. Studies have revealed several variables affecting student achievement, with much attentiveness on student attendance. (Barrington & Hendricks, 1989, Borland & Howsen 1998, Coutts,…

  15. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  16. Behavioural improvements and emotional gains for students attending an Australian School for Specific Purposes.

    PubMed

    Hulme, Melissa J; Cornish, Alison M

    2015-10-01

    Outcomes of students with behavioural and emotional difficulties attending a specialised educational programme, delivered in a tertiary education and health facility, were evaluated and compared with Australian normative data. A total of 45 students (5-10 years old) attending the school in Sydney, New South Wales, were identified. At enrolment, parent ratings on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) significantly deviated from Australian normative data on all scales for males and on the overall score, conduct and hyperactivity scales for females. Clinically significant levels of hyperactivity, peer problems and conduct symptoms were identified. After an average attendance at the school of 8.82 months, ratings on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) indicated improved overall functioning, alongside specific improvements on SDQ rated emotion, conduct and social symptoms, and in Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales Child and Adolescent (HoNOSCA) rated social impairment and parents' reported need for information about their child's condition. Male students' emotional symptoms no longer differed from those of typical Australian students. The findings provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of a multimodal, flexible and targeted school programme in remediating key student mental health symptoms. It is suggested that major concepts from attachment theory and explicitly taught behavioural skills are key elements of this unique programme that contribute to its apparent effectiveness.

  17. Analysis of Math and Reading Achievement Scores of Students Attending Year-Round Calendar Schools and Traditional Calendar Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abakwue, Chimaeze Ikechi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were a significant difference in math and reading academic achievement scores between eighth-grade students attending year-round calendar schools and eighth-grade students attending traditional calendar schools based on the TCAP. In addition, this study investigated math and reading achievement…

  18. Bullying and School Attendance: A Case Study of Senior High School Students in Ghana. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mairead; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia; Sabates, Ricardo; Owusu, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This monograph analyses the effects of bullying on school attendance among senior high school students in Ghana. A strong correlation is found between being bullied and having poor attendance. The effects of emotional problems and of peer friendships on this correlation are then examined. For both boys and girls, having emotional problems is…

  19. DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

  20. African American School Attendance in the 19th Century: Education in a Rural Northern Community, 1850-1880.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Angus, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Characterizes the school attendance of African Americans in rural Cass County (Michigan) prior to and following the Civil War. Before the war a substantial difference between the races existed in school enrollment, but in the 1860s and 1870s, African American school enrollment rose, superseding that of whites by the 1880s. (SLD)

  1. Does Raising the State Compulsory School Attendance Age Achieve the Intended Outcomes? Summary. REL 2014-005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Philip E.; Duncan, Teresa G.

    2013-01-01

    Maryland raised its compulsory school attendance age from 16 to 18 in two stages: from 16 to 17 at the beginning of the 2014/15 school year and from 17 to 18 at the beginning of the 2016/17 school year (Maryland Senate Bill 362, 2012). The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) sought technical assistance from the Regional Educational…

  2. An Examination of Barriers to Physical Education for Christian and Muslim Girls Attending Comprehensive Secondary Schools in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Dave; Hoyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined barriers to Physical Education (PE) in a sample of Christian and Muslim schoolgirls attending UK comprehensive secondary schools. Also assessed was whether religion and school year (age) had any impact upon barrier strength and if school year × religion interactions existed. A questionnaire was developed and exploratory factor…

  3. Using Group Counseling to Improve the Attendance of Elementary School Students with High Rates of Absenteeism: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb-Landman, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The foundations of academic and social learning are laid in the early years of school, and attendance is critical to school success. However, research suggests that chronic absenteeism is a significant problem at the elementary school level (Chang & Romero, 2008; Romero & Lee, 2007). This paper presents the results of an action research…

  4. Parental depressive symptoms and children's school attendance and emergency department use: a nationally representative study.

    PubMed

    Guevara, James P; Mandell, David; Danagoulian, Shooshan; Reyner, Jacqueline; Pati, Susmita

    2013-08-01

    We sought to assess the association between parental depressive symptoms and school attendance and emergency department (ED) use among children with and without chronic health conditions. Secondary analysis of the 1997-2004 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative survey. Parental depressive symptoms were measured by three questions assessing sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness in the past month. Children with and without asthma or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were identified, and their school attendance and ED visits were reported by adult household respondents. Children with information on parental depressive symptoms, health conditions, and services use were eligible. We incorporated weights available in the survey for each eligible child to reflect the complex sampling design. 104,930 eligible children were identified. The point prevalence of parental depressive symptoms was low (1.8 %, 95 % CI 1.7-2.0), but greater among children with asthma (2.7 %, 95 % CI 2.4-3.0) and ADHD (3.8 %, 95 % CI 3.2-4.4) than among other children (1.6 %, 95 % CI 1.5-1.7). After adjustment for potential confounders, children whose parents reported depressive symptoms most or all of the time were more likely to report an ED visit (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR] 1.18, 95 % CI 1.06-1.32) or school absence (adjusted IRR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.14-1.63) than children whose parents did not. The effect of parental depressive symptoms was not modified by child health conditions. Parental depressive symptoms were adversely associated with school attendance and ED use in children. These results suggest the importance of measuring depressive symptoms among adult caregivers of children.

  5. Positive behavioral intervention in children who were wards of the court attending a mainstream school.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jose I; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguilar, Concepcion; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza

    2007-12-01

    This report looked at the effects of treatment using contingency contracts and token economy procedures in three children, two 14 yr. and one 8 yr., who were wards of the court and attending a mainstream school. Students presented problems of adaptation to school, such as making constant noises with the mouth, hands, or pencil on the desk; frequently emitted raucous cries in the classroom; destruction of school resource materials; verbal aggression to classmates and teachers; verbal rejection of all academic work, refusing to do it, making negative comments prior to starting any school activity, in addition to lack of motivation for undertaking school activities. A 4-mo. individual treatment using contingency contracts and token economy behavioral procedures was implemented, with several follow-up sessions. The results indicated an adaptation of behavior to the school environment, confirmed by teachers, significantly reducing the incidence of insults, the destruction of school materials, and indolence during class sessions. These students are at high risk for social exclusion. Interventions have potential social importance in possible prevention of adult criminality, increasing academic achievement, and decreasing social exclusion.

  6. Computerized Attendance Accounting and Emergency Assistance Communications: Viable Tools in Secondary School Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Vasel W.

    1971-01-01

    In the late 1968, the Space Technology Application Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a pilot study to determine whether technological aids could be developed that would help secondary school administrators cope with the volatile and chaotic situations that often accompany student activism, disorders, and riots. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD) and at the John F. Kennedy Senior High School (JFK) in Sacramento, California. The problems at JFK and in the SCUSD were identified and described to the JPL team by members of the Kennedy staff and personnel at various levels and departments within the school district. The JPL team of engineers restricted their scope to problems that appeared solvable, or at least partially solvable, through the use of technological systems. Thus far, two hardware systems have been developed for use in the school. The first, a personal emergency assistance communication system, has already been tested operationally at JFK and has met the objectives established for it. The second technological aid developed was a computerized attendance accounting system. This system has been fabricated, tested, and installed at JFK. Full-scale operational testing began in April 1971. While studies and hardware tests were in progress at JFK, contacts were made with several other schools in order that, insofar as practicable, hardware designs could allow for possible adaptation to schools other than JFK.

  7. Impact of Poor Oral Health on Children's School Attendance and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Vann, William F.; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Pahel, Bhavna T.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined school days missed for routine dental care versus dental pain or infection to determine the relationship between children's oral health status and school attendance and performance. Methods. We used 2008 data from the North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program. The study sample, weighted to reflect the state's population, included 2183 schoolchildren. Variables assessed included school absences and performance, oral health status, parental education, health insurance coverage, race, and gender. Results. Children with poor oral health status were nearly 3 times more likely (odds ratio = 3.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.75) than were their counterparts to miss school as a result of dental pain. Absences caused by pain were associated with poorer school performance (P < .05), but absences for routine care were not. Mediation analyses revealed that oral health status was associated with performance independent of absence for pain. Conclusions. Children with poorer oral health status were more likely to experience dental pain, miss school, and perform poorly in school. These findings suggest that improving children's oral health status may be a vehicle to enhancing their educational experience. PMID:21330579

  8. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-09-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans' school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration.

  9. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  10. The Mental Health of Children of Migrant Workers in Beijing: The Protective Role of Public School Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children—children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children’s mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children. PMID:26032665

  11. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children.

  12. Student Admission and Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majestic, Ann L.

    1988-01-01

    Considers the North Carolina statutes that define the process for admitting students to public schools and ensuring their attendance. Examines cases relating to issues of school admission and compulsory attendance. (MLF)

  13. Motivational Theories as Applied to Ways To Improve School Attendance of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Patti

    In light of the theory that student absenteeism and lack of motivation are intertwined, educators have begun to investigate the theories of motivation in order to apply them to creative attendance policies in an attempt to reduce the problem of student absenteeism. Motivational theories indicate common elements of the importance of the intrinsic…

  14. Where Phoenix Union High School System Students Live and Attend School. 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ. Dept. of Research and Planning.

    In 1969-70 the Research and Planning Department established Phoenix Union High School System study area boundaries that are contiguous with census tracts, elementary school and district boundaries, high school and district boundaries, area transportation study boundaries, and natural and man-made obstacles. Students were identified by these study…

  15. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of private school children, the LEA may— (A) Use the same poverty data the LEA uses to count public school children; (B)(1) Use comparable poverty data from a survey of families of private school students... based on a representative sample if complete actual data are unavailable; (C) Use comparable...

  16. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of private school children, the LEA may— (A) Use the same poverty data the LEA uses to count public school children; (B)(1) Use comparable poverty data from a survey of families of private school students... based on a representative sample if complete actual data are unavailable; (C) Use comparable...

  17. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face.

  18. A Study of the Academic Achievement, Attrition and Group Reactions of High School Equivalency Students Attending Brandon University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colert, Sherril

    The academic achievement and attrition of high school equivalency students attending Brandon University, a small undergraduate Canadian university, were studied, as were the students' reactions to college life. The students, who received a high school equivalency certificate after completing the Tests of General Educational Development (GED), were…

  19. One State's Struggle with Wisconsin v. Yoder: The Kansas Compulsory School Attendance Statute and the Free Exercise of Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Wayne D.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the Wisconsin vs Yoder case, where the United States Supreme Court held that the First and Fourteenth Amendments prevent states from compelling Amish children to attend formal high school to age sixteen, and examines the actions of various state officials attempting to follow that case. Available from School of Law, Washburn University,…

  20. Still Worlds Apart: The Worldviews of Adolescent Males Attending Protestant and Catholic Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    This study draws together two research traditions: John Greer's pioneering research among pupils in Protestant and Catholic schools in Northern Ireland and Leslie J. Francis's research concerning teenage religion and values in England and Wales. A sample of 1,585 13- to 15-year-old male pupils attending Catholic schools (n = 712) and Protestant…

  1. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  2. An Examination of Assessment Scores between Students Who Attend Public Schools and Students Who Were Homeschooled Prior to Entering a Virtual Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Virtual charter schools, emerging in the 1990s, are a recent development in the education field and reflect today's technology-oriented society. This study examined existing data to evaluate what, if any, difference existed between students who attended public school and those who were homeschooled prior to entering the virtual charter school. …

  3. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve

    This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…

  4. Primary School Attendance and Completion among Lower Secondary School Age Children in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, governments pledged to achieve education for all by 2015. However, if current enrollment trends continue, the number of out-of-school children could increase from current levels. Greater focus is needed on lower secondary school age (13-16 years) children. These children are not included estimates of…

  5. Socioeconomic Disadvantage, School Attendance, and Early Cognitive Development: The Differential Effects of School Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Douglas D.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, research has documented strong relationships between social class and children's cognitive abilities. These initial cognitive differences, which are substantial at school entry, increase as children progress through school. Despite the robust findings associated with this research, authors have generally neglected…

  6. Environmental Programs Information: Affecting Kansas Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…

  7. New Regulations Affect School Debt Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol Duane

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of changes in Treasury Regulations as they affect school debt financing, including bond and note construction and acquisition issues, other types of equipment and property financing, as well as tax and revenue anticipation notes for working capital needs. (MLF)

  8. Does Community Poverty Reduce Children's School Attendance More at Primary Education than at Secondary Education? Evidence from Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamanda, Mamusu

    2016-01-01

    In Sierra Leone, the number of primary schools is almost seven times more than junior-secondary schools (JSS). Living in a poor community has been shown to reduce children's school attendance because of lower access and poorer quality of education in these communities. However, it is unclear whether living in a poor community reduces attendance at…

  9. [The Brazilian School Nutrition Program from the standpoint of students attending state schools in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Marques, Luciana Araújo; Bonomo, Elido; Bezerra, Olívia Maria de Paula Alves; Corrêa, Margareth da Silva; Passos, Letícia Siqueira Falce; de Souza, Anelise Andrade; Barros, Betannya França; de Souza, Débora Maria Soares; so Reis, Joana Almeida; de Andrade, Noemi Gonçalves

    2013-04-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the Brazilian School Nutrition Program from the standpoint of students attending state schools in Minas Gerais. It is a qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample of 1500 students, representing the population of the state schools of Minas Gerais, involving the administration of a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using simple frequency, mean, standard deviation, Fisher's exact test, the chi-square test and logistic regression (p < 0.05, CI 95%). The effective acceptance of the program was 28.8% and the effective adhesion to the program was 45.1%. Program acceptance was significantly higher among males and students who consumed less extra-institutional food. Acceptance and adhesion to the program was significantly higher among the older students and those who reported participating in activities related to nutritional education. In total, 73.5% of the students suggested improvements in school food. Many of the program's norms and guidelines are not being implemented. The acceptance of school food was negatively influenced by the consumption of extra-institutional foods and positively influenced by food and nutritional education activities.

  10. Does Attendance to a Four-Year Academic College versus Vocational College Affect Future Wages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Shao-Hsun; Lo, Ya-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Taiwan is one of the few countries in which bachelor degrees can be earned by attending either 4-year academic colleges or vocational colleges. This paper offers new evidence on whether returns to B.A. degrees are significantly different between academic and vocational 4-year colleges using the 1998-1999 Taiwanese College Graduate Survey. The…

  11. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement in Single Mothers Attending Public Two-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shakebra L.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative, cross-sectional, correlation research study explored the relationships between self-efficacy, social support, and academic achievement among single mothers aged 18 and older attending Mississippi public two-year institutions. A total of 82 single mothers provided data for this study by completing the following research…

  12. Does Posting PowerPoint Presentations on WebCT Affect Class Performance or Attendance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Grade earned and class attendance records were examined to determine if posting PowerPoint notes on a web-based course management system was related to enhanced performance or increased absences. There were no differences in either grades or absences between classes that had notes posted and those that did not. However, results indicated…

  13. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group…

  14. Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

  15. Does Attendance in Early Education Predict Attendance in Elementary School? An Analysis of DCPS's Early Education Program. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubay, Lisa; Holla, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. The Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) has identified…

  16. The Attendance Nightmare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John A., Jr.

    This paper describes a program intended to increase student attendance in a Savannah, Georgia, inner city high school. The author maintains that shifting the accountability for attendance to the students through peer pressure was perhaps the most significant reason for gains in attendance. He believes that a successful attendance increase program…

  17. Screen Time at Home and School among Low-Income Children Attending Head Start

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Erica N.; Whitaker, Robert C.; Marino, Alexis J.; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the patterns of screen viewing at home and school among low-income preschool-aged children attending Head Start and identify factors associated with high home screen time in this population. Few studies have examined both home and classroom screen time, or included computer use as a component of screen viewing. Methods Participants were 2221 low-income preschool-aged children in the United States studied in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) in spring 2007. For 5 categories of screen viewing (television, video/DVD, video games, computer games, other computer use), we assessed children’s typical weekday home (parent-reported) and classroom (teacher-reported) screen viewing in relation to having a television in the child’s bedroom and sociodemographic factors. Results Over half of children (55.7%) had a television in their bedroom, and 12.5% had high home screen time (>4 hours/weekday). Television was the most common category of home screen time, but 56.6% of children had access to a computer at home and 37.5% had used it on the last typical weekday. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, children with a television in their bedroom were more likely to have high home screen time [odds ratio=2.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.80–3.68)]. Classroom screen time consisted almost entirely of computer use; 49.4% of children used a classroom computer for ≥1 hour/week, and 14.2% played computer games at school ≥5 hours/week. Conclusions In 2007, one in eight low-income children attending Head Start had >4 hours/weekday of home screen time, which was associated with having a television in the bedroom. In the Head Start classroom, television and video viewing were uncommon but computer use was common. PMID:24891924

  18. Survey of Low Vision among Students Attending Schools for the Blind in Nigeria: A Descriptive and Interventional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mosuro, Adedamola L.; Ajaiyeoba, Ayotunde I.; Bekibele, Charles O.; Eniola, Michael S.; Adedokun, Babatunde A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of low vision among students attending all the schools for the blind in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study set out to determine the proportion of students with low vision/severe visual impairment after best correction, to determine the causes of the low vision, to document the associated pathologies, to determine the types of treatment and visual aid devices required, and to provide the visual aids needed to the students in the schools. Materials and Methods: All schools students for the blind in Oyo State were evaluated between August 2007 and January 2008. All the students underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination that included measurement of visual acuity, retinoscopy and subjective refraction, tests for visual aids where indicated, and a structured questionnaire was administered. Results: A total of 86 students were included in the study and the mean age was 19.4 ± 8.19 years. Twenty six (30%) were under 16 years of age. The most common cause of blindness was bilateral measles keratopathy/vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in 25 students (29.1%). The most common site affected was the cornea in 25 students (29.1%), the lens in 23 (26.7%), and the retina/optic nerve in 16 (18.6%). Preventable blindness was mainly from measles keratopathy/VAD (29.1%). Eleven students benefited from refraction and correction with visual aids; two having severe visual impairment (SVI), and nine having visual impairment (VI) after correction. Conclusion: The prevalence of low vision in the schools for the blind in Oyo State is 2.3%, while the prevalence of visual impairment is 10.5%. These results suggest that preventable and treatable ocular conditions are the source of significant childhood blindness in Oyo State. PMID:23248540

