Lindelow, John; And Others
Chapter 8 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter defines school climate and suggests ways to improve the learning environment at the school building level. School climate is defined as the feeling an individual gets from experiences within a school system. More specifically, climate is the composite of norms, expectations, and…
Kelley, Edgar A.; And Others
School climate improvements rely either on changes in the school's culture or changes in perceptions of the climate held by the school's employees and clients. To maintain and develop a culture that is supportive of school effectiveness, it is important to monitor the influence of the school's climate on student outcomes. The National Association…
This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools…
Cohen, Jonathan; Pickeral, Terry; McCloskey, Molly
Compelling empirical research shows that a positive and sustained school climate promotes students' academic achievement and healthy development. Not surprisingly, a positive school climate also promotes teacher retention, which itself enhances student success. Yet the knowledge of the effects of school climate on learning has not been translated…
Sierra Sands Unified School District, Ridgecrest, CA.
THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: As a part of its School Improvement Program, James Monroe Junior High School planned to improve its school climate. Since the physical school environment was devoid of landscaping and did not provide places for student socialization, all interested groups (PTSA, student council, students, staff, and…
Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009
School leaders are often placed on the "hot seat" when negative images of the school, its staff, or its students appear in the local media. Such reports can strongly affect a school's public and image and, in turn, impact the climate both in the community and within the school itself. Sometimes these perceptions are not based on fact; however,…
Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava
Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…
Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan
Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness…
Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Karvonen, Meagan; Perez, Theresa R.; Abrams, Lyndon P.
The authors examined aspects of school climate pertaining to issues of diversity at 2 elementary schools, conducting focus groups with students, school personnel, and parents. Findings indicated that degree of parental involvement and interaction regarding issues of diversity affect the school climate. Recommendations for school counselors are…
Harris, Kim M.
The significance of the study was to examine intentional strategies to improve school climate relative to student school success as measured by academic achievement, attendance, and student behavior. It was important to understand how student school success was affected by factors related to school climate improvement such as leadership and change…
Witcher, Ann E.
Current research supports the importance of positive school climate and the use of school-climate measures as school-effectiveness predictors. This article describes several instruments, including the Organizational Climate Index, the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire, the Effective School Battery, the Charles F. Kettering Ltd.…
This qualitative study considers which aspects of school climate support or inhibit student achievement as each aspect relates to school leadership and school reform efforts. Due to the increased responsibility and accountability which schools face during these challenging times, school climate and the role of the school principal formed the basis…
Voight, A.; Hanson, T.
This information memo provides an annotated list of extant surveys used to assess school climate, classroom climate, or teacher effectiveness that are designed for use in middle schools. The purpose is to assist educators to select or design surveys to assess school climate in middle schools, with a particular focus on assessing student engagement…
Sulak, Tracey N.
School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…
Wallich, Lynn R.
School climate is defined as the norms, beliefs, and attitudes reflected in institutional patterns and practices that enhance or impede student achievement. Research findings support the notion that school learning climate is an important factor in determining academic outcomes. School climate is largely dependent on the leadership of the…
Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey; Fan, Xitao
Most research on school climate focuses on student well-being, with less attention on the safety of school faculty. The current study examined the relationship between an authoritative school climate (characterized by high levels of student support and disciplinary structure) and both teacher reports of victimization and school records of threats…
Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.; Huang, Kevin; Hanson, Thomas L.; Austin, Gregory
Purpose: School climate, or the physical and social conditions of the learning environment, has implications for academic achievement. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors examine how school climate varies by school-level characteristics in California using administrative data and the California School…
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.
Researchers, consulting professionals, and advocating agencies agree that school facility design is one essential component to a safe and successful school. This document addresses design-related concepts that can positively affect school climate and order. It describes and provides facility planning guidelines for crime prevention through…
Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey
This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…
Ramsey, Christine M.; Spira, Adam P.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Rebok, George W.
Research suggests that school climate can have a great impact on student, teacher, and school outcomes. However, it is often assessed as a summary measure, without taking into account multiple perspectives (student, teacher, parent) or examining subdimensions within the broader construct. In this study, we assessed school climate from the…
DeRosier, Melissa E.; Newcity, Janet
This study assessed school climate for both interpersonal and intrapersonal character traits and examined the links between school climate and students' perceptions of safety at school. Sixty-four elementary and 159 secondary students completed questionnaires in the spring. Findings revealed that character traits were reliably assessed for both…
Durham, Rachel E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Connolly, Faith
Despite--or perhaps due to--the lack of consensus on its definition, there is abundant interest in and research on school climate. Researchers have determined that improving school climate is one way to increase academic achievement, school safety, school completion, teacher retention, healthy social interactions, and student well-being (Cohen,…
Boullis, Antoine; Detrain, Claire; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J
Understanding how climate change will affect species interactions is a challenge for all branches of ecology. We have only limited understanding of how increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels will affect pheromone-mediated communication among insects. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that the entire process of pheromonal communication, from production to behavioural response, is likely to be impacted by increases in temperature and modifications to atmospheric CO2 and O3 levels. We argue that insect species relying on long-range chemical signals will be most impacted, because these signals will likely suffer from longer exposure to oxidative gases during dispersal. We provide future directions for research programmes investigating the consequences of climate change on insect pheromonal communication.
Lalama, Susana M.
The purpose of this study was to explore connections among perceived caring climate, empathy, and student social behaviors in high school bands. Nine high school band directors (N = 9 schools), along with their students (N = 203), completed an electronic questionnaire for variables of caring climate, cognitive empathy, affective empathy, social…
Kwong, Darren; Davis, Jonathan Ryan
This multilevel study examined the relationship between school climate and academic achievement. Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey (ELS, 2002), and a sample of 16,258 students and 1954 schools nationwide, we found that student-level perception of school climate--especially the student learning environment--was highly predictive of academic…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2013
This report from the Alliance finds that schools that struggle most with providing a positive school climate more often disproportionately serve students of color and low-income students. It also confirms that students of color and students from low-income families are less likely to have access to rigorous course work and experienced teachers,…
Tubbs, J. Eric; Garner, Mary
The purpose of this article is to provide insight into an elementary school whose climate issues appear to plague and impact it's performance as measured by it's Annually Yearly Progress (AYP). The Northwest Georgia elementary school is located in a rural school system approximately 50 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. A review of the…
Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to explore and analyze secondary school students' (8th grade) perceptions about school climate in three areas, namely: the physical environment of the school, the social environment and the learning environment Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire, which was designed and pilot-tested around the…
Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.
The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.
This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…
Davis, Louise E.; Peck, Hugh I.
This study assesses whether or not there is a significant difference in school climate, as reported by students' affective attitudes, toward curriculum and instruction for a cohort from one academic year to the next when intervention programs have been introduced. In the fall of 1989, the Program of Research and Evaluation for Public Schools…
Cohen, Jonathan; McCabe, Libby; Michelli, Nicholas M.; Pickeral, Terry
Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of people's experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational…
Greene, Michael B.
This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.
Carson, Paul Kit
A number of research studies have indicated that issues with school climate may be a source of the low academic and social success of students in the public school system. A poor school climate is often associated with low-performing schools; a positive school climate can increase student achievement and other indicators of school success such as…
Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy
School climate is widely recognized as an important influence on peer victimization in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine how authoritative school climate theory provides a framework for conceptualizing 2 key features of school climate--disciplinary structure and student support--that are associated with 3 measures of peer…
Thomson, William C.; Wendt, Janice C.
This study examined relationships between hardiness and school climate in contributing to student teacher alienation. Survey results from 106 student teachers indicated that hardiness significantly affected alienation. Alienation levels of high-hardy students decreased in more supportive school climates. Low-hardy students increased in alienation…
Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu
Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713
Does working during the school year result in lowered perceptions of school climate and connectedness for middle school students? According to outcomes from a Rocky Mountain Region School District's (RMRSD) school climate survey, 20% of their middle school student population works during the school year. Existing literature on youth employment…
Beckley, Gary M.
Today's Catholic educators face a very different world, creating a change in the role and responsibility of the principal. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the culture and climate affect satisfaction in the principal's role that warrants becoming and remaining a principal in today's Catholic schools. This…
McCarley, Troy A.
This study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership (idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulations, and individual considerations) and the perceived school climate (supportive principal behavior,…
Bullying harms kids in nearly every way imaginable. It disrupts their learning; it causes them to suffer anxiety and depression; and it undermines their feelings of safety and connection to school. New understandings of bullying are based on relationships and connect directly to the growing appreciation of the role of the social climate within…
Wilson, Maurice J.
There are many reasons for air-conditioning schools and among them are--(1) the improvement of learning and teaching efficiency, (2) effective use of the educational plant for a greater part of the year, and (3) more efficient use of space through compact building design. Five climate control techniques are cited as providing optimum…
Biernbaum, Mark A.; Lotyczewski, Bohdan S.
Bullying is an international public health problem that school climate could help prevent or promote. The present paper contains an analysis of an anonymous school climate survey, completed by 9554 students, in grades 5-12 (response rate 87%). Links in the literature between school climate and bullying lack specificity. We examined associations…
Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.
Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…
This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the school climate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses, and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. As a result of the analyzes, all the teachers reported open climate in relation to…
Parisi, Jeanine M; Ramsey, Christine M; Carlson, Michelle C; Xue, Qian-Li; Huang, Jin; Romani, William A; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa E; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Barron, Jeremy; Tan, Erwin J; Gruenewald, Tara L; Diibor, Ike; Fried, Linda P; Rebok, George W
We examined the impact of the Experience Corps(®) (EC) program on school climate within Baltimore City public elementary schools. In this program, teams of older adult volunteers were placed in high intensity (>15 h per week), meaningful roles in public elementary schools, to improve the educational outcomes of children as well as the health and well-being of volunteers. During the first year of EC participation, school climate was perceived more favorably among staff and students in EC schools as compared to those in comparison schools. However, with a few notable exceptions, perceived school climate did not differ for staff or students in intervention and comparison schools during the second year of exposure to the EC program. These findings suggest that perceptions of school climate may be altered by introducing a new program into elementary schools; however, research examining how perceptions of school climate are impacted over a longer period is warranted.
White, Nick; La Salle, Tamika; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel
Student perceptions of school climate represent the ways students feel about the school environment. These include perceptions regarding safety, teaching and learning, and relationships within the school. It has been found that student perceptions of school climate are positively correlated with academic achievement (Brookover et al., 1978), and…
Nickerson, Amanda B.; Singleton, Demian; Schnurr, Britton; Collen, Mary Helen
From a social-ecological perspective, bullying exists within the larger context of school climate. In this study, 2,240 middle and high school students participated in a districtwide effort to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as perceptions of school climate. Students reported positive school climate…
O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.
Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…
Kansas State Department of Education, 2004
This document provides a brief overview of the environmental issues that affect Kansas public schools. Specific programs that address these problems are included, along with their contact information. This document contains information on the following issues and programs: (1) Department of Health and Environment; (2) air; (3) asbestos; (4)…
Olson, Carol Duane
Provides an overview of changes in Treasury Regulations as they affect school debt financing, including bond and note construction and acquisition issues, other types of equipment and property financing, as well as tax and revenue anticipation notes for working capital needs. (MLF)
Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.
There is a huge gap between the scientific consensus and public understanding of climate change. Climate change has become a political issue and a "hot" topic in mass media that only adds the complexity to forming the public opinion. Scientists operate in scientific terms, not necessarily understandable by general public, while it is common for people to perceive the latest weather anomaly as an evidence of climate change. In 1998 Hansen et al. introduced a concept of an objectively measured subjective climate change indicator, which can relate public feeling that the climate is changing to the observed meteorological parameters. We tested this concept in a simple example of a temperature-based index, which we related to microblogging activity. Microblogging is a new form of communication in which the users describe their current status in short Internet messages. Twitter (http://twitter.com), is currently the most popular microblogging platform. There are multiple reasons, why this data is particularly valuable to the researches interested in social dynamics: microblogging is widely used to publicize one's opinion with the public; has broad, diverse audience, represented by users from many countries speaking different languages; finally, Twitter contains an enormous number of data, e.g., there were 1,284,579 messages related to climate change from 585,168 users in the January-May data collection. We collected the textual data entries, containing words "climate change" or "global warming" from the 1st of January, 2012. The data was retrieved from the Internet every 20 minutes using a specially developed Python code. Using geolocational information, blog entries originating from the New York urbanized area were selected. These entries, used as a source of public opinion on climate change, were related to the surface temperature, obtained from La Guardia airport meteorological station. We defined the "significant change" in the temperature index as deviation of the
Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.
The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…
Harker-Schuch, Inez; Bugge-Henriksen, Christian
This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage of correct answers was still below 60 % indicating an urgent need for improving climate change science education.
Graham, R.L.; Turner, M.G.; Dale, V.H. )
The strong relationship among climate, atmosphere, soils, biota, and human activities provides a solid basis for anticipating changes in terrestrial biomes in response to changes in the global environment. This article examines potential forest responses to elevated carbon dioxide in conjunction with climatic change. Key ecological processes and how human intervention can affect those processes is presented.
Hernandez, Thomas J.; Seem, Susan R.
The climate of the school is central to the educational mission of a school (Anderson, 1998; Sherman et al., 1997; Jenkins, 1997; Lockwood, 1997). Anderson surveyed recent school safety research and found that altering a school's internal climate can have a significant positive effect on the feeling of safety in the school community. Gottfredson…
Cowan, Katherine C.; Vaillancourt, Kelly
The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, CT (USA) has brought the conversation about how to reduce violence, make schools safer, improve school climate, and increase access to mental health services to the forefront of the national conversation. Advocating for comprehensive initiatives to address school safety, school climate, and…
Hayes, Constance L.
The purpose of the study was to examine the school climate of the Metropolitan Nashville Public Elementary Schools through the lenses of the principals. Principals' perceptions of their school climates was studied using independent variables of principal gender, years of experience as principal, tenure at present school, enrollment size of school,…
Spatial variability of climate can negatively affect catchment streamflow predictions if it is not explicitly accounted for in hydrologic models. In this paper, we examine the changes in streamflow predictability when a hydrologic model is run with spatially variable (distribute...
Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W.
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.
Arter, Judith A.
School and classroom climate is often cited in effective schools research as being important for student achievement. This consumer guide is intended to help educators evaluate their own educational climate by providing reviews and descriptions of the major tests and surveys used to assess climate. Section 2 presents reasons for examining school…
Lane, Eric S.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship between transformative school principal leadership and school climate. The population of this study consisted of two middle schools with grades ranging from six through eight and one high school with grades ranging from nine through twelve. These schools are within the state of…
Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O
Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change
Peterson, Anne Marie
This literature review addresses four variables related to school climate: teacher efficacy, collegiality (as promoted by the principal, shared decision making, and staff development), student achievement, and parent involvement. Schools attempting reform should consider how each of these variables can contribute to a positive school climate and…
Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.
Powell, Joshua E.; Powell, Anna L.; Petrosko, Joseph M.
We surveyed public school educators on the workplace incivility and workplace bullying they experienced and obtained their ratings of the organizational climate of the school. We used multilevel modeling to determine the effects of individual-level and school-level predictors. Ratings of school climate were significantly related to incivility and…
Grace, Ronald A.; Harrington, Sonja Y.
Using a quantitative study the researchers examined perceptions regarding school climate of parents with children who attend urban schools, based on several dimensions: quality of the instructional program, support for learning, school climate/environment for learning, parent/school relationships, and resource management. Of the 150 administered…
Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2010
Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2009-2010, the survey was distributed to approximately 85,000 parents, 45,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…
Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2012
Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools. In 2011-2012, the survey was distributed to approximately 93,000 parents, 52,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 24,000 staff. This report summarizes…
Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2011
Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2010-2011, the survey was distributed to approximately 92,000 parents, 48,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…
Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. In…
Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009
Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…
If solar variability affects human culture it most likely does so by changing the climate in which the culture operates. Variations in the solar radiative input to the Earth's atmosphere have often been suggested as a cause of such climate change on time scales from decades to tens of millennia. In the last 20 years there has been enormous progress in our knowledge of the many fields of research that impinge on this problem; the history of the solar output, the effect of solar variability on the Earth's mean climate and its regional patterns, the history of the Earth's climate and the history of mankind and human culture. This new knowledge encourages revisiting the question asked in the title of this talk. Several important historical events have been reliably related to climate change including the Little Ice Age in northern Europe and the collapse of the Classical Mayan civilization in the 9th century AD. In the first section of this paper we discus these historical events and review the evidence that they were caused by changes in the solar output. Perhaps the most important event in the history of mankind was the development of agricultural societies. This began to occur almost 12,000 years ago when the climate changed from the Pleistocene to the modern climate of the Holocene. In the second section of the paper we will discuss the suggestion ( Feynman and Ruzmaikin, 2007) that climate variability was the reason agriculture developed when it did and not before.
Parcel, Guy S; Perry, Cheryl L; Kelder, Steven H; Elder, John P; Mitchell, Paul D; Lytle, Leslie A; Johnson, Carolyn C; Stone, Elaine J
School climate refers to various physical and psychosocial structures that shape schools' social and physical environments. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study provided an opportunity to study how aspects of school climate are associated with continued implementation of the CATCH program. Nutrient analysis of menus, observations of physical education (PE) classes, and teacher and staff self-reports were used to measure CATCH program components. Results of this study indicate that aspects of school climate were associated with continued implementation of the CATCH classroom component but not the CATCH food service or PE components. These findings have implications for how we plan for the progression of innovative school health promotion programs from the initial trial stage to institutionalization. Measures of school climate may be useful in determining a school's readiness to adopt and implement an innovative health promotion curriculum.
Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang
The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.
Springer, Pamela J; Clark, Cynthia M; Strohfus, Pamela; Belcheir, Marcia
A positive organizational culture and climate is closely associated with an affirming workplace and job satisfaction. Especially during a time of faculty shortages, academic leaders need to be cognizant of the culture and climate in schools of nursing. The culture of an organization affects employees, systems, and processes, and if the culture becomes problematic, transformational leadership is essential to create change. The purpose of this article is to describe an 8-year journey to change the culture and climate of a school of nursing from one of dissatisfaction and distrust to one of high employee satisfaction and trust. Kotter's model for transformational change was used to frame a longitudinal study using the Cultural and Climate Assessment Scale to transform the organizational culture and climate of a school of nursing.
Accepting that few lists are comprehensive, but acknowledging that they still have value, here then are seven important factors that contribute to a healthy school climate: (1) Models: Adults are teachers in more ways than one, and the way that has the greater impact is less what they say than what they do; (2) Consistency: The school staff must…
Liu, Ying; Ding, Cody; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Bier, Melinda C.
The concept of school climate has been an important topic for education and it has been studied extensively over the past several decades. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that effectively and efficiently measure the construct. Literature has documented a number of school climate instruments, most of which…
Black, Glenda Lee
The purpose of this mixed-method research study was to determine the extent that servant leadership was correlated with perceptions of school climate to identify whether there was a relationship between principals' and teachers' perceived practice of servant leadership and of school climate. The study employed a mixed-method approach by first…
Kohl, Diane; Recchia, Sophie; Steffgen, Georges
Background: School climate is a heterogeneous concept with a multitude of standardised and validated instruments available to measure it. Purpose: This overview of measurement scales aims to provide researchers with short summaries of some of the self-report instruments in existence, especially in relation to the link between school climate and…
Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann
This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…
Part I of the Learning Climate in Schools evaluation brief looked at violence and disruptive behavior in the North Carolina public schools from several perspectives, including that of teachers expressed in an annual survey. Part II examines teacher perceptions of learning and organizational climates using another set of teacher responses to the…
Gould, A. D.
The Lifelines project aims to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively using climate change curricula by creating professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who, through remote meetings and workshops, maintain ongoing communication and sharing of best practices among colleagues to strengthen knowledge and promote effective teaching strategies. The project explores techniques to achieve the most effective teleconferencing meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development — practicing what we preach. To date, Lifelines PLCs have set up websites and e-mail lists for sharing information. Teleconferences and webinars have been held using services such as Skype, ReadyTalk, and Wiggio. Many of the meetings have been recorded and archived for the benefit of members who could not attend in real-time.
Berg, Juliette K.; Cornell, Dewey
Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less…
Busch, Steve; Johnson, Shirley; Robles-Piña, Rebecca; Slate, John R.
In this study, the researchers examined principal behaviors related with change in school climate. That is, the manner in which principals managed change within their schools and the impact of these change behaviors on the school climate was investigated. Through use of the Leadership Profile (Johnson, 2003) and the Organizational Health Inventory…
Musheer, Zainab; Govil, Punita; Gupta, Swati
The present study attempts to know the attitude of secondary school students towards their school climate. It explores their attitude with reference to certain demographic variables like gender, medium of instruction in the school and educational level of parents. The study has been conducted on the sample of 358 students studying at various…
Licata, Vincent F.
One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…
MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…
Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.
Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…
Kilinc, Ali Çagatay
Teacher leadership has recently become the centre of educational research on improving educational practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between primary school teachers' perceptions of school climate and teacher leadership. The study sample consisted of 259 primary school teachers who participated in an educational…
Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob
The purpose of this study was to learn whether focusing on strengths through appreciative inquiry would be related to measurable changes in school climate and trust within a small urban school district. The district studied was a beleaguered, underperforming school district in the Midwest Rust Belt. Through an appreciative inquiry initiative, the…
Freiberg, H. Jerome
Describes how schools used three measuring instruments--student-concerns surveys, entrance and exit interviews, and ambient-noise checklists--to measure school climate and identify areas needing improvement. This feedback process allows students to become citizens, not tourists, in their school, as they realize they have a chance to participate in…
Gobal climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80?? N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However, when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Global climate change may affect wolves in Canada's High Arctic (80DG N) acting through three trophic levels (vegetation, herbivores, and wolves). A wolf pack dependent on muskoxen and arctic hares in the Eureka area of Ellesmere Island denned and produced pups most years from at least 1986 through 1997. However when summer snow covered vegetation in 1997 and 2000 for the first time since records were kept, halving the herbivore nutrition-replenishment period, muskox and hare numbers dropped drastically, and the area stopped supporting denning wolves through 2003. The unusual weather triggering these events was consistent with global-climate-change phenomena.
Robinson, Michelle A; Reddy, Michael S
Decades of research have shown that organizational climate has the potential to form the basis of workplace operations and impact an organization's performance. Culture is related to climate but is not the same. "Culture" is the broader term, defining how things are done in an organization, while "climate" is a component of culture that describes how people perceive their environment. Climate can be changed but requires substantial effort over time by management and the workforce. Interest has recently grown in culture and climate in dental education due to the humanistic culture accreditation standard. The aim of this study was to use corporate climate principles to examine how organizational culture and, subsequently, workplace operations can be improved through specific strategic efforts in a U.S. dental school. The school's parent institution initiated a climate survey that the dental school used with qualitative culture data to drive strategic planning and change in the school. Administration of the same survey to faculty and staff members three times over a six-year period showed significant changes to the school's climate occurred as a new strategic plan was implemented that focused on reforming areas of weakness. Concentrated efforts in key areas in the strategic plan resulted in measurable improvements in climate perception. The study discovered that culture was an area previously overlooked but explicitly linked to the success of the organization.
McLean, Nina; Lawson, Callum R; Leech, Dave I; van de Pol, Martijn
Species' responses to climate change are variable and diverse, yet our understanding of how different responses (e.g. physiological, behavioural, demographic) relate and how they affect the parameters most relevant for conservation (e.g. population persistence) is lacking. Despite this, studies that observe changes in one type of response typically assume that effects on population dynamics will occur, perhaps fallaciously. We use a hierarchical framework to explain and test when impacts of climate on traits (e.g. phenology) affect demographic rates (e.g. reproduction) and in turn population dynamics. Using this conceptual framework, we distinguish four mechanisms that can prevent lower-level responses from impacting population dynamics. Testable hypotheses were identified from the literature that suggest life-history and ecological characteristics which could predict when these mechanisms are likely to be important. A quantitative example on birds illustrates how, even with limited data and without fully-parameterized population models, new insights can be gained; differences among species in the impacts of climate-driven phenological changes on population growth were not explained by the number of broods or density dependence. Our approach helps to predict the types of species in which climate sensitivities of phenotypic traits have strong demographic and population consequences, which is crucial for conservation prioritization of data-deficient species.
Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Morales, Fermin; Pascual, Inmaculada; Unamunzaga, Olatz
and water-deficit had a clear influence on the grape phenological development and composition, whilst soil affected root configuration and anthocyanins concentration. Effects of climate change and water availability on different soil conditions should be considered to take full advantage or mitigate the consequences of the future climate conditions.
Immerzeel, Walter W; van Beek, Ludovicus P H; Bierkens, Marc F P
More than 1.4 billion people depend on water from the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, and Yellow rivers. Upstream snow and ice reserves of these basins, important in sustaining seasonal water availability, are likely to be affected substantially by climate change, but to what extent is yet unclear. Here, we show that meltwater is extremely important in the Indus basin and important for the Brahmaputra basin, but plays only a modest role for the Ganges, Yangtze, and Yellow rivers. A huge difference also exists between basins in the extent to which climate change is predicted to affect water availability and food security. The Brahmaputra and Indus basins are most susceptible to reductions of flow, threatening the food security of an estimated 60 million people.
Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.
Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…
Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the impact that function, experience, and training of Independent School District School Resource Officers (ISD SROs) have on school climate. The participants were ISD SROs (n = 172) and teachers (n = 162) located in middle and high schools in Texas. Method: The Role of Law…
Gage, Nicholas A.; Larson, Alvin; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
School climate has been linked with myriad positive student outcomes and the measurement of school climate is widely advocated at the national and state level. However, districts have little guidance about how to define and measure school climate. This study examines the psychometric properties of a district-developed school climate measure that…
Seligson, Michelle E.; Brown, Cynthia G.; Barnes-O'Connor, Kimberly L.; Walker, Gary C.
Four essays by policy analysts approach programs for school-age children from differing perspectives, each identifying the key forces that influence the policy climate and directions for the future. (Author/SLD)
Lode, Marlin D.
In spite of a nationwide concern for the crumbling infrastructure of school buildings, the prospects of passing bond issues to repair or replace buildings are elusive. This study examined positive and negative factors that affected the outcomes of school bond elections in four purposefully-selected school districts in Iowa. Variables that…
Booth, Alan, Ed.; Dunn, Judith F., Ed.
This book explores issues related to the links between families and schools and how they affect children's educational achievement, and is organized as follows: Part 1, titled "Families and Schools: How Can They Work Together To Promote Children's School Success?" contains the following chapters: chapter 1, "Family Involvement in…
Dezen, Kristin A.; Gurl, Aaron; Ping, Jenn
School psychologists encounter children regularly who have been affected by abuse and neglect. Maltreatment adversely affects the mental health status and academic achievement of youth, thereby making the topic an area of concern for school psychologists. More recently, child protection laws have been expanded to include mandatory child abuse…
Lubin, Bernard; And Others
Compared Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised scores of 139 middle and senior high public school students and of 403 parochial school students. Parochial students scored significantly higher on depression, hostility, and dysphoria, and significantly lower on positive affect and overall positive mood. Offers possible explanations for this…
Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark
Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs.
Preisser, Evan L; Strong, Donald R
Herbivore outbreaks and the accompanying devastation of plant biomass can have enormous ecological effects. Climate directly affects such outbreaks through plant stress or alterations in herbivore life-history traits. Large-scale variation in climate can indirectly affect outbreaks through trophic interactions, but the magnitude of such effects is unknown. On the California coast, rainfall in years during and immediately previous to mass lupine mortality was two-thirds that of years without such mortality. However, neither mature lupines nor their root-feeding herbivores are directly affected by annual variation in rainfall. By increasing soil moisture to levels characteristic of summers following El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, we increased persistence of a predator (the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus). This led to suppression of an outbreak of the herbivorous moth Hepialus californicus, indirectly protecting bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus). Our results are consistent with the marine-oriented Menge-Sutherland hypothesis (Menge and Sutherland 1987) that abiotic stress has greater effects on higher than on lower trophic levels. The mechanisms producing these results differ from those proposed by Menge-Sutherland, however, highlighting differences between trophic processes in underground and terrestrial/marine food webs. Our evidence suggests that herbivore outbreaks and mass lupine mortality are indirectly affected by ENSO's facilitation of top-down control in this food web.
Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon
This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…
Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik
Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.
Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik
Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275
Kallestad, Jan Helge
In a previous report five school climate instruments were explored (1983 and 1985), and four scales were regarded as meaningful climate measures according to suggested criteria. These scales were re-inspected in the present study (1997 and 1998) by analyses of internal consistency, estimates of reliability (unit and aggregated reliability), and…
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom
Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…
Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis; Meyer, Patrick; Lacey, Anna; Nekvasil, Erin; Heilbrun, Anna; Shukla, Kathan
The Authoritative School Climate Survey was designed to provide schools with a brief assessment of 2 key characteristics of school climate--disciplinary structure and student support--that are hypothesized to influence 2 important school climate outcomes--student engagement and prevalence of teasing and bullying in school. The factor structure of…
Toomey, Russell B; McGuire, Jenifer K; Russell, Stephen T
Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers.
Sakiz, Gonul; Pape, Stephen J; Hoy, Anita Woolfolk
The purpose of the present study was to explore the importance of perceived teacher affective support in relation to sense of belonging, academic enjoyment, academic hopelessness, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in middle school mathematics classrooms. A self-report survey was administered to 317 seventh- and eighth-grade students in 5 public middle schools. Structural equation modeling indicated significant associations between perceived teacher affective support and middle school students' motivational, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. The structural model explained a significant proportion of variance in students' sense of belonging (42%), academic enjoyment (43%), self-efficacy beliefs (43%), academic hopelessness (18%), and academic effort (32%) in mathematics classrooms. In addition to providing the basis for a concise new measure of perceived teacher affective support, these findings point to the importance of students' perceptions of the affective climate within learning environments for promoting academic enjoyment, academic self-efficacy, and academic effort in mathematics.
Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca
This study examined the importance of aspects of the school climate for adolescents' psychosomatic health using multilevel modelling. Analyses were based on 18,571 ninth-grade students distributed over 1,026 classes and 284 schools in the greater Stockholm area in 2004 and 2006. Both individual- and contextual-level associations between aspects of…
Schade, Benjamin; Larwin, Karen H.
The current investigation examines whether visual impairment has an impact on a student's perception of the school climate. Using a large national sample of high school students, perceptions were examined for students with vision impairment relative to students with no visual impairments. Three factors were examined: self-reported level of…
Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha
Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…
Malone, Mark E.
School Climate has been identified by a large body of literature as having a direct relationship on student achievement (Johnson, & Stevens, 2000; Kezar & Eckel, 2007; West, 1985), and) and numerous other components used to determine the success and safety of both students and teachers in schools (Finnan, Schnepel, & Anderson, 2003;…
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between transformational school leadership and ethical climate. The participants were 764 teachers in 50 elementary schools in Nigde during the 2008/2009 academic year. Two distinct instruments were used in this study. The Principal Leadership Style Inventory developed by Leithwood and Jantzi (1991)…
Boucher, Miriam Miley
Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…
Dempster, Neil; Freakley, Mark; Parry, Lindsay
Today's competitive climate is pressuring public school educators to improve schools in an environment dominated by parent and consumer choice. This article draws on two studies involving Australian principals that illustrate difficult ethical situations. Most participants found the values of marketing and economic rationalism to be inconsistent…
Liu, Yang Yang
In a sample of 916 Chinese high school students, the relations among the students' perceptions of school climate and their trait test anxiety were examined. The results indicated that students' perceptions of teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships negatively predicted their trait test anxiety. Furthermore, girls had higher scores on trait test anxiety than boys.
Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti
Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)
Buchanan, John; Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter
The mandate for living sustainably is becoming increasingly urgent. This article reports on the Climate Clever Energy Savers (CCES) Program, a student-centred, problem- and project-based program in New South Wales, Australia, aimed at enabling school students to identify ways of reducing their schools' electricity consumption and costs. As part of…
Låftman, Sara Brolin; Östberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte
This study investigates associations between aspects of school climate, measured by students' assessments aggregated to the class level, and exposure to bullying, measured at the individual level. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey of 2006-2010 with information from 16,418 ninth-grade students (aged 15-16 years) distributed…
McKenzie, Ginger Kelley
In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…
Adams, Curt M.; Ware, Jordan K.; Miskell, Ryan C.; Forsyth, Patrick B.
This study contributes to the development of a positive framework for effective public schools in 2 ways. First, it advances the construct self-regulatory climate as consisting of 3 generative school norms--collective faculty trust in students, collective student trust in teachers, and student-perceived academic emphasis. The authors argue these…
Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha
Objectives To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls’ physical activity in middle school girls. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers’ and boys’ behaviors, respectively, fit the data well in both sixth and eighth graders. SEM detected a positive, significant direct association of the teacher factor, but not the boy factor, with girls’ self-reported physical activity. Conclusions School climate for girls’ physical activity is a measurable construct, and preliminary evidence suggests a relationship with physical activity. PMID:15899688
Okaya, Tom Mboya; Horne, Marj; Lamig, Madeleine; Smith, Kenneth H.
The present study utilized the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R) (Smith, 2005b, 2013) based on Invitational Theory and Practice (Purkey & Novak, 2008) to examine the school climate of a public primary school in a low urban socio-economic setting in Kenya. School climate was defined as the perceptions of primary school teachers and pupils…
Jeffries, Rhonda B.; Harris, Ian M.
This paper discusses peace education curriculum in the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public School district. The peace education promotion has been in existence for 10 years and was created in response to rising levels of violence. Specifically examined are the uses of peace education at Fritsche Middle School, a school that has proven the positive…
Washburn, J. Michael; Hammond, Janice M.
Junior and senior high schools in Garden City (Michigan) restored school spirit with a retreat where student leaders and building administrators could meet in an informal settings, get to know each other, and make plans to improve the schools. (Author/JM)
Kenney, Gordon E.; Butler, E. Dean
In 1987, a school-university collaborative project, Positive Attitudes in Tennessee Schools (PATS), was established to improve school-learning environments. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the effect of school participation in PATS on school climate. A secondary focus was to determine which school-climate variables could…
Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.
Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…
Sistrunk, Walter E.
This paper examines the relationships among school climate, leadership styles, and group interaction as perceived by teachers, selected parents, and selected students in a medium-sized Mississippi Delta school district. Parent dissatisfaction with the behavior of a junior high school principal provoked this study. The total sample consisted of 86…
Robinson, Lakishia N.
Teacher turnover refers to major changes in teachers' assignments from one school year to the next. Past research has given an overview of several factors of teacher turnover. These factors include the school environment, teacher collaborative efforts, administrative support, school climate, location, salary, classroom management, academic…
Chong, Wan Har; Klassen, Robert M.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison Diane
The authors explored how prior student achievement, through school types, predicted teacher self- and collective efficacy and perceived academic climate of 222 middle school teachers in Singapore. Teachers assigned to high-track and regular middle schools differed in their perception of self- and collective efficacy to promote organizational…
Ferráns, Silvia Diazgranados; Selman, Robert L.
The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the school culture at different perceived school climates affect early adolescents' decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory…
Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar
In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring γ=-0.08, p<.001; equity γ=-0.05, p=.007; and engagement γ=-0.05, p<.001). In addition, we found significant, positive associations between aggregated staff-report of school organizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, γ=0.07, p<.001). Surprisingly, a number of school organizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, γ=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (γ=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success.
Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F
The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.
McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E. W.; Youngman, E.
Instructors must have on hand appropriate assessments that align with their teaching and learning goals in order to provide evidence of student learning. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop the Climate Concept Inventory (CCI), which meets goals of the EarthLabs Climate on-line curriculum. The developed concept inventory includes 19 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, three open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Our analysis of the instrument applies item response theory and uses item characteristic curves. We have assessed over 500 students in nearly twenty high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas that have engaged in the implementation of the EarthLabs curriculum and completed the CCI. Results indicate that students had pre-post gains on 9 out of 10 of the content-based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. Students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more students reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 out of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth's climate system. The research has resulted in a robust and validated climate concept inventory for use with advanced high school students, where we have been able to apply its use within the EarthLabs project.
Regional Educational Laboratory West, 2015
A growing body of research shows that positive school climate is a key lever for students' academic and social development and success. This research digest shows how an alliance of California schools and districts, school climate experts, and state education agency personnel have teamed up to use school climate data to drive a continuous cycle of…
Gage, Nicholas A.; Larson, Alvin; Sugai, George; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
Research indicates that school climate influences students' academic, social, and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, improving school climate provides a promising avenue for preventing academic, social, and behavioral difficulties. Research has examined school-level measurement of school climate, but few studies have examined student-level responses…
Ramelow, Daniela; Currie, Dorothy; Felder-Puig, Rosemarie
School climate measurement is a long-standing topic in educational research. This review article provides an overview and appraisal of school climate measures published between 2003 and 2013 in scientific journals. A search for published school climate instruments for secondary school students was made in three databases. Twelve articles meeting…
O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie
School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…
Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Konold, Timothy; Meyer, Joseph P.; Lacey, Anna; Nekvasil, Erin K.; Heilbrun, Anna; Shukla, Kathan D.
Background: School climate is well recognized as an important influence on student behavior and adjustment to school, but there is a need for theory-guided measures that make use of teacher perspectives. Authoritative school climate theory hypothesizes that a positive school climate is characterized by high levels of disciplinary structure and…
Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.
Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1
This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…
Sinatra, G. M.
Changing students' ideas about controversial scientific issues, such as human-induced climate change, presents unique challenges for educators (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010; Sinatra & Mason, 2008). First, climate science is complex and requires "systems thinking," or the ability to think and reason abstractly about emergent systems (Goldstone & Sakamoto, 2003). Appreciating the intricacies of complex systems and emergent processes has proven challenging for students (Chi, 2005). In addition to these challenges, there are specific misconceptions that may lead thinking astray on the issue of global climate change, such as the distinction between weather and climate (Lombardi & Sinatra, 2010). As an example, when students are asked about their views on climate change, they often recall individual storm events or very cold periods and use their personal experiences and recollections of short-term temperature fluctuations to assess whether the planet is warming. Beyond the conceptual difficulties, controversial topics offer another layer of challenge. Such topics are often embedded in complex socio-cultural and political contexts, have a high degree of uncertainty, and may be perceived by individuals as in conflict with their personal or religious beliefs (Levinson, 2006, Sinatra, Kardash, Taasoobshirazi, & Lombardi, 2011). Individuals are often committed to their own views on socio-scientific issues and this commitment may serve as a motivation to actively resist new ideas (Dole & Sinatra, 1998). Individuals may also have strong emotions associated with their misconceptions (Broughton, Pekrun, & Sinatra, 2011). Negative emotions, misconceptions, and resistance do not make a productive combination for learning. Further, teachers who find human-induced climate change implausible have been shown to hold negative emotions about having to teach about climate change (Lombardi & Sinatra, in preparation), which could affect how they present the topic to students. In this
DuPlantis, Ernest P.
This course guide is oriented toward developing skills in air conditioning and refrigeration installation and service. Although primarily designed as a 2-year program for high school students at the junior and senior levels, it is equally acceptable for the post high school student as an occupational training program, or as a refresher course for…
Leff, Jonathan M.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there is a relationship between transformational principal leadership style, a safe school climate, and school safety (specifically, the number of reported fights and reported bullying incidents) in Broward County, Florida's middle schools. This study also investigated if a relationship…
This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals' supervisory behaviors and of their schools' climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and…
Coyne, Amy Yarborough
Each school has unique attributes and a personality that gives the school a distinct climate. Psychological qualities that schools possess might include trust, collaboration, cooperation, teaching attributes, expectations, community involvement, and engagement (Rhodes, Camic, Milburn, & Lowe, 2009). Given information regarding school climate,…
London, Rebecca A.; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey
Background: Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy,…
Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey
Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed.
Weber, Tobias; Thomas, Maik
Global ocean models can generally be divided into Ocean General Circulation and tidal models. Paleoclimate simulations consider dynamics due to the ocean's general, i.e., thermohaline, wind and pressure driven circulation, while tidal dynamics most commonly are neglected due to their strict periodicity and high frequencies. Nevertheless, it could be demonstrated that transport ellipses and energy fluxes are being deformed over shelf areas due to tidal induced friction thus altering ocean circulation and energy fluxes on longer timescales. This makes tides not only an interesting subject of investigation of present-day dynamics, but also of paleo time slices, when both different celestial constellations and geometric shapes of ocean basins affected tidal waves. Using the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM5/MPIOM with an integrated tidal module based on luni-solar ephemerides, we simultaneously simulate circulation and tidal dynamics for the Early Eocene (50Ma) and a pre-industrial control run. Major changes in ocean circulation cannot only be observed in shelf areas, but also in the open ocean, for example the Indian and North Atlantic Oceans. Especially the opening of the Tethys Sea alters ocean basin geometry and hereby the dissipation of tidal waves. The southern position of Australia allows resonance between the Indian and Pacific Ocean and leads to high amplitudes in the M2 tide that dominate the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans. Including tidal dynamics in the ocean model also affects climate by decreasing global mean temperature.
Hudley, Cynthia; Daoud, Annette; Polanco, Ted; Wright-Castro, Rosina; Hershberg, Rachel
Engagement is a potentially useful construct for organizing strategies to support adjustment, achievement and retention in school, particularly among our most vulnerable student populations. Even if high quality schooling is available, high levels of achievement will implicitly demand engagement on the part of students. This initial analysis,…
DeWaters, J.; Powers, S.; Dhaniyala, S.; Small, M.
