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Sample records for affect serum cholesterol

  1. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  2. Serum cholesterol in cerebral malignancies.

    PubMed

    Grieb, P; Ryba, M S; Jagielski, J; Gackowski, W; Paczkowski, P; Chrapusta, S J

    1999-01-01

    Reduced blood cholesterol levels were reported in patients with a variety of malignant peripheral tumors. This fact is likely related to increased cholesterol demand by proliferating tumor cells. The question arises whether this 'tumor-associated hypocholesterolemia' occurs also in patients with brain tumors, and--if it does not--whether its absence can be related to the location of the tumors. We have compared fasting serum total cholesterol levels among three groups of patients: 52 patients with gliomas, 56 patients with symptomatic metastatic brain tumors, and 50 patients harboring malignant tumors of peripheral location but showing no clinical signs of brain metastases. Patients in the last group, despite being--on an average--more age-advanced, had lower total serum cholesterol levels than either the patients with gliomas, or the patients with brain metastases. No difference in the cholesterol levels was found between the two latter groups, and a majority of these patients had borderline or elevated cholesterol levels. This apparent absence of 'tumor-associated hypocholesterolemia' in brain tumor patients may be related to either brain tumors' ability to synthesize cholesterol de novo and their reduced dependence on peripheral cholesterol supply, the existence of brain tumor-blood barrier, effect of medications used to counteract brain edema and seizures, or a combination of these factors.

  3. Removal of the uropygial gland does not affect serum lipids, cholesterol and calcium levels in the rock pigeon Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Montalti, D; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, G R; Salibián, A

    2006-09-01

    The uropygial gland is an organ typical of birds, over which no agreement regarding its function has been attained yet. Authors attribute to the gland an hydrophobic action. The function of the gland is herein explored in rock pigeon, Columba livia, was used as experimental model for trials. The study was focused on the physiological role of the gland in relation to biochemical parameters. Pigeons were separated in groups of six birds each: a) intact control, b) surgical control, c) ablationed. Comparing control specimens with gland-removed specimens, recorded serum levels after 32 days were the following (mean+/-SD): cholesterol (g/l), 3.7+/-0.6 vs. 4.1+/-0.6; total lipids (g/l), 15.7+/-2.0 vs. 13.7+/-2.7; calcium (mg/l), 100.5 +/- 24.3 vs. 99.1 +/- 9.2. None of the differences were statistically significant. Thus, no alterations of basic biochemical parameters associated with metabolism of lipids were registered. In one group of birds the calcium and cholesterol levels were determined 122 days after surgery; in this case values remained unchanged related to the beginning of the trials. Results suggest that the uropygial gland is not physiologically related to either the homeostasis of total lipids, cholesterol or the regulation of calcium metabolism.

  4. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  5. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  6. Cellular cholesterol efflux and cholesterol loading capacity of serum: effects of LDL-apheresis[S

    PubMed Central

    Adorni, M. P.; Zimetti, F.; Puntoni, M.; Bigazzi, F.; Sbrana, F.; Minichilli, F.; Bernini, F.; Ronda, N.; Favari, E.; Sampietro, T.

    2012-01-01

    High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) characterizes familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH). LDL-apheresis, used in these patients to reduce LDL-C levels, has been shown to also affect HDL levels and composition. We studied LDL-apheresis effects on six FH and nine FCH subjects’ serum capacity to modulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an index of HDL functionality, and to load macrophages with cholesterol. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and macrophage cholesterol loading capacity (CLC) were measured before, immediately after, and two days after LDL-apheresis. The procedure reduced total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and apoB plasma levels (−69%, −80% and −74%, respectively), parameters only partially restored two days later. HDL-C and apoA-I plasma levels, reduced after LDL-apheresis (−27% and −16%, respectively), were restored to almost normal levels two days later. LDL-apheresis reduced serum aqueous diffusion (AD) CEC, SR-BI-CEC, and ABCA1-CEC. AD and SR-BI were fully restored whereas ABCA1-CEC remained low two days later. Sera immediately and two days after LDL-apheresis had a lower CLC than pre-LDL-apheresis sera. In conclusion, LDL-apheresis transiently reduces HDL-C levels and serum CEC, but it also reduces also serum capacity to deliver cholesterol to macrophages. Despite a potentially negative effect on HDL levels and composition, LDL-apheresis may counteract foam cells formation. PMID:22414482

  7. Serum cholesterol in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Samanta, B B

    1998-05-01

    Hypercholes erolaemia is a modifiable risk factor in atherosclerosis. Women lose their relative protection against coronory heart disease at menopause because of changed lipid profile due to oestrogen deficiency. Total serum cholesterol was estimated in 82 healthy postmenopausal women in the age group of 46-72 years (51.5 +/- 7.39). Thirty five healthy pre-menopausal women in the age group of 18-38 years (29.5 +/- 6.4) served as controls. The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group compared to control group (178.5 +/- 39.8 Vs 155.4 +/- 24 mg/dl; P < 0.01). Serum cholesterol concentration in the study group was not related to social class, dietary habit and obesity.

  8. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  9. CHOLESTEROL UPTAKE IN THE SERUM OF NORMAL AND HOSPITALIZED INDIVIDUALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cardiovascular disease . All sera dissolved additional cholesterol. Sera from the hospitalized group dissolved at least as much additional cholesterol as did sera from the normal group. This finding suggests that in atherosclerosis the reserve cholesterol transport capacity is not diminished. This statement, however, must be accepted within the limitations of the method and the unknown effects of therapeutic regimens. The amount of additional cholesterol dissolved by a sample of serum is not correlated with the original concentration of cholesterol in the serum.

  10. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    PubMed

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    The efficacy and safety of plant stanols added to food products as serum cholesterol lowering agents have been demonstrated convincingly, but their effects on cholesterol metabolism and on serum non-cholesterol sterols is less evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of serum non-cholesterol sterols and squalene as bioindices of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and to examine how the individual serum non-cholesterol sterols respond to consumption of plant stanols. We collected all randomized, controlled plant stanol ester (STAEST) interventions in which serum cholestanol, plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol, and at least two serum cholesterol precursors had been analysed. According to these criteria, there was a total of 13 studies (total 868 subjects without lipid-lowering medication; plant stanol doses varied from 0.8 to 8.8 g/d added in esterified form; the duration of the studies varied from 4 to 52 weeks). Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas-liquid chromatography, cholesterol synthesis with the sterol balance technique, and fractional cholesterol absorption with the dual continuous isotope feeding method. The results demonstrated that during the control and the STAEST periods, the serum plant sterol/cholesterol- and the cholestanol/cholesterol-ratios reflected fractional cholesterol absorption, and the precursor sterol/cholesterol-ratios reflected cholesterol synthesis. Plant sterol levels were dose-dependently reduced by STAEST so that 2 g of plant stanols reduced serum campesterol/cholesterol-ratio on average by 32%. Serum cholestanol/cholesterol-ratio was reduced less frequently than those of the plant sterols by STAEST, and the cholesterol precursor sterol ratios did not change consistently in the individual studies emphasizing the importance of monitoring more than one surrogate serum marker. Serum non-cholesterol sterols are valid markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis even during cholesterol

  11. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The efficacy and safety of plant stanols added to food products as serum cholesterol lowering agents have been demonstrated convincingly, but their effects on cholesterol metabolism and on serum non-cholesterol sterols is less evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of serum non-cholesterol sterols and squalene as bioindices of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and to examine how the individual serum non-cholesterol sterols respond to consumption of plant stanols. Methods We collected all randomized, controlled plant stanol ester (STAEST) interventions in which serum cholestanol, plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol, and at least two serum cholesterol precursors had been analysed. According to these criteria, there was a total of 13 studies (total 868 subjects without lipid-lowering medication; plant stanol doses varied from 0.8 to 8.8 g/d added in esterified form; the duration of the studies varied from 4 to 52 weeks). Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas–liquid chromatography, cholesterol synthesis with the sterol balance technique, and fractional cholesterol absorption with the dual continuous isotope feeding method. Results The results demonstrated that during the control and the STAEST periods, the serum plant sterol/cholesterol- and the cholestanol/cholesterol-ratios reflected fractional cholesterol absorption, and the precursor sterol/cholesterol-ratios reflected cholesterol synthesis. Plant sterol levels were dose-dependently reduced by STAEST so that 2 g of plant stanols reduced serum campesterol/cholesterol-ratio on average by 32%. Serum cholestanol/cholesterol-ratio was reduced less frequently than those of the plant sterols by STAEST, and the cholesterol precursor sterol ratios did not change consistently in the individual studies emphasizing the importance of monitoring more than one surrogate serum marker. Conclusions Serum non-cholesterol sterols are valid markers of cholesterol absorption

  12. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S

    2016-05-01

    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C.

  13. Sericin reduces serum cholesterol in rats and cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Limpeanchob, Nanteetip; Trisat, Kanittaporn; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Tiyaboonchai, Waree; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Sutheerawattananonda, Manote

    2010-12-08

    A cholesterol lowering effect of sericin was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Rats were dosed with cholesterol with and without sericin for 14 days. Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total serum cholesterols were reduced in rats fed high-cholesterol diet with all three tested doses of sericin (10, 100, and 1000 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). The potential mechanism of actions was determined by measuring the uptake of radiolabeled cholesterol into differentiated Caco-2 cells and cholesterol solubility in mixed lipid micelles. Concentration of sericin as low as 25 and 50 μg/mL inhibited 30% of cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells whereas no effect was found at higher concentration. Cholesterol micellar solubility was reduced in the presence of sericin. This study suggests the cholesterol lowering effect of sericin results from its inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestinal cells and its reduction of cholesterol solubility in lipid micelles.

  14. Combined effects of saturated fat and cholesterol intakes on serum lipids: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Ramezankhani, Azra; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the combined effect of saturated fat and cholesterol intake on serum lipids among Tehranian adults. In 443 subjects >or=18 y, dietary intake was assessed. Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were calculated. Cholesterol intakes >or=300 mg/d and saturated fat intakes >or=7% of total energy were defined as high intakes. Individuals were categorized into four groups based on cholesterol and saturated fat intakes. Subjects' mean age was 40.1 +/- 14.6 y; those in whom cholesterol and saturated fat intake was normal had significantly less energy and fat intake than those with high cholesterol and saturated fat intakes (P < 0.01). Saturated fat intake had a significant effect on serum total and HDL-C levels. Subjects with a normal saturated fat intake had significantly less serum total and HDL-C than those who had high saturated fat intake (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, the main effect of cholesterol intake on HDL-C was significant (P = 0.05). Mean serum HDL-C was lower in subjects who had normal cholesterol intake than in those with high cholesterol intake. These results show that cholesterol and saturated fat intakes have no combined effect on serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, whereas cholesterol intake per se affects serum HDL-C level.

  15. Intake occasion affects the serum cholesterol lowering of a plant sterol-enriched single-dose yoghurt drink in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, A M E; Meynen, E M; Duchateau, G S M J E; van der Knaap, H C M; Trautwein, E A

    2006-03-01

    To determine the impact of intake occasion (with or without a meal), and product fat level on the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a plant sterol (PS)-enriched (3 g/day) single-dose yoghurt drink. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study with a 4 weeks run-in and 4 weeks intervention period. Subjects recruited from the general community. A total of 184 moderate hypercholesterolaemic subjects (81 men and 103 women) (age 57+/-2 years) completed the study. The study product was a 100-g single-dose yoghurt drink with or without added PS in the form of PS esters. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five 4-week treatments: (i) drink A (0.1% dairy fat, 2.2% total fat) with a meal, (ii) drink A without a meal, (iii) drink B (1.5% dairy fat, 3.3% total fat) with a meal, (iv) drink B without a meal and (v) placebo drink with a meal. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly lowered when the single-dose drink was taken with a meal independent of its fat content (drink A: -9.5% (P<0.001, 95% CI: -13.8 to -5.2); drink B: -9.3% (P<0.001, 95% CI: -13.7 to -4.9)) as compared to placebo. When consumed without a meal, LDL-C was also significantly decreased (drink A: -5.1% (P<0.05, 95% CI: -9.4 to -0.8); drink B: -6.9% (P<0.01, 95% CI: -11.3 to -2.5) as compared to placebo, however the effect was significantly smaller as compared to the intake with a meal. These results indicate that a PS-ester-enriched single-dose yoghurt drink effectively reduces LDL-C irrespective of the fat content of the product. A substantially larger decrease in serum cholesterol concentration was achieved when the single-dose drink was consumed with a meal emphasizing the importance of the intake occasion for optimal cholesterol-lowering efficacy. Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.

  16. Fish protein decreases serum cholesterol in rats by inhibition of cholesterol and bile acid absorption.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2011-05-01

    Fish protein has been shown to decrease serum cholesterol content by inhibiting absorption of cholesterol and bile acid in laboratory animals, though the mechanism underlying this effect is not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of cholesterol and bile acid absorption following fish protein intake. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 dietary groups of 7 rats each, 1 group receiving a diet consisting of 20% casein and the other receiving a diet consisting of 10% casein and 10% fish protein. Both experimental diets also contained 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. After the rats had been on their respective diets for 4 wk, their serum and liver cholesterol contents and fecal cholesterol, bile acid, and nitrogen excretion contents were measured. Fish protein consumption decreased serum and liver cholesterol content and increased fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion and simultaneously increased fecal nitrogen excretion. In addition, fish protein hydrolyzate prepared by in vitro digestion had lower micellar solubility of cholesterol and higher binding capacity for bile acids compared with casein hydrolyzate. These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic effect of fish protein is mediated by increased fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion, which is due to the digestion products of fish protein having reduced micellar solubility of cholesterol and increased bile acid binding capacity.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis growth depends on eukaryotic cholesterol esterification and is affected by Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jan; Byrne, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is auxotrophic for a variety of essential metabolites. Inhibitors that interrupt host cell catabolism may inhibit chlamydial growth and reveal Chlamydia metabolite requirements. We used the known indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-inhibitor 4-phenyl imidazole (4-PI) to reverse Interferon (IFN)-γ-induced chlamydial growth inhibition. However, at elevated inhibitor concentrations chlamydial growth was arrested even in the absence of IFN-γ. Since 4-PI is known to interfere with cholesterol metabolism, the effect of cholesterol add-back was tested. Chlamydia growth was restored in the presence of cholesterol in serum-containing, but not serum-free medium suggesting that cholesterol and other serum components are required for growth recovery. When serum factors were tested, either cholesteryl linoleate or the combination of cholesterol and linoleic acid restored chlamydial growth. However, growth was not restored when either cholesterol or linoleic acid were added alone, suggesting that the production of cholesteryl esters from cholesterol and fatty acids was affected by 4-PI treatment. In eukaryotic cells, the enzyme Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the production of cholesteryl esters. When HeLa cells were treated with the ACAT-specific inhibitor 4-hydroxycinnamicacid amide C. trachomatis growth was interrupted, but was restored by the addition of cholesteryl linoleate, suggesting that ACAT activity is necessary for intracellular Chlamydia growth. PMID:25883118

  18. Overactivation of Intestinal SREBP2 in Mice Increases Serum Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Vinay; Hedroug, Omar; Annaba, Fadi; Dudeja, Amish; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R.; Khramtsova, Ekaterina A.; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2) driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein) were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body. PMID:24465397

  19. Serum cholesterol acceptor capacity in intrauterine growth restricted fetuses.

    PubMed

    Pecks, Ulrich; Rath, Werner; Bauerschlag, Dirk O; Maass, Nicolai; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Mohaupt, Markus G; Escher, Geneviève

    2017-02-14

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms whereby slowed intrauterine growth confers vascular risk are not clearly established. In general, a disturbed cholesterol efflux has been linked to atherosclerosis. The capacity of serum to accept cholesterol has been repeatedly evaluated in clinical studies by the use of macrophage-based cholesterol efflux assays and, if disturbed, precedes atherosclerotic diseases years before the clinical diagnosis. We now hypothesized that circulating cholesterol acceptors in IUGR sera specifically interfere with cholesterol transport mechanisms leading to diminished cholesterol efflux. RAW264.7 cells were used to determine efflux of [3H]-cholesterol in response to [umbilical cord serum (IUGR), n=20; controls (CTRL), n=20]. Cholesterol efflux was lower in IUGR as compared to controls [controls: mean 7.7% fractional [3H]-cholesterol efflux, standard deviation (SD)=0.98; IUGR: mean 6.3%, SD=0.79; P<0.0001]. Values strongly correlated to HDL (ρ=0.655, P<0.0001) and apoE (ρ=0.510, P=0.0008), and mildly to apoA1 (ρ=0.3926, P=0.0122) concentrations. Reduced cholesterol efflux in IUGR could account for the enhanced risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life.

  20. Elevated serum squalene and cholesterol synthesis markers in pregnant obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus1

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Helena E.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Gylling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    We examined serum cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and their association with neonatal birth weight in obese pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI >30 kg/m2) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland. GDM was determined from the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum samples were collected at six time-points, one in each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Analysis of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols by gas-liquid chromatography revealed that in subjects with GDM (n = 22), the serum Δ8-cholestenol concentration and lathosterol/sitosterol ratio were higher (P < 0.05) than in the controls (n = 30) in the first trimester, reflecting increased cholesterol synthesis. Also, subjects with GDM had an increased ratio of squalene to cholesterol (100 × μmol/mmol of cholesterol) in the second (11.5 ± 0.5 vs. 9.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.01) and third (12.1 ± 0.8 vs. 10.0 ± 0.7, P < 0.05) trimester. In GDM, the second trimester maternal serum squalene concentration correlated with neonatal birth weight (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). In conclusion, in obesity, GDM associated with elevated serum markers of cholesterol synthesis. Correlation of maternal serum squalene with neonatal birth weight suggests a potential contribution of maternal cholesterol synthesis to newborn weight in GDM. PMID:25301963

  1. Fluorometric enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Kauan, J W; Guilbault, G G

    1975-10-01

    We describe a fluorometric enzymatic method for determining total serum cholesterol, based on hydrolysis of cholesterol esters to free cholesterol by cholesterol ester hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.13). The free cholesterol formed, as well as that initially present, is then oxidized by cholesterol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.6) to cholest-4-en-3-one with simultaneous production of hydrogen peroxide. The latter catalytically oxidizes homovanillic acid in the presence of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) to form the highly fluorescent 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-biphenyl-5,5'-diacetic acid. A calibration curve is constructed from data on a series of standard cholesterol solutions vs. the corresponding fluorescence change (deltaf/5 min). This curve is linear up to 4.0 g of total serum cholesterol per liter of serum. The method is specific, precise, accurate, rapid, and simple, and results correlate well with those obtained by both the Liebermann-Burchard procedure and the colorimetric enzymatic method (correlation coefficients, 0.984 and 0.981, respectively).

  2. Relationship between serum cholesterol and indices of erythrocytes and platelets in the US population[S

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.; Rose, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanmei; Jaramillo, Renee; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas dyslipidemia has been associated with leukocytosis, the relationship between serum cholesterol and other hematopoietic lineages is poorly defined. Erythrocytes and platelets, anucleate cells relegated to nonspecific diffusional exchange of cholesterol with serum, have been proposed to have a distinct relationship to cholesterol from leukocytes. We examined the relationship between serum cholesterol and circulating erythrocyte/platelet indices in 4,469 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006. In linear regression analyses, serum non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was positively associated with mean erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and platelet crit independently of age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, serum folate, and C-reactive protein. The magnitude of the relationship was most marked for platelets, with lowest versus highest non-HDL-C quartile subjects having geometric mean platelet counts of 258,000/μl versus 281,000/μl, respectively (adjusted model, P < 0.001 for trend). These associations persisted in a sensitivity analysis excluding several conditions that affect erythrocyte/platelet and/or serum cholesterol levels, and were also noted in an independent analysis of 5,318 participants from NHANES 2007–2008. As non-HDL-C, erythrocytes, and platelets all impact cardiovascular disease risk, there is a need for advancing understanding of the underlying interactions that govern levels of these three blood components. PMID:23999863

  3. Relationship between serum cholesterol and indices of erythrocytes and platelets in the US population.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Michael B; Rose, Kathryn; Zhang, Yanmei; Jaramillo, Renee; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2013-11-01

    Whereas dyslipidemia has been associated with leukocytosis, the relationship between serum cholesterol and other hematopoietic lineages is poorly defined. Erythrocytes and platelets, anucleate cells relegated to nonspecific diffusional exchange of cholesterol with serum, have been proposed to have a distinct relationship to cholesterol from leukocytes. We examined the relationship between serum cholesterol and circulating erythrocyte/platelet indices in 4,469 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006. In linear regression analyses, serum non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) was positively associated with mean erythrocyte number, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and platelet crit independently of age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, serum folate, and C-reactive protein. The magnitude of the relationship was most marked for platelets, with lowest versus highest non-HDL-C quartile subjects having geometric mean platelet counts of 258,000/μl versus 281,000/μl, respectively (adjusted model, P < 0.001 for trend). These associations persisted in a sensitivity analysis excluding several conditions that affect erythrocyte/platelet and/or serum cholesterol levels, and were also noted in an independent analysis of 5,318 participants from NHANES 2007-2008. As non-HDL-C, erythrocytes, and platelets all impact cardiovascular disease risk, there is a need for advancing understanding of the underlying interactions that govern levels of these three blood components.