  19. Waddling on the Dark Side: Ambient Light Affects Attendance Behavior of Little Penguins.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Airam; Chiaradia, André; Wasiak, Paula; Renwick, Leanne; Dann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Visible light on Earth largely comes from the sun, including light reflected from the moon. Predation risk is strongly determined by light conditions, and some animals are nocturnal to reduce predation. Artificial lights and its consequent light pollution may disrupt this natural behavior. Here, we used 13 years of attendance data to study the effects of sun, moon, and artificial light on the attendance pattern of a nocturnal seabird, the little penguin Eudyptula minor at Phillip Island, Australia. The little penguin is the smallest and the only penguin species whose activity on land is strictly nocturnal. Automated monitoring systems recorded individually marked penguins every time they arrived (after sunset) at or departed (before sunrise) from 2 colonies under different lighting conditions: natural night skylight and artificial lights (around 3 lux) used to enhance penguin viewing for ecotourism around sunset. Sunlight had a strong effect on attendance as penguins arrived on average around 81 min after sunset and departed around 92 min before sunrise. The effect of moonlight was also strong, varying according to moon phase. Fewer penguins came ashore during full moon nights. Moon phase effect was stronger on departure than arrival times. Thus, during nights between full moon and last quarter, arrival times (after sunset) were delayed, even though moonlight levels were low, while departure times (before sunrise) were earlier, coinciding with high moonlight levels. Cyclic patterns of moon effect were slightly out of phase but significantly between 2 colonies, which could be due to site-specific differences or presence/absence of artificial lights. Moonlight could be overridden by artificial light at our artificially lit colony, but the similar amplitude of attendance patterns between colonies suggests that artificial light did not mask the moonlight effect. Further research is indeed necessary to understand how seabirds respond to the increasing artificial night

  20. Why Inner-City High-School Students Attend After-School Physical Activity Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Laurel; McCaughtry, Nate; Garn, Alex; Kulik, Noel; Centeio, Erin E.; Maljak, Kimberly; Kaseta, Michele; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The population of young people most vulnerable to low levels of physical activity (e.g. urban/minority/low socio-economic status/female/non-athletes) often has the least access to physical activity opportunities and resources. It has been suggested that a comprehensive, school-based approach, including prudent use of time before, during…

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Middle School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana

    This youth risk behavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…

  2. Can Community and School-Based Supports Improve the Achievement of First-Generation Immigrant Children Attending High-Poverty Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Eric; Walsh, Mary E.; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St.John, Terry; Foley, Claire; Raczek, Anastacia E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of a student support intervention were estimated for the math and reading achievement of first-generation immigrant children (n = 667, M = 11.05 years of age) attending high-poverty, urban elementary schools. The intervention was designed to help schools identify developmental strengths and barriers…

  3. A Dynamical View of High School Attendance: An Assessment of Short-term and Long-term Dependencies in Five Urban Schools.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    While school attendance is a critical mediator to academic achievement, its time dependent characteristics are rarely investigated. To remedy situation, this paper reports on the analysis of daily attendance rates in five urban high schools over a seven-year period. Traditional time series analyses were conducted to estimate short-range and cyclical dependencies in the data. An Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) approach was used to address long-range correlational patterns, and detect signs of self-organized criticality. The analysis reveals a strong cyclical pattern (weekly) in all five schools, and evidence for self-organized criticality in one of the five. These findings illustrate the insufficiency of traditional statistical summary measures to characterize the distribution of daily attendance, and they suggest that daily attendance is not necessarily the stable and predictable feature of school effectiveness it is conventionally assumed to be. While educational practitioners can probably attest to the many of the irregularities in attendance patterns as well as some of their sources, a systematic description of these temporal aspects needs to be included in our assessment of daily attendance behavior to inform policy decisions, if only to better align formal research in this area with existing local knowledge about those patterns.

  4. Service-Learning: Does It Affect Attitudes, Grades, and Attendance of Students Who Participate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofer, Jennifer

    In spring 1996 Franklin County (KY) schools conducted a research project with three teachers at Western Hills High School to determine whether student attitudes change as a result of becoming involved in service learning. Each teacher used one class for a test group and another for a control group. Two types of pre- and posttests were given to…

  5. Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.

  6. 5 CFR 843.410 - Annuity for a child age 18 to 22 during full-time school attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accepted as minimum for completion, by a full-time day student, of the academic or training program... full-time school attendance. 843.410 Section 843.410 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT...

  7. Attending High School Algebra I: In Search of Well-Managed, Engaging, Culturally Relevant, and Caring Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannett, Cassandra Dunn

    2012-01-01

    The inequities in learning between the rich and the poor have become pervasive in United States. This is evidenced by the high school graduation rates, college attendance percentages, and employment statistics. Upon another wave of reform, the Common Core State Standards in mathematics are currently being adopted in hopes of increasing learning…

  8. The Relationship of Participation in Extracurricular Activities to Student Achievement, Student Attendance, and Student Behavior in a Nebraska School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible relationships between participation in extracurricular activities and student achievement, participation in extracurricular activities and attendance, and participation in extracurricular activities and behavior. The setting for this study was a high school in western Nebraska. Data for 275 of the…

  9. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

  10. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  11. 76 FR 29805 - Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49 AGENCY: U.S. Office... opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time...@opm.gov or faxed to (202) 606-0910. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-49, Verification of...

  12. Attendance, Performance and the Acquisition of Early Literacy Skills: A Comparison of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue

    2010-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…

  13. Does Attendance in Summer School Increase Reading and Math Achievement of Elementary Students? PREPS Research Project 1979-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Marie J.; Maurelli, John A.

    The Daviess County, Kentucky, PREPS research project focused on evaluating the county's 1979 summer school program. This program invited children to attend if they were functioning at least one year below their grade placement level. Learning activities were structured around specific behavioral objectives; the emphasis was on reading and…

  14. Prospective Analysis of the Transition to Sexual Experience and Changes in Sexual Self-Esteem among Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David; Zeanah, Paula D.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Given increased sexual risk-taking among youth with mental health problems, this study sought to understand the developmental trajectory of sexual self-esteem (SSE) among this vulnerable population and how it is impacted by sexual experiences. Participants were 185 adolescents who attended therapeutic/alternative schools in southern New England.…

  15. The Effects of the Primary Movement Programme on the Academic Performance of Children Attending Ordinary Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan-Black, Julie-Anne

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of a primary reflex (the Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex) in children attending ordinary primary school and how this related to attainments in a number of academic areas. The effectiveness of a specific movement intervention programme in reducing primary reflex persistence and improving academic…

  16. Hidden Gains: Effects of Early U.S. Compulsory Schooling Laws on Attendance and Attainment by Social Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauscher, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research on early compulsory schooling laws finds minimal effects on attendance but fails to investigate heterogeneous effects. Similarly, research proposes limited contexts in which expansion policies can increase equality but has difficulty separating policy and cohort effects. Capitalizing on within-country variation in timing of early…

  17. 77 FR 33007 - Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Retirement Services, Office of Personnel Management (OPM) offers the general public and other federal agencies...

  18. Correlates of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Adolescents Attending Public High Schools, Panama, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Gabster, Amanda; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Arteaga, Griselda B.; Castillero, Omar; Mojica, Nataly; Dyamond, José; Varela, Maria; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are common in adolescents worldwide. Vulnerability to STIs increases with risky sexual practices. This study described the sexual practices, estimated the prevalence of STIs, and identified correlates associated with STIs among participants, enrolled in public high schools, in the District of Panama, Panama. Methods A cross sectional study, using multistage cluster sampling, was conducted among participants, aged 14–18 years, enrolled in public high schools, in the District of Panama, Panama City, Panama, from August to November, 2015. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and provided biological samples. The samples of those reporting sexual activity (oral, vaginal, and/or anal intercourse) were tested for STIs. Odds ratios were used to identify correlates of STIs in this population. Results A total of 592 participants were included, of whom, 60.8% reported a history of sexual activity, and 24.4% tested positive for least one STI. STIs were more common in female participants, (33.5%). Compared to those without STIs, higher proportions of those with at least one STI reported ≥3 sexual partners in their lifetime (60.0%) and current sexual activity (76.3%). In the multivariable model, correlates of STI included female participants (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 5.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.3–14.6) and those who engaged in sexual intercourse with casual partners (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2–7.5). Conclusions We report a high STI prevalence among adolescents attending public high schools, in the District of Panama. Reported risky sexual practices were common and correlated with STIs. Female participants and those reporting sexual intercourse with casual partners were more likely test positive for at least one STI. Our study identified a need for effective interventions to curb future infections in this population. PMID:27657700

  19. Improving Attendance and Retention in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Practitioner Insights. Publication # 2007-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Elena; Wilson, Brooke; Valladares, Sherylls; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    Regular participation in out-of-school time activities is associated with benefits for children. However, children cannot reap the benefits of program participation if they do not attend programs in the first place. This brief focuses on ways in which out-of-school time programs can improve the attendance and retention of children and youth in…

  20. Perceived benefits and barriers and self-efficacy affecting the attendance of health education programs among uninsured primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations.

  1. Transition and protective agency of early childhood learning behaviors as portents of later school attendance and adjustment.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Paul A; Rikoon, Samuel H; Fantuzzo, John W

    2016-02-01

    This article reports on the study of differential change trajectories for early childhood learning behaviors as they relate to future classroom adjustment and school attendance. A large sample (N=2152) of Head Start children was followed through prekindergarten, kindergarten, and 1st grade. Classroom learning behaviors were assessed twice each year by teachers who observed gradual declines in Competence Motivation and Attentional Persistence as children transitioned through schooling. Cross-classified multilevel growth models revealed distinct transitional pathways for future adjustment versus maladjustment and sporadic versus chronic absenteeism. Generalized multilevel logistic modeling and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that teachers' earliest assessments were substantially predictive of eventual good classroom adjustment and school attendance, with increasing accuracy for prediction of future sociobehavioral adjustment as time progressed.

  2. Dr. David Sawyer, Mickey Mouse and Dr. David Brown attend a ceremony at Ronald McNair Middle School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. David Sawyer (left), Superintendent of the Brevard County School District, Mickey Mouse, and Dr. David Brown, a NASA astronaut, attend a tribute to NASA astronaut Ronald McNair held in the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla. During the tribute, Walt Disney World presented a portrait of McNair to the school, which had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut. McNair was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  3. Suicidal Expression among School-Attending Adolescents in a Middle-Income Sub-Saharan Country

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael L.; Dunlavy, Andrea C.; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Bovet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    We investigated correlates for suicidal expression among adolescents in the Seychelles. Data on 1,432 students (52% females) were derived from the Global School-based Health Survey. Participants were divided into three groups: those with no suicidal behavior (N = 1,199); those with suicide ideation/SI (N = 89); and those reporting SI with a plan to carry out a suicide attempt/SISP (N = 139), each within a 12-month recall period. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the strength of associations with social, behavioral and economic indicators while adjusting for covariates. Sixteen percent of school-attending adolescents reported a suicidal expression (10% with a plan/6.2% without). Those reporting SI were younger (relative risk ratio RRR = 0.81; CI = 0.68–0.96), indicated signs of depression (RRR = 1.69; CI = 1.05–2.72) and loneliness (RRR=3.36; CI =1.93–5.84). Tobacco use (RRR = 2.34; CI = 1.32–4.12) and not having close friends (RRR = 3.32; CI = 1.54–7.15) were significantly associated with SI. Those with SISP were more likely to be female (RRR = 0.47; 0.30–0.74), anxious (RRR = 3.04; CI = 1.89–4.88) and lonely (RRR = 1.74; CI = 1.07–2.84). Having no close friends (RRR = 2.98; 1.56–5.69) and using tobacco (RRR = 2.41; 1.48–3.91) were also strongly associated. Having parents who were understanding was protective (RRR = 0.50; CI = 0.31–0.82). Our results suggest that school health promotion programs may benefit from targeting multiple factors associated with suicidal expression. More research, particularly multilevel designs are needed to identify peer and family influences which may modify associations with suicidality. PMID:23202835

  4. Parent attendance and homework adherence predict response to a family-school intervention for children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Angela T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Soffer, Stephen L; Jones, Heather A; Costigan, Tracy E; Patterson, Anwar; Jawad, Abbas F; Power, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of two dimensions of parent engagement, attendance and homework adherence, to parent and child treatment response and explored whether early engagement was a stronger predictor of outcomes than later engagement. The sample consisted of parents of participants (n = 92; M age = 9.4 years, SD = 1.27; 67% male, 69% White) in a 12-session evidence-based family-school intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Attendance was assessed using clinician records, and homework adherence was measured by rating permanent products. Outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of family involvement in education, parenting practices, and child functioning. Accounting for the contributions of baseline scores and attendance, homework adherence was a significant predictor of parental self-efficacy, the parent-teacher relationship, parenting through positive involvement, and the child's inattention to homework and homework productivity. Accounting for the contribution of baseline scores and homework adherence, attendance was a significant predictor of one outcome, the child's academic productivity. Early homework adherence appeared to be more predictive of outcomes than later adherence, whereas attendance did not predict outcomes during either half of treatment. These results indicate that, even in the context of evidence-based practice, it is the extent to which parents actively engage with treatment, rather than the number of sessions they attend, that is most important in predicting intervention response. Because attendance is limited as an index of engagement and a predictor of outcomes, increased efforts to develop interventions to promote parent adherence to behavioral interventions for children are warranted.

  5. School and the 17-Year-Old: A Comparison of Career Development Skills of 17-Year-Olds Attending School and Those Not Attending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    National performance for 17-year-olds in school, 17-year-olds not in school and young adults aged 26-35 in the area of career and occupational development (COD) was assessed to determine whether or not education status and career development skills are related. Within each of the groups, performance of various subgroups was examined, defined by…

  6. Preschool Attendance in Chicago Public Schools: Relationships with Learning Outcomes and Reasons for Absences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia A.; Stitziel Pareja, Amber; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; Jagesic, Sanja; Sorice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Significant attention is currently focused on ensuring that children are enrolled in preschool. However, regular attendance is also critically important. Children with better preschool attendance have higher kindergarten readiness scores, this is especially true for students entering with low skills. Unfortunately, many preschool-aged children are…

  7. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls.

    PubMed

    Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls' school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls' days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described.

  8. A Randomized Evaluation of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care: Effects on School Attendance and Homework Completion in Juvenile Justice Girls

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Despite growing evidence that child welfare youth are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency, little is known about gender-specific processes and effective treatment programs for girls. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC), an empirically validated intervention for child welfare and juvenile justice populations, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing arrest rates in delinquent boys and girls. In this study, the efficacy of MTFC on school attendance and homework completion was examined in juvenile justice girls who were referred to out-of-home care (N = 81). Results from this randomized intervention trial suggest that MTFC was more effective than group care in increasing girls’ school attendance and homework completion while in treatment and at 12 months postbaseline. In addition, the previously reported effect of MTFC on reducing girls’ days in locked settings was mediated by homework completion while girls were enrolled in the intervention setting. Implications for policy and practice are described. PMID:18159224

  9. Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De War, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their…

  10. Do K-12 School Facilities Affect Education Outcomes? Staff Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ed; Green, Harry A.; Roehrich-Patrick, Lynnisse; Joseph, Linda; Gibson, Teresa

    This report explains that there is growing evidence of a correlation between the adequacy of a school facility and student behavior and performance. In general, students attending school in newer, betterfacilities score 5 to 17 points higher on standardized tests than those attending in substandard buildings. School facility factors such as…

  11. Improving the Attendance Rate for African American Male Students in an After School Reading Program through Parental Involvement, Positive Male Role Models, and Tutorial Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanksley, Mary Dennard

    This practicum was designed to improve the attendance rate for African American male students in the After School Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) program. The attendance rate for male students was far below that of female students. The following strategies to increase male participation in the reading program were developed: local businesses and…

  12. Environmental factors affecting early carcass attendance by four species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Texas.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-05-01

    As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.

  13. Longitudinal Study of an After-School, Inquiry-Based Science Intervention on Low-Achieving Children's Affective Perceptions of Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.; Hong, Zuway-R.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores the effects of an after-school, inquiry-based science intervention on improving low-achieving elementary school children's affective perceptions of learning science (APLS) and positive thinking. Thirty-nine low-achieving children nominated by their teachers attended a three-semester intervention and formed the…

  14. Perceived barriers mediate the association between self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable consumption among students attending alternative high schools.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; Kubik, Martha Y; Kenyon, Denyelle; Davey, Cynthia; Story, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Compared to students attending regular high schools, alternative high school students are more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities, have higher levels of poverty, and higher rates of risky and poor health behaviors, including weight-related behaviors like limited fruit and vegetable intake. However, little is known about fruit/vegetable intake among alternative high school students. This study examined whether perceived barriers to healthy eating mediated the association between self-efficacy to eat healthy foods and fruit/vegetable consumption among alternative high school students. The cross-sectional study population consisted of students (N=145) attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul-Minneapolis, MN, area who were participants in an obesity prevention pilot study and completed a baseline survey during fall 2006. Mixed model linear regression, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, was used to test a series of regression models performed according to mediation analysis procedures. Students' mean age was 17.3 years; 52% were male, 63% were low-income, and 61% were from racial/ethnic minorities. Students reported a mean fruit/vegetable intake of 3.6 servings per day, mean self-efficacy to eat healthy score of 22.2 (range 3 to 35), and mean barriers to eating healthy score of 6.9 (range 3 to 13). Perceived barriers to healthy eating fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and fruit/vegetable consumption (Sobel test statistic 2.7, P=0.007). Interventions targeting the dietary practices of alternative high school students should include components to decrease perceived barriers as a way to increase self-efficacy and ultimately fruit/vegetable intake.

  15. Factors Affecting the Outcomes of School Bond Elections in Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lode, Marlin D.

    In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…

  16. Family-School Links: How Do They Affect Educational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan, Ed.; Dunn, Judith F., Ed.

    This book explores issues related to the links between families and schools and how they affect children's educational achievement, and is organized as follows: Part 1, titled "Families and Schools: How Can They Work Together To Promote Children's School Success?" contains the following chapters: chapter 1, "Family Involvement in…

  17. An Examination of Primary School Attendance and Completion among Secondary School Age Adolescents in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sierra Leone was ravaged by a civil war between 1991 and 2002. Since the end of the war, it has witnessed an unprecedented increase in school enrollments. Although school enrollment has increased, the number of school age children who are out of school remains high. The focus of international agencies is on children of primary school age, yet a…

  18. Nasal colonization by four potential respiratory bacteria in healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Songmee; Yu, Jae-Yon; Lee, Kwangjun; Lee, Sunhwa; Park, Bohyun; Kang, Yeonho

    2012-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis was carried out of the colonization by four potential respiratory pathogens - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus - in 165 healthy children (aged 3-7 years) attending three kindergartens and 417 healthy children (aged 7-10 years) attending an elementary school in Seoul, Korea, by four consecutive examinations over 1 year. The prevalence of nasal carriers of one or more of four bacteria was found to be higher in younger children (≤7 years) (mean 68.6%) than that in older children (mean 46.8%). The mean rates of nasal carriage of Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and Staph. aureus were 16.8, 18.9, 20.2 and 18.2%, respectively. Colonization by Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was higher in pre-school children (28.6, 32.4 and 35.0%, respectively) than in school children (12.2, 13.6 and 14.3%, respectively). Carriage trends differed with age, with Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonization decreasing with age but Staph. aureus colonization increasing. Positive associations of co-occurrence between Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were evident, with a significant negative association evident between Staph. aureus and the other three bacteria. A better understanding of the colonization and interaction of potential respiratory pathogens may be important for predicting changes in bacterial ecology and for designing control strategies that target bacterial colonization in upper respiratory tract infections.