Middle school (MS) and high school (HS) teachers have developed and taught instructional modules that were created through their participation in Clarkson University's NASA-funded Project-Based Global Climate Change Education project. A quantitative survey was developed to help evaluate the project's impact on students' climate literacy, which includes content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral attributes. Content objectives were guided primarily by the 2009 document, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The survey was developed according to established psychometric principles and methodologies in the sociological and educational sciences which involved developing and evaluating a pool of survey items, adapted primarily from existing climate surveys and questionnaires; preparing, administering, and evaluating two rounds of pilot tests; and preparing a final instrument with revisions informed by both pilot assessments. The resulting survey contains three separate subscales: cognitive, affective, and behavioral, with five self-efficacy items embedded within the affective subscale. Cognitive items use a multiple choice format with one correct response; non-cognitive items use a 5-point Likert-type scale with options generally ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" (affective), or "almost always" to "hardly ever" (behavioral). Three versions of the survey were developed and administered using an on-line Zoomerang™ platform to college students/adults; HS students; and MS students, respectively. Instrument validity was supported by using items drawn from existing surveys, by reviewing/applying prior research in climate literacy, and through comparative age-group analysis. The internal consistency reliability of each subscale, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranges from 0.78-0.86 (cognitive), 0.87-0.89 (affective) and 0.84-0.85 (behavioral), all satisfying generally accepted criteria for internal reliability of
Hulley, Angela; Bentley, Nick; Clough, Catherine; Fishlock, Adelle; Morrell, Frances; O'Brien, James; Radmore, Joseph
Active commuting among school children is being encouraged for physical and environmental reasons, but little is known about its influence on affect. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that children who walk further to school experience increased arousal and affective valence compared with children who walk a short distance. This was…
Sigler, Michael F.; Harvey, H. Rodger; Ashjian, Carin J.; Lomas, Michael W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Van Pelt, Thomas I.
The Bering Sea is one of the most productive marine ecosystems in the world, sustaining nearly half of U.S. annual commercial fish catches and providing food and cultural value to thousands of coastal and island residents. Fish and crab are abundant in the Bering Sea; whales, seals, and seabirds migrate there every year. In winter, the topography, latitude, atmosphere, and ocean circulation combine to produce a sea ice advance in the Bering Sea unmatched elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, and in spring the retreating ice; longer daylight hours; and nutrient-rich, deep-ocean waters forced up onto the broad continental shelf result in intense marine productivity (Figure 1). This seasonal ice cover is a major driver of Bering Sea ecology, making this ecosystem particularly sensitive to changes in climate. Predicted changes in ice cover in the coming decades have intensified concern about the future of this economically and culturally important region. In response, the North Pacific Research Board (NPRB) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) entered into a partnership in 2007 to support the Bering Sea Project, a comprehensive $52 million investigation to understand how climate change is affecting the Bering Sea ecosystem, ranging from lower trophic levels (e.g., plankton) to fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and, ultimately, humans. The project integrates two research programs, the NSF Bering Ecosystem Study (BEST) and the NPRB Bering Sea Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (BSIERP), with substantial in-kind contributions from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
La Salle, Tamika P.; Meyers, Joel; Varjas, Kristen; Roach, Andrew
School climate has been established as an important construct to measure because of its connections to student psychological, social, and academic outcomes (Anderson, 1982; Koth, Bradshaw, & Leaf, 2008; Kuperminc, Leadbeater, Emmons, & Blatt, 1997). Prior research has also established relationships between student perceptions of school…
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine
This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…
Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas
The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…
Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark
Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research…
Braukmann, William T.
This presentation was based on the assumption that developing the art of making teachers and students feel good about themselves is of paramount importance in helping youngsters to learn. The author offers and elaborates on 12 tips to help principals improve school climate: (1) Be aware that the principal's most important function is getting…
Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick
Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…
School climate is a significant way to predict school achievement as a positive correlation to students' standardized test scores and also teachers' perceptions of bureaucratic effectiveness and empowerment (Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp, 1991; Sweetland & Hoy, 2000). Enabling bureaucracies are positively related to teacher empowering; however,…
Choi, Namok; Chang, Mido
This research examined the important factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students in middle schools by hierarchically specifying the personal and contextual variables. The study focused on the effect of school climate at the class level and the effects of student gender, attitude toward mathematics, educational aspiration, parent…
Montoya, Alicia L.; Brown, Neil L.
The relationship of middle school climate to academic achievement was examined. Participants were members of eight 6th grade classes. Four of the classes were in elementary settings, and four in middle school settings. Classes were matched as closely as possible on economic status and ethnic composition. Entered into correlational analyses were…
Rudduck, Jean; Berry, Mary; Brown, Nick; Frost, David
Describes how several schools participated in a school improvement project that helped them learn from each other in a competitive climate, noting issues influencing teachers' readiness to collaborate. It proved important to identify issues engaging with fundamental aspects of teaching and learning that were powerful enough to involve other…
Dixon, David L.
This study examined the relationship between servant leadership of the principal with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and school climate. Servant leadership, a leadership behavior that emphasizes personal growth of followers, has a useful research history in business but limited exposure in public schools. Organizational Citizenship…
Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013
Schools are places of learning and also miniature societies. The climate of a school has a direct impact on both how well students learn and how well they interact with their peers. Teachers and administrators work hard to make their classrooms welcoming places where each student feels included. But despite these efforts, students who are--or who…
Smith, Tami Kopischke; Connolly, Faith; Pryseski, Charlene
The term "school climate" has been around for more than a hundred years to explore the idea of school environmental or contextual factors that might have an impact on student learning and academic success. During the past three decades there has been growing research to support the importance of a positive school climate in promoting…
Brown, Joshua L.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Aber, J. Lawrence
This presentation capitalizes on a three-year, longitudinal, school-randomized trial of the 4Rs Program, a comprehensive, school-based social-emotional and literacy program for elementary schools, to test intervention induced changes in features of classroom climate and key dimensions of teacher affective and pedagogical processes and practices…
Wright, Tiffany E.; Smith, Nancy J.
Over an 8-year span, two survey studies were conducted to analyze LGBT -teachers' perceptions of their school climate and the impact of school leaders on that climate. This article presents nonparametric, descriptive, and qualitative results of the National Survey of Educators' Perceptions of School Climate 2011 compared with survey results from…
Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.
The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument that measures the ethical climate of elementary schools. To create the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index (ESECI), we adapted the ethical climate index for middle and high schools. The ESECI assesses student and teacher interactions and relationships through the application…
Researchers who use the concept of school climate in their research should be aware of the ways in which climate can be measured and what the different methods of measurement imply. Among the typical kinds of measures of school climate currently in use are normative approaches that focus on students' and teachers' perceptions of school norms,…
Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.
What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives
Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus
Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…
The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern, offers a specialised M.Sc. and a Ph.D. study programme in climate sciences. The graduate school has a highly interdisciplinary profile involving not only natural sciences, but also humanities/history, economics and law. The ten participating institutes with a total of 45 academics provide expertise in long-term climate variability, climate modelling, climate reconstruction, predictability of the future climate and extreme events, the impact of climate change on ecosystems and climate risks for society and economy. The graduate school is fully compliant with the Bologna Accords and collaborates closely with the sister institution C2SM at ETH Zurich by, e.g., jointly organised lectures. There are currently 23 master and 37 doctoral students in the programme. These originate from the University of Bern (28 %), from other Swiss universities (30 %) and from foreign universities (42 %). Comprehensive information about the Graduate School of Climate Sciences is available at http://www.climatestudies.unibe.ch . The M.Sc. in Climate Sciences programme (120 ECTS credits) is designed to attract students from all disciplines in natural sciences and offers them a tailor-made curriculum to reach their career aspirations. The students make their own course selection according to their profile envisaged (specialised versus broad education) and ideally already guided by a job perspective. Selecting the courses and the topic of the master thesis they specialise in one of five fields: climate and earth system science; atmospheric science; economics; economic, social and environmental history; statistics. Several courses are organised jointly with public authorities and the private industry, e.g. from experts working in the insurance business, in weather forecasting or in environmental pollution control. This provides the students hands-on experience and contacts to future employers. The master thesis (60 ECTS) involves the
Hernández Baeza, Ana; Araya Lao, Cristina; García Meneses, Juliana; González Romá, Vicente
In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on team tension. In addition, the leader's influence and the frequency of leader-team interaction moderate the relationship between charisma and affective climate. However, whereas the leader's influence enhances the relationship between leader charisma and positive affective climate, the frequency of interaction has counterproductive effects.
Hosford, Susan; O'Sullivan, Siobhán
Teacher efficacy represents a key construct in exploring successful implementation of inclusive policy. Teachers' impression of school climate is shown to relate to teacher efficacy; however, few studies pay due deference to its context/specific conceptualisation, with a particular lacuna in research noted in an Irish mainstream primary school…
Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang
The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…
Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
Most educational climate research is conducted among (day school) students who spend the bulk of their young lives outside of school, potentially limiting the amount of climate variance that can be captured. Boarding school students, on the other hand, spend much of their lives at school and thus offer a potentially unique perspective on…
Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley
School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…
Aldridge, Jill M.; Ala'i, Kate G.; Fraser, Barry J.
This article reports research into associations between students' perceptions of the school climate and self-reports of ethnic and moral identity in high schools in Western Australia. An instrument was developed to assess students' perceptions of their school climate (as a means of monitoring and guiding schools as they are challenged to become…
Gage, Nicholas A.; Prykanowski, Debra A.; Larson, Alvin
Researchers investigating school-level approaches for bullying prevention are beginning to discuss and target school climate as a construct that (a) may predict prevalence and (b) be an avenue for school-wide intervention efforts (i.e., increasing positive school climate). Although promising, research has not fully examined and established the…
Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan
A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…
Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong
In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms.
Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Klinger, Don A.; Hussain, Alicia
School climate, safety and well-being of students are important antecedents of academic achievement. However, school members do not necessarily experience school climate in the same way; rather, their subjective perceptions of the environment and personal characteristics influence individual outcomes and behaviours. Therefore, a closer look at the…
Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena
The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…
Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.
The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class…
Voight, Adam; Hanson, Thomas; O'Malley, Meagan; Adekanye, Latifah
This study used student and teacher survey data from over 400 middle schools in California to examine within-school racial disparities in students' experiences of school climate. It further examined the relationship between a school's racial climate gaps and achievement gaps and other school structures and norms that may help explain why some schools have larger or smaller racial disparities in student reports of climate than others. Multilevel regression results problematized the concept of a "school climate" by showing that, in an average middle school, Black and Hispanic students have less favorable experiences of safety, connectedness, relationships with adults, and opportunities for participation compared to White students. The results also show that certain racial school climate gaps vary in magnitude across middle schools, and in middle schools where these gaps are larger, the racial achievement gap is also larger. Finally, the socioeconomic status of students, student-teacher ratio, and geographic location help explain some cross-school variation in racial climate gaps. These findings have implications for how school climate in conceptualized, measured, and improved.
Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin
The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22669595
Collins, Karmen J.
The purpose of this research study was to investigate the relationship between the components of school climate and leadership behaviors on student achievement in an urban school district in the mid-atlantic region. School climate and leadership behaviors for the participating school districts was determined by the School Climate Survey (Corner…
... USDA has established seven regional hubs for risk adaptation and mitigation to climate change. These Hubs will ... season. Assessments and regional forecasts for hazard and adaptation planning to provide more time to prepare. Outreach ...
Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.
Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures.
Bullying is a serious problem among students. Research linking school climate and trust as to bullying is minimal. This study examined elements of school climate and trust in relation to bullying and protection using Hoy and Smith's (2004) climate study and Smith and Birney's (2005) trust study. Trust was found to be the significant predictor of…
Somersalo, Heidi; Solantaus, Tytti; Almqvist, Fredrik
This study was carried out to examine associations between classroom climate and pupils' mental health in primary school, and whether pupils who had emotional and behavioural problems in the second grade are more vulnerable to the effects of a poor classroom climate 4 years later. The study was carried out by means of questionnaires to teachers. The students (n = 861) were surveyed in the second (aged 8 years, Time 1) and sixth grade (aged 12 years, Time 2). The Rutter Teacher Questionnaire (RB2) at Time 1 and the Teacher Report Form (TRF) at Time 2 were used to measure internalizing, externalizing and total problem scores. Classroom climate was measured using a composite variable at Time 2. The results show associations between poor sixth-grade classroom climate and an increase in emotional and behavioural problems in both boys and girls. In addition, the girls who were overall poorly adjusted, particularly those who had externalizing problems in the second grade, were especially vulnerable to a poor classroom climate in the sixth grade.
Ali, M P; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, G; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M F
Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH) during 1998-2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks.
Ali, M. P.; Huang, Dingcheng; Nachman, G.; Ahmed, Nur; Begum, Mahfuz Ara; Rabbi, M. F.
Recently, planthoppers outbreaks have intensified across Asia resulting in heavy rice yield losses. The problem has been widely reported as being induced by insecticides while other factors such as global warming that could be potential drivers have been neglected. Here, we speculate that global warming may increase outbreak risk of brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.). We present data that demonstrate the relationship between climate variables (air temperature and precipitation) and the abundance of brown planthopper (BPH) during 1998–2007. Data show that BPH has become significantly more abundant in April over the 10-year period, but our data do not indicate that this is due to a change in climate, as no significant time trends in temperature and precipitation could be demonstrated. The abundance of BPH varied considerably between months within a year which is attributed to seasonal factors, including the availability of suitable host plants. On the other hand, the variation within months is attributed to fluctuations in monthly temperature and precipitation among years. The effects of these weather variables on BPH abundance were analyzed statistically by a general linear model. The statistical model shows that the expected effect of increasing temperatures is ambiguous and interacts with the amount of rainfall. According to the model, months or areas characterized by a climate that is either cold and dry or hot and wet are likely to experience higher levels of BPH due to climate change, whereas other combinations of temperature and rainfall may reduce the abundance of BPH. The analysis indicates that global warming may have contributed to the recent outbreaks of BPH in some rice growing areas of Asia, and that the severity of such outbreaks is likely to increase if climate change exaggerates. Our study highlights the need to consider climate change when designing strategies to manage planthoppers outbreaks. PMID:24618677
Cardichon, Jessica; Roc, Martens
Middle and high school students subjected to harsh school discipline policies and practices such as suspensions and expulsions are more likely to disengage from the classroom and course work, and increases their chances of dropping out, according to this new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education. The report recommends implementing…
Krejci, D.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Kern, K.; Romano, P.; Topham, R.; Weitnauer, C.
The theme of the Alpbach Summer School 2010 was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change". At present, climate change studies face many uncertainties that need to be solved and quantified. The unprecedented effects and consequences of climate change on our planet are causing serious concerns amongst the scientific community, that witnesses the transformations our environment is suffering. In order to reduce them, Earth Observation from space is a really interesting and affordable alternative. A group of sixty young science and engineering students both undergraduate and graduate, dealt with the task of designing space missions aiming to better understand climate change. The participants were split into four teams which were encouraged to design innovative new missions, that could potentially help to increase our understanding on climate change by introducing new observation parameters, methods and technology. They were also encouraged to focus on different approaches so no scientific case was duplicated. The resulting proposals comprised a wide range of climate change topics: AVALON (Atmospheric water Vapour from an Active Limb-sounding Observing Network) a mission using a novel active limb-sounding instrument to measure water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; ERICC (Evolution and Radiative Impact of Contrail Cirrus) the first space mission dedicated to the study of contrails and their impact on climate change; VESTA a mission designed to derive data on CO2 emissions from biomass burning in the tropics and DROP (Dual Retrieval of Precipitation) a mission to improve the understanding of regional and global water cycles. This presentation will provide an introduction towards the four missions designed with the goal of contributing towards better understanding climate change and its causes. The scientific cases will be presented, as well as the engineering designs needed to meet these scientific requirements on a preliminary level
Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G.; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C.; Huang, Xishan
Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States.…
McCarley, Troy A.; Peters, Michelle L.; Decman, John M.
Across the nation, quality leadership and positive school climate are critical to the success of every principal, student, and school. As a result, this study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership and the perceived school climate. A purposeful…
Berg, Juliette K.; Aber, J. Lawrence
Increasing attention is being given to the role of a positive school interpersonal climate in children's school functioning and social-emotional development. Children's perceptions are commonly used to measure the interpersonal school climate, but the individual and contextual characteristics that contribute to variation in children's perceptions…
Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh
Research has shown that the overall climate in a school can encourage or deter learning. One significant factor promoting a positive climate is the use of motivational language by school leaders. This article presents empirical evidence of teachers' perceptions of motivational language used by school principals and the effects of this language on…
This study examined classroom climate and student goal structures in high-school biology classrooms in Kenya. Participants included 891 students and their teachers in Grades 10 and 11 from two same-sex boarding schools--one for boys and the other for girls. School differences were found on all classroom climate aspects except teacher support and…
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational research study was to develop an understanding of the relationship between the quality of school climate and connectedness as perceived by 3rd- to 5th-grade students and their teachers, and the level and of reading achievement of 3rd- to 5th-grade students in one district in the Northwestern United…
Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.
More and more cities and states are using surveys to collect information about school climate from students, teachers and parents. These surveys have the potential to shed light on critical aspects of the learning environment, and they are being incorporated into a growing number of public and privately funded education initiatives. The US…
Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung
This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a) bridging the negative experiences within the family with bullying behaviors at schools, and (b) influencing school climate. Bullying behaviors were measured by a modified Korean version of Olweus' bully/victim questionnaire (reliability range: .78-.84) from 1,238 randomly selected Korean middle school students in 2007. Findings from structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses showed that (a) individual traits are one of the most important influence on bullying, (b) negative experiences in the family do not have direct influence on bullying behaviors at school, (c) parental involvement influences school climate, and (d) positive school climate was negatively related to bullying behaviors.
The purpose of this 3 year project funded by NSF (GEO 1035049) is to increase the climate change science content knowledge and teaching effectiveness of in-service high school science teachers and increase the numbers of quality of high school geoscience projects competing in Nevada's three regional Intel ISEF (International Science & Engineering Fair) affiliated science fairs. In year 1 of the project participants consisted of six female and three male high school teachers from across Nevada. Eight of the participants were white and one was Asian. Five participants taught in Clark County, two taught in Owyhee, one taught in Elko and one taught in Spring Creek. Over 20% of the projects were noted (by the teachers) as being submitted by underrepresented students; however, this information is not reliable as most students did not provide this data themselves. Pre-and post- content tests were given. Teachers improved from an average of eight missed on the pre-test to an average of only four items missed on the post-test. Participants were also asked to evaluate their own teaching efficacy. In general, participants had a strong science efficacy. The item on which there was the most discrepancy among participants was on #10, the one stating that "The low achievement of some students cannot generally be blamed on their teachers." Most teachers completed an end of year program evaluation. All but one of the participants felt that the pace of the workshop was comfortable. All participants who used faculty mentors in helping their students rated their faculty mentors very highly. All participants rated the program content very highly in terms of clarity, organization, relevance, helpfulness and usefulness. All participants gave the program a very high rating overall and stated they would likely use the information to mentor future students and in instruction in future classes. The science fairs are the culmination of the program. Teachers were required to have at least one
Berg, Juliette K.; Aber, J. Lawrence
A positive school climate is characterized by a supportive, orderly, and fair interpersonal climate. Children's perceptions of interpersonal climate and school safety are associated with several academic and behavioral adjustment outcomes. The current study has two goals: (1) to better understand the contribution of school interpersonal climate to…
Delon, Floyd G.
Examines the status of legal authority relative to control of teacher conduct before the 1960s and analyzes subsequent developments in the areas of constitutional rights, civil rights, State courts' protection of teachers' privacy, and collective bargaining. Considers how legal restrictions affect the extent of school officials' authority.…
Philippe, Denise; Kool, Richard
Without experience, students struggle to understand climate change. Uses the school environment as a starting point to explain the causes of climate change and involves students in activities concerning indoor and outdoor environments. (YDS)
Morrison, Melanie A.; Jewell, Lisa; McCutcheon, Jessica; Cochrane, Donald B.
In Canada, there is a dearth of research on school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) students. Using social networking, 60 students from high schools in Saskatchewan participated in a climate survey. Results indicated that anti-LGBQ speech was widespread, as were other forms of harassment. The more victimization that was…
Smallwood, Gina W.
The purpose of this research was to explore the impact of school climate on the achievement of third and fourth grade students who are economically disadvantaged in Mathematics and Reading/Language Arts. Students' perception of school climate was studied using the "Tripod Survey" variables of a caring, captivating, and academically…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…
Henderson, S.; Rosenbaum, B.J.
Global climate change could have significant consequences for biological diversity in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forested ecosystems, particularly in areas already threatened by anthropogenic activities and the resultant habitat modification and fragmentation. The forests of the Pacific Northwest have a high biological diversity, not only in terms of tree species, but also in terms of herbs, bryophytes and hepatophytes, algae, fungi, protist, bacteria, and many groups of vertebrates and invertebrates. Global circulation and vegetation model projections of global climate change effects on PNW forests include reductions in species diversity in low elevation forests as well as elevational and latitudinal shifts in species ranges. As species are most likely to be stressed at the edges of their ranges, plant and animal species with low mobility, or those that are prevented from migrating by lack of habitat corridors, may become regionally extinct. Endangered species with limited distribution may be especially vulnerable to shifts in habitat conditions.
New England weather is highly variable for a number of
reasons. Our regional climate is also quite variable. The
winters of the past decade are milder than they were in the
1960s and 1970s but as the ice-out and snowfall data show
(Figs 2.5 and 2.6), the patterns of c...
Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita
It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans' school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration.