  4. Has westernization influenced serum cholesterol levels in Bougainvillian males?

    PubMed

    Iser, D J; Avera, K

    1993-12-01

    This study was performed to see if there was any difference in cholesterol levels between three socioeconomic groups of Bougainvillian males, each with different levels of exposure to western influences. Serum cholesterol levels were measured in 50 subjects from each of 1) village people leading a traditional lifestyle, 2) town dwellers exposed to western influences, and 3) mine workers who regularly dined in the company mess. Mean cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the mine workers (5.3 +/- SD 0.9 mmol/l) and the town dwellers (4.8 +/- SD 0.8 mmol/l) than in the village people (3.7 +/- SD 1.0 mmol/l). There was a positive correlation between serum cholesterol level and age in two groups, the town dwellers and the village people, even though the latter group had a low mean cholesterol level. There was a significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol level for the entire group as well as the town dwellers and mine workers. The higher mean cholesterol levels in the mine workers and town dwellers than in the village people may reflect a difference in lifestyle, particularly in diet, between these groups, and may represent an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease.

  5. Effects of zinc and cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoproteins and the liver in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.H.; Chen, S.M.; Ogle, C.W.; Young, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of short-term treatment with orally-administered zinc sulfate and/or a mixture of cholesterol/choleate on serum lipoprotein and hepatic enzyme levels were studied. Administration of graded doses of zinc sulfate for 5 days, dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic zinc levels but depressed the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and liver cytochrome P-450 activity. However, it did not affect hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. Cholesterol/choleate treatment for 5 days markedly damaged the liver, as reflected by elevations of hepatic concentrations of malondialdehyde (both in the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions) and of free {beta}-glucuronidase; total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood were increased, whereas HDL-C was decreased significantly. Concomitant administration of zinc sulfate with cholesterol/choleate further lowered HDL-C levels, but reversed the high hepatic concentrations of both malondialdehyde and free {beta}-glucuronidase. The present study indicates that both zinc ions and cholesterol can decrease circulatory HDL-C levels and that zinc protects against cholesterol-induced hepatic damage by reducing lysosomal enzyme release and preventing lipid peroxidation in the liver.

  6. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values.

    PubMed

    Münstedt, Karsten; Hoffmann, Sven; Hauenschild, Annette; Bülte, Michael; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P < .001) as were BMI and a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P < .001), meaning that subjects with a high BMI had a lower HDL cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation.

  7. Cholesterol in serum lipoprotein fractions after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.; Krauhs, Jane M.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are reported from blood-lipid measurements obtained from 125 Space Shuttle crew members before and after space flight. The data are presented in tables and discussed in detail. The main differences noted between preflight and postflight values are a 12.8-percent decrease in high-density lipoproteins on postflight day 1 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and both high- and low-density lipoproteins later in the 23-day postflight period.

  8. Cholesterol in serum lipoprotein fractions after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.; Krauhs, Jane M.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are reported from blood-lipid measurements obtained from 125 Space Shuttle crew members before and after space flight. The data are presented in tables and discussed in detail. The main differences noted between preflight and postflight values are a 12.8-percent decrease in high-density lipoproteins on postflight day 1 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and both high- and low-density lipoproteins later in the 23-day postflight period.

  9. Effect of dietary sphingomyelin on absorption and fractional synthetic rate of cholesterol and serum lipid profile in humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diets enriched with sphingolipids may improve blood lipid profiles. Studies in animals have shown reductions in cholesterol absorption and alterations in blood lipids after treatment with sphingomyelin (SM). However, minimal information exists on effect of SM on cholesterol absorption and metabolism in humans. The objective was to assess the effect of SM consumption on serum lipid concentrations and cholesterol metabolism in healthy humans. Methods Ten healthy adult males and females completed a randomized crossover study. Subjects consumed controlled diets with or without 1 g/day SM for 14 days separated by at least 4 week washout period. Serum lipid profile and markers of cholesterol metabolism including cholesterol absorption and synthesis were analyzed. Results Serum triglycerides, total, LDL- and VLDL- cholesterol were not affected while HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased (p = 0.043) by SM diet consumption. No change in cholesterol absorption and cholesterol fractional synthesis rate was observed with supplementation of SM compared to control. Intraluminal cholesterol solubilization was also not affected by consumption of SM enriched diet. Conclusions In humans, 1 g/day of dietary SM does not alter the blood lipid profile except for an increased HDL-cholesterol concentration and has no effect on cholesterol absorption, synthesis and intraluminal solubilization compared to control. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00328211 PMID:23958473

  10. Serum total and HDL cholesterol and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-11-01

    Studies suggest a decreased risk of high-grade prostate cancer in men with lower circulating total cholesterol and that statins may protect against aggressive disease. Confirmation in additional populations and examination of associations for lipoprotein subfractions are needed. We examined prostate cancer risk and serum total and HDL cholesterol in the ATBC Study cohort (n = 29,093). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of total (n = 2,041), non-aggressive (n = 829), aggressive (n = 461), advanced (n = 412), and high-grade (n = 231) prostate cancer by categories of total and HDL cholesterol. After excluding the first 10 years of follow-up, men with higher serum total cholesterol were at increased risk of overall (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44, p-trend = 0.01) and advanced (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.13-3.03, p-trend = 0.05) prostate cancer. Higher HDL cholesterol was suggestively associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. In this population of smokers, high serum total cholesterol was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and high HDL cholesterol suggestively reduced the risk of prostate cancer overall. These results support previous studies and, indirectly, support the hypothesis that statins may reduce the risk of advanced prostate cancer by lowering cholesterol.

  11. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  12. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  13. Serum cholesterol and variant in cholesterol-related gene CETP predict white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Warstadt, Nicholus M; Dennis, Emily L; Jahanshad, Neda; Kohannim, Omid; Nir, Talia M; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Whitfield, John B; Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Weiner, Michael W; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-11-01

    Several common genetic variants influence cholesterol levels, which play a key role in overall health. Myelin synthesis and maintenance are highly sensitive to cholesterol concentrations, and abnormal cholesterol levels increase the risk for various brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. We report significant associations between higher serum cholesterol (CHOL) and high-density lipoprotein levels and higher fractional anisotropy in 403 young adults (23.8 ± 2.4 years) scanned with diffusion imaging and anatomic magnetic resonance imaging at 4 Tesla. By fitting a multi-locus genetic model within white matter areas associated with CHOL, we found that a set of 18 cholesterol-related, single-nucleotide polymorphisms implicated in Alzheimer's disease risk predicted fractional anisotropy. We focused on the single-nucleotide polymorphism with the largest individual effects, CETP (rs5882), and found that increased G-allele dosage was associated with higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial and mean diffusivities in voxel-wise analyses of the whole brain. A follow-up analysis detected white matter associations with rs5882 in the opposite direction in 78 older individuals (74.3 ± 7.3 years). Cholesterol levels may influence white matter integrity, and cholesterol-related genes may exert age-dependent effects on the brain.

  14. Elevated serum squalene and cholesterol synthesis markers in pregnant obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Helena E; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Eriksson, Johan G; Hiltunen, Timo P; Gylling, Helena

    2014-12-01

    We examined serum cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and their association with neonatal birth weight in obese pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI >30 kg/m²) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland. GDM was determined from the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum samples were collected at six time-points, one in each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Analysis of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols by gas-liquid chromatography revealed that in subjects with GDM (n = 22), the serum Δ8-cholestenol concentration and lathosterol/sitosterol ratio were higher (P < 0.05) than in the controls (n = 30) in the first trimester, reflecting increased cholesterol synthesis. Also, subjects with GDM had an increased ratio of squalene to cholesterol (100 × μmol/mmol of cholesterol) in the second (11.5 ± 0.5 vs. 9.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.01) and third (12.1 ± 0.8 vs. 10.0 ± 0.7, P < 0.05) trimester. In GDM, the second trimester maternal serum squalene concentration correlated with neonatal birth weight (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). In conclusion, in obesity, GDM associated with elevated serum markers of cholesterol synthesis. Correlation of maternal serum squalene with neonatal birth weight suggests a potential contribution of maternal cholesterol synthesis to newborn weight in GDM. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Recombinant human serum amyloid A (apoSAAp) binds cholesterol and modulates cholesterol flux.

    PubMed

    Liang, J S; Sipe, J D

    1995-01-01

    During acute inflammation, the serum amyloid A (apoSAA) proteins apoSAA1 and apoSAA2 are transiently associated with high density lipoproteins (HDL) in concentrations of as much as 1000-fold more than their concentrations during homeostasis; however, their effect on HDL function is unclear. Recombinant apoSAAp, a hybrid of the closely related human apoSAA1 and apoSAA2 isoforms, was found to exhibit a high affinity for cholesterol. The adsorption of apoSAAp to polystyrene microtiter wells at physiological pH, temperature, and salt concentration was inhibited and reversed by cholesterol. ApoSAAp, to a greater extent than apoA-I, albumin, or fetal bovine serum, enhanced diffusion of cholesterol from HDL across a membrane that retained molecules > 3.5 kDa. Cholesterol from 25 nM to 125 microM inhibited binding of [3H]cholesterol to 167 nM apoSAAp. A cholesterol binding assay was developed to determine the dissociation constant for binding of [3H]cholesterol to apoSAAp; Kd = 1.7 +/- 0.3 x 10(-7) M and the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) is 1.1 +/- 0.1 mol/mol. After binding cholesterol, the apparent size of apoSAAp as determined by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100 was increased from 12 to 23 kDa. ApoSAAp enhanced free [14C]cholesterol uptake from tissue culture medium by HepG2 cells, an effect that was dose dependent and blocked by polyclonal antibodies to human apoSAA1 and apoSAA2. ApoSAAp, unlike apoA-I, was taken up from serum-free medium by HepG2 cells and appeared to be degraded by cell-associated enzymes. Unlike peritoneal exudate cells, human HepG2 hepatoma cells do not secrete an enzyme that degrades apoSAAp. These results suggest that apoSAA can potentially serve as a transient cholesterol-binding protein.

  16. Nonpharmacological approaches for reducing serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    To reinforce the key role of diet and lifestyle modification as the first-line treatment for the reduction of raised serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Also, to counter recent claims that the current dietary guidelines for the treatment of cardiovascular disease have misplaced emphasis on the importance of removing dietary saturated fat instead of sugar. This review provides new insight into the effects of diet and lifestyle factors with established efficacy in lowering serum LDL-C. This includes energy-restricted weight loss and new findings on the effects of alternative day fasting; novel metabolic and molecular effects of replacing palmitic acid with oleic acid; evidence for a dose-response relationship between the intake of dietary stanols and LDL-C; and identification of a unique metabolic pathway for the excretion of cholesterol. The review reports new evidence for the efficacy of alternate day fasting, reassurance that the current dietary guidelines are not misguided by recommending removal of saturated fat, that a high intake of dietary stanols can achieve a reduction in LDL-C of up to 18%, and describes a pathway of cholesterol excretion that may help to explain variation in the response of serum LDL-C to dietary fat and cholesterol.

  17. A rapid gel electrophoretic chip for serum cholesterol determination.

    PubMed

    Kaminikado, Kenta; Ikeda, Ryuzo; Idegami, Koutaro; Nagatani, Naoki; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2011-05-07

    We present a rapid gel electrophoretic chip, composed of 2.5% (w/v) acrylamide and 1% (w/v) agarose gel, for serum cholesterol determination using a photo lithography technique. After optimizations, we determined the lipoprotein concentration of standard serum using a conventional enzyme method. The serum was diluted, stained and loaded for 15 min onto the chip. After loading, the intensities of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) bands separated at the chip were estimated using an image analyzer. The intensities of these bands corresponded to concentrations obtained from a standard enzyme-based method. The detected LDL-C and HDL-C concentrations were linear up to 146 mg dL(-1) and 53 mg dL(-1) respectively. Finally, we carried out the cholesterol analysis using real biological samples obtained from nine volunteers using our electrophoretic chip. The LDL-C and HDL-C levels detected using our chip correlated well with the results obtained using the conventional enzyme-based method r(2) = 0.98 and r(2) = 0.86 for LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. Although our sample size is small and confined only to health volunteers, we have demonstrated that this proof-of-concept gel electrophoretic chip can determine lipoproteins, simultaneously.

  18. Impacts of High Serum Total Cholesterol Level on Brain Functional Connectivity in Non-Demented Elderly.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Li, He; Zhang, Junying; Li, Xin; Qi, Di; Wang, Nuo; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that high serum cholesterol is a risk factor of dementia. However, the effects of cholesterol on cognition and brain remain largely unclear. This study aims to investigate the associations between serum total cholesterol (TC) and neuropsychological performance, and intrinsic functional networks in non-demented elderly. Among a cohort of 120 community-dwelling Beijing residents, 29 subjects in the high-TC group (1st quartile) and 31 in the low-TC group (4th quartile) were included in this study, and underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including T2- and T1-weighted imaging, and resting-state functional MRI. No significant group difference was found in any of the neuropsychological tests used. Stronger connectivity in the default mode network was observed in the high-TC group compared to that in the low-TC group (p <  0.001, uncorrected). While in the salience network (SN), the high-TC group showed lower connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex and frontal regions, compared to the low-TC group (p <  0.05, FWE corrected). Our findings suggest that in non-demented elderly persons, high serum cholesterol is associated with disruption of functional connectivity in the SN. The results not only deepen our understanding of how cholesterol affects the brain, but are also significant for selecting sensitive indicators for monitoring the impairments of cholesterol on the neural system.

  19. Cosegregation of serum cholesterol with cholesterol intestinal absorption markers in families with primary hypercholesterolemia without mutations in LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 and APOE genes.

    PubMed

    Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Pérez-Ruiz, María Rosario; Jarauta, Estíbaliz; Tejedor, María Teresa; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Lamiquiz-Moneo, Iztiar; de Castro-Orós, Isabel; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    The genetic cause and pathogenic mechanism of approximately 20-40% of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemias (ADH) are unknown. Increased cholesterol intestinal absorption has been associated to ADH. If this variation contributes to their pathogenesis is unknown. We studied cholesterol absorption (phytosterols and cholestanol serum concentrations) and cholesterol synthesis (desmosterol serum concentration) in 20 families with ADH without causal mutations in LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 or APOE genes (non-FH ADH) selected from 54 non-FH ADH probands with (non-cholesterol sterol concentrations above 75th percentile) and without (under 75th percentile) hyperabsorption. The concentrations of cholestanol, sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol were higher in affected than in non-affected subjects (p = 0.003, <0.001.<0.001, 0.002, respectively). There was a strong cosegregation of hyperabsorption with high LDL cholesterol within hyperabsorber families with odds ratio 6.80 (confidence interval 1.656-27.9), p = 0.008. In hyperabsorber families, 60.5% of subjects were hyperabsorbers and 76% of them had high LDL cholesterol versus 38.3% and 63% in non-hyperabsorber families, respectively. Most hypercholesterolemic family members with a hyperabsorber proband are hyperabsorbers. These absorption markers are significantly and positively associated with LDL cholesterol, and predispose to high LDL cholesterol in family members. Our data suggest that complex interindividual variation in cholesterol absorption is involved in many non-FH ADH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fitness, Fatness, and Serum Cholesterol: An Epidemiological Study of an Entire Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Henry J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research on relationships between serum cholesterol, heart rate, and exercise in age-and sex-specific groups suggests a positive relationship between fatness on the one hand and serum cholesterol and heart rate, but eliminating the effect of body fatness results in no relationship between heart rate and serum total cholesterol. (MB)

  1. Fitness, Fatness, and Serum Cholesterol: An Epidemiological Study of an Entire Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Henry J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research on relationships between serum cholesterol, heart rate, and exercise in age-and sex-specific groups suggests a positive relationship between fatness on the one hand and serum cholesterol and heart rate, but eliminating the effect of body fatness results in no relationship between heart rate and serum total cholesterol. (MB)

  2. Banana Blossom (Musa acuminate Colla) Incorporated Experimental Diets Modulate Serum Cholesterol and Serum Glucose Level in Wistar Rats Fed with Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Gunasegaram, Saranya; Jayathilake, Chathuni; Weththasinghe, Pabodha; Jayawardana, Barana Chaminda; Vidanarachchi, Janak Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic effect of banana blossom were studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. Experimental groups were fed for 4 weeks, with casein as the basal diet (CN), in comparison with two diets containing 0.5% cholesterol (CD) and 0.5% cholesterol + 21% banana blossom powder (CDB). Serum total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol level, and serum glucose concentrations were lower in CDB fed group compared with CD fed group. Lower serum cholesterol and glucose level (P < 0.05) in CDB fed group were followed by higher faecal weight, caecal weight, caecal Lactobacilli, and Bifidobacteria population in CDB fed group compared to CD diet fed group. Lower serum AST level in banana blossom fed rats showed the reduction in oxidative stress induced by high cholesterol diet. Based on these data, it could be speculated that banana blossom incorporated experimental diets may modulate the hypocholesterolaemic and hypoglycaemic responses in Wistar rats. PMID:28042480

  3. Isotope dilution/mass spectrometry of serum cholesterol with (3,4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol: proposed definitive method

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, O.; Wright, L.A.; Breckenridge, W.C.

    1987-08-01

    We describe a new gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) isotope-dilution method for determination of serum cholesterol. The method has been fully optimized and documented to provide the high accuracy and precision expected for a Definitive Method. In the presence of (3,4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol, cholesteryl esters in serum are hydrolyzed under optimum conditions and the entire cholesterol pool is extracted and derivatized to silyl ethers. The cholesterol derivatives are resolved from other sterols by gas-liquid chromatography on a fused silica column, and selected ions characteristic of cholesterol and the (3,4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol are monitored with a GC/MS quandrupole system. We estimated the cholesterol content of samples by bracketing each sample with standards of comparable cholesterol concentration that also contained the (3,4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol. The procedure was highly reproducible (CV less than 0.5%), better accuracy and precision being obtained with (3,4-/sup 13/C)cholesterol than with heptadeuterated cholesterol. Mean values per gram of dry serum for one serum pool assayed by this method and that of the National Bureau of Standards differed by 0.5%. We conclude that the method satisfies the criteria for a Definitive Method.

  4. Combined dietary and exercise intervention for control of serum cholesterol in the workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Chan, W. T.; Sample, C. J.; Levine, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate a potential combined dietary and exercise intervention affect on cardiovascular risk reduction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters employees. DESIGN: A nonexperimental, longitudinal, clinical-chart review study (1987 to 1996) of an identified intervention group and a reference (not a control) group. SETTING: The study group worked in an office environment and participated in the annual medical examinations. SUBJECTS: An intervention group of 858 people with initially elevated serum cholesterol, and a reference group of 963 people randomly sampled from 10% of the study group. MEASURES: Serum cholesterol data were obtained for both groups, respectively, from pre- and postintervention and annual examinations. The reference group was adjusted by statistical exclusion of potential intervention participants. Regression equations (cholesterol vs. study years) for the unadjusted/adjusted reference groups were tested for statistical significance. INTERVENTION: An 8-week individualized, combined dietary and exercise program was instituted with annual follow-ups and was repeated where warranted. RESULTS: Only the unadjusted (but not the adjusted) reference group with initial mean total serum cholesterol levels above 200 mg/dL shows a significant 9-year decline trend and significant beta coefficient tests. An intervention effect is suggested. Mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol rose slightly in the intervention group but was maintained in the reference group. CONCLUSION: With potential design limitations, the NASA intervention program focusing on a high risk group may be associated to some degree, if not fully, with an overall cardiovascular risk profile improvement.

  5. Combined dietary and exercise intervention for control of serum cholesterol in the workplace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Chan, W. T.; Sample, C. J.; Levine, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate a potential combined dietary and exercise intervention affect on cardiovascular risk reduction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters employees. DESIGN: A nonexperimental, longitudinal, clinical-chart review study (1987 to 1996) of an identified intervention group and a reference (not a control) group. SETTING: The study group worked in an office environment and participated in the annual medical examinations. SUBJECTS: An intervention group of 858 people with initially elevated serum cholesterol, and a reference group of 963 people randomly sampled from 10% of the study group. MEASURES: Serum cholesterol data were obtained for both groups, respectively, from pre- and postintervention and annual examinations. The reference group was adjusted by statistical exclusion of potential intervention participants. Regression equations (cholesterol vs. study years) for the unadjusted/adjusted reference groups were tested for statistical significance. INTERVENTION: An 8-week individualized, combined dietary and exercise program was instituted with annual follow-ups and was repeated where warranted. RESULTS: Only the unadjusted (but not the adjusted) reference group with initial mean total serum cholesterol levels above 200 mg/dL shows a significant 9-year decline trend and significant beta coefficient tests. An intervention effect is suggested. Mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol rose slightly in the intervention group but was maintained in the reference group. CONCLUSION: With potential design limitations, the NASA intervention program focusing on a high risk group may be associated to some degree, if not fully, with an overall cardiovascular risk profile improvement.