  19. School Psychologists Working with Children Affected by Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn

    2010-01-01

    School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…

  20. Comparison of Public and Parochial School Patterns of Student Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Bernard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised scores of 139 middle and senior high public school students and of 403 parochial school students. Parochial students scored significantly higher on depression, hostility, and dysphoria, and significantly lower on positive affect and overall positive mood. Offers possible explanations for this…

  1. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  2. The Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties of Primary School Children with Poor Attendance Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Two complementary studies of poor and better attenders are presented. To measure emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) different teacher-completed rating scales were employed, and to determine social difficulties, the studies used sociometry and some items from the scales. One study had a longitudinal design. It revealed that, after…

  3. Keeping Kids in School: Innovative Ways to Boost Student Attendance and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musko, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Butler County (Pennsylvania) Vo-Tech motivates better attendance and achievement through an incentive program with tangible rewards such as the Win-a-Car contest. A two-day self-esteem program involves action-oriented experiential learning activities designed to develop leadership, teamwork, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills. (SK)

  4. Factors Affecting Burnout and School Engagement among High School Students: Study Habits, Self- Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilge, Filiz; Tuzgol Dost, Meliha; Cetin, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines high school students' levels of burnout and school engagement with respect to academic success, study habits, and self-efficacy beliefs. The data were gathered during the 2011-2012 school year from 633 students attending six high schools located in Ankara, Turkey. The analyses were conducted on responses from 605 students. The…

  5. Lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer mortality in a population attending school adjacent to styrene-butadiene facilities, 1963-1993

    PubMed Central

    Loughlin, J. E.; Rothman, K. J.; Dreyer, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers and other causes among students. DESIGN: The study used school records, yearbooks, and Texas Department of Health records for the school years 1963-64 to 1992-93 to construct a cohort of 15,403 students. Three mortality databases were searched to identify deaths, and mortality rates in the cohort were compared with mortality rates from the United States and Texas. Computed standardised mortality ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used. SETTING: Eastern Texas high school adjacent to facilities that have been producing synthetic styrene-butadiene since 1943. MAIN RESULTS: 338 deaths were identified. The all causes standardised mortality ratio was 0.84 (95% confidence intervals 0.74, 0.95) for men and 0.89 (0.73, 1.09) for women. The standardised mortality ratio for all lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was 1.64 (95% confidence intervals 0.85, 2.87) for men and 0.47 (0.06, 1.70) for women. The slight male excess in lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was stronger among men who attended school for two years or less. CONCLUSIONS: The overall mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer among the students was little different from that of the United States as a whole. A moderate excess for men, predominantly among the shorter-term students, was offset by a deficit among women. These variations are compatible with random fluctuations; the overall pattern is not indicative of an effect of environmental exposure sustained while attending the high school.   PMID:10396534

  6. The Effects of High School Math Curriculum on College Attendance: Evidence from the NLSY97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aughinbaugh, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of youth who graduated from high school in the late 1990s and early 2000s, this paper examines the impact of high school math curriculum on the decision to go to college. Results that control for unobserved differences between students and their families suggest that a more rigorous high school math curriculum is associated with a…

  7. The Academic Impacts of Attending a KIPP Charter School in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Caleb P.

    2013-01-01

    KIPP Delta College Preparatory School (KIPP: DCPS), an open-enrollment charter school, opened in 2002 in Helena, Arkansas. Since its opening, KIPP: DCPS students have consistently outperformed their peers in the Helena/West Helena School district, and moreover, recent test scores suggest that white students and minority students are achieving at…

  8. Middle School Learning, Academic Emotions and Engagement as Precursors to College Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Clarissa Z.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge within a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing potential effects on students' interests and choices related to decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to…

  9. Joint Analysis of Preschool Attendance and School Performance in the Short and Long-Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Renato; Tansini, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at explaining the academic performance of a sample of children starting their first year at public schools in Montevideo, Uruguay, during 1999. We are mainly interested in the effect of pre-school education on the children's academic results. Previous probit and OLS estimations suggested that pre-school education has a positive…

  10. Guiding the Psychosocial Development of Gifted Students Attending Specialized Residential STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Frazier, Andrea Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Each year, academically gifted students leave home to live in a special school, one of 11 state-supported residential high schools for students gifted or talented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematic (STEM) academic domains. These schools attempt to take full advantage of the 24-hour day by engaging students in a rigorous learning…

  11. School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Diane Diaz

    2010-01-01

    The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After…

  12. Understanding Educational Success among Latino/a English Language Learners: Factors Associated with High School Completion and Postsecondary School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Patterson, Mary Skokut; Stein, Rachel; Babcock, Sarah K.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2014, 24 states require students to pass exit exams to graduate from high school. In California, all high school students are required to pass the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) to earn a diploma. Failure to pass the CAHSEE is linked with school dropout, which is associated with many deleterious outcomes and…

  13. The Effect of Attending Steiner Schools during Childhood on Health in Adulthood: A Multicentre Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, H. Felix; Binting, Sylvia; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Heusser, Peter; Hueck, Christoph; Keil, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Background It is speculated that attending Steiner schools, whose pedagogical principles include an account for healthy psycho-physical development, may have long-term beneficial health effects. We examined whether the current health status differed between former attendees of German Steiner schools and adults from the general population. Furthermore, we examined factors that might explain those differences. Methods We included former Steiner school attendees from 4 schools in Berlin, Hanover, Nuremberg and Stuttgart and randomly selected population controls. Using a self-report questionnaire we assessed sociodemographics, current and childhood lifestyle and health status. Outcomes were self-reports on 16 diseases: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, depression and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, participants rated the symptom burden resulting from back pain, cold symptoms, headache, insomnia, joint pain, gastrointestinal symptoms and imbalance. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for each outcome. Results 1136 Steiner school attendees and 1746 controls were eligible for analysis. Both groups were comparable regarding sex, age and region, but differed in nationality and educational status. After adjusting for possible confounders, we found statistically significant effects of Steiner school attendance for osteoarthritis (OR 0.69 [0.49–0.97]) and allergic rhinitis (OR 0.77, [0.59–1.00]) as well as for symptom burden from back pain (OR 0.80, [0.64–1.00]), insomnia (OR 0.65, [0.50–0.84]), joint pain (OR 0.62, [0.48–0.82]), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 0.76, [0.58–1.00]) and imbalance (OR 0.60, [0.38–0.93]). Conclusions The risk of most examined diseases did not differ between former Steiner school attendees and the

  14. Non-Attendance and Utilization of a Speech and Language Therapy Service: A Retrospective Pilot Study of School-Aged Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Amy; Flynn, Catherine; Antonijevic-Elliott, Stanislava; Lyons, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-attendance and inappropriate referrals affect the effective and efficient running of healthcare services. Non-engagement with speech and language therapy (SLT) services may lead to negative long-term consequences for children in need of SLT intervention. Currently there is a dearth of research on non-attendance and non-engagement…

  15. Control of a measles outbreak by prohibiting non-vaccinated susceptible students from attending school in Akita Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ishiyama, Akira; Kishimoto, Kaoru; Iwama, Renji; Nakano, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    In 2007-2008, a measles outbreak occurred among children above the age of 10 years in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan (population, approximately 1,120,000 at the time). Our group controlled the outbreak by (i) implementing a publically financed urgent vaccination program and (ii) prohibiting non-vaccinated and non-infected students from attending school as per regulations of the school public health law. We encouraged high-risk students to undergo a vaccination program, which resulted in the successful containment of the outbreak without the development of any severe cases. After the outbreak, the Akita Prefectural Government began an annual"Akita measles elimination month" every April, and no measles case found in Akita Prefecture during 2009-2010 subsequently. Our outbreak response initiative can be applied nationally for the complete elimination of measles throughout Japan.

  16. The normative environment for substance use among American Indian students and white students attending schools on or near reservations.

    PubMed

    Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R; Beauvais, Fred

    2013-01-01

    American Indian and White students who attended the same schools located on or near reservations were surveyed to determine the comparative normative environment for substance use. Descriptive norms increased and student injunctive norms decreased across grade in school. Female students reported higher levels of descriptive norms compared to male students. For marijuana use, a substantial decrease in student injunctive norms occurred between grades 8 and 10. Adult injunctive norms were perceived by female students to be higher than those perceived by male students, particularly among American Indian females. Somewhat surprisingly, 8th grade White female students reported high descriptive norms for inhalant use compared to 8th grade American Indian students. Overall, however, higher descriptive norms and lower injunctive norms among American Indian youth suggested that their risk for substance use is higher compared to White students because of the normative environment created by peers, family, and other adults.

  17. Mental health of carers of children affected by HIV attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; Macedo, Ana; Croome, Natasha; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) services to improve child outcomes. In a cross sectional study, we interviewed 952 carers of children (aged 4 to 13 years) attending 28 randomly selected CBOs funded by 11 major donors in South Africa and Malawi. Psychological morbidity was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) and suicidal ideation was measured using an item from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Carers were asked about care-seeking for emotional problems. Overall, 28% of carers scored above the clinical cut-off for current psychological morbidity and 12.2% reported suicidal ideation. We used logistic regression models to test factors associated with poor outcomes. Household unemployment, living with a sick family member, and perceived lack of support from the community were associated with both psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation in carers. Reported child food insecurity was also associated with psychological morbidity. In addition, carers living in South Africa were more likely to present with psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation than carers in Malawi. Rates of help-seeking for mental health problems were low. Carers of children affected by HIV are at risk for mental health problems as a result of HIV, socio-economic, care-giving and community factors. We call for increased recognition of the potential role of CBOs in providing mental health care and support for families as a means to improve equity in mental health care. Specifically, we highlight the need for increased

  18. HIV testing among teens attending therapeutic schools: Having a personal source of information about HIV/AIDS matters!

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher; Sarfati, David; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri; Brown, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13 to 19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two U.S. cities (Providence, RI and Chicago, IL) and completed a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention study. Among adolescents in the study, 29% reported having been tested for HIV. Adolescents were more likely to have been tested if they were older, female, Hispanic, identified as non-heterosexual, came from lower SES households, and had recently had unprotected sex. Additionally, youth who endorsed greater use of optimistic thinking and emotion-focused coping, and who reported having been informed about HIV by more personal sources, were also more likely to have been tested for HIV. In a multivariate analysis, having had recent unprotected sex and having more personal sources of information about HIV/AIDS were independently associated with HIV testing. Study findings suggest that, controlling for sociodemographic background, sexual risk behavior, and coping strategy, HIV testing among adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems may be increased when adolescents learn about HIV/AIDS from personal sources such as their healthcare providers, family, and friends. PMID:25656380

  19. HIV Testing Among Teens Attending Therapeutic Schools: Having a Personal Source of Information About HIV/AIDS Matters!

    PubMed

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Houck, Christopher; Sarfati, David; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri; Brown, Larry K

    2015-06-01

    Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13-19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two US cities (Providence, RI and Chicago, IL) and completed a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention study. Among adolescents in the study, 29% reported having been tested for HIV. Adolescents were more likely to have been tested if they were older, female, Hispanic, identified as non-heterosexual, came from lower SES households, and had recently had unprotected sex. Additionally, youth who endorsed greater use of optimistic thinking and emotion-focused coping, and who reported having been informed about HIV by more personal sources, were also more likely to have been tested for HIV. In a multivariate analysis, having had recent unprotected sex and having more personal sources of information about HIV/AIDS were independently associated with HIV testing. Study findings suggest that, controlling for sociodemographic background, sexual risk behavior, and coping strategy, HIV testing among adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems may be increased when adolescents learn about HIV/AIDS from personal sources such as their healthcare providers, family, and friends.

  20. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  1. Teachers Attending to Students' Mathematical Reasoning: Lessons from an After-School Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, John M.; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    There is a documented need for more opportunities for teachers to learn about students' mathematical reasoning. This article reports on the experiences of a group of elementary and middle school mathematics teachers who participated as interns in an after-school, classroom-based research project on the development of mathematical ideas involving…

  2. Opening the Doors a Little Wider: High School Students Attending Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrupp, Harold A.

    Through the Veysey and the Regional Occupation Program/Regional Occupation Center (ROP/ROC) Acts, junior colleges can assist high school students in gaining skills for immediate employment on high school graduation. In an attempt to develop an early introduction to technical skills, the Veysey Act (initial legislation 1963; amended 1967) allows…

  3. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  4. The Relationship between Type of High School Attended and Student Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlan, Andrew Kenny

    2003-01-01

    Incidents of violence in recent years have intensified concern about student conduct in our nation's schools, and have heightened the desire, among educators and others, to find ways of ameliorating the problem. Social science can play a supportive role, by providing insight into the origins of deviance in schools. However, while previous…

  5. Effects of After-School Programs with At-Risk Youth on Attendance and Externalizing Behaviors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The popularity, demand, and increased federal and private funding for after-school programs have resulted in a marked increase in after-school programs over the past two decades. After-school programs are used to prevent adverse outcomes, decrease risks, or improve functioning with at-risk youth in several areas, including academic achievement, crime and behavioral problems, socio-emotional functioning, and school engagement and attendance; however, the evidence of effects of after-school programs remains equivocal. This systematic review and meta-analysis, following Campbell Collaboration guidelines, examined the effects of after-school programs on externalizing behaviors and school attendance with at-risk students. A systematic search for published and unpublished literature resulted in the inclusion of 24 studies. A total of 64 effect sizes (16 for attendance outcomes; 49 for externalizing behavior outcomes) extracted from 31 reports were included in the meta-analysis using robust variance estimation to handle dependencies among effect sizes. Mean effects were small and non-significant for attendance and externalizing behaviors. A moderate to large amount of heterogeneity was present; however, no moderator variable tested explained the variance between studies. Significant methodological shortcomings were identified across the corpus of studies included in this review. Implications for practice, policy and research are discussed. PMID:25416228

  6. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  7. Assessing the Connection Between Health and Education: Identifying Potential Leverage Points for Public Health to Improve School Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tony; Coller, Karen; Guerrero, Lourdes R.; Wong, Mitchell D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined multiple variables influencing school truancy to identify potential leverage points to improve school attendance. Methods. A cross-sectional observational design was used to analyze inner-city data collected in Los Angeles County, California, during 2010 to 2011. We constructed an ordinal logistic regression model with cluster robust standard errors to examine the association between truancy and various covariates. Results. The sample was predominantly Hispanic (84.3%). Multivariable analysis revealed greater truancy among students (1) with mild (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.01) and severe (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.13) depression (referent: no depression), (2) whose parents were neglectful (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.21, 4.03) or indulgent (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.82; referent: authoritative parents), (3) who perceived less support from classes, teachers, and other students regarding college preparation (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.95), (4) who had low grade point averages (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.49, 4.38), and (5) who reported using alcohol (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.34, 5.14) or marijuana (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.38) during the past month. Conclusions. Study findings suggest depression, substance use, and parental engagement as potential leverage points for public health to intervene to improve school attendance. PMID:25033134

  8. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  9. Understanding How Domestic Violence Affects Behavior in High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Malika

    2011-01-01

    This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…

  10. Oral hygiene status in relation to sociodemographic factors of children and adults who are hearing impaired, attending a special school.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santhosh; Dagli, Rushabh Jayesh; Mathur, Anmol; Jain, Manish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the oral hygiene levels and periodontal status in a group of children and adults with hearing impairment attending a special school in Udaipur, India. Oral hygiene status was assessed by the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) of Greene and Vermillion and periodontal status by the Community Periodontal Index. An analysis using a bivariate analysis revealed that all the oral hygiene variables varied significantly with age, economic status, and education of the parents. A multiple regression analysis showed that the education of the mother was the single best predictor for oral hygiene status and explained 92% of the variance. These findings show that children with hearing impairment have poor oral hygiene and high levels of periodontal disease. This may be due to a lack of communication; hence, appropriate oral health education should be tailored to the needs of these students with the support of their teachers and their parents.

  11. Meaning of occupation-based groups for low-income urban youths attending after-school care.

    PubMed

    Bazyk, Susan; Bazyk, John

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the meaning of occupational therapy groups focusing on occupational engagement, group process, and social-emotional learning for a purposeful sample of low-income urban youths attending after-school care. Interviews and participant observation were used to study how the children made sense of their experience. Qualitative data analysis resulted in two thematic descriptions of the experience. First, the groups were fun because of engagement in novel and challenging leisure occupations within a supportive group context. Participation in creative activities that allowed choice transformed mood--children experienced happiness and wanted more of these experiences. Second, the participants valued being able to talk about feelings and learn strategies for dealing with anger. Findings provide a glimpse into the possibilities of enhancing occupational balance by engaging children in occupations they find to be fun.

  12. Success in These Schools? Visual Counternarratives of Young Men of Color and Urban High Schools They Attend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of published scholarship on urban high schools in the United States focuses on problems of inadequacy, instability, underperformance, and violence. Similarly, across all schooling contexts, most of what has been written about young men of color continually reinforces deficit narratives about their educational possibility.…

  13. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  14. Effects of Kindergarten Attendance on Development of School Readiness and Language Skills. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn

    This study was made to find out to what extent kindergartens contribute to school readiness. Ninety children with a mean chronological age of 4.9 were tested with the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), and a Behavior Rating Scale and were retested one year later. During the intervening year,…

  15. The Relationship between the High School's Performance and Students' College Attendance Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Gary; Tanner, David

    2012-01-01

    Declining college admission test scores during the 1970s raised concerns that America's primary schools were inadequately preparing students for college or the workforce. Rock's (1985) analysis of SAT scores indicated that seniors in 1980 scoring at the 50th percentile for vocabulary would have placed at the 41st percentile in 1972. Mathematics…

  16. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  17. Why Attend School? Chinese Immigrant and European American Preschoolers' Views and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Yamamoto, Yoko; Luo, Lily; Batchelor, Andrea K.; Bresnahan, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The developing views of the purposes of school learning (PSLs) and related achievement among immigrant Chinese preschoolers and their European American (EA) age-mates were examined. Both culture and socioeconomic status (SES) were considered simultaneously, an often neglected research approach to studying Asian children. One hundred and fifty…

  18. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  19. Moving for Opportunities? Examining the Public School Attendance and Reading Achievement of Migrant Students in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, privately-run migrant schools have been established to provide affordable education for children of migrant workers who encountered difficulties in receiving compulsory education in urban areas due to China's household registration system. Recent policies promulgated by China's government have gradually eliminated the…

  20. School Attendance Revisited: A Study of Urban African American Students' Grade Point Averages and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.