Souza, Tasha Jean
Alternative high schools affect more potential high school dropouts than any other school or program and are designed to meet the needs of students who have had difficulty in conventional schools. This study examines the communication climate and constructions of caring in an alternative school for at-risk students by using a qualitative analysis grounded in the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. Observations and interviews were conducted over a six month time period. The first two chapters provide a review of literature and a detailed account of the methods used to conduct the study. Chapter Three describes the socially constructed nature of the school and the participants and the dialectical tensions of communication climate revealed from the analysis. The six dialectical tensions of communication climate are: (1) freedom/restraint, (2) disengagement/engagement, (3) personal communication/impersonal communication, (4) disconfirmation/confirmation, (5) equality/inequality, and (6) ambiguity/clarity. Although the school climate is comprised of each of these tensions, the data suggest that the interaction within the majority of classes created some common characteristics of the general communication climate at the school and can be characterized as one of freedom, disengagement, personal communication, disconfirmation, equality, and ambiguity. Chapter Four describes how caring was constructed and communicated. Although some students perceived some teachers as caring about students and about student learning, half of the students interviewed thought they were not learning or not learning much. Finally, Chapter Five provides a summary of the findings and a discussion of the results. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the social construction of communication climate and caring in general, and within an alternative school for at-risk students, in specific. The results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the
Back, Lindsey T.; Polk, Elizabeth; Keys, Christopher B.; McMahon, Susan D.
Urban learning environments pose distinct instructional challenges for teachers and administrators, and can lead to lower achievement compared to suburban or rural schools. Today's educational climate increasingly emphasises a need for positive academic outcomes, often measured by standardised tests, on which student educational opportunities,…
Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Smith, David; Bowen, François
We examine longitudinal relations among children's and parents' reports of peer victimization and their perceptions of school climate dimensions reflecting school interpersonal relationships (relationships among children and their teachers and peers, and of parents and principals) and values (fairness and equity of access to resources). Children were in Grades 3 and 4 at Time 1 (Mage = 9.32, SDage = .74; 49% boys). Bidirectional influences of school climate and reports of peer victimization were investigated in path models across grade (Time 1 to Time 2) and within a grade (Time 2 to Time 3). Child and parent reports of school climate dimensions showed considerable stability. Hypothesized reciprocal relationships between each of the school climate dimensions and peer victimization were significant. Child-reported frequency of parent involvement in school activities was associated with lower levels of peer victimization within a school year. Parent perceptions of involvement in school activities and the schools' connection with the community were unrelated to the children's reports of peer victimization. Children's negative cognitions or "worldviews" coupled with peer victimization may fuel problems with school connectedness, safety, and help seeking. Findings shed light on possible pathways for reducing peer victimization by leveraging specific aspects of the social climate within schools.
Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.
Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…
Golden, B. W.
Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which
Self, Stephen; Rampino, Michael R.
The relationship between volcanic eruptions on earth and the observed climatic changes is investigated. The results of the comparison and analyses of volcanologic and climatologic data sets for the years between 1880 and 1980 indicate that changes in temperature caused by even of the largest eruptions recorded during this time were about the same as normal variations in temperature. However, when temperature records for several months or years preceding and following a given eruption were analyzed, a statistically significant temperature decrease of 0.2-0.5 C was found for the periods of one to two years immediately following some of the 19th and 20th century explosive events that prodiced large aerosol clouds (e.g., Krakatau and Agung eruptions). It is suggested that the content of sulfur in the erupted magma determines the size of aerosol cloud producing the cooling effect.
Bergamaschi, B. A.; Robins, P. E.; Cooper, D.
It is still largely unclear how nutrients that travel through the catchment-river system are distributed within estuaries. How long will nutrients remain in the estuary, and what proportion will disperse offshore into the oceans? In the UK, where many catchments are relatively small and steep, estuaries react rapidly to rainfall events, which crucially control the mixing process, even though tidal stirring is generally large. Seasonal and short-term variability in estuarine functioning is therefore greater than variabilities over semi-diurnal timescales linked to tidal cycling. We present both published and on-going research that is emerging from an interdisciplinary pan-UK NERC Macronutrient Cycles Programme (macronutrient-cycles.ouce.ox.ac.uk). We pull together intensive field campaigns (Howlett et al. 2015) and model simulations (Robins et al. 2015), and present for the first time coupled simulations of catchment-river-estuary nutrient transport, using a variety of hydrological and hydrodynamic models. We investigate the response of the hydrodynamics and nutrients to extreme flows and storm surge events, and the response to climate change by simulating the IPCC 5th Assessment projections for 2100. On-going research will extend this integrated approach into the macronutrient controls on atmospheric-land exchange. Emerging research from our UK case study suggests that simulating the hourly river hydrograph, rather than daily-averaged, is important for estuarine response and recovery; daily-averaged flowrates, which are commonly used, under-predict the offshore transport of nutrients. Moreover, biogeochemical processing, whilst detected over estuarine residence times, did not measurably alter the estuarine concentrations, due to the much stronger advective fluxes. By simulating past mean and extreme events, using time-series analysis of river flow and tidal level data collected over the past 50 years, we are able to characterise the future estuarine nutrient
Voight, Adam; Hanson, Thomas
A growing number of educators concur that, in order to improve student academic performance, schools need to focus not only on students' academic needs but also on their social, emotional, and material needs (Piscatelli & Lee, 2011). As a result, school climate--the social, emotional, and physical characteristics of a school community (Cohen,…
School Improvement Grants (SIGs) financed through the economic stimulus package are intended to spur dramatic change in persistently low-performing schools. Many state and local officials charged with implementing SIGs view the creation of a safe, orderly, collegial, and productive school climate as an essential step in raising student…
Gomez, Soledad Andres; Gaymard, Sandrine
Introduction: The problem of school violence has been studied in the last decades from different perspectives, especially focused on bullying conflicts. Whole school approaches have been recommended by many experts in the field. The aim of the present study is to assess climate changes in two secondary schools that implement a peer support…
Brown, Aszure Emond
An increase in the number of charter schools that exist has occurred due, in part, to expectations that are aimed toward producing better results through student achievement, as compared to traditional public schools. An abundance of professional literature has supported the concept that school climate is important in the effort to improve student…
Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay
This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…
Bost, Charles A; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri
Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.
Bost, Charles A.; Cotté, Cedric; Terray, Pascal; Barbraud, Christophe; Bon, Cécile; Delord, Karine; Gimenez, Olivier; Handrich, Yves; Naito, Yasuhiko; Guinet, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri
Determining the links between the behavioural and population responses of wild species to environmental variations is critical for understanding the impact of climate variability on ecosystems. Using long-term data sets, we show how large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere affect the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of a key marine predator, the king penguin. When large-scale subtropical dipole events occur simultaneously in both subtropical Southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they generate tropical anomalies that shift the foraging zone southward. Consequently the distances that penguins foraged from the colony and their feeding depths increased and the population size decreased. This represents an example of a robust and fast impact of large-scale climatic anomalies affecting a marine predator through changes in its at-sea behaviour and demography, despite lack of information on prey availability. Our results highlight a possible behavioural mechanism through which climate variability may affect population processes.
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J
This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents' perceptions of school climate.
Felver, Joshua C; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J; Smith, Iona M; Khalsa, Sat Bir S
The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class and a single PE class one week later. Data were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and Wilcoxon-signed ranks tests and by comparing effect sizes between the two conditions. Participants reported significantly greater decreases in anger, depression, and fatigue from before to after participating in yoga compared to PE. Significant reductions in negative affect occurred after yoga but not after PE; however, the changes were not significantly different between conditions. In addition, after participating in both yoga and PE, participants reported significant decreases in confusion and tension, with no significant difference between groups. Results suggest that school-based yoga may provide unique benefits for students above and beyond participation in PE. Future research should continue to elucidate the distinct psychological and physiological effects of participating in yoga compared to PE activities.
Felver, Joshua C.; Butzer, Bethany; Olson, Katherine J.; Smith, Iona M.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.
The purpose of the present study was to directly compare the acute effects of participating in a single yoga class versus a single standard physical education (PE) class on student mood. Forty-seven high school students completed self-report questionnaires assessing mood and affect immediately before and after participating in a single yoga class and a single PE class one week later. Data were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and Wilcoxon-signed ranks tests and by comparing effect sizes between the two conditions. Participants reported significantly greater decreases in anger, depression, and fatigue from before to after participating in yoga compared to PE. Significant reductions in negative affect occurred after yoga but not after PE; however, the changes were not significantly different between conditions. In addition, after participating in both yoga and PE, participants reported significant decreases in confusion and tension, with no significant difference between groups. Results suggest that school-based yoga may provide unique benefits for students above and beyond participation in PE. Future research should continue to elucidate the distinct psychological and physiological effects of participating in yoga compared to PE activities. PMID:26478825
Zaini, M Z Anuar; Lim, C T; Low, W Y; Harun, F
This paper investigates the nutritional status of a randomly selected cohort of school children and the factors affecting it. This random survey was conducted in the state of Selangor, involving 1,405 primary students (aged 9-10 years from 54 national primary schools). Physical examination was carried out on all the students. Information on the students was also obtained from the parents. Blood samples were taken by using the finger pricking technique. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of physical growth. The students were mainly from urban areas (82.9%). The mean age was 9.71 years and a higher proportion was females (51%). Malays constituted 83.6%, Indians 11.6% and Chinese 4.2% of the study population. The mean weight and height were 32.30 kg and 135.18 cm respectively. The mean BMI was 17.42 kg/m2, with 1.2% of the students underweight, 76.3% normal BMI, 16.3% overweight and 6.3% were obese. Nutritional status was significantly related to blood pressure, history of breast feeding, eating fast food, taking canned/bottled drinks, income and educational level of parents. Significant differences in nutritional status between sexes and locations (rural/urban) were also found. The prevalence of overweight and obese children was of concern. There is thus an urgent need for the School Health Program to periodically monitor the school children's eating habits and physical growth. Appropriate counselling on nutritional intake and physical activities should be given not only to schoolchildren but also to their teachers and parents or caregivers.
Hendron, Marisa; Kearney, Christopher A.
This study examined whether school climate variables were directly and inversely related to absenteeism severity and key symptoms of psychopathology among youths specifically referred for problematic attendance (N = 398). Adolescents in our sample completed the School Climate Survey Revised Edition, which measured sharing of resources, order and…
Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…
This study investigated the impact of a leader's sex on the climate of alternative schools. Specifically, the problem was "Does a principal's sex have an impact on the climate of alternative schools?" The research attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Do differences with regard to a principal's sex exist within the following…
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.
The construct of school climate has received attention as a way to enhance student achievement and reduce problem behaviors. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the existing literature on school climate and to bring to light the strengths, weakness, and gaps in the ways researchers have approached the construct. The central information in…
Rebelez, Jennica L.; Furlong, Michael J.
The California School Climate and Safety Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF) was developed as a streamlined version (54 items) of the original CSCSS (102 items) for school safety teams to gather information regarding student perceptions of campus climate, safety, and experience of victimization. Using a longitudinal dataset, this study implemented…
Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.; Fozdar, Farida; Ala'i, Kate; Earnest, Jaya; Afari, Ernest
This study examined the relations between school climate variables and students' feeling of wellbeing, life satisfaction, ethnic identity, moral identity and resilience. Furthermore, the study also examined the interrelationships between these five outcome variables. Six aspects of the school climate were measured: teacher support, peer…
Xiaofu, Pan; Qiwen, Qin
This study investigates and analyzes the relation between the secondary school organizational climate and teacher job satisfaction using a self-designed school organizational climate scale based on studies in China and abroad. The findings show that except for interpersonal factors there are significant correlations between the various factors of…
Duff, Brandy Kinlaw
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the organizational school climate perceptions of teachers and principals and to ascertain the extent to which their perceptions differed. This causal comparative study used the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire for Elementary Schools (OCDQ-RE) as the survey instrument for data…
School climate is recognized as a relevant factor for the improvement of educative processes, favoring the administrative processes and optimum school performance. The present article is the result of a quantitative research model which had the objective of psychometrically designing and validating a scale to diagnose the organizational climate of…
Homana, Gary; Barber, Carolyn; Torney-Purta, Judith
This paper presents the School Citizenship Education Climate Assessment and examines its implications for the social studies. The assessment tool was developed from a variety of research fields and disciplines related to school and classroom climate and educational practices including civic education, educational psychology and service-learning.…
Zorza, Juan P.; Marino, Julián; Mesas, Alberto Acosta
The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of effortful control (EC) and empathy for perception of school climate. Self-report measures of EC, dispositional empathy, and perception of school climate were obtained for 398 students (204 females) aged 12 to 13. Sociometric status was peer-evaluated, and academic achievement was…
Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…
Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier
This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…
Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C; Huang, Xishan
Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States. Differences in school climate between the two countries were examined in this study. The sample consisted of 10,400 American and 3,435 Chinese students across three grade levels (elementary, middle, and high school) in 85 American and 22 Chinese schools. Factor structure and measurement invariance across countries were first established for the Modified-Delaware School Climate Survey-Student. Differences in latent means were then tested. Across all three grade levels Chinese students scored significantly higher than American students on all four subscales (Teacher-Student Relations, Student-Student Relations, School Liking, and Fairness of School Rules). Effects sizes tended to be smallest in elementary schools and largest in middle schools. Significant differences between American and Chinese students exist in their perceptions of school climate. It is likely that those differences can be attributed to cultural differences in respect of authority, academic and social values, self-regulation and peer-regulation of behaviors, and teachers' classroom management.
McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M
Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate.
Lee, Eugenia E.; Stewart, Barclay; Zha, Yuanting A.; Groen, Thomas A.; Burkle, Frederick M.; Kushner, Adam L.
Background: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide. Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed. Methods: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database. Using 5,000 procedures per 100,000 persons as the minimum, baseline estimates were calculated. A linear regression of the number of surgical procedures performed annually and the estimated number of surgical procedures required for climate-related natural disasters was performed. Results: Approximately 140 million people were affected by climate-related natural disasters annually requiring 7.0 million surgical procedures. The greatest need for surgical care was in the People’s Republic of China, India, and the Philippines. Linear regression demonstrated a poor relationship between national surgical capacity and estimated need for surgical care resulting from natural disaster, but countries with the least surgical capacity will have the greatest need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Conclusion: As climate extremes increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters, millions will need surgical care beyond baseline needs. Countries with insufficient surgical capacity will have the most need for surgical care for persons affected by climate-related natural disasters. Estimates of surgical are particularly important for countries least equipped to meet surgical care demands given critical human and physical resource deficiencies. PMID:27617165
Hof, Christian; Brändle, Martin; Dehling, D Matthias; Munguía, Mariana; Brandl, Roland; Araújo, Miguel B; Rahbek, Carsten
Habitat persistence should influence dispersal ability, selecting for stronger dispersal in habitats of lower temporal stability. As standing (lentic) freshwater habitats are on average less persistent over time than running (lotic) habitats, lentic species should show higher dispersal abilities than lotic species. Assuming that climate is an important determinant of species distributions, we hypothesize that lentic species should have distributions that are closer to equilibrium with current climate, and should more rapidly track climatic changes. We tested these hypotheses using datasets from 1988 and 2006 containing all European dragon- and damselfly species. Bioclimatic envelope models showed that lentic species were closer to climatic equilibrium than lotic species. Furthermore, the models over-predicted lotic species ranges more strongly than lentic species ranges, indicating that lentic species track climatic changes more rapidly than lotic species. These results are consistent with the proposed hypothesis that habitat persistence affects the evolution of dispersal.
The paper highlights the importance of affectivity in school retention in public secondary schools in Guadalajara, Mexico, in a socioeconomic context where the students themselves often decide whether to stay in school or to drop out. In such contexts, students' feelings towards the school and the teachers can become crucial in deciding whether to…
O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie
School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert
Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…
Weiner, Mary T.; Day, Stefanie J.; Galvan, Dennis
Student perspectives reflect school climate. The study examined perspectives among deaf and hard of hearing students in residential and large day schools regarding bullying, and compared these perspectives with those of a national database of hearing students. The participants were 812 deaf and hard of hearing students in 11 U.S. schools. Data…
Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.
The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…
Elias, Maurice J.; DeFini, Jennifer; Bergmann, Jennifer
Many schools attempt to implement multiple programs to promote positive young adolescent development; however, these programs are often fragmented and lack coordination. The authors describe an initiative designed to help schools coordinate their social-emotional and character development (SECD) efforts to improve school climate and help students…
Bell, Darnell Brushawn
The purpose of the study was to understand the relationships among facility conditions, school climate, and school safety of high school tenth graders in the United States. Previous research on the quality of educational facilities influence on student achievement has varied. Recent research has suggested that the quality of educational facilities…
Visser, Susanna N.; Kramer, Dennis; Snyder, Angela B.; Sebian, Joyce; McGiboney, Garry; Handler, Arden
Objective Evaluate the relationship between school climate and ADHD medication treatment among adolescents in Medicaid in Georgia (GA). Methods School climate and Medicaid claims data were aggregated for 159 GA counties. County-level school climate percentile and medicated ADHD prevalence were calculated. T-tests and regression evaluated the relationship between school climate, medicated ADHD, and demographics, weighted by county population. Poorer 2008 school climate (<25th percentile) was regressed on 2011 medicated ADHD prevalence, controlling for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of medicated ADHD was 7.8% among Medicaid-enrolled GA adolescents. The average county-level prevalence of medicated ADHD was 10.0% (SD=2.9%). Poorer school climate was associated with lower rates of medicated ADHD (p<0.0001) and with demographics accounted for 50% of the county variation in medicated ADHD. Conclusions School climate is associated with medicated ADHD among adolescents in Medicaid. Additional research may reveal whether high medicated ADHD may reflect a lack of access to non-pharmacological therapies. PMID:25710947
Way, Niobe; Reddy, Ranjini; Rhodes, Jean
A cross-domain latent growth curve model was used to examine the trajectories of change in student perceptions of four critical dimensions of school climate (i.e., teacher support, peer support, student autonomy in the classroom, and clarity and consistency in school rules and regulations) among 1,451 early adolescents from the beginning of sixth through the end of eighth grade; and the effects of such trajectories on the rate of change in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Findings indicated that all of the dimensions of perceived school climate declined over the 3 years of middle school. Furthermore, declines in each of the dimensions of perceived school climate were associated with declines over time in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Moreover, the direction of effects between each dimension of perceived school climate and psychological or behavioral adjustment were often unidirectional rather than bi-directional, underscoring the role of perceived school climate in the psychological and behavioral health of early adolescents. Gender and socioeconomic class differences in these patterns are noted.
Crayne, Jennifer A.
What are middle school science teachers teaching their students about climate change? And why? This qualitative study examined the experience of middle school science teachers from western Oregon, finding that while participating teachers accept the science of climate change and express concern about it, many teachers are reluctant to make the topic a priority in their classrooms. When they do include the subject, teachers frequently address "both sides." They also report that students have persistent doubts and misconceptions about climate change. What accounts for these trends? I argue that the way teachers address climate change is a result of complex interactions between structural pressures, emotional pressures, and cultural pressures. I conclude that, in order to promote the inclusion of sound climate science instruction in public schools, advocates of climate change education need to address challenges at all these levels: structural, emotional, and cultural.
Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we
Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.
The purpose of this study, in part, was to confirm the factor structure of the School-Level Environment Questionnaire, which assesses six school climate factors that can be considered important for improving schools. The study also tested a research model of the relationships between the school climate, teachers' self-efficacy and job…
Hanson, Thomas; Voight, Adam
A growing number of states and school districts use school climate assessments in progress reporting systems and are interested in incorporating these assessments into accountability systems. This analysis of response data from middle school students and teachers on the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey examines the…
Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel
Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools…
Gilbert, Dorie J.
Provides an overview of issues facing HIV-affected children and adolescents and aims to help school social workers become better equipped to recognize the secondary effects of the AIDS epidemic among HIV-affected children. Concludes with recommendations for addressing the needs of HIV-affected children and adolescents through school social work.…
McFarlane, Donovan A.
Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360…
Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.
This report presents findings from the 2001 National School Climate Survey related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students' experiences and feelings of safety in school. A total of 904 LGBT students from 48 states and the District of Columbia participated. Results indicated that the overwhelming majority of students heard…
Chime, Emmanuel Onoh
The purpose of this study was to examine educators' perceptions regarding the effects of school uniforms on school climate in a selected metropolitan disciplinary alternative education program. More specifically, this study investigated the influence of the variables group status, gender, ethnicity, age and years of experience on the perceptions…
Biag, Manuelito D.; Sanchez, Monika A.
Background/Context: Much of the literature on school-university research partnerships has focused on collaborations that address curriculum, instruction, and leadership. Less scholarly attention has been paid to how practitioners and academics work together to improve school climate. Purpose: We seek to deepen understanding of how educators and…
LaRusso, Maria D.; Romer, Daniel; Selman, Robert L.
Positive school climates have been found to have favorable effects on adolescent health risk behaviors and mental health outcomes. However, the mechanisms by which teacher behavior may promote such effects in high schools have not been extensively studied. Based on social control theory and a social developmental-contextual model, it was predicted…
Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Edwards, Patricia Thomas
The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…
Dutta, Vartika; Sahney, Sangeeta
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of teacher job satisfaction and school climate in mediating the relative effects of principals' instructional and transformational leadership practices on student outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by strong evidence from theories on school leadership and work psychology, the…
Damico, Sandra Bowman
Having students photograph their schools reveals unconscious perceptions held by individuals about their environment. In this study, significant differences existed between Black and White students. While the schools had been desegregated, photographs showed they were not yet integrated. (LHW)
Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Ristock, Janice; Edkins, Tamara
School attachment is often regarded as a key measure in gauging the integration and wellbeing of students. Previous research suggests that levels of school attachment are generally lower among sexual minority students, but most studies focus on between-gender comparisons and do not conduct within-gender analyses. Using data from the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia and Transphobia in Canadian schools, this study set out to empirically analyze what, if any, differences exist among lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual female students when assessing the relationship between homophobic and gender-negative language, feelings of safety, harassment/direct victimization, and school climate on school attachment. Bivariate and multivariate findings suggest that there are key differences among female students in terms of school attachment.