  6. THE EFFECT OF CORTISONE ON THE SERUM LIPIDS AND ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL CHOLESTEROL ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN THE RABBIT

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Dina; Kobernick, Sidney D.; McMillan, Gardner C.; Duff, G. Lyman

    1954-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the effect of cortisone on the serum lipids and on the development of experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Litter mate rabbits of the same sex were employed; both sexes were represented in the experiment. The report is based upon four experimental groups comprising (1) 12 rabbits fed cholesterol and treated with cortisone vehicle; (2) 12 rabbits fed cholesterol and treated daily with cortisone; (3) 11 rabbits treated with cortisone; and (4) 7 rabbits that received cortisone vehicle. It was observed that: (1) There was less aortic atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed cortisone-treated rabbits as judged by both morphological and chemical means than in the rabbits fed cholesterol without cortisone treatment. (2) Cortisone depressed appreciably the hypercholesterolemia resulting from the feeding of cholesterol to rabbits. (3) Cortisone treatment caused a moderate hypercholesterolemia in normal rabbits. (4) Cortisone caused a moderate increase in serum lipid phosphorus equal to that produced by cholesterol feeding alone. (5) The combination of cholesterol feeding and cortisone did not result in a higher phospholipidemia than either one of these agents alone. (6) Cortisone caused a great increase in serum-neutral fat; it was not apparent whether cholesterol feeding affected the neutral fat lipemia due to cortisone treatment alone. (7) The total cholesterol to lipid phosphorus ratio was about normal in the rabbits that received cortisone only. It was doubled in the animals receiving both cholesterol and cortisone, and it was increased about four times in those that received only cholesterol. The significance of the alterations in the serum lipids induced by cortisone is discussed in relation to the inhibition of the development of aortic atherosclerosis that occurred in the cholesterol-fed rabbits treated with cortisone. PMID:13152282

  7. Cholesterol oxidase-based determination, by continuous-flow analysis, of total and free cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Lie, R F; Schmitz, J M; Pierre, K J; Gochman, N

    1976-10-01

    We describe a continuous-flow, automated determination of total cholesterol in serum, which is based on enzymatic hydrolysis of cholesterol esters, oxidation of cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase, and colorimetric measurement of liberated perioxide with 4-aminoantipyrine, phenol, and peroxidase. Free cholesterol is determined with the same AutoAnalyzer II manifold and reagents, except that cholesterol esterase is omitted from the reagent. Cholesterol-in-serum materials that have been assayed by an established method are used for calibration. We found this approach to be necessary because primary cholesterol standards in organic solvents are incompatible with the aqueous reagent. Results of the enzymatic total cholesterol method correlated well with those by an AutoAnalyzer II method which involves an extraction with isopropanol and the Liebermann-Burchard color reaction (total cholesterol, g/liter, yenz= 0991xlb +0.05;r=0.996). Results of the enzymatic free cholesterol procedure agreed satisfactorily with one in which free cholesterol is precipitated as the digitonide and subsequently analyzed colorimetrically with the Liebermann-Burchard reaction (free cholesterol, %, yenz = 0.982xdig -0.7;r= 0.956).

  8. Acute coffee ingestion does not affect LDL cholesterol level.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Rebecca J; Gupta, Eric K; Ito, Matthew K

    2005-01-01

    Although patients are instructed to abstain from food before having blood drawn for lipid analysis, many still drink coffee in the morning. It is unknown whether coffee consumed prior to drawing blood samples will impact fasting serum lipids. To determine whether a single 6-oz cup of coffee with or without the addition of nondairy creamer and sugar will significantly affect fasting plasma lipid profiles. This was a prospective, open-label, randomized crossover study. At the first of 2 visits, blood was drawn to measure initial fasting lipid panels, and participants were randomized to drink 6 oz of black coffee or coffee with nondairy creamer and sugar. Within 30-60 minutes of coffee consumption, blood was drawn for follow-up lipid panels. The procedure was repeated at the second visit, except the participants were crossed over to receive the alternate coffee preparation. Forty participants (26 men; age [mean +/- SD] 45 +/- 15 y) were enrolled. Total cholesterol (TC) increased from 188.2 +/- 38.1 to 191.3 +/- 39.9 mg/dL (p = 0.019) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from 43.2 +/- 12.3 to 44.8 +/- 12.9 mg/dL (p < 0.001) after consumption of black coffee. Triglycerides decreased from 145.6 +/- 123.7 to 136.3 +/- 107.1 mg/dL (p = 0.014) after consumption of coffee with nondairy creamer and sugar. Changes in other lipid parameters, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in either group, were not statistically significant. A single cup of coffee consumed within one hour before drawing blood resulted in statistically, but not clinically, significant differences in TC and HDL-C (black coffee) and triglycerides (coffee with creamer and sugar).

  9. High serum total cholesterol--an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: U.S. adults, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Schober, Susan E; Carroll, Margaret D; Lacher, David A; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2007-12-01

    Elevated serum total cholesterol is a major and modifiable risk factor for heart disease, the lead-ing cause of death in the United States (1,2). Reducing mean total serum cholesterol levels among adults to less than 200 mg/dL and reducing the proportion who have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher to less than 17% are national Healthy People 2010 objectives (3). Age-adjusted mean serum cholesterol levels among adults aged 20-74 years declined from 222 mg/dL in 1960-1962 to 203 mg/dL in 1999-2002 (4). Among adults aged 20 years and older, the percent of the population with high serum total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher) declined from 20% during 1988-1994 to 17% during 1999-2002 (4). In individual patients, a high serum total cholesterol level indicates a potential increased risk for heart disease, but further evaluation of other risk factors and the specific components of cholesterol provide the basis for determining the need for initiating therapeutic lifestyle changes or treatment with medication (5). Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) is the cholesterol component associated with arterial blockage, and it is the primary clinical target for cholesterol management. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) may help to protect individuals from developing heart disease. In populations, comparisons of total cholesterol levels over time can show if population groups are experiencing improvement in cholesterol levels, and knowledge of trends in levels of total cholesterol can help identify subgroups where additional prevention efforts may be needed.

  10. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between total serum calcium level and blood lipids in male subjects (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  11. Dietary cholesterol supplementation improves growth and behavioral response of pigs selected for genetically high and low serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Schoknecht, P A; Ebner, S; Pond, W G; Zhang, S; McWhinney, V; Wong, W W; Klein, P D; Dudley, M; Goddard-Finegold, J; Mersmann, H J

    1994-02-01

    We hypothesized that, in pigs selected for low (L) or high (H) serum cholesterol for four generations, neonatal endogenous cholesterol synthesis would be sufficient to meet requirements for brain and body growth. In Experiment 1, eight 16-wk-old L pigs received a diet with or without 200 mg cholesterol/100 g diet for 35 d. Supplemented pigs grew approximately 25% faster and had a significantly greater concentration of free cholesterol in the cerebrum. In Experiment 2, 16 H and 16 L newborn pigs were fed a milk replacer with or without 200 mg cholesterol/100 g diet for 28 d. Pigs fed cholesterol had greater average daily gain (P < or = 0.09), significantly reduced liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity, and significantly increased cerebral cholesterol content than pigs not fed cholesterol. One of three indices of exploratory behavior was significantly greater in the L pigs that received cholesterol compared with L pigs that did not receive cholesterol. These data suggest that these neonatal pigs are unable to produce sufficient cholesterol to meet requirements for normal growth and brain development and are dependent on dietary cholesterol in milk.

  12. Association between tumour status and serum lipoprotein cholesterol in hemopoietic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Venkatanarayanan, S; Nagarajan, B

    1988-09-01

    Total and lipoprotein cholesterol in serum have been determined in patients with leukemia and lymphoma. Untreated patients were hypocholesterolemic with reduced lipoprotein cholesterol content. On successful chemotherapy most of the patients showed near normal total cholesterol levels with a subsequent increase in LDL cholesterol content. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method is reported using agarose electrophoresis and quantitation of cholesterol by Liebermann-Burchard reaction.

  13. Importance of Evaluating Cell Cholesterol Influx With Efflux in Determining the Impact of Human Serum on Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weibel, Ginny L.; Drazul-Schrader, Denise; Shivers, Debra K.; Wade, Alisha N.; Rothblat, George H.; Reilly, Muredach P.; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cholesterol efflux relates to cardiovascular disease but cannot predict cellular cholesterol mass changes. We asked whether influx and net flux assays provide additional insights. Approach and Results Adapt a bidirectional flux assay to cells where efflux has clinical correlates and examine the association of influx, efflux, and net flux to serum triglycerides (TGs). Apolipoprotein B–depleted (high-density lipoprotein-fraction) serum from individuals with unfavorable lipids (median [interquartile range]; high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol=39 [32–42], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol=109 [97–137], TGs=258 [184–335] mg/dL; n=13) promoted greater ATP-binding cassette transporter A1–mediated [1,2-3H] cholesterol efflux (3.8±0.3%/4 hour versus 1.2±0.4%/4 hour; P<0.0001) from cyclic 3’,5’-amp(CTP-amp)-treated J774 macrophages than from individuals with favorable lipids (high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol=72 [58–88], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol=111 [97–131], TGs=65 [56–69] mg/dL; n=10). Thus, high TGs associated with more ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 acceptors. Efflux of cholesterol mass (µg free cholesterol/mg cell protein per 8 hour) to serum was also higher (7.06±0.33 versus 5.83±0.48; P=0.04). However, whole sera from individuals with unfavorable lipids promoted more influx (5.14±0.65 versus 2.48±0.85; P=0.02) and lower net release of cholesterol mass (1.93±0.46 versus 3.36±0.47; P=0.04). The pattern differed when mass flux was measured using apolipoprotein B–depleted serum rather than serum. Although individuals with favorable lipids tended to have greater influx than those with unfavorable lipids, efflux to apolipoprotein B–depleted serum was markedly higher (6.81±0.04 versus 2.62±0.14; P<0.0001), resulting in an efflux:influx ratio of ≈3-fold. Thus both serum and apolipoprotein B–depleted serum from individuals with favorable lipids promoted greater net cholesterol mass release despite increased

  14. Total serum cholesterol, atherogenic indices and their longitudinal association with depressive symptoms among US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M A; Beydoun, H A; Dore, G A; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, M T; Evans, M K; Zonderman, A B

    2015-01-01

    Serum cholesterol, both total and lipoprotein fractions, has been associated with mid- and late-life depression. Using longitudinal data on a large and ethnically diverse sample of urban adults, the associations of serum lipid profile measured by high or low total cholesterol (TC; >200 mg dl−1; <160 mg dl−1) and by atherogenic indices, namely high total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol relative to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with change in total and domain-specific depressive symptoms over time were examined. Findings were compared by sex. (Hypothesis 1) In addition, baseline depressive symptoms as predictors for longitudinal change in lipid profile trajectory were tested. (Hypothesis 2) Mixed-effects regression analyses stratified by sex was used. Sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (Men: n=826 ; n'=1319; Women: n=1099 ; n'=1817); Hypothesis 2 (Men: n=738; n'=1230; Women: n=964; n'=1678). As hypothesized, a higher level of atherogenic indices was linked to faster increase in depressive symptom scores, particularly depressed affect and interpersonal problems, though this relationship was found only among women. Among men a U-shaped relationship between baseline TC and longitudinal increase in somatic complaints and a direct link between low TC and longitudinal putative improvement in positive affect was found. On excluding statin users among women, low TC was associated with slower increase in depressed affect over time, whereas high TC was associated with faster increase in interpersonal problems. In summary, atherogenic indices were directly linked to faster increase in depressive symptoms among women only. More studies are needed to explain these sex-specific associations. PMID:25734511

  15. Combined effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and β-cyclodextrin on serum cholesterol in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Fontecha, J; Cuesta, P

    2016-01-14

    A total of twenty-four Yorkshire gilt pigs of 6-7 weeks of age were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to determine the individual and combined effects of the inclusion of two dietary factors (cholesterol rich, 3% β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures) on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in blood serum. Pigs were assigned randomly to treatment groups (n 6). Total serum cholesterol concentrations decreased after 3 weeks in all the experimental treatment groups, including diets with BCD, L. acidophilus or both. Similar trends were observed for serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental treatments. No statistically significant differences from the control group were observed in either total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P<0·05) for each of the individual treatment groups: BCD or L. acidophilus. However, significant differences in total serum cholesterol concentrations were observed when comparing the combined treatment group (BCD and L. acidophilus) with the control group, which consisted of a basal diet and sterile milk. The combined treatment group exhibited 17·9% lower total serum cholesterol concentration after 3 weeks. Similar significant differences were observed when comparing the combined effect experimental group with the control group after 3 weeks. The combined treatment group exhibited 27·9% lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations.

  16. Effects of different fibre sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, M; Hanneken, H; Wittmann, M; Gerdemann, M M; Machmuller, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge is limited on the efficacy of hindgut-fermentable dietary fibre to reduce blood, bile and body tissue cholesterol levels. In three experiments with growing pigs the effects of different kinds and levels of bacterially fermentable fibre (BFS) on cholesterol metabolism were examined. Various diets calculated to have similar contents of metabolizable energy were supplied for complete fattening periods. In the first experiment, a stepwise increase from 12 to 20% BFS was performed by supplementing diets with fermentable fibre from sugar beet pulp (modelling hemicelluloses and pectin). Beet pulp, rye bran (modelling cellulose) and citrus pulp (pectin) were offered either independently or in a mixture in the second experiment. These diets were opposed to rations characterized in carbohydrate type by starch either mostly non-resistant (cassava) or partly resistant (maize) to small intestinal digestion. The third experiment was planned to explore the interactions of BFS from citrus pulp with fat either through additional coconut oil/palm kernel oil blend or full-fat soybeans. In all experiments the increase of the BFS content was associated with a constant (cellulose) or decreasing (hemicelluloses, pectin) dietary proportion of non-digestible fibre. In experiment 1 an inverse dose-response relationship between BFS content and cholesterol in blood serum and adipose tissue as well as bile acid concentration in bile was noted while muscle cholesterol did not respond. In experiment 2 the ingredients characterized by cellulose and hemicelluloses/pectin reduced cholesterol-related traits relative to the low-BFS-high-starch controls whereas, except in adipose tissue cholesterol content, the pectinous ingredient had the opposite effect. However, the changes in serum cholesterol mainly affected HDL and not LDL cholesterol. Adipose tissue cholesterol also was slightly lower with partly resistant starch compared to non-resistant starch in the diet. Experiment 3 showed that

  17. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, p<0.001) and increased markers of cholesterol synthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in serum total cholesterol and dietary fat intakes in New Zealand between 1989 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jody C; Smith, Claire; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Brown, Rachel C; Parnell, Winsome R; Skeaff, C Murray

    2016-06-01

    To describe trends in serum cholesterol and dietary fat intakes for New Zealand adults between 1989 and 2008/09. Serum total cholesterol concentrations and dietary fat intakes were analysed for 9,346 New Zealanders aged 15-98 years (52% women) who participated in three national surveys in 1989, 1997 and 2008/09. Population mean serum cholesterol decreased from 6.15 mmol/L in 1989 to 5.39 mmol/L in 2008/09. Mean saturated fat intake decreased from 15.9% of energy intake in 1989 to 13.1% in 2008/09. Between 1997 and 2008/09, unsaturated fat intake increased and fat from butter and milk decreased. Older adults had the largest decrease in serum cholesterol (1.35 mmol/L). The decrease in serum cholesterol is substantially larger than reported for many other high-income countries, and occurred in parallel with changes in dietary fat intakes and, for older adults, increased use of cholesterol-lowering medications. Given the demonstrated role of reduced saturated fat intake on lowering serum cholesterol, and as population average serum cholesterol levels and saturated fat intakes exceed recommended levels, initiatives to further encourage reductions in saturated fat are imperative. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Prevalence of Elevated Serum Cholesterol Among Active Duty Navy Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-19

    NCRP panel. There was a significant difference in means between the two hospitals providing data for the study. Mean cholesterol levels rose with age...a peak of 151 mg/dL in the oldest group (n-20). Figure 3. Figure 4. Mean Total Cholesterol by Age Group and Sex Mean LDL-Cholesterol by Age Group and

  20. Effect of salicylate and adrenocorticotropin on the hepatic and serum cholesterol in catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, D M; Belsare, D K

    1976-01-01

    A single injection of salicylate or salicylate plus ACTH was able to lower the hepatic cholesterol content within one hour after the treatment. However, their daily injection for eight days caused significant rise in the hepatic cholesterol. ACTH alone could not significantly alter the liver cholesterol content after similar treatment. A single injection of salicylate produced hypocholesterolemia within one and three hours after the treatment. ACTH or salicylate plus ACTH also brought about 50 per cent reduction in serum cholesterol level from its initial control value within one hour. Similar treatments, however, raised the serum cholesterol after three hours. The rise in the serum cholesterol level was about twofold in animals five hours after salicylate plus ACTH treatment. Daily administration of salicylate, ACTH or salicylate plus ACTH for eight days caused, however, hypocholesterolemia.

  1. Effect of dietary factors on serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sim, J S; Bragg, D B

    1977-09-01

    Effects of dietary lipid factors (saturated and unsaturated oil, cholesterol and plant sterols) on the serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels of the laying hen were investigated. Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens, at thirty weeks of age, were used in two trials by feeding two basal diets containing 8.0% hydrogenated coconut oil or safflower oil, with or without supplemental cholesterol (1.0%), soysterols (2.0%) or combinations of both. Safflower oil, per se, had a superior property to hydrogenated coconut oil in suppressing cholesterol levels, in both serum and egg yolk. Cholesterol supplementation to the safflower oil basal diet resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) elevation of serum and egg yolk cholesterol levels, whereas cholesterol in combination with hydrogenated coconut oil did not change the serum level. Cholesterol lowering effect of soysterols was clearly demonstrated in both serum and egg yolk by feeding soysterols alone as well as by feeding soysterols in combination with cholesterol.

  2. Nearly lethal resuscitated suicide attempters have no low serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    To verify the hypothesis that suicide attempts are associated with lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels of patients with mood disorders, 26 patients with mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) were admitted after a medically serious suicide attempt to the emergency department and then hospitalized in the psychiatric unit of the Sant' Andrea Hospital (Rome, Italy). Controls were 87 patients who had not made a recent suicide attempt. Attempters and nonattempters did not differ in the levels of serum cholesterol or triglycerides. Indeed, attempters had nonsignificantly higher serum levels of cholesterol and lower serum levels of triglycerides. The use of biologic indicators such as levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the prediction of suicide risk in mood disorders was not fully supported from this small sample.

  3. Transport of circulating serum cholesterol by human renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Clayman, R.V.; Figenshau, R.S.; Prigge, W.F.; Forstrom, L.; Gebhard, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Clear cell renal cancer contains a large quantity of cholesterol ester (300-mg./gm. protein). To determine whether abnormalities in cholesterol transport could account for this sterol accumulation, the uptake, release, and imaging capabilities of intravenously injected /sup 131/I-6-iodomethyl-29-norcholesterol, a cholesterol analogue, were studied preoperatively in five patients with clear cell renal cancer. At surgery, samples of the liver, tumor, adrenal, and non-tumor kidney were obtained for analysis. /sup 131/I-sterol uptake by the tumor, when normalized for cholesterol content, was less than for adrenal, liver or kidney. In contrast, release of preloaded /sup 131/I-sterol from the human tumors was consistently slower than for normal kidney. The reduced release of free cholesterol from renal cancer cells may, in part, be responsible for the accumulation of cholesterol in human renal cancer.

  4. Diphenyl diselenide decreases serum levels of total cholesterol and tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    de Bem, Andreza Fabro; Portella, Rafael de Lima; Colpo, Elisângela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Frediane, Andressa; Taube, Paulo Sergio; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Farina, Marcelo; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Teixeira Rocha, João Batista

    2009-07-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia and oxidative stress are well-known risk factors in coronary artery diseases. Diphenyl diselenide is a synthetic organoselenium compound that has been shown to have in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated whether diphenyl diselenide could reduce the hypercholesterolaemia and diminish the tissue oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Twenty-four New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. Each group was fed a different diet as follows: Control group--regular chow; Cholesterol group--1% cholesterol-enriched diet; diphenyl diselenide group--regular diet supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide; and Chol/diphenyl diselenide group--the same cholesterol-rich supplemented with 10 ppm diphenyl diselenide. After 45 days of treatment, the rabbits were killed and the blood, liver, and brain were used for laboratory analysis. The results showed that the serum levels of total cholesterol were markedly increased in cholesterol-fed rabbits and the consumption of diphenyl diselenide decreased these levels approximately twofold in Chol/diphenyl diselenide rabbits (P < 0.05). The intake of diphenyl diselenide by hypercholesterolaemic rabbits diminished the serum and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels as well as the production of reactive oxygen species in the blood and brain (P < 0.05) when compared to the cholesterol group. In addition, diphenyl diselenide supplementation increased hepatic and cerebral delta-aminolevulinic dehydratase activity and hepatic non-protein thiol groups levels despite hypercholesterolaemia (P < 0.05). In summary, the results showed that diphenyl diselenide reduced the hypercholesterolaemia and the oxidative stress in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  5. No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lewis A; Stigger, Cagney B; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Zhang, Jian

    2009-08-01

    The uncertainty of the role of serum cholesterol in neurodevelopment of children has largely hampered the implementation of the fat recommendation to children in the general population. We explored whether serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with cognitive achievements, academic performance in school-aged children and adolescents at the population level. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, blood specimens were collected from 4248 6-16-year-old children and adolescents to assess three serum cholesterol measures, e.g. total serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cognitive achievements and academic performance were measured on standard tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, non-verbal reasoning and short-term memory. No significant difference in measures of cognitive and academic performance was observed between children and adolescents stratified by the levels of serum total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our results suggest that differences within the normal range of serum lipids at a population level are not associated with intelligence and cognition developmental outcomes of children and adolescents.

  6. The effect of serum oncotic pressure on serum cholesterol levels: a study in "normal" and nephrotic subjects.

    PubMed

    Conwill, D E; Granger, D N; Cook, B H; Johnson, B B; Taylor, A E

    1977-04-01

    Clinical data in neprtotic and nonnephrotic subjects were examined to help delineate the mechanism of hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome. Analyses of the relationship between total serum cholesterol and serum albumin levels and between total serum cholesterol and calculated serum oncotic pressure in 500 nonnephrotic individuals revealed strong positive correlations (r = 0.9714, p less than 0.001 and r = 0.9720, p less than 0.001, respectively). Serum beta-lipoprotein concentration was found to bear an inverse relationship to measured serum oncotic pressure in 13 nephrotic patients (r = -0.8192, p less than 0.01). Our results lend support to the thesis that serum oncotic pressure is the major governing factor in hypercholesterolemia in nephrotic syndrome.