    2008-01-01

    Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…

  1. The Subjective Well-Being of Israeli Adolescents Attending Specialized School Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie; Assoulin, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescents' well-being has long been considered a central goal in therapy and education, research focusing on the link between subjective well-being (SWB; happiness) and studying in specialized school classes is rather limited. Using a between-subjects design, the present study examined whether adolescents studying in sports, arts, or…

  2. Bullying in German Adolescents: Attending Special School for Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study analysed bullying in German adolescents with and without visual impairment. Ninety-eight adolescents with vision loss from schools for students with visual impairment, of whom 31 were blind and 67 had low vision, were compared with 98 sighted peers using a matched-pair design. Students with low vision reported higher levels of…

  3. The Effect of Concussion or Mild Traumatic Brain Injury on School Grades, National Examination Scores, and School Attendance: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rozbacher, Adrian; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Ellis, Michael; Russell, Kelly

    2017-02-27

    Concussion often results in symptoms, including difficulty concentrating, focusing, and remembering, that are typically managed with cognitive and physical rest. Often, the school environment is not conducive to cognitive rest and may lead to worsening or prolonged symptoms that can contribute to impaired academic performance. The objective of the review was to identify and summarize literature concerning the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on academic outcomes. MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched until June 1, 2016. Studies must have been primary literature examining students enrolled in primary, secondary, or post-secondary education, have received a physician diagnosis of concussion or mTBI, and have post-injury academic outcomes assessed in numeric or alphabet grade/grade point average (GPA), school attendance records, or national examination scores. Data were extracted and checked by a second reviewer for accuracy and completeness. Nine studies were included. Among four studies that examined grades, one found a significant difference in pre- and post-grades only in the subject Afrikaans. Three examined national test scores and no significant differences were found between cases and controls. Four examined school absenteeism and found that students who developed post-concussion syndrome missed significantly more school days and took longer to return to school than students with extremity injuries. Although mTBI or concussion is associated with missed school, the results demonstrate minimal impact on school grades and national examination scores at a group level. Further research is needed to identify risk factors for impaired school functioning following mTBI and concussion in individual patients.

  4. Active and Passive Commuting to School: Influences on Affect in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Angela; Bentley, Nick; Clough, Catherine; Fishlock, Adelle; Morrell, Frances; O'Brien, James; Radmore, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Active commuting among school children is being encouraged for physical and environmental reasons, but little is known about its influence on affect. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that children who walk further to school experience increased arousal and affective valence compared with children who walk a short distance. This was…

  5. Options for Educating Students Attending Department of Defense Schools in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    modernization, and ulti- mate replacement. Under a transfer of ownership, the legal title to school buildings would pass 1 One installation, West Point, has...either legality or imple- mentation. Setting up coterminous districts would require state cooperation, which might be difficult to obtain, and...base students. The other options have significant limitations or concerns about either legality or imple- mentation. Operating coterminous districts

  6. Effects of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Attendance, Grades, and Discipline Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Suspension from school removes students from the educational environment and interferes with school progress by decreasing prospects of gaining academic and social skills. Suspension also negatively affects school attendance and is an indicator of future disciplinary problems. To address problem behaviors that can lead to school suspensions,…

  7. Does Attending a Low-Achieving School Affect High-Performing Student Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ability tracking in K-12 education has been the subject of much research over the past decades, with proponents arguing that it allows for better instructional targeting and opponents countering that it has the potential to increase inequality. Despite the large volume of research on the topic, however, there is little consensus on the…

  8. Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

  9. Differences between Black/African American and White College Students regarding Influences on High School Completion, College Attendance, and Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; LaMothe, Saron; Fuller, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Compared with White persons, Black/African American persons in the United States continue to experience high rates of educational deficits and employment stagnation as well as lower college graduation rates. This study examined the influences on Black/African American and White college students' high school completion, college attendance, and…

  10. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  11. Progression of impairment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through the transition out of high school: Contributions of parent involvement and college attendance.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea L; Strickland, Noelle J; Murray, Desiree W; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall.

  12. Language Learning Strategies and Beliefs about Language Learning in High-School Students and Students Attending English Institutes: Are They Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeb, Fateme; Zamani, Elham

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comparative study exploring language learning strategy use and beliefs about language learning of high-school students and students attending English institutes. Oxford's (1990) strategy inventory for language learning (SILL) and Horwitz's (1987) beliefs about language learning inventory (BALLI), were used to collect data.…

  13. Progression of impairment in adolescents with ADHD through the transition out of high school: Contributions of parent involvement and college attendance

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Strickland, Noelle; Murray, Desiree W.; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) Study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall. PMID:26854508

  14. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  15. School Segregation, Charter Schools, and Access to Quality Education.

    PubMed

    Logan, John R; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2016-08-01

    Race, class, neighborhood, and school quality are all highly inter-related in the American educational system. In the last decade a new factor has come into play, the option of attending a charter school. We offer a comprehensive analysis of the disparities among public schools attended by white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American children in 2010-2011, including all districts in which charter schools existed. We compare schools in terms of poverty concentration, racial composition, and standardized test scores, and we also examine how attending a charter or non-charter school affects these differences. Black and Hispanic (and to a lesser extent Native American and Asian) students attend elementary and high schools with higher rates of poverty than white students. Especially for whites and Asians, attending a charter school means lower exposure to poverty. Children's own race and the poverty and charter status of their schools affect the test scores and racial isolation of schools that children attend in complex combinations. Most intriguing, attending a charter school means attending a better performing school in high-poverty areas but a lower performing school in low-poverty areas. Yet even in the best case the positive effect of attending a charter school only slightly offsets the disadvantages of black and Hispanic students.

  16. Awareness of Mouth Cancer Among Adult Dental Patients Attending the Kuwait University Dental School Clinic.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bobby K; Ali, Mohammad A; Sundaram, Devipriya B

    2016-09-08

    In Kuwait, the age-standardized incidence rate (per 100,000) for oral cancer is 1.5 and the mortality rate is 0.4. Early detection of oral cancer combined with appropriate treatment greatly improves the chances of cure and the quality of life. However, little is known about patient awareness of this disease and the ability to identify early signs, particularly among high-risk groups. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess dental patients' awareness and knowledge of mouth cancer and beliefs and perceptions about risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from a convenience sample of outpatients attending the dental admission clinic. The questionnaire included questions to ascertain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of risk factors, and signs of oral cancer as well as sources of information regarding the same. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows 19.0. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed out of which 136 completed questionnaires were returned and used for the study. The mean knowledge score for oral cancer risk factors was found to be 5.2 ± 2.7 out of ten while that of signs and symptoms was 3.4 ± 2.7 out of eight. When the knowledge of risk factors of oral cancer was taken into consideration along with variables, significant difference was seen only in sex with women having better knowledge (p = 0.03). Knowledge about signs and symptoms of oral cancer revealed a highly significant difference with the level of education (p = 0.03). Family, friends, and colleagues were mentioned as the main source of information regarding oral cancer. Our findings suggest that knowledge regarding oral cancer risk factors, signs, and symptoms was found to be lacking among the dental patients which emphasizes the need for patient education at the dental centers as well as public awareness programs.

  17. Effects of College Educational Debt on Graduate School Attendance and Early Career and Lifestyle Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how college educational debt affects various post-baccalaureate decisions of bachelor's degree recipients. I employ the Baccalaureate and Beyond 93/97 survey data. Using college-aid policies as instrumental variables to correct for the endogeneity of student college debt level, I find that for public college graduates, college…

  18. Pre-existing adversity, level of child protection involvement, and school attendance predict educational outcomes in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Maltreatment largely occurs in a multiple-risk context. The few large studies adjusting for confounding factors have raised doubts about whether low educational achievement results from maltreatment or co-occurring risk factors. This study examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for low educational achievement among children involved with the child protection system compared to other children. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia who sat national Year 3 reading achievement tests between 2008 and 2010 (N=46,838). The longitudinal study linked data from the Western Australian Department of Education, Department of Child Protection and Family Support, Department of Health, and the Disability Services Commission. Children with histories of child protection involvement (unsubstantiated maltreatment reports, substantiations or out-of-home care placement) were at three-fold increased risk of low reading scores. Adjusting for socio-demographic adversity partially attenuated the increased risk, however risk remained elevated overall and for substantiated (OR=1.68) and unsubstantiated maltreatment (OR=1.55). Risk of low reading scores in the out-of-home care group was fully attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic adversity (OR=1.16). Attendance was significantly higher in the out-of-home care group and served a protective role. Neglect, sexual abuse, and physical abuse were associated with low reading scores. Pre-existing adversity was also significantly associated with achievement. Results support policies and practices to engage children and families in regular school attendance, and highlight a need for further strategies to prevent maltreatment and disadvantage from restricting children's opportunities for success.

  19. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112

  20. Evaluation of a School for Young Mothers: The Frequency of Prematurity Among Infants Born to Mothers Under 17 Years of Age, According to the Mother's Attendance of a Special School During Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Oscar C.; Kelley, Elizabeth B.

    1970-01-01

    Registration with a social agency, required attendance of prenatal care, school lunch, milk, and health an nutritional education are elements of a public school program for teenage mothers which is described in this article. Significantly fewer premature births and infant deaths are reported as a result of the program. (DM)

  1. Yoga in Public School Improves Adolescent Mood and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class…

  2. Affect regulation and HIV risk among youth in therapeutic schools

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22669595

  3. Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools: Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety symptoms. Participants were caregivers of 241 children (6-18 years old) with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools in Singapore. Measures included the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and assessments of overall emotional, behavioural and adaptive functioning. Caregivers reported more anxiety symptoms in total, but fewer social anxiety symptoms, than Spence Children's Anxiety Scale Australian/Dutch norms. There were no gender differences. Variance in total anxiety scores was best explained by severity of repetitive speech/stereotyped behaviour symptoms, followed by adaptive functioning. Severity of repetitive speech/behaviour symptoms was a significant predictor of separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, panic/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive subscale symptoms, but not of social phobia and physical injury fears. Adaptive functioning and chronological age predicted social phobia and generalized anxiety symptoms only. Severity of social/communication autism symptoms did not explain any anxiety symptoms, when the other variables were controlled for. Findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. Limitations and possible implications for prevention, assessment and intervention are also discussed.

  4. Risk factors associated with tobacco, alcohol and drug use among adolescents attending secondary school in three cities from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morello, Paola; Pérez, Adriana; Peña, Lorena; Braun, Sandra N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James; Mejía, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco, alcohol and drug use starts at an early age. It is important to identify risk factors associated with initiation. In 2014, a survey was conducted among students attending first year of secondary schools in Buenos Aires, Córdoba, and Tucumán. A total of 3172 students completed the survey (42% were girls); their mean age was 12.8 years old. Findings showed that 10% had smoked; 32% had consumed alcohol; 17% had a heavy drinking episode in the past month; and 8% had used at least one illegal drug once in their lifetime. A high sensation seeking index was associated with the use of tobacco (odds ratio [OR]: 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-8.1), alcohol (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 3.73-8.31), and marijuana, coca paste or cocaine, (OR: 11.73, 95% CI: 5.81-23.69). Having friends who smoke or drink was associated with tobacco (OR: 12.6, 95% CI: 7.8-20.5) and alcohol use (OR: 5.17, 95% CI: 4.15-6.40). Having permissive parents in terms of media use was associated with tobacco use (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.1-6.5), and perceiving a low parental support and control (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.40-6.52) was associated with marijuana, coca paste and cocaine use.

  5. School Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  6. The Impact of a School-Based Enterprise Program on the Achievement and Behavior of Special Education Students Attending High Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilot, Grover Cleve

    2011-01-01

    Our nation's K-12 schools are faced with numerous critical challenges that affect student achievement and consequently impact society. Key challenges, such as elevating academic achievement, meeting state and No Child Left Behind (NCLB) standards, high dropout rates, at-risk students, parental involvement, and the recruitment and retention of…

  7. Factors Affecting Children's Judgement of Culturally Deviant Acts: Findings from an International School in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsuki, Aya; Tanaka, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between perceptions of culturally deviant acts and multicultural experiences of elementary-school children attending an international school in Japan. Findings indicated that children judged a Japanese harsher than a foreigner, irrespective of the children's age. It was also found that younger children were…

  8. High School Substance Use as a Predictor of College Attendance, Completion, and Dropout: A National Multicohort Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'Malley, Patrick M.

    2016-01-01

    National data from Monitoring the Future were used to examine patterns and predictors of college attendance. Samples of American 12th-grade students from 1977 to 2003 were followed for 7 years (modal ages 18-25; N = 10,020). College attendance and graduation patterns varied considerably over historical time and based on family background.…

  9. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to reduce rates of chronic student absenteeism in New York City public schools. The study authors reported that schools participating in the intervention experienced greater reductions in rates of student chronic absenteeism than the comparison schools. Students who attended the…

  10. Advice for Administrators: Writing the Attendance Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rood, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Since the 1990s, truancy has become administrators' most persistent problem. This article examines student absenteeism trends, characteristics of nonattenders, and current attendance policies. While schools can encourage attendance, final responsibility rests with students and parents. Includes four references. (MLH)

  11. 5 CFR 843.410 - Annuity for a child age 18 to 22 during full-time school attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the school or the records. (i) If the educational institution is above the high school level, the... equivalent. (ii) If the educational institution is at the high school level, the certification must be signed... school (immediately after the break) as a full-time student constitute prima facie evidence of a...

  12. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  13. Yoga in public school improves adolescent mood and affect.

    PubMed

    Felver, Joshua C; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J; Smith, Iona M; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class and a single PE class one week later. Data were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and Wilcoxon-signed ranks tests and by comparing effect sizes between the two conditions. Participants reported significantly greater decreases in anger, depression, and fatigue from before to after participating in yoga compared to PE. Significant reductions in negative affect occurred after yoga but not after PE; however, the changes were not significantly different between conditions. In addition, after participating in both yoga and PE, participants reported significant decreases in confusion and tension, with no significant difference between groups. Results suggest that school-based yoga may provide unique benefits for students above and beyond participation in PE. Future research should continue to elucidate the distinct psychological and physiological effects of participating in yoga compared to PE activities.

  14. Yoga in public school improves adolescent mood and affect

    PubMed Central

    Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class and a single PE class one week later. Data were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and Wilcoxon-signed ranks tests and by comparing effect sizes between the two conditions. Participants reported significantly greater decreases in anger, depression, and fatigue from before to after participating in yoga compared to PE. Significant reductions in negative affect occurred after yoga but not after PE; however, the changes were not significantly different between conditions. In addition, after participating in both yoga and PE, participants reported significant decreases in confusion and tension, with no significant difference between groups. Results suggest that school-based yoga may provide unique benefits for students above and beyond participation in PE. Future research should continue to elucidate the distinct psychological and physiological effects of participating in yoga compared to PE activities. PMID:26478825

  15. Factors affecting nutritional status of Malaysian primary school children.

    PubMed

    Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.

  16. How Can a Traditional Greek Dances Programme Affect the Motor Proficiency of Pre-School Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of an introductory traditional Greek dances programme on the motor proficiency development of pre-school-age children. The sample of this research consisted of 66 students (36 boys and 30 girls) attending public kindergarten in Argolida prefecture (Greece), aged 4-6 years (X = 59.79 plus or…

  17. How Teachers Values Affect Their Evaluation of Children of Immigrants: Findings from Islamic and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Ryce, Patrice; Mir, Madeeha

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the implications of how teachers' views of immigrant parents predict their ratings of first-grade students' academic competence and behavioral problems. Teachers rated 191 first-grade immigrant students attending Islamic and public schools in the Northeast United States. The results showed that when teachers perceived parents…

  18. Extracurricular Activity Participation in High School: Mechanisms Linking Participation to Math Achievement and 4-Year College Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Extracurricular activity participation (EAP) has been positively linked with increased academic achievement and college attendance. However, the mechanisms linking EAP to educational outcomes are poorly understood. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), this study contributes to our understanding of the relationship between EAP and…

  19. At-Risk Youth in Crisis: A Handbook for Collaboration between Schools and Social Services. Volume 5: Attendance Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn-Benton Education Services District, Albany, OR.

    Guidelines for responding to immediate crisis situations in attendance and strategies for longterm prevention are presented in this handbook, which stresses the need for interagency cooperation. The handbook serves as a model for both content and process, with the ultimate aim of promoting an arena in which the most appropriate service delivery…

  20. 5 CFR 831.672 - Annuity for a child age 18 to 22 during full-time school attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... institution is above the high school level, the certification must be signed by the president or chancellor... school as a full-time student immediately after the break. The full-time certification for the prior term... that the student intends to return to school (immediately after the break) as a full-time...

  1. 5 CFR 831.672 - Annuity for a child age 18 to 22 during full-time school attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... institution is above the high school level, the certification must be signed by the president or chancellor... school as a full-time student immediately after the break. The full-time certification for the prior term... that the student intends to return to school (immediately after the break) as a full-time...

  2. Student Success in First-Year University Physics and Mathematics Courses: Does the High-School Attended Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Bluman, George; Tiedje, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers school factors that contribute to a successful transition from high school to first-year university Physics courses at the University of British Columbia by employing a two-level hierarchical model. It is assumed that there is a relationship between student performance and the high school they graduated from. It is shown that…

  3. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    PubMed

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country.

  4. "Teachers Should Be like Second Parents": Affectivity, Schooling and Poverty in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasco, Maribel

    2004-01-01

    The paper highlights the importance of affectivity in school retention in public secondary schools in Guadalajara, Mexico, in a socioeconomic context where the students themselves often decide whether to stay in school or to drop out. In such contexts, students' feelings towards the school and the teachers can become crucial in deciding whether to…

  5. The contribution of schools to supporting the well being of children affected by HIV in eastern Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Masoka, Tidings; Mpandaguta, Edith; Andersen, Louise; Skovdal, Morten; Nyamukapa, Constance; Campbell, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Schools are often cited as a source of support for orphans and children affected by HIV/AIDS in populations experiencing generalized HIV epidemics and severe poverty. Here we investigate the success of schools at including and supporting the well being of vulnerable children in rural Zimbabwe. Design Data from a cross-sectional household survey of 4577 children (aged 6–17 years), conducted between 2009 and 2011, were linked to data on the characteristics of 28 primary schools and 18 secondary schools from a parallel monitoring and evaluation facility survey. Methods We construct two measures of school quality (one general and one HIV-specific) and use multivariable regression to test whether these were associated with improved educational outcomes and well being for vulnerable children. Results School quality was not associated with primary or secondary school attendance, but was associated with children’s being in the correct grade for age [adjusted odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.5, P = 0.01]. General and HIV-specific school quality had significant positive effects on well being in the primary school-age children (coefficient 5.1, 95% CI 2.4–7.7, P < 0.01 and coefficient 3.0, 95% CI 0.4–5.6, P = 0.02, respectively), but not in the secondary school-age children (P > 0.2). There was no evidence that school quality provided an additional benefit to the well being of vulnerable children. Community HIV prevalence was negatively associated with well being in the secondary school-age children (coefficient −0.7, 95% CI −1.3 to −0.1, P = 0.03). Conclusions General and HIV-specific school quality may enhance the well being of primary school-age children in eastern Zimbabwe. Local community context also plays an important role in child well being. PMID:24991911

  6. The Relationship of Selected Academic and Educational Factors on Student Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Sharon K.