This document contains two letters. The first letter, which might have been written by a cosmetology licensing board member to his mother, illustrates the changing climate toward occupational regulations and how it might affect the attitudes of a board member. The second letter, the mother's reply, attempts to put some of the changes into a…
Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...
Moonie, Sheniz A.; Sterling, David A.; Figgs, Larry; Castro, Mario
Excessive school absence disrupts learning and is a strong predictor of premature school dropout. School-aged children with asthma are absent more often compared to their healthy peers without asthma; yet, the causes are inadequately documented. We sought to determine the difference in mean absence days between children with and without asthma,…
Gage, Nicholas A; Prykanowski, Debra A; Larson, Alvin
Researchers investigating school-level approaches for bullying prevention are beginning to discuss and target school climate as a construct that (a) may predict prevalence and (b) be an avenue for school-wide intervention efforts (i.e., increasing positive school climate). Although promising, research has not fully examined and established the social-ecological link between school climate factors and bullying/peer aggression. To address this gap, we examined the association between school climate factors and bullying victimization for 4,742 students in Grades 3-12 across 3 school years in a large, very diverse urban school district using latent class growth modeling. Across 3 different models (elementary, secondary, and transition to middle school), a 3-class model was identified, which included students at high-risk for bullying victimization. Results indicated that, for all students, respect for diversity and student differences (e.g., racial diversity) predicted within-class decreases in reports of bullying. High-risk elementary students reported that adult support in school was a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying, and high-risk secondary students report peer support as a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying.
Tabi Tataw, James; Baier, Fabian; Krottenthaler, Florian; Pachler, Bernadette; Schwaiger, Elisabeth; Whylidal, Stefan; Formayer, Herbert; Hösch, Johannes; Baumgarten, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G.
Wheat is a crop of global importance supplying more than half of the world's population with carbohydrates. We examined, whether climate change induced rainfall patterns towards less frequent but heavier events alter wheat agroecosystem productivity and functioning under three different soil types. Therefore, in a full-factorial experiment Triticum aestivum L. was cultivated in 3 m2 lysimeter plots containing the soil types sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem or calcic chernozem. Prognosticated rainfall patterns based on regionalised climate change model calculations were compared with current long-term rainfall patterns; each treatment combination was replicated three times. Future rainfall patterns significantly reduced wheat growth and yield, reduced the leaf area index, accelerated crop development, reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation of roots, increased weed density and the stable carbon isotope signature (δ13C) of both old and young wheat leaves. Different soil types affected wheat growth and yield, ecosystem root production as well as weed abundance and biomass. The interaction between climate and soil type was significant only for the harvest index. Our results suggest that even slight changes in rainfall patterns can significantly affect the functioning of wheat agroecosystems. These rainfall effects seemed to be little influenced by soil types suggesting more general impacts of climate change across different soil types. Wheat production under future conditions will likely become more challenging as further concurrent climate change factors become prevalent.
Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.
A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE
Bergren, David Alexander
This quantitative study was designed to be an analysis of the relationship between school climate and student achievement through the creation of an index of climate-factors (SES, discipline, attendance, and school size) for which publicly available data existed. The index that was formed served as a proxy measure of climate; it was analyzed…
This study examined the relationship between turnover of school leadership personnel and school climate as perceived by teachers. The study focused on Jewish day schools in the United States in different cities and states. Fifty Jewish day schools (ranging from preschool age to high school) participated in the study with 200 teachers from these…
In reviewing studies evaluating trends in greenhouse gasses, weather, climate and/or ecosystems, it becomes apparent that climate change is a reality. It has also become evident that the energy sector accounts for most of the greenhouse gas emissions with worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide increasing by 31 percent from 1990 to 2005, higher than in the previous thousands of years. While energy courses and topics are presented in high school and community college classes the topic of Climate Change Science is not always a part of the conversation. During the summer of 2011 and 2012, research undergraduates conducted interviews with a total of 39 national community college and 8 high school instructors who participated in a two week Sustainable Energy Education Training (SEET) workshop. Interview questions addressed the barriers and opportunities to the incorporation of climate change as a dimension of an energy/renewable energy curriculum. Barriers found included: there is not enough instruction time to include it; some school administrators including community members do not recognize climate change issues; quality information about climate change geared to students is difficult to find; and, most climate change information is too scientific for most audiences. A Solution to some barriers included dialogue on sustainability as a common ground in recognizing environmental changes/concerns among educators, administrators and community members. Sustainability discussions are already supported in school business courses as well as in technical education. In conclusion, we cannot expect climate change to dissipate without humans making more informed energy and environmental choices. With global population growth producing greater emissions resulting in increased climate change, we must include the topic of climate change to students in high school and community college classrooms, preparing our next generation of leaders and workforce to be equipped to find solutions
Barkoukis, Vassilis; Koidou, Eirini; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George
The current study examined the relative impact of school and classroom goal structures on students' affective responses and the mediating role of motivation. The sample of the study consisted of 368 high school students, who completed measures of school and classroom goal structures, motivational regulations in physical education, boredom, and…
Lam, Sarah K. Y.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.
This study explores factors affecting the involvement of regular secondary school teachers in the whole-school approach to guidance and counselling by interviewing 12 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong. Emerging themes include teachers' ownership of their role in student guidance and counselling, the alignment of their disposition with…
Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
The dynamic model of educational effectiveness defines school level factors associated with student outcomes. Emphasis is given to the two main aspects of policy, evaluation, and improvement in schools which affect quality of teaching and learning at both the level of teachers and students: a) teaching and b) school learning environment. Five…
Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian
The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…
Valdés-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodríguez, Javier Arturo; Sánchez-Franco, Jorge
This paper discusses student perception of the academic climate of the School of Business in a private university in Tijuana, México. With the participation of 257 students out of 348 enrolled in five academic programs, the survey results show that students perceive that the criteria that make up the academic climate occur "Always" in…
Lennon, Patricia A.
This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…
Reeves, Jonathan Bart
This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate…
Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…
Zhao, Yong; Frank, Kenneth A.
Why is technology not used more in schools? Many researchers have tried to solve this persistent puzzle. The authors of this article report on their study of technology uses in 19 schools. They suggest an ecological metaphor, using the example of the introduction of the zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, to integrate and organize sets of factors…
Dunn, Caroline; Chambers, Dalee; Rabren, Karen
This study examined factors predictive of dropping out of high school for students with learning disabilities (LD) and mental retardation (MR). The sample was composed of 228 students with LD or MR who dropped out of school and 228 students with LD or MR who had not dropped out. Two sets of pre- dictor variables (student demographics and interview…
Siegfried, John J.
Noting the increasing role of economics in the law, many law schools have introduced formal economics instruction into their curricula. Several of the controversies surrounding liberal arts courses taught in law schools are examined. Prior formal coursework in the subject appeared to have no relationship to course performance. (MLW)
Fernandez, Kenneth E.
The development of a school improvement plan (SIP) has become an integral part of many school reform efforts. However, there are almost no studies that empirically examine the effectiveness of SIPs. The few studies examining the planning activities of organizations have generally focused on the private sector and have not provided clear or…
van der Linden, Sander
Examining the conceptual relationship between personal experience, affect, and risk perception is crucial in improving our understanding of how emotional and cognitive process mechanisms shape public perceptions of climate change. This study is the first to investigate the interrelated nature of these variables by contrasting three prominent social-psychological theories. In the first model, affect is viewed as a fast and associative information processing heuristic that guides perceptions of risk. In the second model, affect is seen as flowing from cognitive appraisals (i.e., affect is thought of as a post-cognitive process). Lastly, a third, dual-process model is advanced that integrates aspects from both theoretical perspectives. Four structural equation models were tested on a national sample (N = 808) of British respondents. Results initially provide support for the “cognitive” model, where personal experience with extreme weather is best conceptualized as a predictor of climate change risk perception and, in turn, risk perception a predictor of affect. Yet, closer examination strongly indicates that at the same time, risk perception and affect reciprocally influence each other in a stable feedback system. It is therefore concluded that both theoretical claims are valid and that a dual-process perspective provides a superior fit to the data. Implications for theory and risk communication are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25678723
Goddard, Yvonne; Goddard, Roger; Kim, Minjung
The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between school instructional climate and students' fifth-grade mathematics and reading achievement, with a particular emphasis on norms for practice consistent with differentiated instruction. Using data from a stratified random sample of Michigan elementary schools, we employed…
Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin
Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…
Bear, George G.; Holst, Bruna; Lisboa, Carolina; Chen, Dandan; Yang, Chunyan; Chen, Fang Fang
This study presents evidence of the validity and reliability of scores for the newly developed Brazilian Portuguese version of the Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (Brazilian DSCS-S). The sample consisted of 378 students, grades 5 through 9, attending four private and three public schools in southern Brazil. Confirmatory factor analyses…
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Galanti, Maria Rosaria
This study evaluated the factorial structure of the Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) questionnaire among 307 teachers in Bulgaria. The teacher edition of PESOC consists of 11 scales (i.e., Expectations for Students, Unity Among Teachers, Approach to Students, Basic Assumptions About Students' Ability to Learn, School-Home…
The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…
US Department of Education, 2014
Developing positive school climates and improving school discipline policies and practices are critical steps to raising academic achievement and supporting student success. However, there is no single formula for doing so. Rather, the growing body of research and best practices in the field should inform locally developed approaches to improving…
Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin
This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…
This research was carried out to determine the metaphors of high school students towards "climate" concept according to gender variable. A total of 108 students in two high schools in Karabuk City participated in the research in 2009-2010 academic years. The data of the research were gathered from the students' completing the…
Anderson, Chris James
A quantitative study with a correlational design, this research investigated whether certified teachers' ratings of their school leader's demonstrated emotional intelligence behaviors correlated with the teacher's perceptions of school climate. A sample of 42 graduate and post baccalaureate students from a Mid-Atlantic region college accessed a…
Payne, Charles M.
Few of the current major efforts to improve urban schools adequately appreciate the extent to which the problematic social climate of urban schools can undermine the implementation of even very good ideas. As a result, programs often come and go with little lasting impact. This paper uses ethnographic fieldwork to illustrate the ways dysfunctional…
Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel
In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…
Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…
A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…
Weisel, Amatzia; Dror, Orit
This article examines the effects of school organizational and educational climate, and a teacher's sense of efficacy, on general education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with special needs. The sample included 139 teachers from 17 elementary schools in the Northern District of Israel. The results of Pearson correlation and…
Ferree, Stephanie A.
As national and state demands continue to mandate school improvement, leaders in schools have continued to seek answers from leadership theory and research to improve and sustain the culture and climate that has been created in order for diverse populations to meet academic excellence. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship…
Ghavifekr, Simin; Pillai, Nova Sheila
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between school organizational climate and teachers' job satisfaction. A quantitative survey method was applied, and three broadly hypothesized relationships were tested with a sample of 245 teachers from six government secondary schools in district of Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. The…
Allen, Nancy; Grigsby, Bettye; Peters, Michelle L.
The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, school climate, and student mathematics and reading achievement. Survey data were collected from a purposeful sample of elementary school principals and a convenience sample of his or her respective teachers located in a small suburban…
Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing.
The REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar discussed the elements in a positive school climate and shared different methods for assessing school data, including the Comprehensive School Climate Inventory. The Q&A presented in this document address the questions participants had for Dr. Cohen following the webinar. The webinar recording and PowerPoint…
Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Pell, Megan; Gaskins, Clare
Based on theory and research on learning environments, the Delaware School Climate Survey-Teacher/Staff (DSCS-T/S) was developed to provide schools with a brief, psychometrically sound measure of teachers' perceptions of school climate. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 5,781 teachers, support staff,…
Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui
Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…
Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean
Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…
Weiner, Mary T; Day, Stefanie J; Galvan, Dennis
Student perspectives reflect school climate. The study examined perspectives among deaf and hard of hearing students in residential and large day schools regarding bullying, and compared these perspectives with those of a national database of hearing students. The participants were 812 deaf and hard of hearing students in 11 U.S. schools. Data were derived from the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire (Olweus, 2007b), a standardized self-reported survey with multiple-choice questions focusing on different aspects of bullying problems. Significant bullying problems were found in deaf school programs. It appears that deaf and hard of hearing students experience bullying at rates 2-3 times higher than those reported by hearing students. Deaf and hard of hearing students reported that school personnel intervened less often when bullying occurred than was reported in the hearing sample. Results indicate the need for school climate improvement for all students, regardless of hearing status.
McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, E.
The development of climate change education materials and curriculum is necessary to support educators in implementing easily accessible, reliable and accurate information for the classroom. Developers must design materials that are effective at reaching their learning goals. They also must use appropriate assessments that align with these goals and the content being taught in order to provide evidence of efficacy. EarthLabs consists of three on-line climate modules: Climate and the Cryosphere, Climate and the Biosphere, and Climate and the Carbon Cycle, where students engage in hands-on, visualization, and inquiry activities in each ~3 week module in their classroom. The project includes curriculum development, teacher professional development, research on student learning, and project evaluation components. In this presentation, we emphasize the research on student learning conducted in the classroom. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop a climate concept inventory which meets curriculum goals and is scientifically valid. We have completed the first phase of the climate concept inventory and assessed over 230 students in nine high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas pre- and post-implementation of EarthLabs. The developed concept inventory included 10 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, six open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Results indicate that students had gains on 9 out of the 10 of the content based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. In regard to the confidence question, students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more student reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth
Lappe, M.; Flora, J.; Saphir, M.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.
The Alliance for Climate Education educates high school students on the science of climate change and inspires them to create effective solutions. Since 2009, ACE has reached over 1.6 million students nationwide with its multi media assembly presentation. In this paper, we evaluate the climate science knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and communication impact of the ACE Assembly program in a random sample of 49 schools (from population of 779) and a panel of 1,241 high school students. Pre and post assembly surveys composed of questions from the Global Warming Six Americas segmentation and intervention specific questions were administered in classrooms. We demonstrate that exposure to climate science in an engaging edutainment format changes youths' beliefs, involvement, and behavior positively and moves them to more climate science literate audience segments. The net impact of scaled and engaging programs for youth could be a population shift in climate science literacy and positive engagement in the issue of climate change. In addition, such programs can empower youth for deeper engagement in school programs, personal action, political and consumer advocacy.
Lock, Stephanie J.
Using a theoretical framework of critical pedagogy and the lens of social justice to focus on engagement and student voice, this research includes both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, in respect to the perceptions of continuation high school students regarding factors affecting their engagement in high school. The purpose of this study…
Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; Shao, Xu; Wei, Hui; Ding, Jianqing
Plants and herbivorous insects can each be dramatically affected by temperature. Climate warming may impact plant invasion success directly but also indirectly through changes in their natural enemies. To date, however, there are no tests of how climate warming shifts the interactions among invasive plants and their natural enemies to affect invasion success. Field surveys covering the full latitudinal range of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides in China showed that a beetle introduced for biocontrol was rare or absent at higher latitudes. In contrast, plant cover and mass increased with latitude. In a 2-year field experiment near the northern limit of beetle distribution, we found the beetle sustained populations across years under elevated temperature, dramatically decreasing A. philoxeroides growth, but it failed to overwinter in ambient temperature. Together, these results suggest that warming will allow the natural enemy to expand its range, potentially benefiting biocontrol in regions that are currently too cold for the natural enemy. However, the invader may also expand its range further north in response to warming. In such cases where plants tolerate cold better than their natural enemies, the geographical gap between plant and herbivorous insect ranges may not disappear but will shift to higher latitudes, leading to a new zone of enemy release. Therefore, warming will not only affect plant invasions directly but also drive either enemy release or increase that will result in contrasting effects on invasive plants. The findings are also critical for future management of invasive species under climate change.
Stilianakis, Nikolaos I; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979-2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010-2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides air
Stilianakis, Nikolaos I.; Syrris, Vasileios; Petroliagkis, Thomas; Pärt, Peeter; Gewehr, Sandra; Kalaitzopoulou, Stella; Mourelatos, Spiros; Baka, Agoritsa; Pervanidou, Danai; Vontas, John; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010–2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979–2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF’s (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space. We analysed data of reported human cases of WNF/WNND and Culex mosquitoes in Northern Greece. Quantitative assessment resulted in identifying associations between the above climatic variables and reported human cases of WNF/WNND. A substantial fraction of the cases was linked to the upper percentiles of the distribution of air and soil temperature for the period 1979–2008 and the lower percentiles of relative humidity and soil water content. A statistically relevant relationship between the mean weekly value climatic anomalies of wind speed (negative association), relative humidity (negative association) and air temperature (positive association) over 30 years, and reported human cases of WNF/WNND during the period 2010–2014 could be shown. A negative association between the presence of WNV infected Culex mosquitoes and wind speed could be identified. The statistically significant associations could also be confirmed for the week the WNF/WNND human cases appear and when a time lag of up to three weeks was considered. Similar statistically significant associations were identified with the weekly anomalies of the maximum and minimum values of the above climatic factors. Utilising the ERA-Interim re-analysis methodology it could be shown that besides
Richardson, Annie; Callery, Susan; Srinivasan, Margaret
In 2007, NASA Headquarters requested that Earth Science outreach teams brainstorm new education and public outreach activities that would focus on the topic of global climate change. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Annie Richardson, outreach lead for the Ocean Surface Topography missions came up with the idea of a "Climate Day", capitalizing on the popular Earth Day name and events held annually throughout the world. JPL Climate Day would be an education and public outreach event whose objectives are to provide the latest scientific facts about global climate change - including the role the ocean plays in it, the contributions that NASA/JPL satellites and scientists make to the body of knowledge on the topic, and what we as individuals can do to promote global sustainability. The primary goal is that participants get this information in a fun and exciting environment, and walk away feeling empowered and capable of confidently engaging in the global climate debate. In March 2008, JPL and its partners held the first Climate Day event. 950 students from seven school districts heard from five scientists; visited exhibits, and participated in hands-on-activities. Pleased with the outcome, we organized JPL Climate Day 2010 at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California, reaching more than 1700 students, teachers, and members of the general public over two days. Taking note of this successful model, NASA funded a multi-center, NASA Climate Day proposal in 2010 to expand Climate Day nation-wide. The NASA Climate Day proposal is a three-pronged project consisting of a cadre of Earth Ambassadors selected from among NASA-affiliated informal educators; a "Climate Day Kit" consisting of climate-related electronic resources available to the Earth Ambassadors; and NASA Climate Day events to be held in Earth Ambassador communities across the United States. NASA/JPL continues to host the original Climate Day event and in 2012 held its 4th event, at the Pasadena
Public schools represent the pluralism of American society. Unfortunately, many children experience their public school environment as unwelcoming or even violent. Prejudicial attitudes contribute to problematic intergroup relations in public school settings. Furthermore, teachers are often unprepared to work with the diversity of class,…
Manvell, Elizabeth C.
We expect schools to be a safe haven, but after more than a decade of targeted school violence prevention laws and safety plans, students are still marginalized and bullied to the point of despondence, retaliation, and even suicide. This thoughtful exploration of what makes a school a safe place is based on the understanding that violence is a…
Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…
Rhodes, Jean E.; Camic, Paul M.; Milburn, Michael; Lowe, Sarah R.
A collaborative school-based intervention aimed at modifying relationships among administrators and teachers was implemented in three middle and junior high schools. Across the intervention schools, teachers were active collaborators in identifying problems and then articulating and implementing customized interventions to redress those problems.…
Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.
This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…
Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate.
Hauser, Donna D W; Tobin, Elizabeth D; Feifel, Kirsten M; Shah, Vega; Pietri, Diana M
Climate change is affecting marine ecosystems, but different investigative approaches in physical, chemical, and biological disciplines may influence interpretations of climate-driven changes in the ocean. Here, we review the ocean change literature from 2007 to 2012 based on 461 of the most highly cited studies in physical and chemical oceanography and three biological subdisciplines. Using highly cited studies, we focus on research that has shaped recent discourse on climate-driven ocean change. Our review identified significant differences in spatial and temporal scales of investigation among disciplines. Physical/chemical studies had a median duration of 29 years (n = 150) and covered the greatest study areas (median 1.41 × 10(7) km(2) , n = 148). Few biological studies were conducted over similar spatial and temporal scales (median 8 years, n = 215; median 302 km(2) , n = 196), suggesting a more limited ability to separate climate-related responses from natural variability. We linked physical/chemical and biological disciplines by tracking studies examining biological responses to changing ocean conditions. Of the 545 biological responses recorded, a single physical or chemical stressor was usually implicated as the cause (59%), with temperature as the most common primary stressor (44%). The most frequently studied biological responses were changes in physiology (31%) and population abundance (30%). Differences in disciplinary studies, as identified in this review, can ultimately influence how researchers interpret climate-related impacts in marine systems. We identified research gaps and the need for more discourse in (1) the Indian and other Southern Hemisphere ocean basins; (2) research themes such as archaea, bacteria, viruses, mangroves, turtles, and ocean acidification; (3) physical and chemical stressors such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, and upwelling; and (4) adaptive responses of marine organisms to climate-driven ocean change. Our findings reveal
Lowenstein, Amy E.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Zhai, Fuhua; Pess, Rachel A.