  7. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  8. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  9. Effect of heparin and adrenocorticotropin on the hepatic and serum cholesterol in catfish, Heteropneustes fossils.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, D M; Belsare, D K

    1976-10-01

    The administration of heparin with or without ACTH significantly decreased hepatic cholesterol content in catfish. In serum, heparin alone produced first hypercholesterolemia which was followed by hypocholesterolemia whereas it potentiated hypercholesterolemic action of ACTH three hours after administration. It is concluded that heparin normally caused hypercholesterolemia by releasing cholesterol from liver as lipoprotein complex. The hypocholesterolemic action of heparin might be an indirect one.

  10. Are There Any Promising Biochemical Correlates of Achievement Behavior and Motivation? The Evidence for Serum Uric Acid and Serum Cholesterol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasl, Stanislav V.

    1974-01-01

    This review examines the available evidence in support of the argument that serum uric acid (SUA) possesses considerable promise as an indicator of one type of biochemical influence on achievement behavior. The evidence arguing for further research into the role of serum cholesterol in achievement behavior is also examined. (Author/JR)

  11. Relationship between serum cholesterol and body mass index in Nigeria schoolchildren aged 2-15 years.

    PubMed

    Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Ibe, Bede C

    2015-04-01

    Non-communicable disease is becoming a public health problem that it is already present in more affluent countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and total serum cholesterol with its lipoprotein fractions in children aged 2-15 years. Serum cholesterol was estimated using the enzymatic spectrophotometer cholesterol oxidase/peroxidase method. BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2)). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were positively co-related with BMI (p < 0.05). Using linear regression, equations that can be used to predict serum total cholesterol from known BMI values were developed. There is a positive correlation between BMI and serum cholesterol. BMI which is non-invasive is recommended as a screening tool for cardiovascular risk in settings where serum cholesterol cannot be routinely estimated. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons; Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-11-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988-89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend <0.01) with relative difference between the highest and lowest quartile in PFOS and PFOA concentrations ranging between 6% and 25% of mean values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epiberberine reduces serum cholesterol in diet-induced dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters via network pathways involving cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zong-Yao; Hu, Yin-Ran; Ma, Hang; Feng, Min; Li, Xue-Gang; Ye, Xiao-Li

    2016-03-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effect of epiberberine in dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters induced by high fat and high cholesterol (HFHC) diet and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into six groups: normal control group (NC), HFHC group, simvastatin (Sim) and three doses of epiberberine group. The body weight, organs weight and serum lipid levels, as well as total cholesterol (TC) and total bile acids (TBA) levels in liver and feces were determined. Furthermore, the antidyslipidemia effect of epiberberine on key genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, conversion and elimination such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor), 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) were investigated. The results showed that epiberberine at high dosage significantly reduced serum TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and TBA levels by 20.2%, 22.3% and 43.8%, respectively, and increased TBA and TC levels in feces. Epiberberine inhibited HMGCR mRNA and protein expressions and slightly reduced the protein level of ASBT, as well as dramatically up-regulated mRNA and protein expressions of CYP7A1 and LDL receptor. These findings suggested that the antidyslipidemia effects of epiberberine can be achieved via inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol, promoting the uptake and conversion of TC in liver and increasing the excretion of TC and TBA in feces. Thus, epiberberine should be considered as one of the promising natural drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  14. [Study of cholesterol concentration based on serum UV-visible absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Guo, Xin; Chen, Hui

    2009-04-01

    In the present paper, UV-visible absorption spectrum and neural network theory were used for the analysis of cholesterol concentration. Experimental investigation shows that the absorption spectrum has the following characteristics in the wave band of 350-600 nm: (1) There is a stronger absorption peak at 416 nm for the test sample with different cholesterol concentration; (2) There is a shoulder peak between 450 and 500 nm, whose central wavelength is 460 nm; (3) There is a weaker peak at 578 nm; (4) Absorption spectrums shape of different cholesterol concentration is different obviously. The absorption spectrum of serum is the synthesis result of cholesterol and other components (such as sugar), and the information is contained at each wavelength. There is no significant correlation between absorbance and cholesterol content at 416 nm, showing a random relation, so whether cholesterol content is abnormal is not determined by the absorbance peak at 416 nm. Based on the evident correlation between serum absorption spectrum and cholesterol concentration in the wave band of 455-475 nm, a neural network model was built to predict the cholesterol concentration. The correlation coefficient between predicted cholesterol content output A and objectives T reaches 0.968, which can be regarded as better prediction, and it provides a spectra test method of cholesterol concentration.

  15. The effect of defatted cocoa powder on cholesterol-induced changes of serum lipids in rats

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mousa Numan; Amr, Amira Mohammad

    2017-06-05

    Cocoa has been known for many health benefits, but its lipid-lowering activity still remains unresolved. To investigate effects of varying amounts of defatted cocoa on serum lipids in cholesterol-fed rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four cholesterol-free (control) and four cholesterol-supplemented (experimental) diets containing 0, 1, 2 or 3% defatted cocoa (DC) and given ad libitumto the rats for ten weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low- and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were quantified, atherogenic index (AI) was calculated, and other biological parameters were assessed. Food intake and body weight did not respond to DC. Compared to 0% DC, 3% DC had the most prominent effect on serum lipids inducing significant fall in LDL-C and TG, and rise in TC/TG in cholesterol-deprived rats, and increase in VLDL-C and AI, and decrease in HDL-C in cholesterol-fed rats. Compared to cholesterol-deprived rats, 3% DC caused significant rise in VLDL-C, AI and TC/TG, and fall in TG in cholesterol-fed rats. This lipid-modifying effect was markedly substantiated by corresponding linear trend responses to DC. Differences in lipid variables of rats fed on DC diets were less evident. Results suggest that, in contrast to cholesterol-free situations, defatted cocoa is seemingly incapable of counteracting the atherogenic effect of cholesterol in rats, perhaps in an interaction that is likely to have clinical implications in cardiometabolic conditions.

  16. Cholesterol trafficking-related serum lipoprotein functions in children with cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Zimetti, Francesca; Favari, Elda; Cagliero, Paola; Adorni, Maria Pia; Ronda, Nicoletta; Bonardi, Renato; Gomaraschi, Monica; Calabresi, Laura; Bernini, Franco; Guardamagna, Ornella

    2015-10-01

    Serum lipoproteins influence cell cholesterol content by delivering and removing cholesterol to/from cells, functions mainly exerted by LDL and HDL, respectively. Especially in the case of HDL, structure and composition are crucial for function, beyond serum levels. Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is caused by LIPA gene mutations and reduced activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and TG. CESD patients typically present dyslipidaemia, liver damage and premature atherosclerosis. The objective of this work was to evaluate serum HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) and serum cholesterol loading capacity (CLC) in CESD pediatric patients and to study lipoprotein qualitative modifications. HDL CEC was evaluated by radioisotopic techniques, serum CLC was measured by a fluorimetric assay, HDL subclasses were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. CESD patients (n = 3) displayed on average increased LDL cholesterol (+163%; p = 0.019), TG (+203; p = 0.012), phospholipids (+40%; p = 0.024) and lower HDL cholesterol (-57%; p = 0.012) compared to controls (n = 9). CESD HDL CEC was impaired both as a whole (average reduction of 26%; p < 0.0001) and with respect to specific membrane cholesterol transporters (-23% for aqueous diffusion; p = 0.005; -32% for ABCA1-efflux; p = 0.0002; -60% for SR-BI-efflux; p < 0.0001; -42% for ABCG1-efflux p = 0.0003). A marked reduction in the pre-β HDL concentration (-69%; p = 0.012) was detected. Finally, CESD serum CLC was significantly increased (+21%; p = 0.0007). These new data demonstrate that the pro-atherogenic modifications of serum include disturbances in lipoprotein functions involved in cell cholesterol homeostasis occurring from very early age in CESD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep-related violence and low serum cholesterol: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Sekeroğlu, M Ramazan; Kara, Hayrettin; Ozer, Omer Akil; Tombul, Temel; Kiran, Umit; Selvi, Yavuz

    2002-04-01

    To examine whether there is a relationship between serum cholesterol level and sleep-related violence, we evaluated 15 patients with violent behavior during sleep (VBS) and 15 normal control subjects. The patient and control groups were matched for sex, age, and weight. There were 13 women and two men in each group. The patients with VBS had lower serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels than the healthy subjects. Low cholesterol may effect serotonergic neuronal activity and some types of 5-HT receptors, then may be related to violent behavior during sleep.

  18. The Choice of Euthanasia Method Affects Metabolic Serum Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Paula, Pierozan; Fredrik, Jernerén; Yusuf, Ransome; Oskar, Karlsson

    2017-02-28

    The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO2 inhalation, and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats. The corticosterone and insulin levels were not significantly affected by the euthanasia protocol used. However, euthanasia by an overdose of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) increased the serum levels of glucose, and decreased cholesterol, stearic and arachidonic acids levels compared with euthanasia by CO2 inhalation and decapitation. CO2 inhalation appears to increase the serum levels of triglycerides, while euthanasia by decapitation induced no individual discrepant biomarker level. We conclude that choice of the euthanasia methods are critical for the reliability of serum biomarkers and indicate the importance of selecting adequate euthanasia methods for metabolic analysis in rodents. Decapitation without anaesthesia may be the most adequate method of euthanasia when taking both animal welfare and data quality in consideration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic Usefulness of Serum Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Jia; Wang, Jingfeng; Wu, Changhao; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yueguo; Deng, Fengfeng; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Xuhua; Wu, Mengzuo; Chen, Yangxin

    2016-02-15

    Cholesterol efflux capacity has been shown to have an inverse relation with coronary artery disease (CAD) and may overcome the limitations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels as a predictor for CAD risks. We investigated the predictive value of cholesterol efflux capacity for the prognosis of CAD. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity in 313 patients newly diagnosed with CAD by coronary angiography was measured, and all patients completed a 3-year follow-up. The primary clinical end points were nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. The secondary clinical end points were class IV heart failure requiring hospitalization and coronary artery revascularization. Cholesterol efflux capacity was lower in patients with CAD compared with control group, and decreased cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with an increased risk of acute coronary syndrome (odds ratios, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.46; p <0.01). There was no association between cholesterol efflux capacity and serum HDL cholesterol levels. Follow-up data showed that patients with CAD with lower cholesterol efflux capacity had higher primary clinical end point events (26 of 158 vs 8 of 155, p <0.01). Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis further showed that a decreased cholesterol efflux capacity was associated with an increased risk of the primary end point events regardless of adjustment. There was no association between cholesterol efflux capacity and the secondary end point events. In conclusion, the results provide the important clinical evidence that cholesterol efflux capacity is a predictive index for plaque stability and the prognosis of CAD, independent of HDL cholesterol levels.

  20. Increased serum cholesterol esterification rates predict coronary heart disease and sudden death in a general population.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shin-ichiro; Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Ishida, Tatsuro; Fujioka, Yoshio; Tsujino, Takeshi; Miki, Tetsuo; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2013-05-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is thought to be important in reverse cholesterol transport. However, its association with coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden death is controversial. We prospectively studied 1927 individuals from the general population. Serum concentrations of apolipoprotein A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, E, and LCAT activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate were evaluated. We documented 61 events of CHD and sudden death during 10.9 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age and sex, LCAT activity was significantly associated with the risk of CHD and sudden death (hazard ratio, 3.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-6.12; P=0.002). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, current smoking status, history of diabetes mellitus, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, the hazard ratio of LCAT activity for the risk of CHD and sudden death remained significant (hazard ratio, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-7.01; P=0.008). However, when it was analyzed for men and women separately, this association remained significant only in women. Increased LCAT activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate was a risk for CHD and sudden death in a Japanese general population.

  1. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride reference ranges of twenty lipoprotein subclasses for healthy Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ai, Masumi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ura, Kazuya; Kohzuma, Takuji; Schaefer, Ernst J; Hayashi, Jun

    2013-12-01

    This epidemiological study was done to generate normal ranges for the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum lipoprotein subclasses isolated from healthy adults based on gender and menopausal status. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 20 lipoprotein subclasses as separated by high performance liquid chromatography were measured in serum obtained from 825 fasting healthy subjects (267 men, 558 women). For serum cholesterol, 13.7% was found in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, 55.6% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, and 30.4% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses. For serum triglycerides, these values were 52.1%, 27.9%, and 17.4%, respectively. Levels of cholesterol in some VLDL subclasses were inversely correlated with the levels of some HDL subclasses, while for triglycerides, elevated levels in any one subclass were generally strongly associated with elevated levels in all other subclasses. Men had significantly higher large VLDL-cholesterol levels than women (P < 0.05), while women had significantly higher small VLDL-cholesterol levels than men (P < 0.001). Women had significantly higher large LDL- and large and medium HDL-cholesterol levels than men (P < 0.001). Men had significantly higher chylomicron (CM), large and medium VLDL-, and small LDL-triglyceride levels than women (P < 0.001). Women had significantly higher very large and large HDL-triglyceride levels than men (P < 0.01). Postmenopausal women had significantly higher CM, all VLDL, and large, medium and small LDL-cholesterol levels, and significantly higher all VLDL, LDL, and HDL-triglyceride levels than premenopausal women (P < 0.001). Our data document important gender and menopausal status differences in cholesterol and triglyceride subclass levels, as well as significant correlations between values in the various serum lipoprotein subclasses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  3. Neonatal dietary cholesterol and alleles of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase affect piglet cerebrum weight, cholesterol concentration, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Pond, Wilson G; Mersmann, Harry J; Su, Dairong; McGlone, John J; Wheeler, Matthew B; Smith, E O'Brian

    2008-02-01

    This experiment was designed to test the effect of polymorphism in the cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7) gene locus and dietary cholesterol (C) on cerebrum C in neonatal pigs fed sow's milk formulas. Thirty-six pigs (18 male and 18 female) genetically selected for high (HG) or low (LG) plasma total C were weaned at 24-36 h after birth and assigned in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 diets (0 or 0.5% C), 2 sexes, and 2 genotypes (HG and LG). Individually housed pigs consumed diets ad libitum for 42 d. Open-field behavior was tested at wk 2 and 4. All pigs were killed at 42 d of age, the cerebrum was weighed, and C content and concentration measured. All data were analyzed by general linear model ANOVA. Cerebrum weight was greater in HG than LG pigs (P < 0.03) but was not affected by diet or sex. Pigs fed C tended to have a higher cerebrum C concentration than those deprived (P = 0.12). At 2 wk, LG pigs explored a novel open-field environment less often (P < 0.001) than did HG pigs. At 4 wk, some LG pigs explored the open field but fewer (P < 0.001) vs. HG pigs retreated back to the safe area. There were no genotype x diet, genotype x sex, or diet x sex interactions affecting cerebrum weight, or C content or concentration. Polymorphism in the CYP7 gene locus affected cerebrum weight and behavior and dietary C tended to increase cerebrum C concentration in neonatal pigs. These findings in neonatal pigs have considerable potential importance in human infant nutrition and behavioral development.

  4. Longitudinal trends in total serum cholesterol levels in a Japanese cohort, 1958-1986.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Wong, F L; Kodama, K; Sasaki, H; Shimaoka, K; Yamakido, M

    1997-04-01

    The 28-year follow-up of a Japanese cohort, having collected vast amounts of data collected on total serum cholesterol (TC), provided an exceptional opportunity to examine TC temporal trends. The longitudinal statistical method of growth-curve analysis was used to elucidate the age-related changes in TC levels and to characterize these trends in relation to sex, birth cohort, time period, place of residence, and body mass index (BMI). Japanese TC levels at initial examination were remarkably lower than those in western countries. During the study period from 1958 to 1986, TC levels increased dramatically with age in both sexes. The slope of the cholesterol growth curve was steeper for women than for men, with the difference growing larger after age 40 years. Drastic changes in Japanese behavior and lifestyle, especially westernization of the diet, are thought to have affected the TC values as time-period effects. As a result of this temporal change, which affected different cohorts at different ages, TC values were higher in members of the younger cohort. The increase of the TC values as time-period effects were larger in earlier period than in later period. These time-period effects appeared to be almost similar in men and women. The TC growth curves also varied by city of residence. Subjects in urban areas had higher TC values than subjects in rural areas. Changes associated with BMI from 1958 to 1986 were only partially responsible for the increased steepness of the TC growth curve.

  5. Association between serum cholesterol and eating behaviours during early childhood: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Navindra; Maguire, Jonathon L.; Lebovic, Gerald; Carsley, Sarah; Khovratovich, Marina; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Modifiable behaviours during early childhood may provide opportunities to prevent disease processes before adverse outcomes occur. Our objective was to determine whether young children’s eating behaviours were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Methods: In this cross-sectional study involving children aged 3–5 years recruited from 7 primary care practices in Toronto, Ontario, we assessed the relation between eating behaviours as assessed by the NutriSTEP (Nutritional Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) questionnaire (completed by parents) and serum levels of non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. We also assessed the relation between dietary intake and serum non-HDL cholesterol, and between eating behaviours and other laboratory indices of cardiovascular risk (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL cholesterol and apoliprotein A1). Results: A total of 1856 children were recruited from primary care practices in Toronto. Of these children, we included 1076 in our study for whom complete data and blood samples were available for analysis. The eating behaviours subscore of the NutriSTEP tool was significantly associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol (p = 0.03); for each unit increase in the eating behaviours subscore suggesting greater nutritional risk, we saw an increase of 0.02 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.002 to 0.05) in serum non-HDL cholesterol. The eating behaviours subscore was also associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but not with HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1. The dietary intake subscore was not associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Interpretation: Eating behaviours in preschool-aged children are important potentially modifiable determinants of cardiovascular risk and should be a focus for future studies of screening and behavioural interventions. PMID:23775611

  6. Association between serum cholesterol and eating behaviours during early childhood: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Navindra; Maguire, Jonathon L; Lebovic, Gerald; Carsley, Sarah; Khovratovich, Marina; Randall Simpson, Janis A; McCrindle, Brian W; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine

    2013-08-06

    Modifiable behaviours during early childhood may provide opportunities to prevent disease processes before adverse outcomes occur. Our objective was to determine whether young children's eating behaviours were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. In this cross-sectional study involving children aged 3-5 years recruited from 7 primary care practices in Toronto, Ontario, we assessed the relation between eating behaviours as assessed by the NutriSTEP (Nutritional Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) questionnaire (completed by parents) and serum levels of non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. We also assessed the relation between dietary intake and serum non-HDL cholesterol, and between eating behaviours and other laboratory indices of cardiovascular risk (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL cholesterol and apoliprotein A1). A total of 1856 children were recruited from primary care practices in Toronto. Of these children, we included 1076 in our study for whom complete data and blood samples were available for analysis. The eating behaviours subscore of the NutriSTEP tool was significantly associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol (p = 0.03); for each unit increase in the eating behaviours subscore suggesting greater nutritional risk, we saw an increase of 0.02 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.002 to 0.05) in serum non-HDL cholesterol. The eating behaviours subscore was also associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but not with HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1. The dietary intake subscore was not associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Eating behaviours in preschool-aged children are important potentially modifiable determinants of cardiovascular risk and should be a focus for future studies of screening and behavioural interventions.

  7. Triglycerides and total serum cholesterol in rotator cuff tears: do they matter?

    PubMed

    Longo, U G; Franceschi, F; Spiezia, F; Forriol, F; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the serum triglycerides and total serum cholesterol levels in patients with rotator cuff tear were determined. Frequency-matched case-control study. Setting University teaching hospital. 240 individuals who were operated on at our institution were included in the study. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 64.86 years, range 40 to 83 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear were included in group 1. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 63.91 years, range 38 to 78 years) who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy for a meniscal tear and had no evidence of shoulder pathology were included in group 2 (control group). These patients were frequency-matched by age (within 3 years) and sex with patients of group 1. Measurement of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. When comparing the two groups, there was no difference either in serum triglyceride concentration or total serum cholesterol concentration. There appears to be no association between serum triglyceride concentration and total serum cholesterol concentration in rotator cuff tears.

  8. Lipid profile and non-cholesterol sterols in obese women's serum after supplementing with plant stanol ester.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Przysławski, Juliusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of increased plant stanol ester intake on lipid profile and serum ratio of non-cholesterol sterols to cholesterol in obese women (50 years of age) with dyslipidemia. 90 females were assigned into 2 treatment groups: For a period of 4 weeks, group 1 was receiving a yoghurt, enriched with 2 g of plant stanol ester (PS group), and group 2 was receiving a yoghurt drink without extra stanols. Anthropometric measurements included body height and weight. Lipid profile was determined by commercially available enzymatic methods. Serum non-cholesterol sterols and stanols concentrations were quantitated by gas chromatography. The study was single-blind and placebo-controlled. The yoghurt drink enriched with plant stanol ester significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.05). No changes were observed in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The highest drop of LDL cholesterol was noted in the upper quartile of total cholesterol concentrations. In the PS group the statistically significant (p < 0.0001) changes were also observed in serum ratios of non-cholesterol sterols to cholesterol: campesterol, sitosterol, sitostanol, and avenasterol. Plant stanol esters influence the concentration of total cholesterol, particularly LDL cholesterol. This effect seems to be related to the reduced dietary cholesterol absorption. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Direct determination of total serum cholesterol by use of double-wavelength spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Sommers, P B; Jatlow, P I; Seligson, D

    1975-05-01

    We describe a simple, accurate method for direct determination of total cholesterol in serum. Systematic investigation of a previously described modified Liebermann-Burchard reagent has indicated the necessity of accounting for both bilirubin interference and decreased specificity owing to exothermia. Double-wavelength spectrophotometry was used to optically null out bilirubin as an interfering factor, whereas adding serum to the cold reagent increases its specificity for the cholesterol color reaction. Comparison of 106 cholesterol values with those obtained by the procedure of Abell et al. [J. Biol. Chem. 195, 357 (1952)] yielded a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99; our inter-run coefficient of variation of polled laboratory serum was 1.7%.