    2009-01-01

    Truancy (student attendance) is a serious concern that affects most school districts across the country. Truancy is a statistic that seems to elude school districts in coming up with an exact number, but they do know it exists. The reason this is so is because of a lack of a true definition of truancy. Statistics have shown that students skip…

  7. High School Employment, School Performance, and College Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chanyoung; Orazem, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of U.S. high school students working during the school year ranges from 23% in the freshman year to 75% in the senior year. This study estimates how cumulative work histories during the high school years affect probability of dropout, high school academic performance, and the probability of attending college. Variations in…

  8. Evaluating the Impact of a Summer Dropout Prevention Program for Incoming Freshmen Attending an Under-Resourced High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth; Shriberg, David; Alves, Alison; de Oca, Jessie Montes; Reker, Kassandra; Roche, Meghan; Salgado, Manuel; Stegmaier, Jessica; Viellieu, Lindsay; Karahalios, Vicky; Knoll, Michael; Adams, Kristen; Diaz, Yahaira; Rau, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Low high school completion rates are an ongoing challenge for educators. This study provides the results of an evaluation of a ninth-grade summer transition program offered at a large public school with a high freshman dropout rate. The evaluation consisted of preprogram and postprogram surveys and interviews with 64 incoming freshman…

  9. Raising More than Test Scores: Does Attending a "No Excuses" Charter High School Help Students Succeed in College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Matthew; Heller, Blake

    2017-01-01

    Do "no excuses" charter high schools merely help students succeed on standardized tests? Are their students more likely to succeed after they leave school behind? Is it test prep, or true learning? Little prior research is available on this question. Although there is a robust positive correlation between test performance and college…

  10. Working with "Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning" (SEAL): Associations with School Ethos, Pupil Social Experiences, Attendance, and Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Robin; Weare, Katherine; Farr, William

    2014-01-01

    A programme of resources and activities relating to "Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning" (SEAL) has been rolled out nationally to primary and secondary schools in the UK, but we know little about how variations in the implementation of this work relate to key indicators of school success. In the present study, a team of experienced…

  11. Education Options in the States: State Programs That Provide Financial Assistance for Attendance at Private Elementary or Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, parents have benefited from a significant expansion of educational options for their children. Parents have many more opportunities than just a few years ago to choose from an array of public school options, including charter, virtual, and magnet schools. Expanding educational options for parents is one of the hallmarks of the…

  12. Young People with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Mainstream and Segregated Schooling: Perceived Stigma, Social Comparison and Future Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, G.; Jahoda, A.; Gumley, A.; Knott, F.

    2006-01-01

    `Mainstream schooling is a key policy in the promotion of social inclusion of young people with learning disabilities. Yet there is limited evidence about the school experience of young people about to leave mainstream as compared with segregated education, and how it impacts on their relative view of self and future aspirations. Methods: Sixty…

  13. Effect of Full-Time versus Part-Time School Nurses on Attendance of Elementary Students with Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.

    2004-01-01

    Asthma, the most common chronic disease in children today, is the leading cause of absenteeism among students. It accounts for nearly 20 million lost school days annually. This study examined whether full-time (5 days per week) or part-time (2 days per week) school nurses would have a differential effect on the frequency of absences among…

  14. Examining the Effects of Gender, Poverty, Attendance, and Ethnicity on Algebra, Geometry, and Trigonometry Performance in a Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades school accountability for student performance has become an issue at the forefront of education. The federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and various regulations by individual states have set standards for student performance at both the district and individual public and charter school levels, and certain…

  15. Physical Activity, Dietary Practices, and Other Health Behaviors of At-Risk Youth Attending Alternative High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the interest of alternative high school staff in intervention research on students' eating and physical activity habits and the feasibility of conducting such research in alternative school settings. A two-phase descriptive design incorporated both quantitative and qualitative methods. In fall/winter 2001-2002, alternative high…

  16. HIV-Affected Children and Adolescents: What School Social Workers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Dorie J.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues facing HIV-affected children and adolescents and aims to help school social workers become better equipped to recognize the secondary effects of the AIDS epidemic among HIV-affected children. Concludes with recommendations for addressing the needs of HIV-affected children and adolescents through school social work.…

  17. Teaching School Science within the Cognitive and Affective Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Siang; Heng, Chong Yong; Tan, Shuhui

    2013-01-01

    In classrooms, science is usually taught within the cognitive domain while the psychomotor learning domain is achieved through performing science experiments in the laboratory. Although students attend civic and moral education and pastoral care classes where values and life skills are often taught directly, learning experiences in most school…

  18. How Race Affects the Photographs Adolescents Take of School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damico, Sandra Bowman

    1986-01-01

    Having students photograph their schools reveals unconscious perceptions held by individuals about their environment. In this study, significant differences existed between Black and White students. While the schools had been desegregated, photographs showed they were not yet integrated. (LHW)

  19. Asthma Status and Severity Affects Missed School Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonie, Sheniz A.; Sterling, David A.; Figgs, Larry; Castro, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Excessive school absence disrupts learning and is a strong predictor of premature school dropout. School-aged children with asthma are absent more often compared to their healthy peers without asthma; yet, the causes are inadequately documented. We sought to determine the difference in mean absence days between children with and without asthma,…

  20. Parents Support Implementation of HIV Testing and Counseling at School: Cross-Sectional Study with Parents of Adolescent Attending High School in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. A formative assessment of the implementation of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) at school showed high acceptability and willingness to test among learners. However, the success of the proposed HTC depends on the support and acceptability of key stakeholders, including the parents. The aim of the study was to assess the opinions and acceptability of the implementation of HTC at school among parents of adolescents in high school. Methods. This was a cross-sectional household survey conducted with parents of adolescents attending high schools in educational districts in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Results. A total of 804 parents participated, and 548 (68.3%) were biological mothers, 85 (10.6%) were fathers, and the remaining were other relatives including grandmothers. Almost all (n = 742, 92.9%) parents were in support of implementation and provision of HTC at school, 701 (87.7%) would allow their children to be tested at school, 365 (46%) felt that parental consent was not needed to test at school, and 39.4% preferred to receive the HIV test results with their children. Conclusion. Parents accept the roll-out of an HTC program at school and have a role to play in supporting children who test positive for HIV. PMID:27807481

  1. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  2. 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2014-02-01

    Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming⩽three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized.

  3. Amount and environmental predictors of outdoor playtime at home and school: a cross-sectional analysis of a national sample of preschool-aged children attending Head Start.

    PubMed

    Marino, Alexis J; Fletcher, Erica N; Whitaker, Robert C; Anderson, Sarah E

    2012-11-01

    Outdoor play is an important contributor to children's physical activity and the prevalence, correlates, and environmental predictors of it among young children are not well characterized. This study aims to estimate the amount of time preschool-aged children attending Head Start spend playing outdoors at home and school, and whether aspects of the home and school environment are associated with greater outdoor play. We analyzed data (n=2529) collected in spring 2007 in the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES). Overall, 37.5% of children played outside at home >2h per weekday. Children who had a yard near home to play in or who had visited a park or playground or gone on a picnic with a family member in the last month were more likely to have >2h per weekday outdoor play at home, but having a playground within walking distance of the home was not related to home outdoor playtime. On average children played outdoors at Head Start for 36 min per day. The amount of time children played outdoors at home was not related to school outdoor time.

  4. Cheaper by the Dozen: Using Sibling Discounts at Catholic Schools to Estimate the Price Elasticity of Private School Attendance. NBER Working Paper No. 15461

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynarski, Susan; Gruber, Jonathan; Li, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The effect of vouchers on sorting between private and public schools depends upon the price elasticity of demand for private schooling. Estimating this elasticity is empirically challenging because prices and quantities are jointly determined in the market for private schooling. We exploit a unique and previously undocumented source of variation…

  5. An Examination of the Impact That Selected School Characteristics Have on the Academic Achievement of Students Attending High Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of school locale, size and poverty levels (SES) on student achievement has been of great interest in school research for more than the last five decades. The increasing public demand to hold schools accountable for their effects on student outcomes lends urgency to the task of exploring variables related to student achievement that are…

  6. Relationships between Risk Factors, Perceptions of School Membership and Academic and Behavioral Engagement of Students Who Attend an Alternative School for Behavioral and Emotional Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Simpson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the perceptions of school membership, risk factors, and behavioral and academic engagement among a sample of alternative school students. The study subjects were 48 7th-9th graders who were at high risk for school failure because of their serious and chronic behavioral and…

  7. Charter Schools... Taking a Closer Look: How Charter Schools Operate, Who Attends Them, How They Are Distinctive, and How They Fare Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina E.

    2012-01-01

    Since the adoption of the first charter school law in Minnesota in 1991, charter schools have received considerable attention. Three U.S. presidents, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama, have all supported charters, and the Obama administration has highlighted charter schools under its Race to the Top fund and in regulations for its…

  8. School and Classroom Goal Structures: Effects on Affective Responses in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Koidou, Eirini; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relative impact of school and classroom goal structures on students' affective responses and the mediating role of motivation. The sample of the study consisted of 368 high school students, who completed measures of school and classroom goal structures, motivational regulations in physical education, boredom, and…

  9. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Teachers in Guidance and Counselling as a Whole-School Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah K. Y.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors affecting the involvement of regular secondary school teachers in the whole-school approach to guidance and counselling by interviewing 12 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Emerging themes include teachers' ownership of their role in student guidance and counselling, the alignment of their disposition with…

  10. School Factors Explaining Achievement on Cognitive and Affective Outcomes: Establishing a Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…

  11. An Examination of Attendance, Sports or Club Involvement, Special Education Involvement, and Ethnicity as Predictors of High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Matthew G.

    2010-01-01

    Many students do not graduate from high school, which could lead to poorer quality of life, lower paying jobs, and increased crime. Previous researchers have indicated that Hispanic and African American students graduate at a significantly lower rate than White students. However, there remains an important gap in the current literature regarding…

  12. High School Achievement and Aptitude Comparisons of Students Planning to Attend Different Types of College Institutions. Biographic Survey, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beanblossom, Gary F.

    College populations may differ greatly, not only in terms of traditional academic variables such as high school grades and test performances, but also in terms of student interests, values, educational aspirations, occupational plans, and socio-economic background. The recognition of biographic variables as potential predictors of academic success…

  13. Learning: The Experiences of Adults Who Work Full-Time while Attending Graduate School Part-Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Bridget N.; Cordova, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The experiences of students who are working full-time and going to graduate school part-time were the focus of this phenomenological investigation. Data analysis showed that these individuals, who reported high job involvement and strong career planning, were often stymied when they attempted to apply new ideas to the workplace. Those with strong…

  14. Invest for the Long Term or Attend to Immediate Needs? Schools and the Employment of Less Educated Youths and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz, Inaki; Siles, Gregori; Vrecer, Natalija

    2011-01-01

    For the past 20 years, researchers worldwide have shared a consensus that tracking leads to failure in school. But educational systems continue to use this practice for many reasons. One argument used to support the practice is that students who enter the vocational track early in their careers tend to enter the labour market more quickly. Data…

  15. Leadership Practices and the Relationship between Teacher Attendance and Teacher Perceptions of Leadership Behaviors in a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiste, Monica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Of all the work that occurs within the P-12 education institutions, the interaction involving the teacher and pupil is the most significant contributing factor of student success (United States Department of Education, 2013). Yet, the problem of teacher absenteeism persists in schools throughout the United States. The accumulated results of…

  16. What We Know about School Integration, College Attendance, and the Reduction of Poverty. Research Brief No. 4. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegeler, Philip; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Bottia, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The goals of promoting integration and avoiding racial isolation in K-12 education were recently reaffirmed as compelling government interests. The importance of avoiding racial and economic segregation in schools is important not just for its own sake, but because of the documented benefits to students that flow from more racially integrated,…

  17. The Voices of Thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese Parents Sharing Views about their Children Attending Chinese Heritage Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Li-yuan; Larke, Patrica J.

    2008-01-01

    Many Chinese and Taiwanese parents in the United States see benefits of Chinese schools in providing their children the opportunity to learn Chinese culture and language. The results of this qualitative study involving interviews with thirteen Chinese and Taiwanese parents indicated that there were three main reasons why parents want to send their…

  18. Music as Engaging, Educational Matrix: Exploring the Case of Marginalised Students Attending an "Alternative" Music Industry School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, David; Riddle, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    "Harmony High" is an alternative school where music functions as an educational magnet to attract marginalised students who have disengaged from the mainstream. Through an investigation of the student perspective, we discover that while acting as a magnet, music also becomes the educational matrix or "heart and soul" that helps…

  19. Capturing the Pupil Voice of Secondary Gifted and Talented Students Who Had Attended an Enrichment Programme in Their Infant School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted during the Easter holidays of 2010 at Rawmarsh City Learning Centre with 16 students from school years 8 to 11 who had participated, during their infant years, in a gifted and talented Key Stage One Enrichment Cluster. The students represented a wide range of backgrounds, and five were identified as being on the autistic…

  20. The Influence of a Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program on Student Perceptions and Desire to Attend Graduate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David A.; Krueger, Paul S.; Kendrick, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate research opportunities are valued by university faculty and administrators in part because of the belief that they are useful for attracting students to graduate school. Other perceived benefits are that these programs improve students' engagement in their respective disciplines, enhance students' understanding of theory by…

  1. Factors Affecting Technology Uses in Schools: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors…

  2. Variables Affecting Students' Decisions to Drop Out of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Caroline; Chambers, Dalee; Rabren, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This study examined factors predictive of dropping out of high school for students with learning disabilities (LD) and mental retardation (MR). The sample was composed of 228 students with LD or MR who dropped out of school and 228 students with LD or MR who had not dropped out. Two sets of pre- dictor variables (student demographics and interview…

  3. Factors Affecting Student Performance in Law School Economics Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Noting the increasing role of economics in the law, many law schools have introduced formal economics instruction into their curricula. Several of the controversies surrounding liberal arts courses taught in law schools are examined. Prior formal coursework in the subject appeared to have no relationship to course performance. (MLW)

  4. Evaluating School Improvement Plans and Their Affect on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    The development of a school improvement plan (SIP) has become an integral part of many school reform efforts. However, there are almost no studies that empirically examine the effectiveness of SIPs. The few studies examining the planning activities of organizations have generally focused on the private sector and have not provided clear or…

  5. Attendance and Truancy Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    According to the 2000 census, high school dropouts had a 52% employment rate, compared to 71% for high school graduates and 83% for college graduates. According to NCSE, the national dropout rate is 30% of which 80% had been chronically absent from school ("School attendance tracking: Challenges and effective practices"), which puts the…

  6. Voices of At-Risk Youth: Perceptions of Continuation High School Students regarding Factors Affecting Their Engagement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework of critical pedagogy and the lens of social justice to focus on engagement and student voice, this research includes both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, in respect to the perceptions of continuation high school students regarding factors affecting their engagement in high school. The purpose of this study…

  7. [Prevalence of sexual intercourse and associated factors among adolescents attending schools in Goiânia in the state of Goiás, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Reinaldo Satoru Azevedo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents in a Brazilian city and its association with sociodemographic factors, health-risk behaviors, and body image perception. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), carried out in 2009. The sample comprised schoolchildren enrolled in the 9th year in the city of Goiânia, Goiás (n= 3,099), mostly aged between 13 and 15. The dependent variable was the reporting of sexual intercourse at least once. To identify variables associated with sexual activity, Poisson regression analysis was used. The prevalence of sexual intercourse at least once in the adolescents' lifetime was 26.5% (95% CI= 23.8-29.4). Prevalence was higher among males, those aged 14 years or older, who reported not living with their mother or with their father, who attended public schools, reported alcohol, tobacco or other drug use, and were involved in fights and family violence. The conclusion reached was that the prevalence of sexual intercourse was high and associated with poor sociodemographic conditions, health-risk behaviors and violence. These factors should be considered in the health promotion strategies seeking more safe and healthy sexual behavior during adolescence.

  8. Effects of After-School Programs on Attendance and Externalizing Behaviors with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the number and types of after-school programs (ASPs) have increased substantially as a result of increased federal and private spending and because ASPs are perceived to provide wide-ranging and far-reaching benefits to students, families, schools and the public. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is…

  9. Relationships between nutrition-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior for fifth grade students attending Title I and non-Title I schools.

    PubMed

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (<40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals). A validated survey was completed by 55 fifth grade students from Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P < 0.0001) and knowledge (β = 0.35, P = 0.002) strongly predicted behavior; however, only self-efficacy remained significant in the Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower

  10. Factors Affecting Student Engagement: A Case Study Examining Two Cohorts of Students Attending a Post-1992 University in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Mark; Sellars, Christopher; Smith, Julian; Barber, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Issues relating to student retention and student engagement remain high on the agendas of higher education institutions worldwide. This case study considers the factors that impact on student engagement within a sample of first year undergraduate sports students attending a post 1992 university in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.…

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  12. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the 2012 Friday Academy Attendance and Statistical Comparisons of 1L GPA (Predicted and Actual)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadhi, T.; Rudley, D.; Holley, D.; Krishna, K.; Ogolla, C.; Rene, E.; Green, T.

    2010-01-01

    The following report of descriptive statistics addresses the attendance of the 2012 class and the average Actual and Predicted 1L Grade Point Averages (GPAs). Correlational and Inferential statistics are also run on the variables of Attendance (Y/N), Attendance Number of Times, Actual GPA, and Predictive GPA (Predictive GPA is defined as the Index…

  13. An Africentric Rite of Passage Program and Its Impact on Adolescent African-American Male Attendance, Discipline, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Little, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine an Africentric rite of passage program's impact on African-American male high school students. It is intended to determine whether a rite of passage program will affect attendance, discipline and achievement. The study also investigates the development of a school-based Africentric program as well as its…

  14. Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal Behavior with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Campbell Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Brendel, Kristen E.; Bulanda, Jeffery J; Thompson, Aaron M.; Pigott, Terri D.