Past research on school-level factors that predict children's development has focused largely on associations between a limited number of characteristics, such as school size and school resources, and children's academic achievement. Few studies take a more comprehensive look at the measurement of school climate or examine its relationship to…
Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.
Within the last couple of decades, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly due to human activities. Today climate change is an important issue for humankind. This book provides a starting point for educators to teach about climate change, although there are obstacles caused by the industrialized…
Das, Kamalika; Kodali, Anuradha; Szubert, Marcin; Ganguly, Sangram; Bongard, Joshua
Amazon droughts in 2005 and 2010 have raised serious concern about the future of the rainforest. Amazon forests are crucial because of their role as the largest carbon sink in the world which would effect the global warming phenomena with decreased photosynthesis activity. Especially, after a decline in plant growth in 1.68 million km2 forest area during the once-in-a-century severe drought in 2010, it is of primary importance to understand the relationship between different climatic variables and vegetation. In an earlier study, we have shown that non-linear models are better at capturing the relation dynamics of vegetation and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation, compared to linear models. In this research, we learn precise models between vegetation and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) for normal conditions in the Amazon region using genetic programming based symbolic regression. This is done by removing high elevation and drought affected areas and also considering the slope of the region as one of the important factors while building the model. The model learned reveals new and interesting ways historical and current climate variables affect the vegetation at any location. MAIAC data has been used as a vegetation surrogate in our study. For temperature and precipitation, we have used TRMM and MODIS Land Surface Temperature data sets while learning the non-linear regression model. However, to generalize the model to make it independent of the data source, we perform transfer learning where we regress a regularized least squares to learn the parameters of the non-linear model using other data sources such as the precipitation and temperature from the Climatic Research Center (CRU). This new model is very similar in structure and performance compared to the original learned model and verifies the same claims about the nature of dependency between these climate variables and the vegetation in the Amazon region. As a result of this
Zhu, Biyi; Zhou, Yaping
Affect is considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviors in second language acquisition. Positive affect is good for studying while negative affect will inevitably hinder learners' learning process. As we know, students in junior high school are special groups as they are experiencing great changes both in…
Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum
The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.…
Bitar, Maysa H.
This non-experimental quantitative study followed a correlational design that examined the relationship between five factors of school climate: a) leadership, b) professional development, c) salary, d) working condition, and e) teacher collaboration as measured by the modified version of Teacher's Perception of Factors Leading to Attrition (TPFLA)…
Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate
This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…
Riekie, Helen; Aldridge, Jill M.; Afari, Ernest
The well-documented increase in student mental health issues in Australia and growing recognition of the need for education to play a part in students' identity formation prompted this study. The research reported in this article sought to identify specific elements of the school climate that were likely to influence the interplay of adolescent…
Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung
This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a)…
The Comparative Effects of Two Teaching Methodologies on the Social Structure, Learning Environment, and Group-Work Behavior of Eight Senior High School English Classes: An Evaluative Study of the Philadelphia Affective Education Development Program.
This study evaluated the Philadelphia Affective Education Development Program (AEDP) as it affected student relationships within the classroom and student perceptions of the classroom climate. The differences between four AEDP and four regular English classes from one high school were determined in regard to (1) sociometric structure as analyzed…
Woolley, Dale; Patalino, Marianne
The Elementary School Evaluation Kit has been devised as an aid in evaluating student performance levels across a wide range of concepts and skills, interpreting the resultant data, and providing a basis for valid decisions aimed at improving the students' performance. Included in the kit are needs analysis procedures that enable a principal to…
Hayek, Linda M.; Stephens, Larry
Examines factors related to computer anxiety measured by the Computer Anxiety Index (CAIN). Achievement in two programing courses was inversely related to computer anxiety. Students who had a home computer and had computer experience before high school had lower computer anxiety than those who had not. Lists 14 references. (YP)
O'Reilly, Robert C.
This paper discusses five court cases decided in the seventies that explain the viewpoints held by the courts on pregnant school employees. According to the paper, the cases reveal the judicial background that prompted P.L. 95-555, passed by Congress in 1978 and identified as an amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII. The cases, not…
Hsu, Wan-Chen; Chiang, Chia-Hsun; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua
This study investigated the relationships of teacher efficacy, perceived organizational control, and the teacher-student age gap with teachers' retirement attitudes. Stratified random sampling was adopted to collect survey responses. A total of 498 valid surveys from 33 elementary schools were collected. Correlational analyses revealed significant…
Clyne, Norman G.
Education as such is not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution, and public education has been the responsibility of State governments. In practice, the public schools have been operated by local communities and financed primarily by taxation of real property. U.S. Government acquisition of property for military use, defense production, and other…
Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Anneville, Orlane; Chandra, Sudeep; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M.; Rimmer, Alon; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M.; Tamatamah, Rashid; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; McIntyre, Peter B.
Climate change is affecting lake stratification with consequences for water quality and the benefits that lakes provide to society. Here we use long-term temperature data (1970-2010) from 26 lakes around the world to show that climate change has altered lake stratification globally and that the magnitudes of lake stratification changes are primarily controlled by lake morphometry (mean depth, surface area, and volume) and mean lake temperature. Deep lakes and lakes with high average temperatures have experienced the largest changes in lake stratification even though their surface temperatures tend to be warming more slowly. These results confirm that the nonlinear relationship between water density and water temperature and the strong dependence of lake stratification on lake morphometry makes lake temperature trends relatively poor predictors of lake stratification trends.
Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Maele, Dimitri
Since the 1970s, school effectiveness research has looked for process-variables filling the black box between mainly structural school features and cognitive outcomes in students. Two concepts came to the fore: school climate and school culture. Both concepts are currently used interchangeably, although it is open to debate whether both are…
Lunenburg, Fred C.; Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri
In this study, teachers' control behavior, classroom climate, and student self-control were investigated. Differences between urban public and military high schools concerning these variables were also examined. Participants were 102 high school students from an urban public school and 94 students from an urban 4-year military high school. The…
Richardson, Bryce A; Chaney, Lindsay; Shaw, Nancy L; Still, Shannon M
Rising temperatures have begun to shift flowering time, but it is unclear whether phenotypic plasticity can accommodate projected temperature change for this century. Evaluating clines in phenological traits and the extent and variation in plasticity can provide key information on assessing risk of maladaptation and developing strategies to mitigate climate change. In this study, flower phenology was examined in 52 populations of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) growing in three common gardens. Flowering date (anthesis) varied 91 days from late July to late November among gardens. Mixed-effects modeling explained 79% of variation in flowering date, of which 46% could be assigned to plasticity and genetic variation in plasticity and 33% to genetics (conditional R(2) = 0.79, marginal R(2) = 0.33). Two environmental variables that explained the genetic variation were photoperiod and the onset of spring, the Julian date of accumulating degree days > 5°C reaching 100. The genetic variation was mapped for contemporary and future climates (decades 2060 and 2090), showing flower date change varies considerably across the landscape. Plasticity was estimated to accommodate, on average, a +/- 13-day change in flowering date. However, the examination of genetic variation in plasticity suggests that the magnitude of plasticity could be affected by variation in the sensitivity to photoperiod and temperature. In a warmer common garden, lower latitude populations have greater plasticity (+16 days) compared to higher latitude populations (+10 days). Mapped climatypes of flowering date for contemporary and future climates illustrate the wide breadth of plasticity and large geographic overlap. Our research highlights the importance of integrating information on genetic variation, phenotypic plasticity and climatic niche modeling to evaluate plant responses and elucidate vulnerabilities to climate change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie
This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…
Gold, Joshua M.; Rotter, Joseph C.; Holmes, George R.; Motes, Patricia S.
This fastback document presents the results of an opinion survey of middle-school students, parents, and teachers in South Carolina. Because no surveys in the literature had combined responses from these three groups, researchers asked 4,940 students, 735 teachers, and 2,576 parents about their attitudes toward school, students, and teachers. The…
Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.
Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…
Metz, Mary Haywood
This paper reports on a study of a desegregated Individually Guided Education (IGE) middle school which drew volunteers from throughout a large, midwestern city. Findings are based on participant observation and interviews by the author. The author concludes that the school failed to incorporate all the features of IGE, which calls for alterations…
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.
Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…
O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Furlong, Michael J
Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students' behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior.
O’Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Furlong, Michael J.
Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students’ behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior. PMID:25346779
Tenney, Jodiann K.
The purpose of this transformative mixed methods study was to examine the school happiness of upper elementary students in three Connecticut urban demonstration schools. The study examined the differences in students' happiness based on ethnicity, gender, and their interaction. It also investigated the factors that affect students' happiness in…
Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip
This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the…
Dikowski, Timothy J.
This practicum was designed to remediate handwriting skills in school-aged children who displayed visual-motor deficiencies that affect mechanical skills. Practicum goals were to: (1) identify and diagnose children with handwriting delays; (2) involve school and parent interaction by involving them with pre- and post-program assessment; (3)…
Ojo, Gbemisola Motunrayo; Nkoyane, Vusy
This study was carried out to examine the present curriculum of Economics as a subject in some Ogbomoso Senior High Schools and to determine factors affecting effective teaching of economics in the schools. Variables such as number of students, teachers' ratio available textbooks were also examined. The study adopted descriptive design since it is…
Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the related factors that affect the usage of educational technology in primary schools. This study depends on literature analysis and the questionnaire to collect data. Specifically, the items employed in this study were derived from the teachers' and school administrators' perceptions of using…
Randler, Christoph; Frech, Daniela
During puberty, young people shift their time-of-day preferences from morningness to eveningness. One of the main problems seems to be early school-start times, which force adolescents to start working at a given time that may be too early for them; and this, in turn, negatively affects school functioning. Here, we ask whether…
Griffin, Kenneth W.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Acevedo, Bianca P.; Botvin, Gilbert J.
This study explored the relationship between trajectories of affective self-regulation skills during secondary school and young adult substance use in a large multiethnic, urban sample (N = 995). During secondary school, participants completed a measure of cognitive and behavioral skills used to control negative, unpleasant emotions or perceived…
Okoko, Janet Mola
This article is based on the results of an exploratory study of experiences of 2 urban school principals about leading schools with immigrants from war-affected countries in Africa. It examines how they perceived their preparation for multicultural leadership, and explores lessons that leadership development institutions can learn from their…
Cleave-Hogg, Doreen; And Others
A University of Toronto (Canada) study of medical school applicants accepting (n=784) and declining (n=255) admission identified influential factors. Some (living cost, location) cannot be affected by the institution. The institution has limited control of others (faculty size, school environment) but can influence applicant perceptions. One…
Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross
School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…
Maring, Elisabeth F.; Koblinsky, Sally A.
Background: Exposure to community violence compromises teacher effectiveness, student learning, and socioemotional well-being. This study examined the challenges, strategies, and support needs of teachers in urban schools affected by high levels of community violence. Methods: Twenty teachers from 3 urban middle schools with predominantly…
Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew
Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…
Welsch, David M.; Zimmer, David M.
This paper examines the competitive effects of a unique school choice program implemented in the late 1990s, Wisconsin's open enrollment program, which allows families to send their children to schools outside their home district. In contrast to other school choice programs, districts not only face negative consequences from losing students and…
van Ophuysen, Stefanie
Transition to secondary school implies basic changes in social, instructional and organisational aspects of school life which afford the pupils' adjustment. As transition takes place at a predictable point in time, children develop expectations about the start at their new school. In order to analyse predictors and consequences of these…
Compares the legal reasoning and results in two cases brought to courts by principals dismissed by local school governing boards under authority granted to these community groups by school reform laws in Chicago, Illinois, and New Zealand. Observations are made regarding the need for appropriate adjustments in school-based-management reform law…
Lin, Bao-Shan; Crawley, Frank E., III
Differences in classroom climate and science related attitudes were investigated among junior high school science classes and students in Taiwan. The sample consisted of 1,269 students enrolled in 40 science classes distributed equally among ten junior high schools, five metropolitan and five rural. Classes were further classified according to sex (21 boys and 19 girls classes) and ability (19 high and 21 low ability classes). Using the Learning Environment Inventory (Anderson, Walberg, & Fraser, 1982) to measure climate, science classes in metropolitan schools, more than rural, were found to be characterized by Speed, Friction, Favoritism, Difficulty, Cliqueness, and Competitiveness. No differences were found in the classroom climates of classes in which students were grouped according to sex or ability. Using the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981), students in science classes in metropolitan schools, in contrast to rural, expressed more positive attitudes toward the Social Implications of Science, Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, and Attitude to Scientific Inquiry. Boys more than girls recorded high scores on Leisure Interest in Science and Career Interest in Science. High ability students were found to have higher scores on Attitude to Scientific Inquiry than did low ability students. When examining the relationship between the 15 subscale scores of the LEI and the seven subscale scores of the TOSRA for the 40 classes, only 9 out of 105 correlations proved to be significant. Most differences in climate, attitude, and their interactions were attributed to school location rather than to student characteristics.
Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia
Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.
Peri, L.; Tyler, S. W.; Zheng, C.; Pohll, G. M.; Yao, Y.
Many arid and semi-arid regions around the world are experiencing water shortages that have become increasingly problematic. Since the late 1800s, upstream diversions in Nevada's Walker River have delivered irrigation supply to the surrounding agricultural fields resulting in a dramatic water level decline of the terminal Walker Lake. Salinity has also increased because the only outflow from the lake is evaporation from the lake surface. The Heihe River basin of northwestern China, a similar semi-arid catchment, is also facing losses from evaporation of terminal locations, agricultural diversions and evapotranspiration (ET) of crops. Irrigated agriculture is now experiencing increased competition for use of diminishing water resources while a demand for ecological conservation continues to grow. It is important to understand how the existing agriculture in these regions will respond as climate changes. Predicting the affects of climate change on groundwater flow, surface water flow, ET and agricultural productivity of the Walker and Heihe River basins is essential for future conservation of water resources. ET estimates from remote sensing techniques can provide estimates of crop water consumption. By determining similarities of both hydrologic cycles, critical components missing in both systems can be determined and predictions of impacts of climate change and human management strategies can be assessed.
Raza, Ahmad; Murad, Hasan; Kayani, Ashraf
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore different cultural dimensions of the learning climate at a business school located at Lahore, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the result of an empirical study of the learning climate for managerial knowledge at a business school, located in Lahore, Pakistan. A sample of 150…
Alexander, Robin Ruth
The document discusses a study to describe, analyze, and interpret the cultural climate of an elementary school in Texas which has a special fine arts program. Cultural climate is defined as the atmosphere that surrounds an arts program as defined by comments and actions of school administrators, art teachers, classroom teachers, students,…
The working atmosphere in the classroom is an important variable in the process of education in schools, with several studies suggesting that classroom climate is an important influence on pupil attainment. There are wide differences in the extent to which classroom climate is considered to be a problem in English schools. Some…
Levy, Irena; Yoneshige, Dora
The module is intended to help educators understand the components of school climate and its influence on the integration of students with handicaps. Three competencies are addressed: (1) to develop an understanding of the concept of school climate, identify its components and analyze its relationship to educational goals; (2) to develop an…
Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah
Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…
Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung
This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…
Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann
Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…
Wahl, T.; Plant, N. G.
Oceanographic variables such as mean sea level, tides, storm surges, and waves are drivers of erosion, and they act on different time scales ranging from hours (associated with weather) to seasonal and decadal variations and trends (associated with climate). Here we explore how the related sea-state conditions affect the erosion risk in the northern Gulf of Mexico for past and future climate scenarios. From the climate perspective we find that long-term trends in the relevant variables have caused an increase of ~30% in the erosion risk since the 1980s; at least half of this increase was due to changes in the wave climate. In the next decades, sea level rise will likely become the dominating driver and may, in combination with ongoing changes in the wave climate (and depending on the emission scenario), escalate the erosion risk by up to 300% over the next 30 years. We also find significant changes in the seasonal cycles of sea level and significant wave height, which have in combination caused a considerable increase of the erosion risk in summer and decrease in winter (superimposed onto the long-term trends). The influence of weather is assessed with a copula-based multivariate sea storm model in a Monte-Carlo framework; i.e. we simulate hundreds of thousands of artificial but physically consistent sea-state conditions to quantify how different our understanding of the present day erosion risk would be if we had seen more or less extreme combinations of the different sea-state parameters over the last three decades. We find, for example, that total water levels (tide + surge + wave run-up) associated with 100-year return periods may be underestimated by up to 30% and that the average number of impact hours - when total water levels exceeded the height of the dune toe (collision) or dune crest (overwash) - could have been up to 50% higher than what we inferred based on the actually observed oceanographic conditions. Assessing erosion risk in such a probabilistic
Eskandari, Hadi; Borji, Moslem; Khosravi, Hassan; Mesbahzadeh, Tayebeh
Climate change has been identified as a leading human and environmental crisis of the twenty-first century. Drylands throughout the world have always undergone periods of degradation due to naturally occurring fluctuation in climate. Persistence of widespread degradation in arid and semiarid regions of Iran necessitates monitoring and evaluation. This paper aims to monitor the desertification trend in three types of land use, including range, forest and desert, affected by climate change in Tehran province for the 2000s and 2030s. For assessing climate change at Mehrabad synoptic station, the data of two emission scenarios, including A2 and B2, were used, utilizing statistical downscaling techniques and data generated by the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). The index of net primary production (NPP) resulting from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images was employed as an indicator of destruction from 2001 to 2010. The results showed that temperature is the most significant driving force which alters the net primary production in rangeland, forest and desert land use in Tehran province. On the basis of monitoring findings under real conditions, in the 2000s, over 60 % of rangelands and 80 % of the forest were below the average production in the province. On the other hand, the long-term average changes of NPP in the rangeland and forests indicated the presence of relatively large areas of these land uses with a production rate lower than the desert. The results also showed that, assuming the existence of circumstances of each emission scenarios, the desertification status will not improve significantly in the rangelands and forests of Tehran province.
Cheng, L.; Hoerling, M. P.; Aghakouchak, A.; Livneh, B.; Quan, X. W.; Eischeid, J. K.
The current California drought has cast a heavy burden on statewide agriculture and water resources, further exacerbated by concurrent extreme high temperatures. Furthermore, industrial-era global radiative forcing brings into question the role of long-term climate change on CA drought. How has human-induced climate change affected California drought risk? Here, observations and model experimentation are applied to characterize this drought employing metrics that synthesize drought duration, cumulative precipitation deficit, and soil moisture depletion. The model simulations show that increases in radiative forcing since the late 19th Century induces both increased annual precipitation and increased surface temperature over California, consistent with prior model studies and with observed long-term change. As a result, there is no material difference in the frequency of droughts defined using bivariate indicators of precipitation and near-surface (10-cm) soil moisture, because shallow soil moisture responds most sensitively to increased evaporation driven by warming, which compensates the increase in the precipitation. However, when using soil moisture within a deep root zone layer (1-m) as co-variate, droughts become less frequent because deep soil moisture responds most sensitively to increased precipitation. The results illustrate the different land surface responses to anthropogenic forcing that are relevant for near-surface moisture exchange and for root zone moisture availability. The latter is especially relevant for agricultural impacts as the deep layer dictates moisture availability for plants, trees, and many crops. The results thus indicate the net effect of climate change has made agricultural drought less likely, and that the current severe impacts of drought on California's agriculture has not been substantially caused by long-term climate changes.
Haddeland, I.; Biemans, H.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z. D.; Wada, Y.
Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Several global hydrologic models have recently implemented reservoir operations and water withdrawals in their modeling schemes. Seven of these models (H08, LPJmL, PCR-GLOBWB, MPI-HM, VIC, WaterGAP and WBM) have been run within the framework of two model inter-comparison projects - the currently running Inter-sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) and its predecessor on the water sector the Water Model Intercomparison Project (WaterMIP). In both projects hydrological models were forced with multiple climate projections from different Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) taking into account present day human interventions on the hydrological cycle such as dams and water withdrawals. By integrating results from the two projects we benefit form a large ensemble size that allows for assessments of uncertainties from climate projections from different AOGCMs. Here, multimodel analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the annual water cycle in some regions are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2K). In many river basins the relative effects of human interventions are much larger at the seasonal level than at the annual level. There is, however, a considerable spread in the model estimates of these impacts. Possible reasons for this spread, e.g. differences in the reservoir operation schemes, are discussed.
Anlezark, Alison; Lim, Patrick
In this report the authors seek to answer the question of whether combining school and work is detrimental or beneficial to a student's school educational performance and labour market outcomes. They find that young people who combine school and work are distributed right across the school population. Results show that individuals can combine…
Jennings, Jennifer L.; Beveridge, Andrew A.