  10. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in diabetic patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro

    2014-10-01

    To assess whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated to elevations in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. From a total population of 1,112 patients with type 2 diabetes screened for thyroid dysfunction (thyrotropin measurement), a group of 325 patients with normal thyroid function and another group of 29 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were selected. No patient had known dyslipidemia or was taking lipid lowering medication. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism had serum levels of total cholesterol (4.88 ± 0.74 mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (1.37 ± 0.34 mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (2.94 ± 0.58 mmol/L), and triglycerides (1.05 [0.88-1.41] mmol/L) that did not significantly differ from those found in euthyroid patients (4.79 ± 0.83, 1.33 ± 0.36, 2.87 ± 0.76, and 1.11 [0.81-1.43] mmol/L, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed no association between TSH and serum lipid levels. These results suggest that, in our population, there are no significant differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between diabetic patients with normal and reduced thyroid function. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol from SHR after evening primrose oil and other polyunsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Hoffmann, P; Beitz, J; Förster, W; Wirth, M; Gödicke, W

    1986-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets enriched with evening primrose (EPO), sunflower (SO) and linseed oils (LO) as well as palm kernel fat (PKF), the latter being deficient in polyunsarated fatty acids (PUFA). In SHR fed EPO serum triglycerides were lowest and HDL1 cholesterol was highest as compared to the other groups of animals. Total cholesterol was not different. The data suggest that - as with blood pressure - serum lipids and lipoproteins might be influenced most effectively by EPO in comparison to other polyunsaturated fats.

  12. Serum resistin is related to plasma HDL cholesterol and inversely correlated with LDL cholesterol in diabetic and obese humans.

    PubMed

    Owecki, Maciej; Nikisch, Elżbieta; Miczke, Anna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and serum resisistin may all be influenced by diabetes and obesity, but their associations remain unclear. Therefore, we put forward a hypothesis that serum lipids might be parallel to resistin, as they all reflect the metabolic status of obese humans. We measured the concentrations of resistin, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in 134 obese non-diabetic (73 women and 61 men) and 65 obese diabetic (33 women, 32 men) humans, and examined their interrelations. Obesity was defined according to the WHO criterion (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m²) The presence of diabetes was the only differentiating factor between two groups of frankly obese humans. Non-diabetic vs. diabetic, median and interquartile range, respectively: resistin (ng/mL) 26.08, 16.09 vs. 22.37, 14.54, p=0.736; TC (mmol/L) 5.02, 1.39 vs. 5.16, 1.56, p=0.374; HDL-C (mmol/L): 1.10, 0.41 vs. 1.02, 0.47 p<0.05; LDL-C (mmol/L): 3.00, 1.05 vs. 3.00, 1.30 p=0.978; TG (mmol/L) 1.70, 1.43 vs.1.95, 1.81 p<0.05. To investigate the interrelations between resistin and lipids, a simple regression analysis was used, and the results were for resistin & TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG, respectively: in the whole cohort r=-0.1364, p=0.0670, r=0.1514, p=0.0437, r=-0.2573, p=0.0006, r=0.0434, p=0.5597; in non-diabetics: r=-0.2067, p=0.0213, r=0.1023, p=0.2621, r=-0.2399, p=0.0083 and r=0.0288, p=0.7497; in diabetics r=0.0280, p=0.8360, r=0.2267, p=0.0929, r=-0.2933, p=0.0298, r=0.1349, p=0.3127. In diabetic and non-diabetic subjects the atherogenic LDL cholesterol shows an inverse correlation with resistin, whereas the protective anti-atherosclerotic HDL cholesterol is positively correlated with resistin.

  13. Neonatal dietary cholesterol and alleles of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase affect piglet cerebrum weight, cholesterol concentration, and behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment was designed to test the effect of polymorphism in the cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7) gene locus, and dietary cholesterol (C) on cerebrum C in neonatal pigs fed sow's milk formulas. Thirty-six pigs (18 male and 18 female) genetically selected for high (HG), or low (LG) plasma...

  14. Enzymic determination of free and esterified cholesterol in serum by microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Rehak, N N; Young, D S

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of free and esterified cholesterol in serum can be determined simultaneously by measuring, with a batch-type microcalorimeter, the heat released during the coupled cholesterol esterase/cholesterol oxidase/catalase enzymic reaction. To differentiate the two forms of cholesterol, we used kinetic calorimetry: the rate of heat output due to enzymic hydrolysis of esterified cholesterol (the rate-determining reaction) was subtracted from the measured heat, the difference being the heat released during the enzymic oxidation of free cholesterol (the fast reaction). Results obtained by the kinetic calorimetric method agreed with those obtained by separate sequential end-point calorimetric determinations of free and total cholesterol. We also compared the kinetic calorimetric method with the cholesterol method of Abell and Kendall and a continuous-flow modification of the Liebermann-Burchard method (Technicon SMAC). De-biased linear-regression analysis of the data indicates acceptable agreement between the calorimetric and the Abell-Kendall methods (y = 0.98x + 11.5). The correlation between results by calorimetric and SMAC methods shows a significant proportional error (y = 1.17x - 159.4). Bilirubin (up to 200 mg/L) does not interfere with the calorimetry.

  15. Addition of methionine to rice protein affects hepatic cholesterol output inducing hypocholesterolemia in rats fed cholesterol-free diets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2011-05-01

    To elucidate whether a low methionine (Met)/glycine (Gly) ratio is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect of rice protein (RP), the effects of adding Met to RP, increasing its Met/Gly ratio, on hepatic cholesterol output was investigated in rats fed cholesterol-free diets. The hepatic secretion of cholesterol into bile or circulation was measured from isolated perfused livers of 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed RP (cultivar Koshihikari) with a lower Met/Gly ratio and methionine-supplemented RP with a higher Met/Gly ratio (RP-M) matched with casein (CAS). RP-M produced a significant hypocholesterolemic effect, whereas the effect of RP on plasma cholesterol level was comparable to that of CAS. Hepatic accumulation of total lipids, cholesterol, and phospholipids was higher in RP-M rats than in RP rats, again following a pattern similar to that in CAS rats. The hepatic total and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol secretions into circulation were effectively decreased by RP, but not by RP-M. Bile flow and biliary outputs of bile acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids were significantly stimulated by RP-M, causing an increase in fecal sterol excretion compared with CAS and RP. Neither biliary output nor fecal excretion of bile acids was affected by RP compared with CAS. The present results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of RP cannot be merely ascribed to the low Met/Gly ratio of RP in growing rats fed cholesterol-free diets. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic response induced by RP-M with a higher Met/Gly ratio primarily contributes to the stimulation of hepatic cholesterol for elimination via biliary secretion rather than the inhibition of hepatic cholesterol release via VLDL into circulation.

  16. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P < 0.05). The percentage increase during hibernation was more in free cholesterol (57%) than in esterified cholesterol (27%). Analysis of subclasses of serum phospholipids showed that choline containing phospholipids, i.e., sphingomyelin (SPG) (14%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (76%), are the major phospholipids in the serum of bear. The minor phospholipids included 8% of phosphatidylserine (PS) + phosphatidylinositol (PI), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was only 2% of the total phospholipids. A comparison of phospholipid subclasses showed that PC, PS + PI and SPG were significantly increased, while PE was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the hibernating state as compared with the active state in black bears. These results suggest that the catabolism of phospholipids and cholesterol is decreased during hibernation in black bears, leading to their increased levels in the hibernating state as compared with the active state. In summary, our results indicate that serum cholesterol and phospholipid fractions (except PE) are increased during hibernation in bears. It is proposed that the increase of these lipids may be due to the altered metabolism of lipoproteins that are responsible for the clearance of the lipids. ?? 2002 E??ditions scientifiques et me??dicales Elsevier SAS and Socie??te?? franc??aise de biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  17. Smell and Taste Dysfunction Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhe; Huang, Shue; Cong, Hongliang; Li, Zheng; Li, Junjuan; Keller, Kathleen L; Shearer, Gregory C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several lipid-related hormones and peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and leptin, are involved in the regulation of taste and smell function. However, to our knowledge, it remains unknown whether these chemosensory functions are associated with lipid profiles.Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between taste and smell dysfunction and blood cholesterol concentrations.Methods: With the use of a questionnaire, we assessed chronic smell and taste dysfunction in 12,627 Chinese participants (10,418 men and 2209 women; mean age: 54.4 y) who did not take hypolipidemic agents. Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of smell and taste dysfunctions, ranging from 0 (best) to 2 (worst). A general linear model was used to test differences in serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) across groups with different smell and taste status after adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, smoking, drinking, obesity, and history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and head injury.Results: The prevalence of smell and taste dysfunction was 2.4% and 1.2%, respectively. Worse smell and taste dysfunction was associated with higher total cholesterol concentrations (P-trend = 0.005). No significant differences were observed in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and TG concentrations across groups with different numbers of chemosensory dysfunctions (P-trend > 0.1 for all). The associations between chemosensory dysfunction and total cholesterol concentrations were more pronounced in participants aged ≤60 y and in those who were nonsmokers relative to their counterparts (P-interaction < 0.05 for all).Conclusions: In this large cross-sectional study, chemosensory dysfunction was associated with higher serum total cholesterol concentrations among Chinese adults. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the temporal relation between these chemosensory dysfunctions and

  18. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (P<0·0001) and 2 of 31 (6·5%) similar age/weight controls (P=0·0002). Elevated total cholesterol was significantly associated with a reduced hazard ratio (0·27, P=0·008) for overall mortality in dogs with osteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Raul J; Barengo, Noel; Haapala, Irja; Tavella, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl) than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl). Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively). Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58%) and butter (43%) are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years) had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

  20. Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Michihiro

    2017-01-01

    Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake. A series of our intervention studies in Japanese suggested that an industrial TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone. PMID:28951788

  1. Accumulation of cholesterol and increased demand for zinc in serum-deprived RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sanghamitra; Peterson, Katherine; Yin, Lili; Berger, Alan; Fan, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Having observed that confluent ARPE-19 cells (derived from human RPE) survive well in high-glucose serum-free medium (SFM) without further feeding for several days, we investigated the expression profile of RPE cells under the same conditions. Methods Expression profiles were examined with microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses, followed by western blot analysis of key regulated proteins. The effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and zinc supplementation were examined with qPCR. Immunofluorescence was used to localize the LDL receptor and to examine LDL uptake. Cellular cholesterol levels were measured with filipin binding. Expression patterns in primary fetal RPE cells were compared using qPCR. Results Microarray analyses of gene expression in ARPE-19, confirmed with qPCR, showed upregulation of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in SFM. At the protein level, the cholesterol synthesis control factor SRBEF2 was activated, and other key lipid synthesis proteins increased. Supplementation of SFM with LDL reversed the upregulation of lipid and cholesterol synthesis genes, but not of cholesterol transport genes. The LDL receptor relocated to the plasma membrane, and LDL uptake was activated by day 5–7 in SFM, suggesting increased demand for cholesterol. Confluent ARPE-19 cells in SFM accumulated intracellular cholesterol, compared with cells supplemented with serum, over 7 days. Over the same time course in SFM, the expression of metallothioneins decreased while the major zinc transporter was upregulated, consistent with a parallel increase in demand for zinc. Supplementation with zinc reversed expression changes for metallothionein genes, but not for other zinc-related genes. Similar patterns of regulation were also seen in primary fetal human RPE cells in SFM. Conclusions ARPE-19 cells respond to serum deprivation and starvation with upregulation of the lipid and cholesterol pathways, accumulation of intracellular cholesterol, and

  2. In Ovo Injection of Betaine Affects Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolism through Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Newly Hatched Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Min; Cai, Demin; Li, Xi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P < 0.05) and the hepatic content (P < 0.01) of cholesterol. Accordingly, the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMGCR was up-regulated (P < 0.05 for both mRNA and protein), while CYP7A1 which converts cholesterol to bile acids was down-regulated (P < 0.05 for mRNA and P = 0.07 for protein). Moreover, hepatic protein content of the sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 which regulates cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, and the mRNA abundance of ATP binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1) which mediates cholesterol counter transport were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P < 0.05), which was associated with global genomic DNA hypermethylation (P < 0.05) and diminished gene repression mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CpG methylation level on gene promoters was found to be increased (P < 0.05) for CYP7A1 yet decreased (P < 0.05) for ABCA1. These results indicate that in ovo betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations. PMID:25860502

  3. In Ovo injection of betaine affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism through epigenetic gene regulation in newly hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Min; Cai, Demin; Li, Xi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-01-01

    Betaine is reported to regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in mammals. Chicken eggs contain considerable amount of betaine, yet it remains unknown whether and how betaine in the egg affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks. In this study, eggs were injected with betaine at 2.5 mg/egg and the hepatic cholesterol metabolism was investigated in newly hatched chicks. Betaine did not affect body weight or liver weight, but significantly increased the serum concentration (P < 0.05) and the hepatic content (P < 0.01) of cholesterol. Accordingly, the cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme HMGCR was up-regulated (P < 0.05 for both mRNA and protein), while CYP7A1 which converts cholesterol to bile acids was down-regulated (P < 0.05 for mRNA and P = 0.07 for protein). Moreover, hepatic protein content of the sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 which regulates cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis, and the mRNA abundance of ATP binding cassette sub-family A member 1 (ABCA1) which mediates cholesterol counter transport were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in betaine-treated chicks. Meanwhile, hepatic protein contents of DNA methyltransferases 1 and adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1 were increased (P < 0.05), which was associated with global genomic DNA hypermethylation (P < 0.05) and diminished gene repression mark histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, CpG methylation level on gene promoters was found to be increased (P < 0.05) for CYP7A1 yet decreased (P < 0.05) for ABCA1. These results indicate that in ovo betaine injection regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism in chicks through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA and histone methylations.

  4. Serum cholesterol levels in homicidal offenders. A low cholesterol level is connected with a habitually violent tendency under the influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Virkkunen, M

    1983-01-01

    Serum cholesterol fasting concentrations were measured in 280 male homicidal offenders. Those with an antisocial personality or an intermittent explosive disorder with a habitually violent tendency in both when under the influence of alcohol showed a lower mean level of serum cholesterol than did other offenders. The results were also compatible with the hypotheses that antisocial personality consists of two groups. The exact reason for the finding is not clear but it could be connected with an enhanced insulin secretion.

  5. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Suárez, María E.; Escolà-Gil, Joan C.; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [3H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [3H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages. PMID:27601313

  6. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Suárez, María E; Escolà-Gil, Joan C; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-09-07

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [(3)H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages.

  7. Proposed serum cholesterol reference measurement procedure by gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Selvin H; Kimberly, Mary M; Pyatt, Susan D; Stribling, Shelton L; Dobbin, Kara D; Myers, Gary L

    2011-04-01

    Our purpose was to establish a mass spectrometry reference measurement procedure (RMP) for cholesterol to use in the CDC's standardization programs. We explored a gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-IDMS) procedure using a multilevel standard calibration curve to quantify samples with varying cholesterol concentrations. We calibrated the mass spectrometry instrument by isotope dilution with a pure primary standard reference material and an isotopically enriched cholesterol analog as the internal standard (IS). We diluted the serum samples with Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4, 0.05 mol/L, 0.25% Triton X-100) before analysis. We used 17 serum pools, 10 native samples, and 2 standard reference materials (SRMs). We compared the GC-IDMS measurements with the CDC's modified Abell-Levy-Brodie-Kendall (AK) RMP measurements and assessed method accuracy by analyzing 2 SRMs. We evaluated the procedure for lack of interference by analyzing serum spiked with a mixture of 7 sterols. The mean percent bias between the AK and the GC-IDMS RMP was 1.6% for all samples examined. The mean percent bias from NIST's RMP was 0.5% for the SRMs. The total %CVs for SRM 1951b levels I and II were 0.61 and 0.73%, respectively. We found that none of the sterols investigated interfered with the cholesterol measurement. The low imprecision, linear response, lack of interferences, and acceptable bias vs the NIST primary RMP qualifies this procedure as an RMP for determining serum cholesterol. The CDC will adopt and implement this GC-IDMS procedure for cholesterol standardization.

  8. Genetic causes of high and low serum HDL-cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-01-01

    Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) have a strong inherited basis with heritability estimates of 40-60%. The well-established inverse relationship between plasma HDL-C levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) has led to an extensive search for genetic factors influencing HDL-C concentrations. Over the past 30 years, candidate gene, genome-wide linkage, and most recently genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several genetic variations for plasma HDL-C levels. However, the functional role of several of these variants remains unknown, and they do not always correlate with CAD. In this review, we will first summarize what is known about HDL metabolism, monogenic disorders associated with both low and high HDL-C levels, and candidate gene studies. Then we will focus this review on recent genetic findings from the GWA studies and future strategies to elucidate the remaining substantial proportion of HDL-C heritability. Comprehensive investigation of the genetic factors conferring to low and high HDL-C levels using integrative approaches is important to unravel novel pathways and their relations to CAD, so that more effective means of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention will be identified. PMID:20421590

  9. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol

  10. Transition Diseases in Grazing Dairy Cows Are Related to Serum Cholesterol and Other Analytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol

  11. The effect of compactin, a potent inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase activity, on cholesterogenesis and serum cholesterol levels in rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Fears, R; Richards, D H; Ferres, H

    1980-04-01

    Compactin, [7-(1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2-methyl-8-(2-methylbutyrylox)naphthyl)-3-hydroxyheptan-5-olide], a potent competitive inhibitor of the rate-determining step in cholesterol biosynthesis, was used to study the influence of changes in cholesterogenesis on serum cholesterol levels. Up to 3 h after a single oral dose (20 or 50 mg/kg) or after the last of a series of daily oral doses (50 mg/kg for 7 or 28 days) to young, male normolipidaemic rats, compactin consistently inhibited cholesterogenesis measured using 3H20 in liver, ileum and other extrahepatic tissues without affecting fatty acid synthesis. Compactin did not reduce serum or tissue cholesterol nor affect the serum concentration of other lipids nor the ratio between lipoprotein classes. A diurnal variation in the effect of compactin on cholesterogenesis was observed. For example, by 12--20 h after dosing, cholesterogenesis at all sites was increased above the comparable control value, indicating the induction of enzyme synthesis and overall there was little effect on the mass of cholesterol synthesized per day. Similar results were obtained using male chicks. Inhibition of cholesterogenesis by compactin was also observed in cholestyramine-treated rats, in which cholesterol turnover was markedly increased, and even in cholesterol-fed rats, in which cholesterogenesis already was repressed. In neither case, however, was inhibition of cholesterogenesis accompanied by a hypocholesterolaemic effect. It is concluded that a more persistent suppression of cholesterogenesis, than that observed with compactin in the rat, may be required in order to affect serum cholesterol concentrations.

  12. Long sleep duration is associated with serum cholesterol in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Julia F; Miedema, Henk M E; Tulen, Joke H M; Neven, Arie Knuistingh; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Tiemeier, Henning

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found increased mortality associated with both habitual short and long sleep duration. The mechanisms behind these associations are unclear. We investigated whether objectively measured sleep duration, time in bed, and sleep fragmentation were associated with total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in community-dwelling elderly. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 participants of the Rotterdam Study, aged 57 to 97 years. Sleep parameters were assessed with actigraphy, a validated method that infers wakefulness and sleep from arm movement. Cholesterol levels in serum were determined in fasting blood samples. All regression analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, depressive symptoms, and heart failure. Sleep duration was positively associated with total cholesterol level: beta = 0.11 (95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.18) mmol/l per hour of sleep. Persons who slept longer, and spent more time in bed, also had a higher total/HDL cholesterol ratio. A less fragmented sleep was also associated with higher total cholesterol. Some of these associations showed significant interactions with age. The association between time in bed and total/HDL ratio was mainly driven by persons aged <65, whereas the relationship between sleep fragmentation and total cholesterol level was most prominent in persons aged >or=70. A longer sleep duration was related to higher total cholesterol level and a higher total/HDL cholesterol ratio. Two separate mechanisms, a longer time in bed and sleep fragmentation, seem to explain these associations in different age categories.