    2015-01-01

    School refusal behavior, affecting between 1% and 5% of school-age children, is a psychosocial problem for students characterized by severe emotional distress and anxiety at the prospect of going to school, leading to difficulties in attending school and, in some cases, significant absences from school (Burke & Silverman, 1987; Elliot, 1999;…

  15. Why Green Clean Our Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Margot; Grevatt, Peter; Merse, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Healthy school environments are essential to ensure the best setting for learning. When school environments are unhealthy, students and staff may be exposed to harmful pollutants and chemicals that can cause their health, attendance, and scholastic performance to suffer. Among the factors that can affect the environmental quality of school indoor…

  16. A Study on Students' Affective Factors in Junior High School English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Biyi; Zhou, Yaping

    2012-01-01

    Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners' learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in…

  17. Examining Students' Affective Commitment toward Country: A Case Study of a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.…

  18. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khowaja, Yasmin; Karmaliani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Rafique, Ghazala; McFarlane, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs) in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods: A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control) participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS) was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results: A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control) completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17%) in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2%) in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over-reactivity. Conclusion

  19. School Administrators View Affective Behavior as an Educational Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Dale; Patalino, Marianne

    The Elementary School Evaluation Kit has been devised as an aid in evaluating student performance levels across a wide range of concepts and skills, interpreting the resultant data, and providing a basis for valid decisions aimed at improving the students' performance. Included in the kit are needs analysis procedures that enable a principal to…

  20. Factors Affecting Computer Anxiety in High School Computer Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayek, Linda M.; Stephens, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Examines factors related to computer anxiety measured by the Computer Anxiety Index (CAIN). Achievement in two programing courses was inversely related to computer anxiety. Students who had a home computer and had computer experience before high school had lower computer anxiety than those who had not. Lists 14 references. (YP)

  1. Pregnancy Cases and Legislation Affecting Equality and Costs in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Robert C.

    This paper discusses five court cases decided in the seventies that explain the viewpoints held by the courts on pregnant school employees. According to the paper, the cases reveal the judicial background that prompted P.L. 95-555, passed by Congress in 1978 and identified as an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII. The cases, not…

  2. Factors Affecting Retirement Attitude among Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wan-Chen; Chiang, Chia-Hsun; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of teacher efficacy, perceived organizational control, and the teacher-student age gap with teachers' retirement attitudes. Stratified random sampling was adopted to collect survey responses. A total of 498 valid surveys from 33 elementary schools were collected. Correlational analyses revealed significant…

  3. Financial Assistance for Federally Affected Schools. A Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyne, Norman G.

    Education as such is not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution, and public education has been the responsibility of State governments. In practice, the public schools have been operated by local communities and financed primarily by taxation of real property. U.S. Government acquisition of property for military use, defense production, and other…

  4. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported “ever had sex.” Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06–2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of “ever had sex”. For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of “ever had sex”. Conclusion A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills. PMID:27906980

  5. The Effects of School Climate Change on Student Success in a Fifth and Sixth Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    The significance of the study was to examine intentional strategies to improve school climate relative to student school success as measured by academic achievement, attendance, and student behavior. It was important to understand how student school success was affected by factors related to school climate improvement such as leadership and change…

  6. Factors Affecting the Happiness of Urban Elementary School Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenney, Jodiann K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…

  7. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the…

  8. Educational Interventions for Visual-Motor Deficiencies That Affect Handwriting in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikowski, Timothy J.

    This practicum was designed to remediate handwriting skills in school-aged children who displayed visual-motor deficiencies that affect mechanical skills. Practicum goals were to: (1) identify and diagnose children with handwriting delays; (2) involve school and parent interaction by involving them with pre- and post-program assessment; (3)…

  9. Factors Affecting Effective Teaching and Learning of Economics in Some Ogbomosho High Schools, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Gbemisola Motunrayo; Nkoyane, Vusy

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine the present curriculum of Economics as a subject in some Ogbomoso Senior High Schools and to determine factors affecting effective teaching of economics in the schools. Variables such as number of students, teachers' ratio available textbooks were also examined. The study adopted descriptive design since it is…

  10. An Investigation of Factors Affecting the Use of Educational Technology in Turkish Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the related factors that affect the usage of educational technology in primary schools. This study depends on literature analysis and the questionnaire to collect data. Specifically, the items employed in this study were derived from the teachers' and school administrators' perceptions of using…

  11. Young People's Time-of-Day Preferences Affect Their School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Frech, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    During puberty, young people shift their time-of-day preferences from morningness to eveningness. One of the main problems seems to be early school-start times, which force adolescents to start working at a given time that may be too early for them; and this, in turn, negatively affects school functioning. Here, we ask whether…

  12. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories during Secondary School Predict Substance Use among Urban Minority Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…

  13. Experiences of School Principals with Newcomers from War-Affected Countries in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoko, Janet Mola

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the results of an exploratory study of experiences of 2 urban school principals about leading schools with immigrants from war-affected countries in Africa. It examines how they perceived their preparation for multicultural leadership, and explores lessons that leadership development institutions can learn from their…

  14. Factors Affecting Applicants' Acceptance or Decline of Offers to Enroll in a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave-Hogg, Doreen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A University of Toronto (Canada) study of medical school applicants accepting (n=784) and declining (n=255) admission identified influential factors. Some (living cost, location) cannot be affected by the institution. The institution has limited control of others (faculty size, school environment) but can influence applicant perceptions. One…

  15. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  16. Teachers' Challenges, Strategies, and Support Needs in Schools Affected by Community Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maring, Elisabeth F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exposure to community violence compromises teacher effectiveness, student learning, and socioemotional well-being. This study examined the challenges, strategies, and support needs of teachers in urban schools affected by high levels of community violence. Methods: Twenty teachers from 3 urban middle schools with predominantly…

  17. Legal Challenges to Compulsory Attendance Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph C.

    Legal challenges to state compulsory attendance laws have emphasized four interrelated constitutional claims. Under provisions of the free exercise clause of the First Amendment, parents have challenged the state's authority to require public school attendance in lieu of home instruction and private, religious organizations have refused to comply…

  18. Do Student Migrations Affect School Performance? Evidence from Wisconsin's Inter-District Public School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the competitive effects of a unique school choice program implemented in the late 1990s, Wisconsin's open enrollment program, which allows families to send their children to schools outside their home district. In contrast to other school choice programs, districts not only face negative consequences from losing students and…

  19. Moving to Secondary School: On the Role of Affective Expectations in a Tracking School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ophuysen, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Transition to secondary school implies basic changes in social, instructional and organisational aspects of school life which afford the pupils' adjustment. As transition takes place at a predictable point in time, children develop expectations about the start at their new school. In order to analyse predictors and consequences of these…

  20. Principals and Local School Councils: An International Comparison of Judicial Policy Affecting School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menacker, Julius

    1996-01-01

    Compares the legal reasoning and results in two cases brought to courts by principals dismissed by local school governing boards under authority granted to these community groups by school reform laws in Chicago, Illinois, and New Zealand. Observations are made regarding the need for appropriate adjustments in school-based-management reform law…

  1. Does Being Assigned to a Low School Track Negatively Affect Psychological Adjustment? A Longitudinal Study in the First Year of Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Christoph Michael; Hofmann, Verena

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the 1st year in secondary school for some students goes hand in hand with an increase in adjustment difficulties. One factor that might influence this process on an individual, compositional, and institutional level is the academic track a student attends. It was hypothesized that being assigned to a low-qualifying…

  2. Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Shendell, Derek G.; Prill, Richard; Fisk, William J.; Apte, Michael G.; Blake, David; Faulkner, David

    2004-01-01

    Student attendance in American public schools is a critical factor in securing limited operational funding. Student and teacher attendance influence academic performance. Limited data exist on indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, and how IEQ affects attendance, health, or performance. This study explored the association of student absence with measures of indoor minus outdoor carbon dioxide concentration (dCO{sub 2}). Absence and dCO{sub 2} data were collected from 409 traditional and 25 portable classrooms from 14 schools located in six school districts in the states of Washington and Idaho. Study classrooms had individual heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, except two classrooms without mechanical ventilation. Classroom attributes, student attendance and school-level ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) were included in multivariate modeling. Forty-five percent of classrooms studied had short-term indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations above 1000 parts-per-million (ppm). A 1000 ppm increase in dCO{sub 2} was associated (p < 0.05) with a 0.5% to 0.9% decrease in annual average daily attendance (ADA), corresponding to a relative 10% to 20% increase in student absence. Outside air (ventilation) rates estimated from dCO{sub 2} and other collected data were not associated with absence. Annual ADA was 2% higher (p < 0.0001) in traditional than in portable classrooms.

  3. Does Combining School and Work Affect School and Post-School Outcomes? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anlezark, Alison; Lim, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors seek to answer the question of whether combining school and work is detrimental or beneficial to a student's school educational performance and labour market outcomes. They find that young people who combine school and work are distributed right across the school population. Results show that individuals can combine…

  4. How Does Test Exemption Affect Schools' and Students' Academic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer L.; Beveridge, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing data from a large urban district in Texas, this study examines how high-stakes test exemptions alter officially reported scores and asks whether test exemption has implications for the academic achievement of special education students. Test exemption inflated overall passing rates but especially affected the passing rates of African…

  5. [Evaluation of motor skills of adolescents from a large city environment attending the Technical School of Mechanical Engineering and the Grammar School in Lódź].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, W; Sobczak, Z

    1988-01-01

    A long-term study on the motor skills of juveniles was carried out. The subjects were 104 students from the Secondary School of Mechanical Engineering (SSME) and 37 from Grammar School (GS). The subjects from each of the schools were divided into two subgroups: those undergoing training in a sporting club (sport group--SG) and those who did not practise any sports in an organised way (non-sport group--NSG). Motor skills were examined with the use of the test battery worked out by Denisiuk (60-metre run, 30-metre run with overturn, high force jump, standing long jump test, 300-metre run, 1000-metre run, medical ball throw). General motor skills were expressed in terms of a synthetic coefficient. The motor skills were found to be at high and intermediate levels. Those evaluated by the Denisiuk battery of tests in the SSME students were higher, as compared to those in GS students. Parameters tested in sport groups were higher than respective parameters in NSG groups.

  6. Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR): Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention in Alternative/Therapeutic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality-specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as…

  7. Affective Assemblages: Body Matters in the Pedagogic Practices of Contemporary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Set within the affective turn in cultural and social theory, in this paper, I explore the significance of materiality and matter, most specifically, bodily matter, in the pedagogic practices of contemporary school classrooms. The received view in education is that affect is tantamount to emotion or feeling and that materials, such as bodily…

  8. Boosting Student Attendance: Beyond Stickers, Stars, and Candy Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Vicky; Lopez, Patrick; Stahlke, Tim; Stamp, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    We know that students cannot learn if they are not in school, and that students with economic challenges miss school more frequently than other students. What obstacles create this attendance gap, and how can school districts provide the supports to improve attendance for these students? The authors of this article, who work with the Texas…

  9. Does perceived teacher affective support matter for middle school students in mathematics classrooms?

    PubMed

    Sakiz, Gonul; Pape, Stephen J; Hoy, Anita Woolfolk

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the importance of perceived teacher affective support in relation to sense of belonging, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in middle school mathematics classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 317 seventh- and eighth-grade students in 5 public middle schools. Structural equation modeling indicated significant associations between perceived teacher affective support and middle school students' motivational, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. The structural model explained a significant proportion of variance in students' sense of belonging (42%), academic enjoyment (43%), self-efficacy beliefs (43%), academic hopelessness (18%), and academic effort (32%) in mathematics classrooms. In addition to providing the basis for a concise new measure of perceived teacher affective support, these findings point to the importance of students' perceptions of the affective climate within learning environments for promoting academic enjoyment, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in mathematics.

  10. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Blastocystis spp. INFECTION IN CHILDREN AND STAFF MEMBERS ATTENDING PUBLIC URBAN SCHOOLS IN SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    REBOLLA, Mayra Frozoni; SILVA, Eliete Maria; GOMES, Jancarlo Ferreira; FALCÃO, Alexandre Xavier; REBOLLA, Maria Vicentina Frozoni; FRANCO, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-01-01

    After a gastroenteritis outbreak of unknown etiology in the municipality of Sebastião da Grama, SãoPaulo, Brazil, we conducted a parasitological survey to establish the epidemiological profile of enteroparasitosis in children and staff members attending the public urban schools in operation in town. The cross-sectional study evaluated 172 children aged 11 months to 6 years old and 33 staff members aged 19 to 58 years old. Overall, 96 (55.81%) children and 20 (60.61%) staff members were mono-parasitized, while 58 (33.72%) children and 4 (12.12%) workers were poly-parasitized. Protozoa (88.37%; 72.73%) was more prevalent than helminthes (3.48%; 0%) in children and staff members respectively.Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent parasite in children (86.63%) and staff members (66.67%). The age of 1 year old or less was found to be associated with increased prevalence of giardiasis [OR = 13.04; 95%CI 2.89-58.91; p = 0.00] and public garbage collection was identified as a protective factor against intestinal helminth infections [OR = 0.06; 95%CI 0.00-0.79; p = 0.03]. Although most of the children tested positive for Blastocystis spp. and also presented clinical signs/symptoms (62.2%), this association was not statistically significant [OR = 1.35; 95%CI 0.53-3.44; p = 0.51]. Intestinal parasites still represent a public health concern and this study underscores the importance of further investigations to better understand the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. PMID:27074325

  11. [Nutritional status of preschool children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Programs (JUNJI): assessment of the agreement among anthropometric indicators of obesity and central obesity].

    PubMed

    Gutiérez-Gómez, Yareni; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Galván, Marcos; Corvalán, Camila

    2009-03-01

    Historically, the anthropometric assessment of nutritional welfare programs has been targeted to assess nutritional deficiencies based on weight-to-age and height-to-age indicators. Recently, given the increase on childhood obesity, it has been also recommended the measurement of indicators of obesity (i.e., weight-to-height) and central obesity (i.e., waist circumference). However, the agreement of these indicators in preschool children is unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) assess the nutritional status of children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Program (JUNJI); (2) assess the agreement between general and central obesity anthropometric measurements in these children. In 574 girls and 580 boys, 3.0 to 5.9 years old, we measured: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and five skinfolds. We used the WHO 2006 growth standards to estimate Z-scores. We defined general obesity as WHZ or BAZ= 2, and central obesity as waist circumference > or =90 percentile of NHANES III. The participants were on average slightly shorter but considerably heavier and obese than the reference populations. Prevalence of general obesity was close to 16% with both indicators while prevalence of central obesity reached 15%. There was good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators (Kappa = 0.6-0.7). In summary, we found a high prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Chilean preschool children beneficiaries of a welfare program. At this age, there was a good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators. These results suggest that waist circumferences measurements should not be incorporated to the program.

  12. Does a Student's Use of Technology outside School Affect Mathematic Achievement in School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) restricted-data set, the researcher examined the national sample and the NAEP reported sub-groups of gender, race/ethnicity, and socio-economic status (SES). This researcher investigated how factors of student technology use in school and outside school, student attributes, academic…

  13. Factors Affecting High School Baseball Coaches' Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…

  14. Using Data to Affect School Change: A Critical Leadership Skill Serving as the Keystone of the School Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Frank

    2009-01-01

    This article is a synopsis of three performance tasks designed for students enrolled in an educational leadership graduate level course Using Data to Affect Change. These performance tasks address the requisite knowledge and skills that an effective school leader should possess in order to improve the quality of instruction and at the same time…

  15. Organizing Schools into Small Units: Alternatives to Homogeneous Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxley, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Large school size adversely affects attendance, school climate, student involvement. Dividing large schools into small units creates a learning and teaching context that is more stable, intimate, supportive, interdisciplinary. Kohn-Holweide, a comprehensive German secondary school, groups all students at a given grade level with the same teachers…

  16. Children’s representations of school support for HIV-affected peers in rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has left many African children caring for sick relatives, orphaned or themselves HIV-positive, often facing immense challenges in the absence of significant support from adults. With reductions in development funding, public sector budgetary constraints, and a growing emphasis on the importance of indigenous resources in the HIV response, international policy allocates schools a key role in ‘substituting for families’ (Ansell, 2008) in supporting child health and well-being. We explore children’s own accounts of the challenges facing their HIV-affected peers and the role of schools in providing such support. Methods Contextualised within a multi-method study of school support for HIV-affected children in rural Zimbabwe, and regarding children’s views as a key resource for child-relevant intervention and policy, 128 school children (10–14) wrote a story about an HIV-affected peer and how school assisted them in tackling their problems. Results Children presented harrowing accounts of negative impacts of HIV on the social, physical and mental well-being of peers, and how these manifested in the school setting. Whilst relationships with fellow learners and teachers were said to provide a degree of support, this was patchy and minimal, generally limited to small-scale and often one-off acts of material help or kindness (e.g. teachers giving children pens and exercise books or peers sharing school lunches), with little potential to impact significantly on the wider social drivers of children’s daily challenges. Despite having respect for the enormity of the challenges many HIV-affected peers were coping with, children tended to keep a distance from them. School was depicted as a source of the very bullying, stigma and social exclusion that undermined children’s opportunities for well-being in their lives more generally. Conclusions Our findings challenge glib assumptions that schools can serve as a significant ‘indigenous’ supports of

  17. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school.

  18. The "Affective Place-Making" Practices of Girls at a High School in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinquest, Elzahn; Fataar, Aslam

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the "affective place-making" practices of girls at a private high school on the outskirts of Cape Town. The article responds to the question: How do high school girls' affects and social bodies contribute to their place-making practices and to the type of place they make of their school? Our focus is on…

  19. The Early Elementary Attendance Project. Final Report on First Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Marilyn; MacPherson, Douglas

    The purpose of the Early Elementary Attendance Project was to improve school attendance in the early grades (kindergarten and first grade) in order to develop good attendance habits that would continue through the post elementary grades. A home/school worker approached families of students (N=77) with poor attendance records with a helping…

  20. Affect Management for HIV Prevention with Adolescents in Therapeutic Schools: The immediate impact of Project Balance

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin; Donahue, Kelly; Misbin, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents in therapeutic schools are at greater risk for HIV and other STIs than their peers due to earlier higher rates of sexual risk and difficulty managing strong emotions. HIV prevention programs that incorporate techniques for affect management during sexual situations may be beneficial. This paper determined the immediate impact of such an intervention, Affect Management (AM), compared to a standard, skills-based HIV prevention intervention (SB) and a general health promotion intervention (HP) for 377 youth, ages 13 to 19, in therapeutic schools in two cities. One month after the intervention, analyses that adjusted for the baseline scores found adolescents in AM were more likely to report condom use at last sex than those in HP (.89 vs. .67, p=.02) and that their HIV knowledge was significantly greater. These data suggest that affect management techniques might improve the impact of standard skills-based prevention programs for adolescents in therapeutic schools. PMID:23975475

  1. School attributes, household characteristics, and demand for schooling: A case study of rural Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilon, Lynn; Moock, Peter

    1991-12-01

    Educational expansion, long a goal of many LDCs, has become a difficult policy to pursue. Growing populations, shrinking national incomes and higher marginal costs of schooling as schooling reaches more rural dwellers have caused policy makers to take a hard look at factors which influence educational demand and expansion. This paper examines the case of Peru where rural areas have yet to attain the nearly universal enrollment of urban areas. The study examines 2500 rural households to explore reasons why children do not attend school, drop out of school, and begin school at later ages. The study finds that the monetary costs of schools (fees and other costs) have a substantial influence on parental decisions regarding school attendance and continuation. Sensitivity analysis reveals that mother's education has a bearing on their children's educational participation, particularly in low-income households. Sensitivity analysis also reveals that school attendance of low income and female children are most strongly affected by simulated changes in school fees.