Analyzing data from a large urban district in Texas, this study examines how high-stakes test exemptions alter officially reported scores and asks whether test exemption has implications for the academic achievement of special education students. Test exemption inflated overall passing rates but especially affected the passing rates of African…
Landsberg, H E
Natural climatic fluctuations, even those of recent years, cover a considerable range. They can be characterized as a "noise" spectrum which masks possible global effects of man-caused increases of atmospheric CO(2) and particulates. Local modifications, either deliberate or inadvertent, measurably affect the microclimate. Some artificial alterations of the microlimate are beneficial in agriculture. Among the unplanned effects, those produced by urbanization on local temperature and on wind field are quite pronounced. The influences on rainfall are still somewhat controversial, but effects may extend considerably beyond the confines of metropolitan areas. They are the result of water vapor released by human activity and of the influence of condensation and freezing nuclei produced in overabundance by motor vehicles and other combustion processes. Therefore it appears that on the local scale man-made influences on climate are substantial but that on the global scale natural forces still prevail. Obviously this should not lead to complacency. The potential for anthropogenic changes of climate on a larger and even a global scale is real. At this stage activation of an adequate worldwide monitoring system to permit early assessment of these changes is urgent. This statement applies particularly to the surveillance of atmospheric composition and radiation balance at sites remote from concentrations of population, which is now entirely inadequate. In my opinion, man-made aerosols, because of their optical properties and possible influences on cloud and precipitation processes, constitute a more acute problem than CO(2). Many of their effects are promptly reversible; hence, one should strive for elimination at the source. Over longer intervals, energy added to the atmosphere by heat rejection and CO(2) absorption remain matters of concern.
Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…
Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley
Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected…
Kotok, Stephen; Ikoma, Sakiko; Bodovski, Katerina
Using data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09)--a large nationally representative sample of US high school students--we employed multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationship between school characteristics and the likelihood that a student will drop out of high school. We used a multifaceted…
Jones, Albert; Shindler, John
Many educators view school climate and student achievement as separate considerations. For some, the idea of promoting a high quality climate can seem like a luxury in the face of the current high stakes assessment climate in which student achievement gains are the paramount consideration. However, the results of this study suggest that climate…
Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality-specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as…
Set within the affective turn in cultural and social theory, in this paper, I explore the significance of materiality and matter, most specifically, bodily matter, in the pedagogic practices of contemporary school classrooms. The received view in education is that affect is tantamount to emotion or feeling and that materials, such as bodily…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009
In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools…
Research indicates that a theoretical framework known as a professional learning community can make a positive difference in schools. This mixed-method study examines teacher perceptions of school leadership and climate in two rural elementary schools in South Carolina. Using interviews, focus group sessions and a survey, the researcher answers…
Elfrink, Teuntje R.; Goldberg, Jochem M.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Clarke, Aleisha M.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a process and impact evaluation of the Positief Educatief Programma (Positive Education Programme (PEP)), a whole school approach to supporting children's well-being and creating a positive school climate in primary schools in the Netherlands. PEP adopts a competence skill enhancement approach…
Golden, B. W.; Francis, T. K.
This work attempts to answer the question "how much, if any, climate change, exists in middle and high school curricula in the United States?" A necessary first step towards this answer involves an examination of Global Climate Change (GCC) coverage in the requisite standards documents. Until recently, each state had its own science framework, with four states (at the time of writing) having already adopted the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (Achieve, Inc, 2013). This work reports on an analysis of the extent to which GCC exists within the content frameworks of each state, including the NGSS. The analysis began with a word search for such content as "climate change", "greenhouse effect", and "global warming". We then searched through the remainder of the documents in question to understand the nuance of each framework. Each framework was then scored on a scale form zero (no mention of climate change) to four (climate change is explicit, an anthropogenic potential cause is emphasized, and GCC appears within at least one standard of its own). Eighteen states scored a zero, while only five states scored a four. This is particularly troubling, in light of recent statements of scientific consensus (AAAS, 2006; 2009; AGU, 2013; IPCC, 2007). While the NGSS scored well, it is unclear what this means in terms of actual students encountering the subject of climate change in actual classroom. Attention is given to some still-problematic aspects of GCC content are addressed, including its focus largely within courses not required for graduation, as well as the murky details of the yet-to-be determined processes by which individual states will choose to test, or not to test, the subject matter. The authors conclude that as of 2013, there is little evidence that students in most states are required to take courses which include significant aspects of GCC in their curricula.
Ross, Dorrell J.; Cozzens, Jeffry A.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership behaviors influencing the schools' climate according to Green's (2010) ideologies of the 13 core competencies within the four dimensions of principal leadership. Data from the "Leadership Behavior Inventory" (Green, 2014) suggest 314…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that community partnerships could have on school climate and, ultimately, student achievement. Specifically, community partnerships that were formed through the PENCIL (Public Education Needs Community Involvement and Leadership) Foundation in Nashville, Tennessee were researched to determine…
Egwu, Sarah Oben
This study was conducted to determine principals' performance in promoting learning climate in Ebonyi State secondary schools. A sample of 630 teachers completed a 12-item questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 630 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 606 copies representing about 96.2% return rate were properly completed and returned.…
Golden, Barry W.
This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not…
Jenkins, Andrew; Ueno, Akiko
This paper uses international data from a range of sources, principally the 2013 round of the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS 2013), to provide new information on classroom disciplinary climate in secondary schools in England. The paper advances the literature in three distinct ways. Firstly, the data show that teachers in…
Juma, Dalal Sabri
In this study the researcher examined the influence between a principal's self-perceived emotional intelligence and the overall organizational climate of one public elementary school as perceived by the principal's followers. These followers included teaching and non-teaching staff. It was not known how self-perceived emotional intelligence of a…
Mainhard, M. Tim; Brekelmans, Mieke; den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo
In this study the mean stability of classroom social climates during the first months of the school year and the deviation of individual classrooms (N = 48) and students (N = 1208) from this general trend were investigated by taping students' interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. Multilevel growth modeling was used to identify the average…
Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina
In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Pas, Elise T.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the…
Sunassee, Suthananda N.; Young, Ryan M.; Sewry, Joyce D.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.
In accordance with the requirements for the National Curriculum Statement for both Life sciences and Physical sciences and the importance of community engagement in Higher Education in South Africa, this paper described the use of the lecture-demonstration "A Pollutant's Tale" to create climate change awareness amongst school learners.…
Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Chandrakesan, Kasturi
Existing studies report on secondary school students' misconceptions related to climate change; they also report on the methods of teaching as reinforcing misconceptions. This quasi-experimental study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a curriculum based on constructivist principles does not lead to greater understanding and fewer…
Schelkun, Ruth F.; And Others
The drive for improved school and classroom climate, for increased teacher and student involvement in decision-making, and for more positive teacher and student expectations are becoming prime areas for joint educational and behavioral science efforts. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a year-long classroom social competence training…
Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.
The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…
This study investigates how community characteristics, student background, school climate, and zero-tolerance policies interact to affect school crime. The study articulates and fits a school crime model to 712 high schools participating in the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety, confirming that school location and student socioeconomic status…
Golden, Barry W.
This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public school in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle school, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global Climate change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global climate change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if
Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.
One factor for some Americans being confused about climate change is their lack of understanding its underlying science concepts (Somerville & Hassol, 2011). In spite of this, climate change has been under-emphasized in school curricula (Bardsley & Bardsley, 2007). This is an important challenge for science educators, especially given the increasing public awareness of climate change impacts in their everyday lives (NCADAC, 2013).One way to address this challenge is to involve teachers in professional learning projects with the expectation that their enhanced content and pedagogical knowledge about climate change will transfer into more effective instruction resulting in increased student learning. For teacher educators, this translates into providing vibrant professional learning activities that energize and engage science teachers to develop interesting lessons that stimulate their students to learn important science concepts and develop positive attitudes to science. This study examined content knowledge and views about climate change of 33 high school science teachers and their1050 students who participated in lessons developed in a NASA-funded professional learning project. The teachers participated in a seven-day climate change summer institute and received in-classroom follow-up support throughout the school year. Teacher data sources included a background survey (undergraduate majors, number of years teaching science), science teaching self-efficacy (STEBI-A) scores, Climate Science Inventory of Knowledge (CSIK), and Six-America's Views on Climate Change. Student data included journal entries, and pre-post measures using the CSIK and Six-Americas instruments. T-tests and ANOVA showed that both students and their teachers increased in climate science knowledge. Teachers' views about climate change were more aligned to climate scientists' views. Teachers also increased in their science teaching self-efficacy and those with higher self-efficacy demonstrated
Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.
Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Fan, Xitao
This study investigated the relations between student perceptions of support and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence in a sample of 7318 ninth-grade students from 291 high schools who participated in the Virginia High School Safety Study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that students who perceived their teachers and other school staff to be supportive were more likely to endorse positive attitudes toward seeking help for bullying and threats of violence. In schools with more perceived support, there was less of a discrepancy in help-seeking attitudes between girls and boys. Findings suggest that efforts by school staff to provide a supportive climate are a potentially valuable strategy for engaging students in the prevention of bullying and threats of violence.
Anderson, John D.
In high schools, a conspiracy of silence shrouds the sexual orientation issue. Although the social atmosphere is vaguely supportive, fear and the realities of life cause most gays and lesbians to keep their sexual identities hidden. Homophobia can be addressed through staff development, support staff and services, inclusion of homosexual issues in…
Using the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) restricted-data set, the researcher examined the national sample and the NAEP reported sub-groups of gender, race/ethnicity, and socio-economic status (SES). This researcher investigated how factors of student technology use in school and outside school, student attributes, academic…
Eaves, Ted; Strack, Robert W.
In spite of policy bans and recommendations against spit tobacco (ST) use, baseball athletes have demonstrated ST prevalence rates ranging from 34% to 50% in high school, 42% in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and 50% in the professional ranks. To evaluate enforcement of ST bans, high school baseball coaches in North Carolina…
Del Favero, Frank
This article is a synopsis of three performance tasks designed for students enrolled in an educational leadership graduate level course Using Data to Affect Change. These performance tasks address the requisite knowledge and skills that an effective school leader should possess in order to improve the quality of instruction and at the same time…
Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaomang; Zhang, Qi; Liang, Kang; Liu, Changming
Investigating the factors that affect intra-annual evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow variability is important to regional hydrological cycles and energy balance research. In this study, ET and streamflow variability (defined as their standard deviations) are attributed to precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and total water storage change (TWSC) based on a Budyko-based approach at 282 catchments in China. The results show that the Budyko-based approach satisfactorily simulates the intra-annual ET and streamflow variability (R2 of 0.63-0.84). The dominant contributor to ET variability is ET0 under energy-limited condition (aridity index ⩽ 0.76), whereas the dominant contributor is precipitation under equitant (0.76 < aridity index ⩽ 1.35) and water-limited conditions (aridity index ⩾ 1.35). The contribution of ET0 to ET variability decreases with the aridity index, whereas the contribution of precipitation to ET variability increases with the aridity index. However, the dominant contributor to streamflow variability is precipitation under all the three climate conditions, which is unaffected by the aridity index. TWSC enhances ET variability under energy-limited condition and inhibits ET variability under water-limited and equitant conditions. However, TWSC inhibits streamflow variability under all the three climate conditions. In addition, geography and vegetation also influence the contributors to ET and streamflow variability. The effects of geography on the contributors to streamflow variability are larger than that to ET variability. In contrast, the impacts of vegetation on the contributors to ET variability are larger than that to streamflow variability. This study demonstrates that the mechanism of ET variability under different climate conditions is much more complex than that of streamflow variability, suggesting that more attention should be given to ET for water-energy modeling, hydrological predictions and local water management.
Dayananda, Buddhi; Webb, Jonathan K
Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings. Whether such changes in cognitive abilities influence the survival of hatchlings is unknown. To determine whether incubation-induced changes in spatial learning ability affect hatchling survival, we incubated velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, eggs using two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current (cold) versus future (hot) nest temperatures. We measured the spatial learning ability of hatchlings from each treatment, and released individually marked animals at two field sites in southeastern Australia. Hatchlings from hot-incubated eggs were slower learners than hatchlings from cold-incubated eggs. Survival analyses revealed that hatchlings with higher learning scores had higher survival than hatchlings with poor learning scores. Our results show that incubation temperature affects spatial learning ability in hatchling lizards, and that such changes can influence the survival of hatchlings in the wild.
Manalo, Jaime A; Balmeo, Katherine P; Berto, Jayson C; Saludez, Fredierick M; Villaflor, Jennifer D; Pagdanganan, Argie M
Climate change (CC) is an urgent and highly relevant topic that must be integrated into the school curriculum. Literature on CC integration, however, is scarce, let alone literature on integrating climate-smart rice agriculture (CSRA). Bringing CSRA lessons into the classroom means the chance is higher that climate-smart technologies on rice will reach even the most far-flung areas of the Philippines, which stand to be among the most vulnerable as regards the negative impacts of CC. This paper shares experiences drawn from three high schools in the Philippines on integrating CSRA into their curriculum. The research centers on appropriate teaching tools/strategies, push and exogenous factors in CSRA integration, and the types of information that are likely to be shared by the students with their farmer-parents or other farmers in their communities. Surveys among participating students (n = 155) and three focus group discussions among key school officials were conducted. Different teaching methods and/or tools were found to be generally useful in various contexts. Photos and videos, however, emerged as the most effective tools across sites. The livelihood source of the students does have a bearing on the complexity of messages that they can convey. Students from rice-farming households can competently discuss even highly complex adaptation and mitigation information with their farmer-parents or other farmers. Thorough message-framing is necessary to maximize student involvement as well as to increase production of education-entertainment (edutainment) materials to be utilized in teaching. This study, in general, contributes to CC education by bringing in best-fit practices in teaching tools and strategies to mobilize students to act on urgent matters relating to the impacts of CC. It also advises on considering exogenous factors that might affect CC education by taking into account those that are equally capable of shaping students' perception and knowledge.
Background HIV has left many African children caring for sick relatives, orphaned or themselves HIV-positive, often facing immense challenges in the absence of significant support from adults. With reductions in development funding, public sector budgetary constraints, and a growing emphasis on the importance of indigenous resources in the HIV response, international policy allocates schools a key role in ‘substituting for families’ (Ansell, 2008) in supporting child health and well-being. We explore children’s own accounts of the challenges facing their HIV-affected peers and the role of schools in providing such support. Methods Contextualised within a multi-method study of school support for HIV-affected children in rural Zimbabwe, and regarding children’s views as a key resource for child-relevant intervention and policy, 128 school children (10–14) wrote a story about an HIV-affected peer and how school assisted them in tackling their problems. Results Children presented harrowing accounts of negative impacts of HIV on the social, physical and mental well-being of peers, and how these manifested in the school setting. Whilst relationships with fellow learners and teachers were said to provide a degree of support, this was patchy and minimal, generally limited to small-scale and often one-off acts of material help or kindness (e.g. teachers giving children pens and exercise books or peers sharing school lunches), with little potential to impact significantly on the wider social drivers of children’s daily challenges. Despite having respect for the enormity of the challenges many HIV-affected peers were coping with, children tended to keep a distance from them. School was depicted as a source of the very bullying, stigma and social exclusion that undermined children’s opportunities for well-being in their lives more generally. Conclusions Our findings challenge glib assumptions that schools can serve as a significant ‘indigenous’ supports of
Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol
Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a school's administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness, characteristics of a school's climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to school-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary schools completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and school-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of school climate. Perceptions of school climate were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of school-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful school leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a climate promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support.
Rinquest, Elzahn; Fataar, Aslam
This article focuses on the "affective place-making" practices of girls at a private high school on the outskirts of Cape Town. The article responds to the question: How do high school girls' affects and social bodies contribute to their place-making practices and to the type of place they make of their school? Our focus is on…
Durán, Jorge; Morse, Jennifer L; Groffman, Peter M; Campbell, John L; Christenson, Lynn M; Driscoll, Charles T; Fahey, Timothy J; Fisk, Melany C; Mitchell, Myron J; Templer, Pamela H
Understanding the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to global change remains a major challenge of ecological research. We exploited a natural elevation gradient in a northern hardwood forest to determine how reductions in snow accumulation, expected with climate change, directly affect dynamics of soil winter frost, and indirectly soil microbial biomass and activity during the growing season. Soils from lower elevation plots, which accumulated less snow and experienced more soil temperature variability during the winter (and likely more freeze/thaw events), had less extractable inorganic nitrogen (N), lower rates of microbial N production via potential net N mineralization and nitrification, and higher potential microbial respiration during the growing season. Potential nitrate production rates during the growing season were particularly sensitive to changes in winter snow pack accumulation and winter soil temperature variability, especially in spring. Effects of elevation and winter conditions on N transformation rates differed from those on potential microbial respiration, suggesting that N-related processes might respond differently to winter climate change in northern hardwood forests than C-related processes.
Increasing evidence suggests that climate change has affected the breeding and distribution of wildlife. If such changes are due to global warming, then we should expect to see large-scale effects. To explore for such effects on avian reproduction, we examined 3450 nest records of tree swallows from across North America. The egg-laying date in tree swallows advanced by up to nine days during 1959-1991. This advance in phenology was associated with increasing surface air temperatures at the time of breeding. Our analysis controlled for several potentially confounding variables such as latitude, longitude, breeding density and elevation. We conclude that tree swallows across North America are breeding earlier and that the most likely cause is a long-term increase in spring temperature.
Claussen, Martin; Bathiany, Sebastian; Brovkin, Victor; Kleinen, Thomas
Palaeo-climate and ecosystem data derived from the sediment record from Lake Yoa (Ounianga Kebir, North-East Tchad) have been interpreted as support for a weak interaction between climate and vegetation without abrupt changes in precipitation climate and vegetation coverage over the last 6000 years. However, interpretation of these data has neglected potential effects of plant diversity on the stability of the climate - vegetation system. Here, we use a conceptual model that represents plant diversity in terms of moisture requirement; some plant types are sensitive to changes in precipitation thereby leading to an unstable system with the possibility of abrupt changes, while other plant types are more resilient with gradual system changes. We demonstrate that plant diversity tends to attenuate the instability of the interaction between climate and sensitive plant types, while it reduces the stability of the interaction between climate and less sensitive plant types. Hence, despite large sensitivities of individual plant types to precipitation, a gradual decline in precipitation and mean vegetation cover can occur. The present study offers a new interpretation for reconstructed shifts in vegetation and climate in northern Africa at the end of the African Humid Period. It focusses on the ecosystems in semi-arid climate, but the principle that plant diversity can affect the stability of climate-vegetation interaction may generally apply.
Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.
As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed
Lucarelli, Jennifer F.; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K.; Drzal, Nicholas B.; Liu, Hui
Background: Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. Methods: Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the…
Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin; Donahue, Kelly; Misbin, Jesse
Adolescents in therapeutic schools are at greater risk for HIV and other STIs than their peers due to earlier higher rates of sexual risk and difficulty managing strong emotions. HIV prevention programs that incorporate techniques for affect management during sexual situations may be beneficial. This paper determined the immediate impact of such an intervention, Affect Management (AM), compared to a standard, skills-based HIV prevention intervention (SB) and a general health promotion intervention (HP) for 377 youth, ages 13 to 19, in therapeutic schools in two cities. One month after the intervention, analyses that adjusted for the baseline scores found adolescents in AM were more likely to report condom use at last sex than those in HP (.89 vs. .67, p=.02) and that their HIV knowledge was significantly greater. These data suggest that affect management techniques might improve the impact of standard skills-based prevention programs for adolescents in therapeutic schools. PMID:23975475
Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C
In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.
We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (
Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.
We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (<10%), largest at the MS (>50%), and intermediate at the YS (<20%). In the young, developing stand, interannual variation in leaf area has larger effects on fluxes than climate, although leaf area is a function of climate in that climate can interact with age-related shifts in carbon allocation and affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance. Older forests, with well-established root systems, appear to be better buffered from effects of seasonal drought and interannual climatic variation. Interannual variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was also lowest at the OS, where NEE is controlled more by interannual variation of ecosystem respiration, 70% of which is from soil, than by the variation of GPP, whereas variation in GPP is the primary reason for interannual changes in NEE at the YS and MS. Across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with high frequency of younger stands resulting from natural and anthropogenic disturbances, interannual climatic variation and change in leaf area are likely to result in large interannual variation in GPP and NEE.
Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesús; Estrada, Alba; Márquez, Ana L.
Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (ρ), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario. PMID:23349726
Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesús; Estrada, Alba; Márquez, Ana L
Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (ρ), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario.
A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement
Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie
Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…
Black, Denise L.
The purpose of this research was to examine middle school science teachers' perceptions of their students' affective behaviors at each level of the affective domain (receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization of value system), perceptions of the usefulness of constructivism as a curricular theory, and constructivist teaching strategies. This study investigated the relationship between affect and constructivism to determine if constructivist strategies can predict levels of affective behavior. Affect is a broad generalization that includes elements (i.e., interests, attitudes, values, emotions, and feelings). The importance of this research relates to enhancing learning, increasing achievement, participatory democracy, and facilitating understanding of science, as well as promoting the development of higher order thinking skills. A nonexperimental, descriptive research design was used to determine the relationship between affect and constructivism. A total of 111 middle school teachers participated in this study. Three instruments were used in this study: Taxonomy of Affective Behavior (TAB), Survey of Science Instruction (SSI), and a short demographic survey. Statistical significance obtained from one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers were aware that the affective domain was a viable construct. Statistical evidence of one-sample t-tests provided evidence that teachers perceived constructivism was useful to teach science to middle school students. Pearson product moment correlations results indicated statistically significant relationships between perceptions of constructivism and associated constructivist teaching strategies. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed a relationship between affect and constructivism. Teacher responses indicated they felt constrained from implementing constructivism due to an emphasis on testing. Colleges of education, curriculum specialists, science teachers, and school districts may
Mechant, E; Pauwels, E; Gobin, B
The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a major pest in potted azalea, Flanders' flagship ornamental crop of Rhododendron simsii hybrids. In addition to severe economic damage, the broad mite is dreaded for its increasing resistance to acaricides. Due to restrictions in the use of broad spectrum acaricides, Belgian azalea growers are left with only three compounds, belonging to two mode of action groups and restricted in their number of applications, for broad mite control: abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin. Although P. latus can be controlled with predatory mites, the high cost of this system makes it (not yet) feasible for integration into standard azalea pest management systems. Hence, a maximum efficacy of treatments with available compounds is essential. Because abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin are contact acaricides with limited trans laminar flow, only broad mites located on shoot tips of azalea plants will be controlled after spraying. Consequently, the efficacy of chemical treatments is influenced by the location and spread of P. latus on the plant. Unfortunately, little is known on broad mites' within-plant spread or how it is affected by climatic conditions like temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, experiments were set up to verify whether climate conditions have an effect on the location and migration of broad mites on azalea. Broad mite infected azalea plants were placed in standard growth chambers under different temperature (T:2.5-25°C) and relative humidity (RH:55-80%) treatments. Within-plant spread was determined by counting mites on the shoot tips and inner leaves of azalea plants. Results indicate that temperature and relative humidity have no significant effect on the within-plant spread of P. latus. To formulate recommendations for optimal spray conditions to maximize the efficacy of broad mite control with acaricides, further experiments on the effect of light intensity and rain are scheduled.