  13. Differential Effects of Cod Proteins and Tuna Proteins on Serum and Liver Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed Non-Cholesterol- and Cholesterol-Containing Diets

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Maeda, Hayato; Ikeda, Yuki; Toda, Yuko; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Fish muscles are classified into white and red muscles, and the chemical composition of the two fish muscles have many differences. Few reports have assessed the health-promoting functions of white fish muscle proteins (WFP) and red fish muscle proteins (RFP). We therefore evaluated the mechanisms underlying the alteration of lipid profiles and cholesterol metabolism following the intake of WFP prepared from cod and RFP prepared from light muscles of tuna. Male Wistar rats were divided into six dietary groups: casein (23%), WFP (23%), and RFP (23%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Compared to the WFP-containing diet, the RFP-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol and sodium cholate significantly increased serum and liver cholesterol contents. However, in the RFP groups, an alteration in cholesterol metabolism including an increased tendency to excrete fecal sterols and hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase was related to the reduction of hepatic cholesterol contents. This phenomenon might be related to the tendency of an increased food intake in RFP-containing diets. These results highlight the differential effects of WFP and RFP on serum and liver lipid profiles of Wistar rats fed non-cholesterol- or cholesterol-containing diets under no fasting condition. PMID:28702425

  14. Differential Effects of Cod Proteins and Tuna Proteins on Serum and Liver Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed Non-Cholesterol- and Cholesterol-Containing Diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Maeda, Hayato; Ikeda, Yuki; Toda, Yuko; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    Fish muscles are classified into white and red muscles, and the chemical composition of the two fish muscles have many differences. Few reports have assessed the health-promoting functions of white fish muscle proteins (WFP) and red fish muscle proteins (RFP). We therefore evaluated the mechanisms underlying the alteration of lipid profiles and cholesterol metabolism following the intake of WFP prepared from cod and RFP prepared from light muscles of tuna. Male Wistar rats were divided into six dietary groups: casein (23%), WFP (23%), and RFP (23%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Compared to the WFP-containing diet, the RFP-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol and sodium cholate significantly increased serum and liver cholesterol contents. However, in the RFP groups, an alteration in cholesterol metabolism including an increased tendency to excrete fecal sterols and hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase was related to the reduction of hepatic cholesterol contents. This phenomenon might be related to the tendency of an increased food intake in RFP-containing diets. These results highlight the differential effects of WFP and RFP on serum and liver lipid profiles of Wistar rats fed non-cholesterol- or cholesterol-containing diets under no fasting condition.

  15. Can Cholesterol Metabolism Modulation Affect Brain Function and Behavior?

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Veronica; Servadio, Michela; Trezza, Viviana; Pallottini, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol is an important component for cell physiology. It regulates the fluidity of cell membranes and determines the physical and biochemical properties of proteins. In the central nervous system, cholesterol controls synapse formation and function and supports the saltatory conduction of action potential. In recent years, the role of cholesterol in the brain has caught the attention of several research groups since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, and interestingly also with psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the connection between cholesterol dysregulation and various neurologic and psychiatric disorders based on clinical and preclinical studies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 281-286, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the food you eat (such as eggs, meats, and dairy products). Too much cholesterol can have ... fewer foods with saturated fats (such as red meat and most dairy products). Opt for healthier fats, ...

  17. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Agonists Reduce Serum Cholesterol Independent of the LDL Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jean Z.; Martagón, Alexandro J.; Hsueh, Willa A.; Baxter, John D.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Webb, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The majority of cholesterol reduction therapies, such as the statin drugs, work primarily by inducing the expression of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs), rendering these therapeutics only partially effective in animals lacking LDLRs. Although thyroid hormones and their synthetic derivatives, often referred to as thyromimetics, have been clearly shown to reduce serum cholesterol levels, this action has generally been attributed to their ability to increase expression of hepatic LDLRs. Here we show for the first time that the thyroid hormone T3 and the thyroid hormone receptor-β selective agonists GC-1 and KB2115 are capable of markedly reducing serum cholesterol in mice devoid of functional LDLRs by inducing Cyp7a1 expression and stimulating the conversion and excretion of cholesterol as bile acids. Based on this LDLR-independent mechanism, thyromimetics such as GC-1 and KB2115 may represent promising cholesterol-lowering therapeutics for the treatment of diseases such as homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a rare genetic disorder caused by a complete lack of functional LDLRs, for which there are limited treatment options because most therapeutics are only minimally effective. PMID:23087171

  18. Interferon lambda genotype and low serum LDL cholesterol levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Josephine H.; Lao, Xiang Qian; Tillmann, Hans L.; Rowell, Jennifer; Patel, Keyur; Thompson, Alexander; Suchindran, Sunil; Muir, Andrew J.; Guyton, John R.; Gardner, Stephen D.; McHutchison, John G.; McCarthy, Jeanette J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recently, genetic polymorphisms occurring in the interferon lambda gene region were associated with response to interferon-based treatment of hepatitis C infection. Both infection with the hepatitis C virus and interferon therapy are associated with decreased serum cholesterol and high cholesterol has been associated with increased likelihood to respond to interferon. We sought to determine if the interferon lambda gene variant was also associated with serum lipid levels in chronic hepatitis C patients. We compared genotypes of the rs12979860 polymorphism, located proximal to the IL28 gene, with serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 746 subjects with chronic HCV infection, not currently undergoing treatment, using multivariable analysis of variance. Results Levels of total cholesterol (p=6.0×10-4), apolipoprotein B (p=1.3×10-6) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p=8.9×10-10) were significantly higher in subjects carrying the rs12979860 CC ‘responder’ genotype compared to those with the CT or TT genotype. Levels of triglycerides (p=0.03), apolipoprotein A-I (p=0.06) and apolipoprotein E (p=0.01) were slightly lower in the rs12979860 CC genotype group, while levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.78) and apolipoprotein C-III (p=0.74) did not vary by rs12979860 genotype. Conclusions Our results suggest that low levels of LDL cholesterol in chronic hepatitis C patients may be a marker of host endogenous interferon response to hepatitis C and that subjects with the rs12979860 CC ‘responder’ genotype may have a lower endogenous interferon response to the virus. PMID:20235331

  19. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality.

  20. [Serum cholesterol of Swiss military personnel and assessment of nutrition in military service].

    PubMed

    Keller, U

    1990-09-18

    Two separate studies are reported. The first aimed at assessing the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in 453 military personnel who were in service in fall 1988 in a military fort. According to the risk limits of the Swiss Working Group on Lipids, the serum cholesterol values were elevated in 30% (greater than 6.5 mmol/l), in the borderline range in 31% (5.2. to 6.5 mmol/l), and only 39% had values in the ideal range (less than 5.2 mmol/l). There was a significant correlation of serum cholesterol (measured by Reflotron) with age, and the increase between age 20 and 40 was particularly remarkable (1.5 mmol/l increase). There was also a significant correlation of serum cholesterol with body weight. Only 9% of the soldiers knew their cholesterol levels before the study. One third were smokers, and 9% were hypertensive. The second aimed at analysing the consumption of food in the military service. This analysis was performed during a military service in an underground fort, where all food was controlled and known. The analysis indicated that per subject and day, 2051 kcal daily were consumed from the troup kitchen. Additional calories were consumed in the canteen (before and after the main meals) in the form of sweets, particularly as beverages. There were 1053 kcal per person and day consumed in the canteen, consisting of 39% carbohydrates, 36% fat, 15% proteins and 10% alcohol. The study demonstrates on one hand, that a significant number of military personnel demonstrates undesirably high serum cholesterol concentrations; on the other hand, the second study shows that too many calories are consumed during military service and that the foodstuff was too high in fat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Optimal Serum Cholesterol Concentrations are Associated with Accelerated Bone Loss in African Ancestry Men

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Allison L.; Miljkovic, Iva; Evans, Rhobert; Bunker, Clareann H.; Patrick, Alan L.; Zmuda, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Studies of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol associations with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss have been inconclusive, and longitudinal data are sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test if fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with areal and volumetric BMD and BMD change, Methods We determined the association of serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations with cross-sectional and longitudinal (mean follow-up: 6.1 years) measures of BMD in a cohort of 1289 in African ancestry men (mean age: 56.4 years). Fasting serum triglycerides, HDL and LDL were measured at baseline concurrent with BMD assessments. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify integral hip BMD and peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the radius and tibia was used to quantify volumetric BMD. Men were categorized as optimal, borderline or high-risk for triglyceride, HDL and LDL concentrations based on adult treatment panel III guidelines. Results Lower serum triglyceride or LDL and higher HDL concentrations were associated with lower trabecular BMD at baseline (all p<0.05). Similarly, men classified as having optimal levels of LDL, HDL or triglycerides at baseline experienced the greatest integral BMD loss at the hip and trabecular BMD loss at the tibia (all p<0.05), independent of potential confounding factors. Conclusions We found that clinically optimal serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were associated with accelerated bone loss among Afro-Caribbean men. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved and potential clinical significance of these findings. PMID:26602914

  2. Potato pulps lowered the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Ito, Yusaku; Han, Kyu-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Topping, David L; Bird, Anthony R; Noda, Takahiro; Chiji, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2006-12-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that retrograded starch, a kind of resistant starch, of beans reduced serum lipid levels in rats. In this study, we examined whether retrograded starch in potato pulps could reduce serum lipid concentrations. Rats were given diets containing 15 g of retrograded starch in potato pulps from the Benimaru potato (BM) or Hokkaikogane potato (HK) in a 100 g diet for 4 wk. At the 4th week, the total cholesterol level in the serum in the BM group and serum triglyceride (TG) level in the HK group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In the BM group, the contents of fecal bile acids were significantly higher than those in the control group. On the other hand, in the HK group, the hepatic mRNA level of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly lower than that in the control group. The FAS mRNA level correlated with the mRNA level of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), a regulator of expression of FAS, positively. These results suggested that BM pulp promoted the excretion of bile acids, which resulted in a low concentration of serum cholesterol. On the other hand, HK pulp inhibited the synthesis of fatty acids at the mRNA levels of FAS and SREBP-1c, which might lead to a reduction of the serum TG level.

  3. Relationships between birth weight and serum cholesterol levels in healthy Japanese late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sanae; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Uemura, Yukari; Kodama, Momoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Poor growth in utero has been suggested to be associated with adverse levels of serum cholesterol concentrations in later life. In Asia, there have only been a limited number of studies examining the relationship between fetal status and serum lipids, especially in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between birth weight and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels; adjusting for current physical status including percent body fat, physical activity and nutrient intake in healthy Japanese late adolescents. The data of 573 late adolescents with an average age of 17.6 (287 boys and 286 girls) who underwent physical examinations which included blood sampling and who had all the required data, were analyzed. Birth weight was obtained from their maternal and child health handbook. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was positively associated with serum HDL in girls, independently of percent body fat or fat intake, when adjusted for current body height and weight. There were no associations between birth weight and serum HDL in boys, or serum LDL in either sex.

  4. Analysis of Serum Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in a Minipig Model of Nonischemic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Bigazzi, Federico; Adorni, Maria Pia; Puntoni, Mariarita; Sbrana, Francesco; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Pino, Beatrice Dal; Favari, Elda; Recchia, Fabio A; Bernini, Franco; Sampietro, Tiziana

    2017-08-01

    Circulating levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are decreased in patients with heart failure (HF). We tested whether HDL-C serum levels are associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction in a minipig HF model. Blood samples were collected from 13 adult male minipigs: 1) before pacemaker implantation, 2) 10 days after surgery, and 3) 3 weeks after high-rate LV pacing. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an index of HDL functionality, was assessed through four mechanisms: ATP Binding Cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP Binding Cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), Scavenger Receptor-Class B Type I (SR-BI) and Passive Diffusion (PD). HDL-C serum levels significantly decrease in minipigs with HF compared with baseline (p<0.0001). Serum CEC mediated by PD and SR-BI, but not ABCA1 or ABCG1, significantly decrease in animals with HF (p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively). HDL-C serum levels and partial serum CEC reduction may play a pathophysiological role in the cardiac function decay sustained by high-rate LV pacing, opening new avenues to understand of the pathogenesis of nonischemic myocardial remodeling.

  5. Serum total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk prediction of cardiovascular events - the JALS-ECC -.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Naohito; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okada, Katsutoshi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Harada, Akiko; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ando, Takashi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-07-01

    Few Japanese studies have compared serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol with serum total cholesterol as factors for predicting risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, few tools accurately estimate the probability of developing cardiovascular events for the Japanese general population. A total of 22,430 Japanese men and women (aged 40-89 years) without a history of cardiovascular events from 10 community-based cohorts were followed. In an average 7.6-year follow up, 104 individuals experienced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 339 experienced stroke. Compared to serum total cholesterol, serum non-HDL cholesterol was more strongly associated with risk of AMI in a dose-response manner (multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio per 1 SD increment [95% confidence interval] =1.49 [1.24-1.79] and 1.62 [1.35-1.95], respectively). Scoring systems were constructed based on multivariable Poisson regression models for predicting a 5-year probability of developing AMI; the non-HDL cholesterol model was found to have a better predictive ability (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC] =0.825) than the total cholesterol model (AUC =0.815). Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol levels were associated with any stroke subtype. The risk of AMI can be more reliably predicted by serum non-HDL cholesterol than serum total cholesterol. The scoring systems are useful tools to predict risk of AMI. Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol can predict stroke risk in the Japanese general population.

  6. Standardization of serum cholesterol assays by use of serum calibrators and direct addition of Liebermann-Burchard reagent.

    PubMed

    Katan, M B; van der Haar, F; Kromhout, D; Schouten, F J

    1982-04-01

    Serum cholesterol concentrations of subjects in epidemiological studies were measured after direct addition of Liebermann-Burchard reagent; results were calibrated with human serum pools assayed according to Abell et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 195:357-366, 1952). Accuracy and precision were monitored for six years by analysis of internal-control pools and blind external-control pools. For various internal-control pools, the imprecision (CV) of the long-term averages of run means ranged from 0.5 to 0.9%. The within-run CV for internal control and patients' sera was about 1%. For blind control sera with different concentrations (provided by the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, over the same period), the average difference per three-month period between the values found and the target values was usually between -0.5% and +0.7% for medium-concentration pools and between -2% and +2% for low- and high-concentration pools (extreme values: -2.4% and +2.5%). The CV per three-month period ranged from 0.6 to 2.7%. Sera from subjects on diets of high or low linoleic acid content were analyzed to study the effect of the fatty acid portion of serum cholesterol esters; the differences between values obtained with the comparison method and the direct method was insignificant on both diets. We conclude that the use of serum calibrators eliminates the bias inherent in the direct method.

  7. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  8. Serum cholesterol, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning: a relation with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Tochigi, Mamoru; Umekage, Tadashi; Otani, Toshiyuki; Kato, Tadafumi; Iwanami, Akira; Asukai, Nozomu; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kato, Nobumasa

    2002-11-01

    Cholesterol and uric acid, which might correlate with steroidogenesis and monoamine functions, may change under emotionally stressful conditions and in mental disturbances. Among anxiety disorders, an increase of serum cholesterol has been observed in panic disorder. However, the issue has not been adequately investigated in other anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated serum cholesterols, uric acid and cholinesterase in victims of the Tokyo subway sarin poisoning, 1995, in a series of 5-year follow-ups. Cholinesterase was studied, in relevance with serum lipid changes and symptoms of PTSD, and also in light of a biological effect of sarin. Out of 34 victims, eight developed PTSD and two were currently diagnosed with PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). No significant relationship was observed between PTSD and serum cholesterols or uric acid. Several factors including co-occurrence of other mental disturbances with PTSD, in addition to the limited sample size, might have affected the result. In contrast, serum cholinesterase level was significantly reduced in the victims with the development of PTSD, compared with the matched controls (P<0.02, t-test). This might partly reflect a long-term remnant effect of sarin intoxication, although an effect of the psychological experience could not be totally excluded.

  9. Novel Relationship of Serum Cholesterol with Asthma and Wheeze in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.; Massing, Mark W.; Spruell, Brian; Jaramillo, Renee; Draper, David W.; Madenspacher, Jennifer H.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Calatroni, Agustin; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol exerts complex effects upon inflammation. There has been little investigation of whether serum cholesterol is associated with asthma, an inflammatory airways disease with great public health impact. Objective To determine relationships between levels of three serum cholesterol measures (total cholesterol [TC], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and non-HDL-C), and asthma/wheeze in a sample representative of the U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional study of 7,005 participants aged ≥6 years from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results Serum TC and non-HDL-C were lower in current asthmatics than in subjects without current asthma in the overall population (TC: 188.5 vs. 192.2 mg/dL; non-HDL-C: 133.9 vs. 137.7 mg/dL; p<.05 for both), whereas HDL-C was not different. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) from multivariate logistic regression per 1-standard deviation increase of TC and non-HDL-C for current asthma were 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–0.98) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85–0.98), respectively. Upon racial/ethnic stratification, these relationships reflect marked reductions unique to Mexican Americans (MAs)(TC: 171.4 vs. 189.3 mg/dL [p<.001], OR 0.62 [95% CI, 0.48–0.80]; non-HDL-C: 119.8 vs. 137.9 mg/dL [p<.001], OR 0.62 [95% CI, 0.48–0.79]). Among MAs, the adjusted OR for wheeze requiring medical attention was 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43–0.75) for TC and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.33–0.85) for non-HDL-C. Relationships between cholesterol and asthma/wheeze were independent of body mass index and serum C-reactive protein, and similar between atopic and non-atopic participants. Conclusion Serum TC and non-HDL-C are inversely related to asthma in the U.S. population, chiefly reflecting a relationship among MAs. PMID:19800678

  10. Serum cholesterol concentration associated with aspirin esterase activity in older people: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Caccavello, Russell; Hermo, Ricardo; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2010-05-10

    Metabolism of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), commonly used in older people for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, is important to the effectiveness of this drug. Whereas part of aspirin hydrolysis occurs in blood, there is a paucity of information in regards to circulating aspirin esterase activity in various physiological and pathological conditions. High aspirin esterase activity, corresponding to faster aspirin hydrolysis (thus aspirin non-responsiveness), may occur in cardiovascular disease-prone states. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cardio-metabolic variables such as cholesterol on serum aspirin esterase activity in older people who participated in an intervention study on physical activity. A total of 18 non-medicated subjects (7 men/11 women, mean age 67.8 years, body mass index = 23.4 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2)), who completed a 3-month interventional program for a mild-to-moderate increase in physical activity, were analyzed. The body mass index, plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol and aspirin esterase activity were measured in the pre- and post-interventional phases of the study. During the interventional period, the changes in aspirin esterase activity correlated significantly and positively with those of total cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.542, P = 0.020; beta = 0.609, P = 0.035 in a multiple linear regression analysis after adjusting for all the measured variables). The results suggest that cholesterol metabolism alterations may be associated with aspirin metabolism in older people.

  11. The Effect of a Three-Month Physical Fitness Program on Serum Free Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, D. L.; Ismail, A. H.

    This study investigates the effect of a three-month physical fitness program on serum-free cholesterol concentration in four age and fitness adult groups. Twenty-four men were divided into the following groups: (a) young, low-fit; (b) old, low-fit; (c) young, high-fit; and (d) old, high-fit. All subjects had normal resting glucose and triglyceride…

  12. Factors affecting intestinal absorption of cholesterol and plant sterols and stanols.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Various factors affect intestinal absorption of cholesterol and plant sterols and stanols. Plant sterols and stanols are generally less absorptive than cholesterol. Differential absorption rates among various plant sterols and stanols have been also reported. Although it was suggested that differential absorption among cholesterol and various plant sterols was determined by difference in excretion rates of sterols and stanols through ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) G5/ABCG8 of intestinal cells, our study suggests that affinity for and solubility in bile salt micelles can be important determinants for differential absorption of plant sterols and stanols. It was also suggested that plant sterols were transiently incorporated into intestinal cells and then excreted to intestinal lumen through ABCG5/ABCG8. However, in a rat study, transient incorporation of sitosterol into intestinal cells was not observed, suggesting that sitosterol is differentiated from cholesterol at the incorporation site of intestinal cells. It is well established that plant sterols inhibit intestinal absorption of cholesterol and exert a hypocholesterolemic activity. Plant sterols are solubilized in bile salt micelles as cholesterol. Our study clearly showed that because the sterol-solubilizing capacity of bile salt micelles was limited, plant sterols solubilized in micelles reduced the solubility of cholesterol. This can be the major cause of inhibition of cholesterol absorption by plant sterols. Pancreatic cholesterol esterase accelerates intestinal absorption of unesterified cholesterol. Although it was suggested that cholesterol esterase accelerated esterification of cholesterol incorporated into intestinal cells and acted as a transporter at the surface of intestinal cells, our research revealed that the accelerated cholesterol absorption was caused by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in bile salt micelles. It is thought that hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine reduces the affinity of

  13. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  14. Elevated Levels of Serum Cholesterol are Associated with Better Performance on Tasks of Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Leritz, Elizabeth C.; McGlinchey, Regina E.; Salat, David H.; Milberg, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. Method A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43–85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. Results The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. Conclusions These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging. PMID:26873100

  15. Optimal serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with accelerated bone loss in African ancestry men.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, A L; Miljkovic, I; Evans, R; Bunker, C H; Patrick, A L; Zmuda, J M

    2016-04-01

    We tested if serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with longitudinal measures of bone mineral density (BMD) in 1289 African ancestry men. After 6 years of mean follow-up, men with clinically optimal levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or triglycerides at baseline experienced the greatest BMD loss, independent of potential confounding factors (all p < 0.05). Studies of lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol associations with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone loss have been inconclusive, and longitudinal data are sparse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test if fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with areal and volumetric BMD and BMD change. We determined the association of serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations with cross-sectional and longitudinal (mean follow-up, 6.1 years) measures of BMD in a cohort of 1289 in African ancestry men (mean age, 56.4 years). Fasting serum triglycerides, HDL, and LDL were measured at baseline concurrent with BMD assessments. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify integral hip BMD, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the radius and tibia was used to quantify volumetric BMD. Men were categorized as optimal, borderline, or high risk for triglyceride, HDL, and LDL concentrations based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Lower serum triglyceride or LDL and higher HDL concentrations were associated with lower trabecular BMD at baseline (all p < 0.05). Similarly, men classified as having optimal levels of LDL, HDL, or triglycerides at baseline experienced the greatest integral BMD loss at the hip and trabecular BMD loss at the tibia (all p < 0.05), independent of potential confounding factors. We found that clinically optimal serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were associated with accelerated bone

  16. Association of dietary fiber with temporal changes in serum cholesterol in Japanese-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Teresa Gontijo; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2006-06-01

    To examine dietary intakes in relation to long-term serum lipoprotein changes in a prospective cohort study with 7 y of follow-up, serum lipids were analyzed by enzymatic methods, while food intake was calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. First- and second-generation Japanese-Brazilians (n = 316) living in Bauru, São Paulo/Brazil, of both genders, aged 40 to 79 y were assessed at baseline in 1993. Multiple linear regression models were used with changes in serum lipoproteins as the dependent variable and changes in dietary intakes as the independent variables, adjusted for confounding factors. In energy-adjusted analyses, changes in serum total cholesterol were inversely associated with changes in total dietary fiber, fruits/fruit juices and vegetables after adjustment for age and gender. Each increase of 10 g in the consumption of total dietary fiber was associated with a reduction of 12.5 mg/dL in the serum total cholesterol (p<0.05). Our results highlight the importance of increased intakes of total fiber, fruits and vegetables to prevent and control dyslipidemia in Japanese migrants.