  2. Changes in Medical Practice towards the Child with Spina Bifida: Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The improved surgical management of children with spina bifida is among the reasons for a decreased number of severely physically and/or mentally affected children. Such improvements have resulted in more spina bifida children attending British ordinary schools and fewer attending special schools. (Author/DB)

  3. Automated Attendance Accounting System; Patent Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carl P.; And Others

    An automated accounting system, useful for applying data to a computer from a multiplicity of terminals, has the potential of replacing the manual attendance accounting system now employed in schools. The inventors claim that such a sophisticated system with terminals in the classrooms would enable school administrators not only to monitor simple…

  4. 'WE CAN'T GET WORMS FROM COW DUNG': REPORTED KNOWLEDGE OF PARASITISM AMONG PASTORALIST YOUTH ATTENDING SECONDARY SCHOOL IN THE NGORONGORO CONSERVATION AREA, TANZANIA.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Rita Isabel; Hatfield, Jennifer; Kutz, Susan; Olemshumba, Saningo; Van Der Meer, Frank; Manyama, Mange; Bastien, Sheri

    2016-11-01

    Records at the Endulen Hospital in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, reveal that soil-transmitted helminth infections and protozoa are consistently in the top ten diagnoses for Maasai pastoralists, indicating a significant public health concern. Nevertheless, Maasai pastoralist adaptations to life in close proximity to livestock and to unreliable access to water raise important questions about experiences of, and resiliency to, parasitic infections. Though these infections are particularly prevalent among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a focus on resiliency highlights local capacity to recover from and prevent illness. For instance, how is human parasitism perceived and experienced among communities displaying behaviours that studies have associated with transmission of diarrhoeal diseases, such as open defecation? Among these communities, how is parasitism seen to impact the health and development of children? And, what resources are available to endure or mitigate this heavy disease burden among affected communities? This study draws on formative research carried out in May 2014 in anticipation of an innovative school-based and youth-driven water, sanitation and hygiene education intervention rolled out in two boarding schools in the NCA in subsequent months. The initiative is grounded in a One Health approach to health promotion, drawing on partnerships in medicine, public health and veterinary medicine to appreciate the unique interactions between humans, animals and the environment that shape well-being among pastoralist communities. Qualitative data generated through group discussions with secondary school youth (n=60), Maasai teachers (n=6) and a women's group (n=8) in the NCA convey existing knowledge of the prevalence, prevention and treatment of human parasitism. An underlying principle of the larger initiative is to engage youth as creative agents of change in developing and sustaining locally relevant health promotion

  5. The relationship between affect and constructivism as viewed by middle school science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Denise L.

    The purpose of this research was to examine middle school science teachers' perceptions of their students' affective behaviors at each level of the affective domain (receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization of value system), perceptions of the usefulness of constructivism as a curricular theory, and constructivist teaching strategies. This study investigated the relationship between affect and constructivism to determine if constructivist strategies can predict levels of affective behavior. Affect is a broad generalization that includes elements (i.e., interests, attitudes, values, emotions, and feelings). The importance of this research relates to enhancing learning, increasing achievement, participatory democracy, and facilitating understanding of science, as well as promoting the development of higher order thinking skills. A nonexperimental, descriptive research design was used to determine the relationship between affect and constructivism. A total of 111 middle school teachers participated in this study. Three instruments were used in this study: Taxonomy of Affective Behavior (TAB), Survey of Science Instruction (SSI), and a short demographic survey. Statistical significance obtained from one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers were aware that the affective domain was a viable construct. Statistical evidence of one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers perceived constructivism was useful to teach science to middle school students. Pearson product moment correlations results indicated statistically significant relationships between perceptions of constructivism and associated constructivist teaching strategies. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed a relationship between affect and constructivism. Teacher responses indicated they felt constrained from implementing constructivism due to an emphasis on testing. Colleges of education, curriculum specialists, science teachers, and school districts may

  6. Longitudinal Study of an After-school, Inquiry-based Science Intervention on Low-achieving Children's Affective Perceptions of Learning Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiang-Ting; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances P.; Hong, Zuway-R.

    2014-09-01

    This longitudinal study explores the effects of an after-school, inquiry-based science intervention on improving low-achieving elementary school children's affective perceptions of learning science (APLS) and positive thinking. Thirty-nine low-achieving children nominated by their teachers attended a three-semester intervention and formed the experimental group; another 87 typical fourth graders were randomly selected as the comparison group. The elementary school student questionnaire was administered to assess all participants' APLS and positive thinking. In addition, eight target students from the experimental group with the lowest scores on either APLS or positive thinking were selected for observation and interviews. Factor analyses, paired-wise t-tests, and theme content analyses were used to compare the similarities and differences between groups and within semesters. It was found that the experimental group children's APLS and positive thinking were gradually and significantly more improved than their counterparts' during the intervention. Interview and observation results were consistent with the quantitative findings. This longitudinal study provided evidence that the after-school, inquiry-based science intervention acted as a facilitating agent for improving low achievers' APLS and positive thinking. Instructional implications and research recommendations are discussed.

  7. Why Kids Refuse to Go to School . . . and What Schools Can Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle-level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are aware of effective intervention strategies can help provide supportive school…

  8. Antecedent Factors Affecting Academic Performance of Graduate Students at the Nairobi Evangelical Graduate School of Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…

  9. Some Factors That Affecting the Performance of Mathematics Teachers in Junior High School in Medan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manullang, Martua; Rajagukguk, Waminton

    2016-01-01

    Some Factor's That Affecting The Mathematic Teacher Performance For Junior High School In Medan. This research will examine the effect of direct and indirect of the Organizational Knowledge towards the achievement motivation, decision making, organizational commitment, the performance of mathematics teacher. The research method is a method of…

  10. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  11. Factors Affecting School Relocation in Singapore: The Past and the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kwok Keung

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to argue that school relocation deserves more serious attention than it has usually been given, and it affects the people as well as the education of the children as much as any other changes in education. It also seeks to unravel the theoretical and practical reasons, which influence the location and relocation of a…

  12. Effective or Affective Schools? Technological and Emotional Discourses of Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ben

    2012-01-01

    British schools have been positioned by recent educational policy discourses as sites of innovation and transformation in new technological contexts, but more recent concerns about well-being suggest a more "affective turn" in educational policy-making. This article provides an analysis of a project which has explored the ways in which…

  13. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  14. How the Cultural Contexts of Urban Teaching Affect Novice Science Educators: Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Marlina

    2014-01-01

    While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from high teacher turnover (Ingersoll, 2004). This high turnover is especially problematic in the content areas of science (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010). Through ethnographic case studies the first year…

  15. Adolescents' Affective Engagement with Theatre: Surveying Middle School Students' Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omasta, Matt

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores how viewing a single Theatre for Young Audiences production might affect the attitudes, values, and/or beliefs of adolescent spectators. Data is drawn from a mixed-methods case study performed with middle school students who viewed a professional performance for young people, and is considered through the lens of cognitive…

  16. Death and Grief: A Plan for Principals to Deal with Tragedy Affecting the School Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    Spurred by the "Challenger" space shuttle tragedy, this article provides principals with guidelines for informing individual students about family deaths and dealing with grief affecting the entire school community. Thorough preparation can reduce intensity and misconceived actions associated with grief and demonstrate administrative leadership.…

  17. Factors Affecting Literacy Achievement of Eighth Grade Middle School Instrumental Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pretest-posttest comparative efficacy study was to analyze factors affecting literacy achievement of eighth grade middle school instrumental music students (n = 38) including (a) socioeconomic status (SES), (b) gender, (c) grade point average (GPA), (d) music motivation, (e) music involvement, and (f) instrument section. The…

  18. Pedagogical Factors Affecting Integration of Computers in Mathematics Instruction in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjala, Martin M. S.; Aurah, Catherine M.; Symon, Koros C.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports findings of a study which sought to examine the pedagogical factors that affect the integration of computers in mathematics instruction as perceived by teachers in secondary schools in Kenya. This study was based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A descriptive survey design was used for this study. Stratified and simple…

  19. Does Day-Care Experience Affect Young Children's Judgments of Home and School Rules?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Dushka A.; Tisak, Marie S.

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether amount of experience in day care affects children's ability to distinguish moral rules from conventional school-based and home-based rules. Preschoolers were questioned about legitimacy of authority of abolishing a rule and their rating of behaviors permitted and prohibited by an authority. Results revealed that previous day-care…

  20. If We Build It, We Will Come: Impacts of a Summer Robotics Program on Regular Year Attendance in Middle School. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of both keeping middle school students engaged and improving their math skills, Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) developed a summer school STEM program involving not only math and science instruction but also the experience of building a robot and competing with those robots in a city-wide tournament.…

  1. Teacher Attendance Improvement Program. A Joint Business-Educator Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Newark Chamber of Commerce, NJ.

    This report reviews the experiences of two New Jersey school districts that have initiated Attendance Improvement Plans (AIP) for professional school personnel. It is intended to summarize a 1974 report entitled "Program to Improve Teacher Attendance." The districts that participated in the pilot project were Newark, with approximately…

  2. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes Towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip

    2010-02-01

    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the 10th grade; girls were more inclined to stereotype than boys while this gender difference decreased with increasing grade; (2) girls tend to have an implicit science-unpleasant/humanities-pleasant association from the 8th grade, while boys showed a negative implicit attitude towards science up to the 11th grade. In self-report, girls preferred humanities to science, while boys preferred science to humanities; (3) implicit affective attitude was closely related to implicit stereotype. In particular, implicit affective attitude has a stronger predictive power on stereotype than the other way around, the result of which may have more significance for girls.

  3. High school to college transition: a profile of the stressors, physical and psychological health issues that affect the first-year on-campus college student.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Terence; Heastie, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to profile identified stressors, physical and psychological health issues that affect first-year campus college students as they transition from high school to college. The Health Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaire was administered to 514 university college students. Results from this study determined that there were significant differences among student life stressors and physical and psychological health status between first-year on-campus and first-year off-campus college students. Most importantly this study documented compelling information regarding selection of roommate, poor housing, chronic and temporary diseases, injury and prescription medicine among college students attending a university in North Carolina. Implications for university health administrators, student affairs personnel, counselors and faculty are discussed.

  4. Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR): HIV Prevention in Alternative/Therapeutic Schools

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as well as HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. It was hypothesized that STAR would lead to a decrease in sexual risk and improved HIV knowledge and attitudes. Method Fourteen schools were randomly assigned by year either to the STAR intervention or a brief educational program. Schools received the alternate intervention the following year. 185 adolescents in 29 cohorts (groups) participated in the interventions. Assessment of sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes with audio computer-assisted self-interviews occurred at three, six and nine months post intervention. Results Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) analyses found that adolescents in the STAR intervention reported a significantly greater decrease (p < .05) in the Sexual Risk Index than youth in the control group over the six months post intervention and similar improvements in the HIV Knowledge Scale and the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale. There were no group differences between six and nine months post intervention. Conclusions This STAR intervention for youth in alternative schools was associated with decreased sexual risk for six months after the intervention. These data suggest that intervention strategies that target cognitions and affect within a sexual context might be usefully applied to improving sexual behavior but may need to be reinforced over time. PMID:21961780

  5. Family Adversity and Autonomic Reactivity Association With Immune Changes in HIV-Affected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Melanie; Wara, Diane; Saxton, Katherine; Truskier, Mary; Chesney, Margaret; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Methods Data from 38 HIV+ and 29 HIV− children born to seropositive women were obtained before and after school entry. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity (based on mean arterial responses to challenge tasks), and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. Results In comparison to children who were HIV−, children who were HIV+ at baseline had fewer CD4+ T lymphocytes (M = 916 vs. 1206 cells/mm3 × 103; F = 7.8, p = .007), more CD8+ cells (M = 1046 vs. 720 cells/mm3 ×103; F = 7.98, p = .006), and diminished NK cell cytotoxicity (M =−.29 vs. .41; F = 8.87, p = .004). School entry was associated with changes in immune parameters, but HIV status was not associated with the magnitude of changes. Changes in immune parameters following school entry were associated with family stress and pre school entry ANS reactivity. Highly ANS reactive children had either the greatest increase in CD8+ cells following school entry or the greatest decrease, depending upon reported levels of family adversity (B = 215.35; t = 3.74, p < .001). Changes in functional immune assays were significantly associated with the interactions between HIV status and ANS reactivity. Conclusions These results suggest that autonomic reactivity is associated with increased immunological sensitivity to adverse or challenging social contexts among children affected by HIV. PMID:23766380

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of the Availability and Need of a Support Program for Students with Learning Difficulties Attending Elementary Schools in the Atlantic Union Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Lileth Althea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. Support programs have been known to be very effective in helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of the availability and need of a support program for students with learning difficulties who attend elementary schools…

  7. How Workplace Experiences While at School Affect Career Pathways. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Green, Annette

    2005-01-01

    This report describes and analyses how the work activities undertaken by students while at school affect their post-school pathways into and between work and study. Increasingly, students are involved with workplaces while still at school. The three major ways in which this is happening (in order of extent of engagement) are through work…

  8. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  9. Testing, time limits, and English learners: does age of school entry affect how quickly students can learn English?

    PubMed

    Conger, Dylan

    2009-06-01

    Using data on young English learners (EL) who enroll in the New York City public school system, I examine how long it takes students to become minimally proficient in English and how the time to proficiency differs for students by their age of school entry. Specifically, I follow four recent entry cohorts of ELs ages 5-10 and use discrete-time survival analysis to model the rate at which different age groups acquire proficiency. I find that approximately half of the students become proficient within three years after school entry and that younger students learn more quickly than older students. Age of entry differences are robust to controls for observed differences between age of entry groups in their economic and demographic characteristics, their disabilities, and the schools they attend. The results lend support to the theory that older students face developmental barriers to learning new languages quickly.

  10. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  11. Understanding Students' Precollege Experiences with Racial Diversity: The High School as Microsystem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Chang, Stephanie H.

    2015-01-01

    Few qualitative studies consider how high school experiences affect readiness for diversity engagement in college. Using data from an ethnographic case study, three central trends (student experiences within homogeneous high schools, racial divisions within diverse high schools, and students who attended diverse high schools but had little…

  12. What Predicts Fear of School Violence among U.S. Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Ensuring a safe learning environment for every student at school is a major responsibility of educators, school administrators, and policy makers in our society. Students' fear associated with school violence affects their school attendance, learning motivation, and academic achievement. Although predictors of adults' fear of…

  13. Affective Self-Regulation Trajectories During Secondary School Predict Substance Use Among Urban Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multi-ethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived stress. As young adults, participants reported on the frequency and quantity of their alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a telephone interview. Controlling for demographic variables, self-regulation did not significantly change over adolescence, although there was significant variation in participants’ rates of growth and decline. Lower seventh grade self-regulation and less steep increases in self-regulation were predictive of higher young adult substance use. Male participants had significantly lower initial self-regulation and higher young adult substance use. The results suggest that interventions that build affective self-regulation skills in adolescence may decrease the risk of young adult substance use. PMID:26549966

  14. Timing of examinations affects school performance differently in early and late chronotypes.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Zerbini, Giulia; Siersema, Anne; Pieper, Amy; Merrow, Martha; Hut, Roelof A; Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clocks of adolescents typically run late-including sleep times-yet adolescents generally are expected at school early in the morning. Due to this mismatch between internal (circadian) and external (social) times, adolescents suffer from chronic sleep deficiency, which, in turn, affects academic performance negatively. This constellation affects students' future career prospects. Our study correlates chronotype and examination performance. In total, 4734 grades were collected from 741 Dutch high school students (ages 11-18 years) who had completed the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire to estimate their internal time. Overall, the lowest grades were obtained by students who were very late chronotypes (MSFsc > 5.31 h) or slept very short on schooldays (SDw < 7.03 h). The effect of chronotype on examination performance depended on the time of day that examinations were taken. Opposed to late types, early chronotypes obtained significantly higher grades during the early (0815-0945 h) and late (1000-1215 h) morning. This group difference in grades disappeared in the early afternoon (1245-1500 h). Late types also obtained lower grades than early types when tested at the same internal time (hours after MSFsc), which may reflect general attention and learning disadvantages of late chronotypes during the early morning. Our results support delaying high school starting times as well as scheduling examinations in the early afternoon to avoid discrimination of late chronotypes and to give all high school students equal academic opportunities.

  15. Attending to Teacher Attire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts by school superintendents to develop dress codes for school employees. Describes link between teacher dress and student decorum. Includes excerpts from staff dress codes from three school districts: Goose Creek Consolidated School District, Baytown, Texas; Denver Public Schools, Colorado; Wake County Public Schools, Raleigh,…

  16. Affective States and State Tests: Investigating How Affect and Engagement during the School Year Predict End-of-Year Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Baker, Ryan S. J. D.; San Pedro, Maria O. C. Z.; Gowda, Sujith M.; Gowda, Supreeth M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correspondence between student affect and behavioural engagement in a web-based tutoring platform throughout the school year and learning outcomes at the end of the year on a high-stakes mathematics exam in a manner that is both longitudinal and fine-grained. Affect and behaviour detectors are used to estimate…

  17. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Charlotte E; Dorjee, Dusana

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7-9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7-9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting 'liking' practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7-9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and

  18. Comparing the Number of Ill or Injured Students Who Are Released Early from School by School Nursing and Nonnursing Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Linda L.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing demand for research linking specific educational services with positive student outcomes. Little empirical evidence exists to show that school nursing services improve student success. School attendance is one of many factors that has been associated with improved learning; school nurses can affect that factor. This study…

  19. Do Small Rural High Schools Differ from Larger Schools in Relation to Absentee Rates in Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagestad, Pal; Ranes, Vebjorn; Welde, Boye

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were twofold: (a) to investigate how school size affects absentee rates in physical education (PE) and (b) to examine the experiences of students and teachers at a small rural high school in relation to attendance in PE at their school. The absentee rates in PE among all students (N = 6928 students) in a county in Norway were…

  20. Knowledge, awareness and practice of the importance of hand-washing amongst children attending state run primary schools in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Grimason, Anthony Martin; Masangwi, Salule Joseph; Morse, Tracy Dawn; Jabu, George Christopher; Beattie, Tara Kate; Taulo, Steven Elias; Lungu, Kingsley

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of hygiene practices in 2 primary schools in Malawi. The study determined: (1) presence of Escherichia coli on the hands of 126 primary school pupils, (2) knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices amongst pupils and teachers and (3) the school environment through observation. Pupil appreciation of hygiene issues was reasonable; however, the high percentage presence of E. coli on hands (71%) and the evidence of large-scale open defaecation in school grounds revealed that apparent knowledge was not put into practice. The standard of facilities for sanitation and hygiene did not significantly impact on the level of knowledge or percentage of school children's hands harbouring faecal bacteria. Evidence from pupils and teachers indicated a poor understanding of principles of disease transmission. Latrines and hand-washing facilities constructed were not child friendly. This study identifies a multidisciplinary approach to improve sanitation and hygiene practices within schools.