Peña M, Fabiola; Poulin, Elie; Dantas, Gisele P M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Petry, Maria Virginia; Vianna, Juliana A
The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has been suffering an increase in its atmospheric temperature during the last 50 years, mainly associated with global warming. This increment of temperature trend associated with changes in sea-ice dynamics has an impact on organisms, affecting their phenology, physiology and distribution range. For instance, rapid demographic changes in Pygoscelis penguins have been reported over the last 50 years in WAP, resulting in population expansion of sub-Antarctic Gentoo penguin (P. papua) and retreat of Antarctic Adelie penguin (P. adeliae). Current global warming has been mainly associated with human activities; however these climate trends are framed in a historical context of climate changes, particularly during the Pleistocene, characterized by an alternation between glacial and interglacial periods. During the last maximal glacial (LGM∼21,000 BP) the ice sheet cover reached its maximum extension on the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), causing local extinction of Antarctic taxa, migration to lower latitudes and/or survival in glacial refugia. We studied the HRVI of mtDNA and the nuclear intron βfibint7 of 150 individuals of the WAP to understand the demographic history and population structure of P. papua. We found high genetic diversity, reduced population genetic structure and a signature of population expansion estimated around 13,000 BP, much before the first paleocolony fossil records (∼1,100 BP). Our results suggest that the species may have survived in peri-Antarctic refugia such as South Georgia and North Sandwich islands and recolonized the Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetland Islands after the ice sheet retreat.
Bunzel, Felix; Notz, Dirk; Baehr, Johanna; Müller, Wolfgang; Fröhlich, Kristina
We examine how the choice of a particular satellite-retrieved sea-ice concentration dataset used for initialising seasonal climate forecasts impacts the prediction skill of Arctic sea-ice area and Northern hemispheric 2-meter air temperatures. To do so, we performed two assimilation runs with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) from 1979 to 2012, where atmospheric and oceanic parameters as well as sea-ice concentration were assimilated using Newtonian relaxation. The two assimilation runs differ only in the sea-ice concentration dataset used for assimilating sea ice. In the first run, we use sea-ice concentrations as derived by the NASA-Team algorithm, while in the second run we use sea-ice concentrations as derived from the Bootstrap algorithm. A major difference between these two sea-ice concentration data products involves the treatment of melt ponds. While for both products melt ponds appear as open water in the raw satellite data, the Bootstrap algorithm more strongly attempts to offset this systematic bias by synthetically increasing the retrieved ice concentration during summer months. For each year of the two assimilation runs we performed a 10-member ensemble of hindcast experiments starting on 1 May and 1 November with a hindcast length of 6 months. For hindcasts started in November, initial differences in Arctic sea-ice area and surface temperature decrease rapidly throughout the freezing period. For hindcasts started in May, initial sea-ice area differences increase over time. By the end of the melting period, this causes significant differences in 2-meter air temperature of regionally more than 3°C. Hindcast skill for surface temperatures over Europe and North America is higher with Bootstrap initialization during summer and with NASA Team initialisation during winter. This implies that the choice of the sea-ice data product and, thus, the observational uncertainty also affects forecasts of teleconnections that depend on Northern
Aubret, F; Shine, R
Climate change will result in some areas becoming warmer and others cooler, and will amplify the magnitude of year-to-year thermal variation in many areas. How will such changes affect animals that rely on ambient thermal heterogeneity to behaviourally regulate their body temperatures? To explore this question, we raised 43 captive-born tiger snakes Notechis scutatus in enclosures that provided cold (19-22 degrees C), intermediate (19-26 degrees C) or hot (19-37 degrees C) thermal gradients. The snakes adjusted their diel timing of thermoregulatory behaviour so effectively that when tested 14 months later, body temperatures (mean and maximum), locomotor speeds and anti-predator behaviours did not differ among treatment groups. Thus, the young snakes modified their behaviour to compensate for restricted thermal opportunities. Then, we suddenly shifted ambient conditions to mimic year-to-year variation. In contrast to the earlier plasticity, snakes failed to adjust to this change, e.g. snakes raised at cooler treatments but then shifted to hot conditions showed a higher mean body temperature for at least two months after the onset of the new thermal regime. Hence, thermal conditions experienced early in life influenced subsequent thermoregulatory tactics; the mean selected temperature of a snake depended more upon its prior raising conditions than upon its current thermoregulatory opportunities. Behavioural plasticity thus allows snakes to adjust to suboptimal thermal conditions but this plasticity is limited. The major thermoregulatory challenge from global climate change may not be the shift in mean values (to which our young snakes adjusted) but the increased year-to-year variation (with which our snakes proved less able to deal).
The National Center for Science Education (NCSE), which has long been in the lead in defending the teaching of evolution in public schools, has expanded its core mission to include defending climate science, the organization announced in January. “We consider climate change a critical issue in our own mission to protect the integrity of science education,” said NSCE executive director Eugenie Scott. “Climate affects everyone, and the decisions we make today will affect generations to come. We need to teach kids now about the realities of global warming and climate change so that they're prepared to make informed, intelligent decisions in the future.”
Genco, Stephen H.
Educators must take a critical look at all factors that may affect student outcomes. The No Child Left Behind Legislation (NCLB) was proposed to help ensure that all students have fair and equal access to educational programming. It is important for secondary school educators to be aware of environmental factors that may inhibit student success.…
Walloff, Alyssa M.
The purpose of this study was to research teacher and student perceptions of the impact of an advisory program at a large, suburban high school. The advisory program on which this study focused was created in August 2004. Kottler and Kottler (1998) note "it is through your relationships with students that you affect and influence them most…
McGuire, Jenifer K.; Anderson, Charles R.; Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.
Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260,…
Beyers, Francine Simmons; Houston, Ronald L.
This report provides information on the conduct of students in Delaware public schools during the 1999-2000 school year. The focus of the analysis is on reported incidence of serious student conduct offenses as defined by Delaware Code or as defined by Delaware State Board of Education regulations and reported incidence of student suspensions and…
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011
Most policy makers and administrators know that by itself good instruction delivered by highly qualified teachers is not enough to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Schools continue to suffer from high dropout rates of students and staff, an achievement gap that resists closure, a high incidence of schools…
Henry, Jean; McNab, Warren; Coker, J. Kelly
Youth today face many health, educational, and social challenges not experienced at such epidemic levels by previous generations of young people. By providing collaborative, comprehensive services that address student needs and promote learning and healthy development, a coordinated school health team can help students succeed in school, as well…
Madjar, Nir; Cohen-Malayev, Maya
The implications of the transition from elementary to middle school are of major concern for educators and researchers worldwide. Previous studies have yielded ambiguous findings; some have indicated negative outcomes of school transition, whereas others have demonstrated null or even positive effects. The aim of the current research was to…
Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.
The New York City Department of Education's (DOE) annual survey of parents, students, and teachers is the largest of its kind in the United States. The DOE relies on the survey to identify schools' strengths and to target areas for improvement. School Survey scores, along with attendance, are also the only non-academic indicators used in the DOE's…
Fox, Jon David
Teachers and administrators are faced with managing the behaviors of students while preparing for the high stakes testing associated with the No Child Left Behind Act. One program that has demonstrated positive results at the elementary and middle school level is the school-wide positive behavior support model (SWPBS). Limited research is…
Terry, Troy M.
Recent news in the national media about two students' deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need in…
Mbogo, Rosemary Wahu
This paper reports the findings of a Master's level thesis work that was done in 1997 to assess the antecedent factors affecting the academic performance of graduate students at the Nairobi Evangelical School of Theology (N.E.G.S.T.), which is currently Africa International University (AIU). The paper reviews the effect of lack of finance on…
Manullang, Martua; Rajagukguk, Waminton
Some Factor's That Affecting The Mathematic Teacher Performance For Junior High School In Medan. This research will examine the effect of direct and indirect of the Organizational Knowledge towards the achievement motivation, decision making, organizational commitment, the performance of mathematics teacher. The research method is a method of…
Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.
This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…
Ho, Kwok Keung
This paper attempts to argue that school relocation deserves more serious attention than it has usually been given, and it affects the people as well as the education of the children as much as any other changes in education. It also seeks to unravel the theoretical and practical reasons, which influence the location and relocation of a…
British schools have been positioned by recent educational policy discourses as sites of innovation and transformation in new technological contexts, but more recent concerns about well-being suggest a more "affective turn" in educational policy-making. This article provides an analysis of a project which has explored the ways in which…
Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.
Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…
While the challenge to retain highly competent teachers affects all schools, the crisis is critical in urban districts, which historically suffer from high teacher turnover (Ingersoll, 2004). This high turnover is especially problematic in the content areas of science (Ingersoll & Perda, 2010). Through ethnographic case studies the first year…
This essay explores how viewing a single Theatre for Young Audiences production might affect the attitudes, values, and/or beliefs of adolescent spectators. Data is drawn from a mixed-methods case study performed with middle school students who viewed a professional performance for young people, and is considered through the lens of cognitive…
Powers, Harry L.
Spurred by the "Challenger" space shuttle tragedy, this article provides principals with guidelines for informing individual students about family deaths and dealing with grief affecting the entire school community. Thorough preparation can reduce intensity and misconceived actions associated with grief and demonstrate administrative leadership.…
Kurt, Johnny T.
The purpose of this pretest-posttest comparative efficacy study was to analyze factors affecting literacy achievement of eighth grade middle school instrumental music students (n = 38) including (a) socioeconomic status (SES), (b) gender, (c) grade point average (GPA), (d) music motivation, (e) music involvement, and (f) instrument section. The…
Wanjala, Martin M. S.; Aurah, Catherine M.; Symon, Koros C.
The paper reports findings of a study which sought to examine the pedagogical factors that affect the integration of computers in mathematics instruction as perceived by teachers in secondary schools in Kenya. This study was based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A descriptive survey design was used for this study. Stratified and simple…
Crane, Dushka A.; Tisak, Marie S.
Examined whether amount of experience in day care affects children's ability to distinguish moral rules from conventional school-based and home-based rules. Preschoolers were questioned about legitimacy of authority of abolishing a rule and their rating of behaviors permitted and prohibited by an authority. Results revealed that previous day-care…
Ricke, K.; Rowlands, D. J.; Ingram, W.; Keith, D.; Morgan, M. G.
If implementation of proposals to engineer the climate through solar radiation management (SRM) ever occurs, it is likely to be contingent upon climate sensitivity. Despite this, no modeling studies have examined how the effectiveness of SRM forcings differs between the typical Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) with climate sensitivities close to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) mean and ones with high climate sensitivities. Here, we use a perturbed physics ensemble modeling experiment to examine variations in the response of climate to SRM under different climate sensitivities. When SRM is used as a substitute for mitigation its ability to maintain the current climate state gets worse with increased climate sensitivity and with increased concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, our results also demonstrate that the potential of SRM to slow climate change, even at the regional level, grows with climate sensitivity. On average, SRM reduces regional rates of temperature change by more than 90 percent and rates of precipitation change by more than 50 percent in these higher sensitivity model configurations. To investigate how SRM might behave in models with high climate sensitivity that are also consistent with recent observed climate change we perform a "perturbed physics" ensemble (PPE) modelling experiment with the climateprediction.net (cpdn) version of the HadCM3L AOGCM. Like other perturbed physics climate modelling experiments, we simulate past and future climate scenarios using a wide range of model parameter combinations that both reproduce past climate within a specified level of accuracy and simulate future climates with a wide range of climate sensitivities. We chose 43 members ("model versions") from a subset of the 1,550 from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) climateprediction.net project that have data that allow restarts. We use our results to explore how much assessments of SRM that use best
Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.
Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high school students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based climate curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of climate literacy and develop into climate literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and Climate, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about climate and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and climate occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.
A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of the toolkit, first, a survey was performed to identify high performance measures available today being implemented in new K-5 school buildings. Then an existing case-study school building in a hot and humid climate was selected and analyzed to understand the energy use pattern in a school building and to be used in developing a calibrated simulation. Based on the information from the previous step, an as-built and calibrated simulation was then developed. To accomplish this, five calibration steps were performed to match the simulation results with the measured energy use. The five steps include: (1) Using an actual 2006 weather file with measured solar radiation, (2) Modifying lighting & equipment schedule using ASHRAE's RP-1093 methods, (3) Using actual equipment performance curves (i.e., scroll chiller), (4) Using the Winkelmann's method for the underground floor heat transfer, and (5) Modifying the HVAC and room setpoint temperature based on the measured field data. Next, the calibrated simulation of the case-study K-5 school was compared to an ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. In the next step, the energy savings potentials from the application of several high performance measures to an equivalent ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. The high performance measures applied included the recommendations from the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) for K-12 and other high performance measures from the literature review as well as a daylighting strategy and solar PV and thermal systems. The results show that the net
Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui
School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency.
Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96…
Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012
In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…
Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.
Although school climate has long been recognized as an important factor in the school improvement process, there are few psychometrically supported measures based on teacher perspectives. The current study replicated and extended the factor structure, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability of the teacher version of the Authoritative…
Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.
K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training
Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip
This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the 10th grade; girls were more inclined to stereotype than boys while this gender difference decreased with increasing grade; (2) girls tend to have an implicit science-unpleasant/humanities-pleasant association from the 8th grade, while boys showed a negative implicit attitude towards science up to the 11th grade. In self-report, girls preferred humanities to science, while boys preferred science to humanities; (3) implicit affective attitude was closely related to implicit stereotype. In particular, implicit affective attitude has a stronger predictive power on stereotype than the other way around, the result of which may have more significance for girls.
Southcombe, Amie; Fulop, Liz; Carter, Geoff; Cavanagh, Jillian
The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between learning climate congruence and the affective commitment of university academics. The strategy of inquiry for this research is quantitative, involving a non-experimental design for the survey research. A non-probability sample of 900 academics from a large Australian university was…
Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami
Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…
Román, Diego; Busch, K. C.
Middle school students are learning about climate change in large part through textbooks used in their classes. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the language employed in these materials frames this topic. To this end, we used systemic functional analysis to study the language of the chapters related to climate change in four sixth grade…
Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin
Background and purpose This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from scientists about the global carbon cycle. This study focuses in particular on differences between male and female students, as female students normally like traditional school science less than male students. Sample and design Data, drawn from 1370 students from 60 secondary schools across Europe, were collected through questionnaires taken at the end of the projects. The evaluated aspects were: organization; enjoyment; difficulty; and impact of the projects. Results The findings suggest that authentic science education is appreciated very much by both male students and even more by female students. The projects had positive impacts on climate change ideas, in particular for female students. Female students felt that they had learned many new things more often than male students. Conclusions Both male and female students have positive opinions about the authentic science projects. The results further point to positive effects of activities in which students have an active role, like hands-on experiments or presentation of results. The findings are placed in the international context of science education and their implications for policy are discussed.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Low, Sabina K; Jimerson, Shane R
Existing scholarship suggests that classroom practices, teacher attitudes, and the broader school environment play a critical role in understanding the rates of student reports of aggression, bullying, and victimization as well as correlated behaviors. A more accurate understanding of the nature, origins, maintenance, and prevalence of bullying and other aggressive behavior requires consideration of the broader social ecology of the school community. However, studies to date have predominantly been cross-sectional in nature, or have failed to reflect the social-ecological framework in their measurement or analytic approach. Thus, there have been limited efforts to parse out the relative contribution of student, classroom, and organizational-level factors. This special topic section emphasizes a departure from a focus on student attitudes and behaviors, to a social-contextual approach that appreciates how much features of the school environment can mitigate or perpetuate aggression. This collection of articles reflects innovative and rigorous approaches to further our understanding of climate, and has implications for theory, measurement, prevention, and practice. These studies highlight the influence of school climate on mental health, academic achievement, and problem behavior, and will hopefully stimulate interest in and further scholarship on this important topic.
Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as well as HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. It was hypothesized that STAR would lead to a decrease in sexual risk and improved HIV knowledge and attitudes. Method Fourteen schools were randomly assigned by year either to the STAR intervention or a brief educational program. Schools received the alternate intervention the following year. 185 adolescents in 29 cohorts (groups) participated in the interventions. Assessment of sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes with audio computer-assisted self-interviews occurred at three, six and nine months post intervention. Results Hierarchical Linear Model (HLM) analyses found that adolescents in the STAR intervention reported a significantly greater decrease (p < .05) in the Sexual Risk Index than youth in the control group over the six months post intervention and similar improvements in the HIV Knowledge Scale and the Condom Use Self Efficacy Scale. There were no group differences between six and nine months post intervention. Conclusions This STAR intervention for youth in alternative schools was associated with decreased sexual risk for six months after the intervention. These data suggest that intervention strategies that target cognitions and affect within a sexual context might be usefully applied to improving sexual behavior but may need to be reinforced over time. PMID:21961780
Thomas, Melanie; Wara, Diane; Saxton, Katherine; Truskier, Mary; Chesney, Margaret; Boyce, W. Thomas
Objective To explore whether primary school entry is associated with changes in immune system parameters in HIV-affected children. HIV-affected children are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors, regardless of their own HIV serological status. Methods Data from 38 HIV+ and 29 HIV− children born to seropositive women were obtained before and after school entry. Measures included family adversity questionnaires, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity (based on mean arterial responses to challenge tasks), and enumerative and functional changes in peripheral blood immune parameters. Results In comparison to children who were HIV−, children who were HIV+ at baseline had fewer CD4+ T lymphocytes (M = 916 vs. 1206 cells/mm3 × 103; F = 7.8, p = .007), more CD8+ cells (M = 1046 vs. 720 cells/mm3 ×103; F = 7.98, p = .006), and diminished NK cell cytotoxicity (M =−.29 vs. .41; F = 8.87, p = .004). School entry was associated with changes in immune parameters, but HIV status was not associated with the magnitude of changes. Changes in immune parameters following school entry were associated with family stress and pre school entry ANS reactivity. Highly ANS reactive children had either the greatest increase in CD8+ cells following school entry or the greatest decrease, depending upon reported levels of family adversity (B = 215.35; t = 3.74, p < .001). Changes in functional immune assays were significantly associated with the interactions between HIV status and ANS reactivity. Conclusions These results suggest that autonomic reactivity is associated with increased immunological sensitivity to adverse or challenging social contexts among children affected by HIV. PMID:23766380
Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Kathyrn L
The Climate Schools: Ecstasy module is a universal harm-minimisation school-based prevention program for adolescents aged 14 to 16 years. The program was developed to address the need for Ecstasy prevention given the increasing use of Ecstasy use among young Australians. The core content of the program is delivered over the Internet using cartoon storylines to engage students, and the teacher-driven activities reinforce the core information. The three-lesson program is embedded within the school health curriculum and is easy to implement with minimal teacher training required. The program was developed in 2010 through extensive collaboration with students (n = 8), teachers (n = 10) and health professionals (n = 10) in Sydney, Australia. This article describes the formative research and process of planning that formed the development of the program and the evidence base underpinning the approach.
Schachner, Maja K; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Eckstein, Katharina
The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural pluralism. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on 386 early adolescent immigrant students (Mage = 10.49 years) in 44 ethnically heterogeneous classrooms in Germany revealed that the manifestations of both types of policies promote psychological school adjustment (i.e., better well-being and fewer psychological and behavioral problems) at the individual level. However, they differ in their effects on acculturation orientations. At the classroom level, equality and inclusion promote assimilation. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.
Lowenstein, Amy E; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H; Raver, C Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M; Pess, Rachel A
In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children's language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children's poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children's higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children's academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children's academic skills during the transition to kindergarten.
Smith, Erica; Green, Annette
This report describes and analyses how the work activities undertaken by students while at school affect their post-school pathways into and between work and study. Increasingly, students are involved with workplaces while still at school. The three major ways in which this is happening (in order of extent of engagement) are through work…
Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana
Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p < 0.001). Self-report comparisons revealed that relative to controls, the training group showed significant decreases in negative affect at follow-up, with a large effect size (p = 0.010, d = 0.84). Teacher reports (but not parental ratings) of meta-cognition also showed significant improvements at follow-up with a large effect size (p = 0.002, d = 1.08). Additionally, significant negative correlations were found between changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145