  17. Serum cholesterol concentration and mortality from accidents, suicide, and other violent causes.

    PubMed Central

    Vartiainen, E.; Puska, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Lönnqvist, J.; Ehnholm, C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the association of mortality from accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths with serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN--Baseline measurements in two randomly chosen independent cohorts were carried out in 1972 and 1977. Mortality was monitored over 10-15 years through the national death registry. SETTING--Eastern Finland. SUBJECTS--The two cohorts comprised men (n = 10,898) and women (n = 11,534) born between 1913 and 1947. There were 193 deaths due to accidents, suicides, and violence among men and 43 among women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality from accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths was used as the end point. Deaths from these causes were pooled together in the analyses. RESULTS--Serum cholesterol concentration was not associated with mortality from accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths in the univariate analyses or in the proportional hazards regression analyses including smoking, systolic blood pressure, alcohol drinking, and education. In both genders smoking was more prevalent among those who died from accidents, suicides, and other violent causes than from other causes. Frequent use of alcohol increased mortality from these causes. CONCLUSION--The risk of accidents, suicides, and other violent deaths was not related to serum cholesterol concentration, whereas such deaths were more prevalent in smokers and alcohol drinkers. PMID:7920128

  18. Relationships of the platelet aggregate ratio to serum cholesterol concentration, smoking and age

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James W.; Lewis, H. Daniel; Phillips, Phyllis E.; Davis, Rebecca F.

    1981-01-01

    The platelet aggregate ratio has been found to be decreased in some patients with vascular diseases suggesting the presence of increased circulating platelet aggregates. It has also been reported that hypercholesterolaemia is associated with an enhanced response of platelets to aggregating agents in platelet-rich plasma. The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine correlation of the platelet aggregate ratio with the serum cholesterol concentration of men with vascular diseases. For 52 men referred because of known or suspected coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or venous thromboembolism, the correlation coefficient of 0·06 suggested that the serum cholesterol concentration within the range observed (135-360 mg/dl) was not a factor influencing the platelet aggregate ratio. There was not a statistically significant difference between the mean platelet aggregate ratios or the mean serum cholesterol concentrations of the 21 non-smokers and the 31 smokers studied. A correlation coefficient of 0·03 between the platelet aggregate ratio and age of the patient suggested that the platelet aggregate ratio was independent of age in men with occlusive vascular diseases. PMID:7329876

  19. Differences in individual responsiveness of serum cholesterol to fat-modified diets in man.

    PubMed

    Katan, M B; van Gastel, A C; de Rover, C M; van Montfort, M A; Knuiman, J T

    1988-12-01

    In the period 1963-1974, 82 monks and 48 nuns from five Dutch and Belgian Trappist monasteries each participated in two or more out of nine different trials designed to test the effect of 58 different fat-modified diets on serum cholesterol. We analysed these data to quantify the extent to which healthy, normolipaemic subjects differ in the responsiveness of their serum cholesterol to a change in dietary fatty acid composition. Statistically significant between-person variance components (SD2p) were found in the serum cholesterol responses for the whole group (SD2p = [0.20 mmol l-1]2), for the men (SD2p = [0.24 mmol l-1]2) and for those women who participated in three or more trials (SD2p = [0.14 mmol l-1]2). The between-person variation (expressed as SD) was on average only half as large as the within-person variation in response when the same subject was challenged repeatedly. It is concluded that medically significant differences in responsiveness to fat-modified diets exist in both men and women. However, few subjects fail entirely to respond to a change in dietary fatty acid composition. In addition, the large within-subject variability makes it difficult to identify hypo- and hyperresponders.

  20. The Affinity of Cholesterol for Different Phospholipids Affects Lateral Segregation in Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Oskar; Hautala, Victor; Yasuda, Tomokazu; Dehio, Henrike; Murata, Michio; Slotte, J Peter; Nyholm, Thomas K M

    2016-08-09

    Saturated and unsaturated phospholipids (PLs) can segregate into lateral domains. The preference of cholesterol for saturated acyl chains over monounsaturated, and especially polyunsaturated ones, may also affect lateral segregation. Here we have studied how cholesterol influenced the lateral segregation of saturated and unsaturated PLs, for which cholesterol had a varying degree of affinity. The fluorescence lifetime of trans-parinaric acid reported the formation of ordered domains (gel or liquid-ordered (lo)) in bilayers composed of different unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, and dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine or n-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin, in the presence or absence of cholesterol. We observed that cholesterol facilitated lateral segregations and the degree of facilitation correlated with the relative affinity of cholesterol for the different PLs in the bilayers. Differential scanning calorimetry and (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance showed that cholesterol increased the thermostability of both the gel and lo-domains. Increased number of double bonds in the unsaturated PL increased the order in the lo-domains, likely by enriching the ordered domains in saturated lipids and cholesterol. This supported the conclusions from the trans-parinaric acid experiments, and offers insight into how cholesterol facilitated lateral segregation. In conclusion, the relative affinity of cholesterol for different PLs appears to be an important determinant for the formation of ordered domains. Our data suggests that knowledge of the affinity of cholesterol for the different PLs in a bilayer allows prediction of the degree to which the sterol promotes lo-domain formation.

  1. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background: Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function.Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes.Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants (n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: <25; n = 14) and overweight or obese (≥25; n = 34) participants by using linear mixed models.Results: The almond diet, compared with the control diet, increased α-1 HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL (P < 0.05). No diet effects were observed in the overweight or obese group.Conclusions: Substituting almonds for a carbohydrate-rich snack within a lower-saturated-fat diet may be a simple strategy to maintain a favorable

  2. Differential effects of aging, drinking and exercise on serum cholesterol levels dependent on the PPARA-V227A polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Naito, Hisao; Kamijima, Michihiro; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Nakahara, Ai; Katoh, Takahiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakajima, Tamie

    2007-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA alpha) plays a pivotal role in lipid metabolism. Our previous study reported that PPARA-V227A was a major polymorphism in Japanese, which was associated with markedly lower serum total cholesterol (TC) levels, which were significantly affected by alcohol drinking compared to subjects with the wild-type (PPARA-WT) allele. However, serum lipids are also associated with aging and exercise frequency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PPARA-V227A and these factors. Genetic analysis of the polymorphism was performed in 1058 Japanese men and 281 women, and the relationship with aging, drinking and exercise on serum lipids was analyzed in 989 men and 245 women after exclusion criteria had been applied. In men, drinking increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in both PPARA-WT and A227 carriers, but to a significantly higher degree in the latter. In women, TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the A227 carriers drinking at least once a week were significantly higher than in PPARA-WT carriers. TC and LDL-C levels in males with PPARA-WT increased with aging regardless of drinking habit, while LDL-C levels in the A227 drinking carriers were significantly lower in 45-yr-old or older subjects than in 35- to 45-yr-olds. In addition, no effect of exercising was observed in the A227 carriers, while increase in the HDL-C of the PPARA-WT carriers was exercise frequency dependent. These results suggest that the influence of drinking, aging or exercise on TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in the A227 carriers may be different from those in the PPARA-WT subjects.

  3. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-09-01

    There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  4. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c.

  5. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    PubMed Central

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  6. Relationship of Serum Cholesterol Levels to Atopy in the U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.; Jaramillo, Renee; Crockett, Patrick W.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol promotes Th2 immunity and allergic inflammation in rodents; whether this occurs in humans is unclear. Reports of both direct and inverse associations between serum cholesterol and atopy in different populations suggest that race and/or other demographic variables may modify these relationships. Aims of the study To determine relationships between levels of three serum cholesterol measures (total cholesterol [TC], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], and non-HDL-C), and atopy in a sample representative of the U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional study of 6,854 participants aged ≥6 years from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results In the overall population, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) per 2-standard deviation increase of TC and non-HDL-C for biochemical atopy (defined as ≥1 allergen-specific IgE to 19 allergens) were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.38) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03-1.39), respectively. Interactions by race were noted for the two relationships (interaction p=0.004 and p=0.009, respectively), with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) having direct relationships (TC: AOR 1.27 [95% CI, 1.03-1.57]; non-HDL-C: AOR 1.27 [95% CI, 1.03-1.56]) and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) inverse relationships (TC: AOR 0.77 [95% CI, 0.62-0.95]; non-HDL-C: AOR 0.86 [95% CI, 0.69-1.08]). The adjusted HDL-C-atopy relationship was nonsignificant for NHWs and inverse for NHBs (AOR 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.96]). Relationships were independent of body mass index and serum C-reactive protein, and unmodified by corticosteroid or statin usage. Results were similar using current hay fever/allergy as the atopy outcome. Conclusions There are marked inter-racial differences in the relationship between serum cholesterol and atopy in the U.S population. PMID:20015326

  7. The effects of lowering serum cholesterol on coronary heart disease risk.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, J E

    1994-01-01

    The clinical trials and angiographic studies of cholesterol lowering have been of decisive importance in persuading scientific and public opinion that elevated serum cholesterol is a causal element in the chain of events leading to CHD and that treatment by diet and drugs is effective in lowering the risk of CHD. The appropriateness of these opinions is well illustrated by the analyses of the combined trials, which show that the clinical event rate can be lowered by about 20% if cholesterol levels are lowered by 10%. The reduced risk for CHD applies to both primary and secondary prevention. Further, the angiographic studies have now demonstrated that vigorous lipid-lowering therapy leads to improvements in the angiographic appearance of coronary vessels, which are accompanied by large reductions in CHD risk. Diet and a variety of drugs appear to modify the risk of CHD. The results of studies using combinations of drugs, for example, bile acid-binding resins with either niacin or hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are particularly impressive. The primary purpose of treatment remains the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol; however, the possibility of an additional benefit from improving other aspects of the lipid profile (such as raising HDL cholesterol levels) at the same time should not be ignored. In many instances, combinations of drugs are needed to achieve optimal lowering of serum cholesterol or to treat all elements of the disorder. Although the treatment of high-risk but apparently healthy individuals should not be neglected, it would be particularly appropriate to institute intensive diet and combination drug therapy in patients with existing CHD, in view of their high risk of reinfarction if left untreated. The secondary prevention trials provide evidence that clinical events can be reduced in such patients. The angiographic studies strongly suggest that large reductions in cholesterol to much lower levels (in-treatment LDL

  8. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  9. The effect of coffee consumption on serum total cholesterol in the Sami and Norwegian populations.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Tove; Melhus, Marita; Brustad, Magritt; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-11-01

    To assess coffee consumption in the Sami and Norwegian populations and to investigate the impact of unfiltered boiled coffee consumption on serum cholesterol concentrations. A cross-sectional study. Information was collected by self-administrated questionnaires and total serum cholesterol was analysed. Participants were divided into three ethnic groups: Sami I (Sami used as home language in the last three generations), Sami II (at least one Sami identity marker) and Norwegian. In an area with Sami, Kven/Finnish and Norwegian populations, the SAMINOR study, 2003-2004. A total of 5647 men and 6347 women aged 36-79 years. More than 90 % of the study populations were coffee drinkers. Only 22 % were unfiltered coffee consumers. Sami I had the highest proportion of participants who consumed nine or more cups of unfiltered coffee per day, although the number of participants was limited. Total coffee consumption was associated with increased total cholesterol for men (P < 0·01) and women (P < 0·0001). For those who drank only unfiltered coffee, a significant association was found only in Norwegian men, adjusted for physical activity in leisure time, BMI and smoking habits (P < 0·001). From the lowest (less than five cups) to the highest (nine or more cups) unfiltered coffee consumption category, the mean total cholesterol levels increased by 0·29 mmol/l in Norwegian men. Unfiltered coffee consumption was lower in the present study compared to previous reports. In general, total coffee consumption was positively associated with total cholesterol levels. However, for unfiltered coffee consumption, an association was found only in Norwegian men.

  10. Biosynthetic origin of serum cholesterol in the squirrel monkey: evidence for a contribution by the intestinal wall

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jean D.

    1968-01-01

    The possibility that the intestinal wall serves as a biosynthetic site for serum cholesterol has been examined in two types of studies in the squirrel monkey. First, animals were fed cholesterol in order to inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver, and the intestinal lymph ducts were cannulated. After the administration of acetate-2-14C it was possible to demonstrate that cholesterol synthesized by the intestinal wall enters intestinal lymph and thereby in the intact animal enters the circulating pool. Second, an attempt to quantitate the significance of this intestinal contribution has been made in animals fed cholesterol-3-3H and injected with cholesterol-4-14C for long periods. By an application of the technique of analysis utilizing the isotopic steady state we estimated as a minimal value that in the squirrel monkey 1.5-2.0 mg of cholesterol synthesized in the intestinal wall reaches the circulation each day. PMID:16695939

  11. Serum triglycerides, but not cholesterol or leptin, are decreased in suicide attempters with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    da Graça Cantarelli, Maria; Nardin, Patrícia; Buffon, Andréia; Eidt, Murilo Castilhos; Antônio Godoy, Luiz; Fernandes, Brisa S; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Many peripheral biomarkers, including low cholesterol and its fractions, have been examined to identify suicidal behavior. Herein, we assessed serum lipid profile and some proteins putatively associated with suicidal behavior in subjects with mood disorder (bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) with a recent suicide attempt and with no lifetime history of suicide attempts. Fifty subjects had presented an episode of attempted suicide during the last 15 days, and 36 subjects had no history of any suicide attempt. We measured total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides as well as serum leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100B and C-reactive protein (CRP). Individuals that had attempted suicide presented decreased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. After adjusting for these confounders, we found that triglycerides were decreased in attempted suicide subjects. We found no differences among total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL or leptin, S100B, CRP and BDNF. This is a cross-sectional study, and we cannot therefore assess whether a decrease in triglycerides caused a mood episode with suicidal ideation that led to a suicide attempt or if the presence of a mood episode originated a loss of appetite and consequent loss of weight, therefore decreasing triglyceride levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that lower levels of cholesterol are associated with suicidal behavior in a mood disorder sample. However, our data support the idea that adiposity is differentiated in these patients (reduced BMI, waist circumference and serum triglycerides), which could lead to an altered communication between the adipose tissue and brain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drinking Deep Seawater Decreases Serum Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein–Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhao-Yang; Yang, Feili Lo; Hsu, Hsin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Drinking deep seawater (DSW) with high levels of magnesium (Mg) decreased serum lipids in animal studies. Therefore the effects of drinking DSW on blood lipids and its antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemic subjects were investigated. DSW was first prepared by a process of filtration and reverse osmosis, and then the concentrated DSW with high levels of Mg was diluted as drinking DSW. Forty-two hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomly divided into three groups: reverse osmotic (RO) water, DSW (Mg: 395 mg/L, hardness 1410 ppm), and magnesium-chloride fortified (MCF) water (Mg: 386 mg/L, hardness 1430 ppm). The subjects drank 1050 mL of water daily for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected and analyzed on weeks 0, 3, and 6. Drinking DSW caused a decrease in blood total cholesterol levels and this effect was progressively enhanced with time. Serum low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C) was also decreased by DSW. Further, total cholesterol levels of subjects in the DSW group were significantly lower than those in the MCF water or RO water groups. Compared with week 0, the DSW group had higher blood Mg level on weeks 3 and 6, but the Mg levels were within the normal range in all three groups. DSW consumption also lowered thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values in serum. In conclusion, DSW was apparently effective in reducing blood total cholesterol and LDL-C, and also in decreasing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic subjects. PMID:22424458

  13. Studies on ecophysiology of fish parasites: effect of trypanosome infection on the serum cholesterol levels of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tandon, R S; Chandra, S

    1977-07-29

    Serum cholesterol levels of six species of fresh water fishes were lowered due to trypanosome infection. The percentage of infection in the different species of hosts ranged from 3.27% in Clarias batrachus to 16.66% in Wallago attu. Loss in serum cholesterol level was highest (42.39%) in the spiny eel Mastocembelus armotus and lowest in the carp Cirrhina mrigala (4.56%). Thus hypocholesterolemia was evidently caused in the fishes by trypanosomes.

  14. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir; Kok, Wim Th; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2009-11-03

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  15. Association of serum tumor necrosis factor levels with decrease of cholesterol during septic shock.

    PubMed

    Fraunberger, P; Pilz, G; Cremer, P; Werdan, K; Walli, A K

    1998-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that release of cytokines during inflammatory states such as septic shock leads to hypocholesterolemia. To examine whether tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), which is the major cytokine in inflammatory disease, causes hypocholesterolemia, we measured serum levels of total (bioactive and receptor-bound) TNF, cholesterol, Apo B, and Apo A1 in seven patients with septic shock over a period of 8 days. Since elevated serum TNF levels are accompanied by the release of soluble TNF receptors, levels of TNF receptors p55 and p75 were also measured. Patients with septic shock had significantly higher serum TNF and TNF receptor levels compared with healthy controls. Increased cytokine levels were accompanied by a significant decline in total serum cholesterol apolipoprotein A1 and B. In vitro studies with cultured human skin fibroblasts, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and HepG2 hepatoma cells showed that TNF increased the degradation of 125I-labeled low-density lipoprotein in all the cell lines tested. Recombinant soluble TNF receptors inhibited the TNF-induced stimulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the calculated ratio of TNF receptors to total TNF measured in serum of these patients was not able to counteract the stimulatory effect of TNF, possibly due to the higher molar excess of TNF receptors required to achieve this effect in vitro. Our data strengthen the hypothesis that serum values of total TNF determine the extent of hypocholesterolemia during sepsis and septic shock despite the presence of a high concentration of TNF receptors. Studies with recombinant TNF also confirm the role of TNF in hypocholesterolemia in inflammation.

  16. Efficacious redox-responsive gene delivery in serum by ferrocenylated monomeric and dimeric cationic cholesterols.

    PubMed

    Vulugundam, Gururaja; Kumar, Krishan; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-04-14

    Herein, we present the design and synthesis of new redox-active monomeric and dimeric (gemini) cationic lipids based on ferrocenylated cholesterol derivatives for gene delivery. The cationic cholesterols are shown to be transfection efficient after being formulated with the neutral helper lipid DOPE in the presence of serum (FBS). The redox activity of the resulting co-liposomes and their lipoplexes could be regulated using the alkanyl ferrocene moiety attached to the ammonium head groups of the cationic cholesterols. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements were performed to characterize the co-liposomal aggregates and their complexes with pDNA. The transfection efficiency of lipoplexes could be tuned by changing the oxidation state of the ferrocene moiety. The gene transfection capability was assayed in terms of green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression using pEGFP-C3 plasmid DNA in three cell lines of different origins, namely Caco-2, HEK293T and HeLa, in the presence of serum. The vesicles possessing ferrocene in the reduced state induced an efficient transfection, even better than a commercial reagent Lipofectamine 2000 (Lipo 2000) as evidenced by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. All the co-liposomes containing the oxidized ferrocene displayed diminished levels of gene expression. Gene transfection events from the oxidized co-liposomes were further potentiated by introducing ascorbic acid (AA) as a reducing agent during lipoplex incubation with cells, leading to the resumption of transfection activity. Assessment of transfection capability of both reduced and oxidized co-liposomes was also undertaken following cellular internalization of labelled pDNA using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Overall, we demonstrate here controlled gene transfection activities using redox-driven, transfection efficient cationic monomeric and dimeric cholesterol lipids. Such systems could be used in gene

  17. [Studies on the accuracy and precision of total serum cholesterol in regional interlaboratory trials (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hohenwallner, W; Sommer, R; Wimmer, E

    1976-01-02

    The between-run precision of the Liebermann-Burchard reaction modified by Watson was, in our laboratory, 2-3%, the within-run coefficient of variation was 1-2%. The between-run precision of the enzymatic test was 3-4%, the within-run coefficient of variation was 3%. The regression analysis of 92 serum specimens from patients was y = -17.31 + 1.04 chi, the coefficient of regression was r = 0.996. Interlaboratory trials of serum cholesterol were studied in the normal and pathological range. Lyophilized samples of serum prepared commercially and from fresh specimens from patients were analysed by the method of Liebermann-Burchard as well as by the enzymatic procedure. Acceptable results estimated by Liebermann-Burchard were obtained in the different laboratories after using a common standard of cholesterol. The coefficient of variation of the enzymatic test in the interlaboratory trial was higher in comparison to the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Methodological difficulties of the Liebermann-Burchard reaction are discussed and compared with the specific, enzymatic assay.

  18. Effect of serum lipoproteins and cholesterol on an exogenous pulmonary surfactant. ESR analysis of structural changes and their relation with surfactant activity.