  1. Higher Education and Health Investments: Does More Schooling Affect Preventive Health Care Use?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E

    2009-01-01

    While it is well-known that individuals with higher levels of education consume more preventive medical care, there are several potential explanations for this stylized fact. These explanations include causal and non-causal mechanisms, and distinguishing among explanations is relevant for accessing the importance of educational spillovers on lifetime health outcomes as well as uncovering the determinants of preventive care. In this paper, we use regression analysis, sibling fixed effects, and matching estimators to examine the impact of education on preventive care. In particular, we use a cohort of 10,000 Wisconsin high school graduates that has been followed for nearly 50 years and find evidence that attending college is associated with an increase in the likelihood of using several types of preventive care by approximately five to fifteen percent for college attendees in the early 1960s. We also find that greater education may influence preventive care partly through occupational channels and access to care. These findings suggest that increases in education have the potential to spillover on long-term health choices.

  2. An Examination of the Conditions of School Facilities Attended by 10th-Grade Students in 2002. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-302

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mike Planty; Jill F. DeVoe; Jeffrey A. Owings; Kathryn Chandler

    2005-01-01

    This report presents key findings from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) Facilities Checklist for all ELS:2002 public and private schools and students in the 10th grade. The facilities instrument was administered as a part of the ELS:2002 and focused on the conditions of school facilities, including disrepair, cleanliness,…

  3. Presence of Medical Home and School Attendance: An Analysis of the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willits, Kathryn A.; Troutman-Jordan, Meredith L.; Nies, Mary A.; Racine, Elizabeth F.; Platonova, Elena; Harris, Henry L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN) tend to miss more school because of illness. Medical homes are a model of primary health care that coordinate services to better meet the needs of the child. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between presence of medical home and missed school days among CSHCN.…

  4. Improving the Quantity and Quality of Attendance Data to Enhance Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Eleri; Price, Trevor; Lloyd, Steve; Thomas, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article draws attention to local and global attendance monitoring in higher education. The paper outlines benefits of attendance monitoring for both the individual learner and university, and compares traditional paper-based attendance monitoring systems with an electronic system piloted in the Business School and School of Technology at the…

  5. Does increased physical activity in school affect children's executive function and aerobic fitness?

    PubMed

    Kvalø, S E; Bru, E; Brønnick, K; Dyrstad, S M

    2017-02-16

    This study seeks to explore whether increased PA in school affects children's executive function and aerobic fitness. The "Active school" study was a 10-month randomized controlled trial. The sample included 449 children (10-11 years old) in five intervention and four control schools. The weekly interventions were 2×45 minutes physically active academic lessons, 5×10 minutes physically active breaks, and 5×10 minutes physically active homework. Aerobic fitness was measured using a 10-minute interval running test. Executive function was tested using four cognitive tests (Stroop, verbal fluency, digit span, and Trail Making). A composite score for executive function was computed and used in analyses. Mixed ANCOVA repeated measures were performed to analyze changes in scores for aerobic fitness and executive function. Analysis showed a tendency for a time×group interaction on executive function, but the results were non-significant F(1, 344)=3.64, P=.057. There was no significant time×group interaction for aerobic fitness. Results indicate that increased physical activity in school might improve children's executive function, even without improvement in aerobic fitness, but a longer intervention period may be required to find significant effects.

  6. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents.

  7. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  8. An investigation of factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values based on the system dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Chen, Kai-Ling; Chen, Pin-Chang; Ku, Chao-Tai; Chiu, Pei-Hsuan; Wang, Meng-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    This study used system dynamics method to investigate the factors affecting elementary school students' BMI values. The construction of the dynamic model is divided into the qualitative causal loop and the quantitative system dynamics modeling. According to the system dynamics modeling, this study consisted of research on the four dimensions: student's personal life style, diet-relevant parenting behaviors, advocacy and implementation of school nutrition education, and students' peer interaction. The results of this study showed that students with more adequate health concepts usually have better eating behaviors and consequently have less chance of becoming obese. In addition, this study also verified that educational attainment and socioeconomic status of parents have a positive correlation with students' amounts of physical activity, and nutrition education has a prominent influence on changing students' high-calorie diets.

  9. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  10. Computer program for the automated attendance accounting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulson, P.; Rasmusson, C.

    1971-01-01

    The automated attendance accounting system (AAAS) was developed under the auspices of the Space Technology Applications Program. The task is basically the adaptation of a small digital computer, coupled with specially developed pushbutton terminals located in school classrooms and offices for the purpose of taking daily attendance, maintaining complete attendance records, and producing partial and summary reports. Especially developed for high schools, the system is intended to relieve both teachers and office personnel from the time-consuming and dreary task of recording and analyzing the myriad classroom attendance data collected throughout the semester. In addition, since many school district budgets are related to student attendance, the increase in accounting accuracy is expected to augment district income. A major component of this system is the real-time AAAS software system, which is described.

  11. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  12. The Influence of Affective Teacher-Student Relationships on Students' School Engagement and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roorda, Debora L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Spilt, Jantine L.; Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analytic approach was used to investigate the associations between affective qualities of teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and students' school engagement and achievement. Results were based on 99 studies, including students from preschool to high school. Separate analyses were conducted for positive relationships and engagement (k = 61…

  13. Role of ethnicity in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake: a cross-sectional study of girls from ethnic minority groups attending London schools

    PubMed Central

    Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Methods Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. Results No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within ‘black’ and ‘Asian’ ethnic groups. Conclusions Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication

  14. Point-Counterpoint: Should Attendance Be Required in Collegiate Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Jo Ann M.; Lohrey, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines two divergent viewpoints about whether or not class attendance should be mandatory in higher education. The authors, both accounting professors at the same institution, delineate their respective viewpoints citing school policy, federal regulations and academic freedom as factors which motivate their attendance policy.

  15. Improving Attendance of Kindergarten Students through Behavior Modification Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, Betty D.

    A behavior modification program was implemented to improve attendance and punctuality patterns of kindergarten students attending a small, rural elementary school. Also incorporated into the intervention were self-esteem and parent involvement components. Motivational strategies used were: a token economy; group-oriented behavior management…

  16. Why September Matters: Improving Student Attendance. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…

  17. States Mull Obama's Call to Raise Compulsory-Attendance Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama's call for every state to require school attendance until age 18 may spark a flurry of action in some statehouses, but changing attendance laws will do little by itself to drive down the nation's dropout rates, experts on the issue say. In his State of the Union address last month, President Obama said states should require…

  18. Making Connections: Attending Professional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Attending a professional conference is an effective way to explore and advance knowledge, skills, and careers. For graduate students, attending a conference is an effective way to explore academic fields and new professions. However, attending a professional conference requires precious resources--time and money--so the decision to attend, or not,…

  19. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  20. Teacher and Staff Attendance Improvement Programs: Attendance Improvement Guide for Superintendents. How to Improve Staff Illness Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harclerode, Richard

    A successful program to improve personnel attendance has reduced sick leave in 40 New Jersey school districts without increasing dismissals, grievances, or costs. The author describes the five steps in this Attendance Improvement Program (AIP), including (1) analysis of data on staff absences due to illness; (2) preparation of operating guidelines…

  1. Report on an Intervention Involving Massage and Yoga for Male Adolescents Attending a School for Disadvantaged Male Adolescents in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, L. A.; Potter, L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of providing an intervention involving massage and yoga in a school exclusively for male disadvantaged adolescents who experience emotional and behavioural difficulties. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires completed by teachers and pupils prior to, and completion of,…

  2. Ten Studies Pertaining to Residence, Mobility, and School Attendance Patterns of Discrete Black and Mexican American Populations in Tucson, Arizona, Between 1918 and 1976. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, John F.

    Volume II contains the substance of five studies originally filed with the United States District Court for the District of Arizona in the cases of "Fisher v. Lohr" and "Mendoza v. Tucson School District No. 1." Study VI examines the migration of Spanish-surnamed households from Tucson's south and west sides to the east side…

  3. Who Should Control the Behavior of Minors? A Focus on Attendance, Association, and Appearance. The LegiSchool Project. A Town Hall Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futernick, Ken; Arnstine, Barbara; Hodson, Timothy A.

    The LegiSchool Project, a collaboration between the California State University, Sacramento, and the California State Legislature, scheduled a town-hall meeting to discuss areas in which adults feel they must control the behavior of young people. Materials for educating meeting participants are contained in this report. Participants, which…

  4. Predictors of Intention to Eat 2.5 Cups of Vegetables among Ninth-Grade Students Attending Public High Schools in Eastern North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify beliefs about eating 2.5 cups of vegetables and to assess how well these beliefs predict intention to eat them. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Setting: Two public high schools in 2 counties in eastern North Carolina. Participants: 157 ninth-grade students (mean age = 14.71 years [SD = 0.82]).…

  5. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  6. DEVELOP students attend conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

  7. Student Attendance Accounting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Joseph M.

    In response to state legislation authorizing procedures for changes in academic calendars and measurement of student workload in California community colleges, this manual from the Chancellor's Office provides guidelines for student attendance accounting. Chapter 1 explains general items such as the academic calendar, admissions policies, student…

  8. A Psychometric Analysis of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version in a School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative…

  9. Does Practical Work Really Motivate? A Study of the Affective Value of Practical Work in Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports on a study that examined whether practical work can be said to have affective outcomes, and if so in what sense. The term "affective" is used here to refer to the emotions, or feelings, engendered amongst pupils towards school science in general, or one of the sciences in particular. The study is based on 25 multi-site…

  10. How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Peter; Pogodzinski, Ben; Galey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined how labor-management relations between school districts and teacher associations seem to affect teacher contract provisions regarding the role of seniority in teacher assignment and how contract provisions and teacher assignment policies seem to affect beginning teachers' perceptions about their work environments.…

  11. Body-esteem of pupils who attended single-sex versus mixed-sex schools: a cross-sectional study of intrasexual competition and peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Patra, Chanchala; Smith, Joshua H; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    In intrasexual competition (competition for reproductive resources), bullying can be viewed as a tool to devalue competitors, gain a high status and a powerful, dominant position in the peer group which may lead to beneficial gains such as access to potential romantic partners. This study investigated the relationship between intrasexual competition, bullying victimization and body-esteem, in single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. 420 participants completed a body-esteem scale, a retrospective bullying questionnaire, and intrasexual competition scales. Our results showed that relational victimization was associated with low body-esteem for both females and males. Females in single-sex schools experienced higher intrasexual competition which in turn was associated with their body-esteem directly and indirectly via relational victimization. In males, intrasexual competition was indirectly associated with body-esteem via relational victimization. Interventions to improve body esteem may focus on reducing intrasexual competition and peer victimization.

  12. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles. PMID:26388814

  13. Affective profiles in Italian high school students: life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The affective profiles model distinguishes between individuals who are self-fulfilling (high positive affect, low negative affect), high affective (high positive affect, high negative affect), low affective (low positive affect, low negative affect), and self-destructive (low positive affect, high negative affect). The literature shows that the affective profiles model has been used with Swedish people in particular in order to determine differences among profiles in relation to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism. The present research investigated these differences in Italian high school students. Two studies were conducted: the first with 156 Italian high school students and the second with 148 Italian high school students. The first study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to life satisfaction and psychological well-being while the second study analyzed differences among affective profiles with regard to self-esteem and optimism. In the first study, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Meaningful Life Measure were administered to the participants. In the second study, the PANAS, the Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test-revised were administered to the participants. The results of the first study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being. The results of the second study showed that, with respect to the other profiles, the self-fulfilling participants had higher self-esteem and optimism. These results revealed differences among affective profiles regarding life satisfaction, psychological well-being, self-esteem, and optimism in the Italian context as well thereby offering new possibilities for cross-cultural research and for enhancing self-fulfilling profiles.

  14. The school nurse, the school and HPV vaccination: a qualitative study of factors affecting HPV vaccine uptake.

    PubMed

    Brabin, Loretta; Stretch, Rebecca; Roberts, Stephen A; Elton, Peter; Baxter, David; McCann, Rosemary

    2011-04-12

    School nurses in the United Kingdom are largely responsible for delivering the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to 12-13 year old girls. In order to assess the impact of HPV vaccination on school nurses' roles, we gave a questionnaire to all 33 school nurses who offered Cervarix ™ in two Primary Care Trusts one year ahead of the national vaccine programme. Key organisational issues raised by the school nurses were the size of the team and its skill mix. A few found their schools uncooperative and were dissatisfied with mechanisms for problem resolution. On average, nurses spent an additional 69 h (0.80 h per child) on vaccine-related activities. In semi-qualitative interviews (n=17), school nurses complained of work overload and described the difficulties of establishing good relationships with some of their schools. Nurses expected schools to take some responsibility for ensuring good uptake and were frustrated when help was not forthcoming. We conclude that variation in uptake between schools in part reflects a difficult relationship with the school nurse which may be attributed to characteristics of the school, schools' attitudes towards health interventions, organisational problems, multiple school nurse roles and/or personal ability. Some of these issues will need to be addressed to ensure continued high vaccine coverage as HPV vaccination becomes a less prioritised, routine activity.

  15. When School Makes Us Sick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodget, Alden S.

    2010-01-01

    There's something wrong when attending a really good workshop leaves one sad. In mid-October, 80 dedicated, bright teachers and administrators met with some workshop leaders and speakers in Vermont to explore the growing difficulties that students with "executive function" problems have in school--problems that affect such things as…

  16. Diverse Schools in a Democratic Society: New Ways of Understanding How School Demographics Affect Civic and Political Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Rebecca; Frankenberg, Erica; Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Census revealed the extent to which today's metropolitan areas are growing increasingly diverse. At the forefront of this change are schools. Yet, research on school context continues to rely upon a traditional, cross-sectional bifurcation that designates schools as either diverse or not. This classification may be especially inaccurate…

  17. How instant messaging affects the satisfaction of virtual interpersonal behavior of Taiwan junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Sun, Ya-Chung; Lee, Yueh-Chiang; Wu, Shih-Chia

    2007-01-01

    Although Instant Messaging (IM) has established itself as one of the most popular modes of communication, little empirical research has explored how adolescents are affected by its use to satisfy their virtual interpersonal relationships. This research investigates cause and effect in the satisfaction of these relationships among adolescents in both their real and virtual life by using IM. Data were collected from 401 junior high school students via a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and SEM analysis methods were used to analyze the data. Primary findings indicate that (1) there is significant cause and effect on the adolescents' satisfaction with their interpersonal relationships between their real life and the virtual world (via IM); and (2) adolescents may enhance their interpersonal behavior by using IM, leading to an increase in satisfaction with their interpersonal relationships in the virtual world.

  18. Anxiety Sensitivity in School Attending Youth: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 18-Item CASI in a Multicultural South African Sample.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lindi; Kidd, Martin; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders in youth. To date, the applicability of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in youth from a low or middle income country (LMIC) setting on the African continent has not been assessed. A representative sample of 1149 secondary school learners from 29 schools in Cape Town, South Africa, participated in the study. Participants completed the CASI on a single occasion. One-, two-, and four-factor models of the CASI were assessed. A one-factor solution that comprised items predominantly represented by physical concerns appeared to provide the best fit to our data, however, relatively low variance (26%) was explained. Subsequent item deletion resulted in a 9-item 'physical concerns' factor that showed good construct reliability (0.83) but also explained a low amount of variance (35%). In terms of gender, a one-factor model provided the best fit, however, low variance was explained (i.e., 25%). Configural, metric and scalar invariance of the CASI by gender was determined. Our results suggest that the 18-item CASI is not applicable to our target population and may require adaptation in this population; however, replication of this study in other multicultural adolescent samples in South Africa is first needed to further assess the validity of the AS construct as measured by the CASI.

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity in School Attending Youth: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 18-Item CASI in a Multicultural South African Sample

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lindi; Kidd, Martin; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders in youth. To date, the applicability of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in youth from a low or middle income country (LMIC) setting on the African continent has not been assessed. A representative sample of 1149 secondary school learners from 29 schools in Cape Town, South Africa, participated in the study. Participants completed the CASI on a single occasion. One-, two-, and four-factor models of the CASI were assessed. A one-factor solution that comprised items predominantly represented by physical concerns appeared to provide the best fit to our data, however, relatively low variance (26%) was explained. Subsequent item deletion resulted in a 9-item ‘physical concerns’ factor that showed good construct reliability (0.83) but also explained a low amount of variance (35%). In terms of gender, a one-factor model provided the best fit, however, low variance was explained (i.e., 25%). Configural, metric and scalar invariance of the CASI by gender was determined. Our results suggest that the 18-item CASI is not applicable to our target population and may require adaptation in this population; however, replication of this study in other multicultural adolescent samples in South Africa is first needed to further assess the validity of the AS construct as measured by the CASI. PMID:26779098

  20. Epidemiological aspects of head lice in children attending day care centres, urban and rural schools in Uberlândia, central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raquel; Mendes, Júlio

    2002-03-01

    From November 1996 to March 2000, a total of 884 children between 0 and 15 years, from 11 institutions including day care centres, public urban and public rural schools in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, central Brazil, were examined for head louse infestation. Children's sex, race, age and some hairs characteristics were shown to be associated to parasite infestation. A prevalence rate of 35% was found and the highest rates were observed in black, female children, with long, dark, wavy hairs. Hairs density and thickness did not seem to influence significantly the distribution of this pediculosis in Uberlândia's schoolchildren. Differences observed between the prevalence rates of head lice in children from the urban institutions suggest there is a greater epidemiological heterogeneity in this group when compared to the rural schoolchildren.