    PubMed

    Martínez Sarrasague, María; Cimato, Alejandra; Piehl, Lidia; Brites, Fernando; Facorro, Graciela

    2013-12-01

    The study of structural changes in the surfactant may help to understand the mechanisms by which the surfactant is inactivated by serum. Here, we compared the in vitro effects of serum, albumin, lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL, HDL) and cholesterol on the dynamic and structural properties of surfactant suspensions by electronic spin resonance and surface tension measurements. Our results showed that albumin seems to be responsible for macrostructure disaggregation and increased rigidity in the hydrophobic region, but it did not affect surfactant activity. Fluidity in the polar area seems to be critical for proper physiological activity, and the changes induced by serum observed in this area would be generated by HDL or cholesterol, but the amount of cholesterol transferred by serum is not significant. Statistical analysis showed that surfactant activity correlated with the fluidity in the polar area but not with that in the hydrophobic region. We obtained strong evidence that among all the serum components tested, HDL is the one that causes the structural changes that compromise surfactant performance.

  19. Serum cholesterol response to changes in the diet: I. Iodine value of dietary fat versus 2S-P.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Ancel; Anderson, Joseph T; Grande, Francisco

    1965-07-01

    In men in calorie equilibrium, changes in dietary fat produce responses in the serum cholesterol level that, on the average, are predictable from the percentages of total calories provided by saturated (S) and polyunsaturated (P) fatty acid glycerides in the diets concerned. S and P have opposing actions and, in general, Δ Cholesterol (mg./100 ml.) = 2.7ΔS − 1.3ΔP, where Δ refers to the difference between 2 diets. Increasing the number of double bonds beyond 2 in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not result in proportionate increases in serum cholesterol-lowering effect. The mono-enes oleic and erucic acid have little or no effect on the serum cholesterol level when they are exchanged in the diet for equal calories of simple carbohydrate. Changes of fats in the diet produce serum cholesterol responses that are also correlated with the iodine values, or the square-roots of those values, of the fats concerned when the iodine value happens to be highly correlated with 2.7S - 1.3P. When changes in diet fats involve substantial differences in amounts of mono-enes, or of fatty acids containing more than 2 double bonds, the serum cholesterol response has a low or negligible correlation with the iodine value, or its square-root, of the fats.

  20. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  1. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  2. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  3. HDL-cholesterol subfractions in healthy males: relation to serum triglyceride levels and age.

    PubMed

    Ferns, G A; Robinson, D; Stocks, J; Bevan, E; Williams, P; Galton, D J

    1986-09-01

    The relationship between plasma HDL-cholesterol subfractions (HDL2 and HDL3), measured using a differential precipitation method, and serum triglycerides, was studied in 402 healthy Caucasian males attending a health screening centre in London. Mean values for HDL2 and HDL3 were 0.42 +/- 0.24 mmol/L and 0.81 +/- 0.15 mmol/L respectively. HDL2 was found to show a stronger negative correlation with serum triglyceride and a stronger positive correlation with total HDL than HDL3. HDL2 also showed a stronger correlation with age than either total HDL or HDL3. Mean levels of HDL2 were 20% higher in subjects over 55 years of age compared with those who were less than 55 years of age. Reference values of HDL2 and HDL3 are presented for different age ranges.

  4. Association of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity with cardiovascular risk: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    The cholesterol-esterifying enzyme, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), is believed to play a key role in reverse cholesterol transport. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that higher LCAT activity levels increase the formation of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) and atherogenesis. We hypothesized that higher LCAT activity measured as a serum cholesterol esterification rate by the endogenous substrate method might increase the formation of TRLs and thereby alter low-density lipoprotein (LDL) heterogeneity. The estimated LDL particle size [relative LDL migration (LDL-Rm)] was measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the LipoPhor system (Joko, Tokyo, Japan) in 538 consecutive patients with at least risk factor for atherosclerosis. Multivariate regression analysis after adjustments for traditional risk factors identified elevated TRL-related marker (TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol, apolipoprotein C-II, and apolipoprotein C-III) levels as independent predictors of smaller-sized LDL particle size, both in the overall subject population and in the subset of patients with serum LDL cholesterol levels of <100 mg/dL. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the LCAT activity (0.79; sensitivity 60 %; specificity 84.8 %) was observed for the evaluation of the indicators of an LDL-Rm value of ≥0.40, which suggests the presence of large amounts of small-dense LDL. The results lend support to the hypothesis that increased LCAT activity may be associated with increased formation of TRLs, leading to a reduction in LDL particle size. Therefore, to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it may be of importance to pay attention not only to a quantitative change in the serum LDL-C, but also to the LCAT activity which is possibly associated with LDL heterogeneity.

  5. Enterostatin deficiency increases serum cholesterol but does not influence growth and food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rita; D'Agostino, Dymphna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Lowe, Mark E

    2009-10-01

    A pentapeptide released from procolipase, enterostatin, selectively attenuates dietary fat intake when administered peripherally or centrally. Enterostatin may act through the afferent vagus nerve and in the hypothalamus and amygdala, primarily in the central nucleus of the amygdala. To investigate the physiological role of endogenous enterostatin, we created an enterostatin-deficient, colipase-sufficient (Ent(-/-)) mouse. Ent(-/-) mice are viable, normally active, and fertile. They exhibit normal growth on low-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, Ent(-/-) mice develop diet-induced obesity, as do Ent(+/+) mice, and have normal responses to a two-macronutrient choice diet and to a switch from a high-fat to a low-fat diet. Levels of total serum (P = 0.004) and non-HDL (P cholesterol were higher and levels of HDL cholesterol (P = 0.01) were lower in Ent(-/-) than in wild-type mice. To determine whether enterostatin contributed to the decreased survival or whether colipase deficiency was the sole contributor, we administered enterostatin to procolipase-deficient (Clps(-/-)) mouse pups. Enterostatin significantly improved survival (P cholesterol metabolism.

  6. IL-1 regulates the Cyp7a1 gene and serum total cholesterol level at steady state in mice.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Ashino, Takashi; Yoshida, Takemi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2009-02-06

    We examined the role of hepatic interleukin (IL)-1alpha/beta in serum total cholesterol homeostasis using male and female IL-1-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Serum total cholesterol level was higher in males than in females in WT and KO mice. The difference between sexes was closely correlated with the difference in gene expression level of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. No significant sex difference in gene expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, was observed in WT mice. Interestingly, the gene expression level of hepatic Cyp7a1 was lower in KO mice than in sex-matched WT mice, while the serum total cholesterol level was the opposite. The present findings demonstrate that IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are positive regulators for the Cyp7a1 gene in steady-state mice and that Cyp7a1 is one of the factors that mediate the difference in serum total cholesterol level between sexes.

  7. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shreya; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Vaidya, Ruchi; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF) intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels) in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262) were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF < median intake (29 g/day) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (49.5% vs. 40.1% [P = 0.01]) and higher LDL cholesterol (46.2% vs. 35.5% [P = 0.001]) than those in the > median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.85], P = 0.04), and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06–1.94], P = 0.02) was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:25285277

  8. Serum lipids, lipoprotein composition and liver cholesterol in genetically obese Zucker rats fed semipurified diets containing either casein or soy protein.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H; van Tintelen, G; West, C E

    1983-01-01

    The effect of semipurified diets containing either casein or soy protein on serum lipids, lipoprotein composition and liver cholesterol was studied in genetically obese Zucker rats. The ingestion of a cholesterol-enriched semipurified diet containing casein resulted in elevated levels of serum cholesterol and phospholipids compared to the feeding of a soy protein diet. No differences in serum triglycerides were observed. Differences in serum cholesterol and phospholipids were mainly reflected in the very low density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins and to a minor extent in the high density lipoproteins. Liver cholesterol paralleled the levels of cholesterol in the serum, the rats fed casein exhibited markedly higher levels of liver cholesterol than those fed soy protein. Furthermore, the rats fed casein also had enlarged livers. Thus, this study clearly shows the differential cholesterolemic effect of dietary casein and soy protein in genetically obese Zucker rats.

  9. Serum Cholesterol Reduction Efficacy of Biscuits with Added Plant Stanol Ester

    PubMed Central

    Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Wangtong, Ajima; Komindr, Surat

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c-) lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, 119 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomized to plant stanol or control groups. Subjects were comparable in age, gender, lipid profiles, and body mass index. They consumed a control biscuit once a day for a two-week period, followed by a four-week intervention period that either had a plant stanol ester biscuit or a control. During the habitual diet, one biscuit per day was consumed at any time that subjects wished. Serum lipid profiles were measured at the first day of run-in, at baseline, and at the study's end. Compared to the control, the total cholesterol (TC), LDL-c, and the LDL-to-high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) ratio had serum reductions of 4.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, respectively, and were observed after 4 weeks of biscuit consumption with added plant stanols (P < 0.05). A significantly higher reduction in LDL-c (8.9%) and LDL/HDL ratio (11.4%) was measured in those taking a plant stanol biscuit with a meal compared to those who consumed a plant stanol biscuit without other food. In conclusion, incorporating plant stanols into a biscuit is an attractive, convenient, and acceptable way to modestly lower elevated cholesterol concentrations. For optimal efficacy, biscuits should be consumed with a meal as part of a healthy diet. PMID:25861469

  10. The 4-hydroxybenzoate/4-aminophenazone chromogenic system used in the enzymic determination of serum cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Meiattini, F; Prencipe, L; Bardelli, F; Giannini, G; Tarli, P

    1978-12-01

    A single reagent, containing cholesterol oxidase, cholesterol esterase, peroxidase, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and 4-aminophenazone, is used in determining serum cholesterol. Analysis time is 15 min, and the standard curve is linear to 6.0 g/liter. Analytical recovery of cholesterol was 100.1 +/- 0.4%. Within-run precision (CV) was less than or equal to 1.4 1.4%, between-run less than or equal to 4.8%. Comparison with results by a Liebermann Burchard method [Clin. Chim. Acta 5, 637 (1960)] gave a linear regression of y = 1.08x--0.05, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.985. Comparison with the Roeschlau enzymic method [J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem, 12, 226 (1974)] gave y = 1.02x + 0.01 (r = 0.958). Comparison with the enzymic method of Allain et al. [Clin. Chem. 20, 470 (1974)] gave y = 1.01x--0.00 (r = 0.995). The following substances do not interfere up to the indicated concentrations (mg/liter): hemoglobin (5000), bilirubin (100), reduced glutathione (150), l-cysteine (400), urea (3000), creatinine (200), uric acid (200), d-glucose (10000), L-ascorbic acid (50), acetylsalicylic acid (500), L-DOPA (10), ergothioneine (1000), 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (20), and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (10). Stored in an amber-colored bottle, the working reagent is stable for three months at 2--8 degrees C and for three weeks at 25 degrees C.

  11. Soy protein reduces serum cholesterol by both intrinsic and food displacement mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Berryman, Claire E; Wang, Li; Carleton, Amanda; Abdulnour, Shahad; Sievenpiper, John L; Kendall, Cyril W C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2010-12-01

    The apparently smaller LDL cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering effect of soy in recent studies has prompted the U.S. FDA to reexamine the heart health claim previously allowed for soy products. We therefore attempted to estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic (displacement) potential of soy in reducing LDL-C to determine whether the heart health claim for soy continues to be justified. The intrinsic effect of soy was derived from a meta-analysis using soy studies (20-133 g/d soy protein) included in the recent AHA Soy Advisory. The extrinsic effect of soy in displacing foods higher in saturated fat and cholesterol was estimated using predictive equations for LDL-C and NHANES III population survey data with the substitution of 13-58 g/d soy protein for animal protein foods. The meta-analysis of the AHA Soy Advisory data gave a mean LDL-C reduction of 0.17 mmol/L (n = 22; P < 0.0001) or 4.3% for soy, which was confirmed in 11 studies reporting balanced macronutrient profiles. The estimated displacement value of soy (13-58 g/d) using NHANES III population survey data was a 3.6-6.0% reduction in LDL-C due to displacement of saturated fats and cholesterol from animal foods. The LDL-C reduction attributable to the combined intrinsic and extrinsic effects of soy protein foods ranged from 7.9 to 10.3%. Thus, soy remains one of a few food components that reduces serum cholesterol (>4%) when added to the diet.

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Shift Work on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hamed; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Nasrabadi, Tahereh; Gholami-Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Objectives: Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. Results: The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the “Healthy Heart project” at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company. PMID:25763276

  13. Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    McDougall, J; Litzau, K; Haver, E; Saunders, V; Spiller, G A

    1995-10-01

    This study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a strictly vegetarian, very low-fat diet on cardiac risk factor modification. Five hundred men and women, participants in an intensive 12-day live-in program, were studied. The program focused on dietary modification, moderate exercise, and stress management at a hospital-based health-center. During this short time period, cardiac risk factors improved: there was an average reduction of total serum cholesterol of 11% (p < 0.001), of blood pressure of 6% (p < 0.001) and a weight loss of 2.5 kg for men and 1 kg for women. Serum triglycerides did not increase except for two subgroups: females age > or = 65 years with serum cholesterol < 6.5 mmol/L and for females 50 to 64 years with baseline serum cholesterol between 5.2-6.5 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol measured on 66 subjects decreased by 19%. A strict, very low-fat vegetarian diet free from all animal products combined with lifestyle changes that include exercise and weight loss is an effective way to lower serum cholesterol and blood pressure.

  14. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  15. Enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum lipoprotein profiles by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with on-line, dual detection.

    PubMed

    Rambaldi, Diana Cristina; Reschiglian, Pierluigi; Zattoni, Andrea; Johann, Christoph

    2009-11-03

    Alterations of lipoproteins (LPs) and related lipid levels in blood serum are correlated to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fast, possibly automated methods to obtain complete, multi-parametric LP profiles are therefore welcome to be developed for routine, clinical analysis practice. In this work, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) with on-line, dual post-fractionation reaction detection (PFRD) is applied to develop a method for single-run, simultaneous quantification of cholesterol (CHOL) and triglycerides (TGs) in each fractionated LP class. The enzymatic reagents used for the post-fractionation reaction are available as commercial kits for certified, standard clinical protocols for the analysis of CHOL and TGs in serum. Using CHOL and glycerol as reference standards, a new procedure is applied to optimize the experimental conditions for PFRD-based, quantitative analysis. Upon optimized PFRD and AF4 conditions, results obtained for the determination of total CHOL (TC), TGs, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in a set of serum samples from healthy donors are found in agreement with the values provided by a clinical laboratory. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the method were found always lower than 10% (CV). When the method was applied to serum samples from patients affected by sepsis, differences in CHOL and TG profiles between patients and healthy donors were observed.

  16. Amperometric cholesterol biosensors based on the electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric Acid for the determination of cholesterol in serum.

    PubMed

    Muhammet, Sinan M; Cete, Servet; Arslan, Fatma; Yaşar, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    A new amperometric cholesterol biosensor was prepared by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polypyrrole-polyaniline (ppy-pani) composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. In order to prepare a biosensor for the determination of cholesterol, electropolymerization of pyrrole and aniline on Pt surface was performed with an electrochemical cell containing pyrrole and aniline in sulphuric acid by cyclic voltammetry between 0.0 and 0,7 V (vs.Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 50 mV upon Pt electrode. The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H(2)O(2), which is generated in enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. The cholesterol determined by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H(2)O(2) at 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The optimized cholesterol oxidase biosensor displayed linear working range and a response time of 300 s. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 7.0, 25 degrees C, respectively. In addition to this, the stability and reproducibility of biosensor were tried. Operational stability of the proposed cholesterol biosensor was obtained by periodical measurements of the biosensor response. Biosensor at optimum activity conditions was used in 30 activity assays in one day to determine the operational stability. The results show that 82% of the response current was retained after 30 activity assays. The electrode was stored in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C after the measurements. The storage stability of the biosensor was determined by performing activity assays within 23 days. The results demonstrate that 60% of the response current was retained after 23 days. Preparing biosensor is used for the analysis of cholesterol in serum.

  17. Extract of black tea (pu-ehr) inhibits postprandial rise in serum cholesterol in mice, and with long term use reduces serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels and renal fat weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Tomohide

    2008-10-01

    A water-soluble extract of a traditional Chinese fermented black tea, pu-ehr, decomposes bile acid cholesterol micelles. This black tea extract (BTE) was studied to see if it could decrease the postprandial elevation of blood cholesterol levels after a single administration in ddY mice. It was found that BTE (0.3 g/kg) significantly decreased the postprandial rise in blood cholesterol levels after oral administration of cholesterol (130 mg/kg). A non-fermented tea (i.e. green tea) extract did not prevent the postprandial increase in blood cholesterol. In a subsequent study, 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed BTE for 3 weeks, following which a dose-dependent and significant decrease in serum total cholesterol levels (1.36 mmol/L, 0.1% BTE, p < 0.05) was found and also in renal fat weight (0.3% BTE, p < 0.05). LDL cholesterol levels (0.51 mmol/L, 0.1% BTE, p < 0.05) were also significantly decreased. There were no significant changes in the weights of other organs or in the serum levels of other clinical markers. Thus, BTE has a specific antihypercholesterol effect in rodents, which might potentially aid in the management of hyperlipidaemia in man.

  18. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Maria C.; Wroblewski, Joanne M.; Noffsinger, Victoria P.; Meyer, Jason M.; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R.

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA) contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO) were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. 3H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of 3H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36% (P < 0.05) and 80% (P < 0.001), respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived 3H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45% (P < 0.05). Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment. PMID:23431457

  19. [Therapy and prevention of coronary heart diseases through lowering of the serum cholesterol levels; third consensus 'Cholesterol'. Consensus Working Group, CBO].

    PubMed

    Simoons, M L; Casparie, A F

    1998-09-19

    For the second time the consensus text for lipid lowering therapy is revised. In angiographic studies it was shown that a decrease in the total cholesterol as well as the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level results in a reduction of the progression of vascular disease. Furthermore, intervention trials demonstrated that therapy with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors reduces not only both the cardiovascular and total mortality, but also other manifestations of coronary heart disease (CHD). Hypercholesterolaemia is treated with a low-fat diet and normalisation of the weight. For individuals, this might result in a reduction of the risk for myocardial infarction or death and for the population in a decrease of the mean serum cholesterol concentration and the incidence of CHD. The indication for drug therapy is founded on the expected effectiveness to reduce the incidence of (new manifestations of) CHD, which is related to the level of the absolute risk of vascular disease. In persons without known vascular diseases this risk is calculated from the total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Treatment with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors must be considered in (a) patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia, (b) all patients with a history of myocardial infarction or other symptomatic vascular disease with a total cholesterol concentration above 5.0 mmol/l and a life expectancy of at least five years; (c) persons with a combination of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and high risk for development of CHD, rising from 25% per 10 years at the age of 40 years to 35-40% per 10 years at the age of 70 years, with a life expectancy of at least five years. If these guidelines are followed, the upper limit of the calculated cost-effectiveness is about Dfl. 40,000 per life year gained. The working group judges this reasonable in comparison with other therapeutic interventions in the

  20. Lovastatin Differentially Affects Neuronal Cholesterol and Amyloid-β Production in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Oliva, Aydé; Ferrera, Patricia; Fragoso-Medina, Jorge; Arias, Clorinda

    2015-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that high cholesterol may increase susceptibility to age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, it has been suggested that statins, which are inhibitors of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), may be a useful therapeutic tool to diminish the risk of AD. However, several studies that analyzed the therapeutic benefits of statins have yielded conflicting results. Herein, we investigated the role of lovastatin on neuronal cholesterol homeostasis and its effects on amyloid β protein production in vivo and in vitro. Lovastatin effects were analyzed in vitro using differentiated human neuroblastoma cells and in vivo in a lovastatin-fed rat model. We demonstrated that lovastatin can differentially affect the expression of APP and Aβ production in vivo and in vitro. Lovastatin-induced HMGCR inhibition was detrimental to neuronal survival in vitro via a mechanism unrelated to the reduction of cholesterol. We found that in vivo, dietary cholesterol was associated with increased Aβ production in the cerebral cortex, and lovastatin was not able to reduce cholesterol levels. However, lovastatin induced a remarkable increase in the mature form of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) as well as its target gene HMGCR, in both neuronal cells and in the brain. Lovastatin modifies the mevalonate pathway without affecting cholesterol levels in vivo and is able to reduce Aβ levels only in vitro. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mitochondrial Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) Is Present in Human Serum and Is Positively Correlated with HDL-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Genoux, Annelise; Pons, Véronique; Radojkovic, Claudia; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Combes, Guillaume; Rolland, Corinne; Malet, Nicole; Monsarrat, Bernard; Lopez, Frédéric; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial ATP synthase is expressed as a plasma membrane receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). On hepatocytes, apoA-I binds to cell surface ATP synthase (namely ecto-F1-ATPase) and stimulates its ATPase activity, generating extracellular ADP. This production of extracellular ADP activates a P2Y13-mediated HDL endocytosis pathway. Conversely, exogenous IF1, classically known as a natural mitochondrial specific inhibitor of F1-ATPase activity, inhibits ecto-F1-ATPase activity and decreases HDL endocytosis by both human hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. Methodology/Principal Findings Since recent reports also described the presence of IF1 at the plasma membrane of different cell types, we investigated whether IF1 is present in the systemic circulation in humans. We first unambiguously detected IF1 in human serum by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. We then set up a competitive ELISA assay in order to quantify its level in human serum. Analyses of IF1 levels in 100 normolipemic male subjects evidenced a normal distribution, with a median value of 0.49 µg/mL and a 95% confidence interval of 0.22–0.82 µg/mL. Correlations between IF1 levels and serum lipid levels demonstrated that serum IF1 levels are positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and negatively with triglycerides (TG). Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data support the view that, in humans, circulating IF1 might affect HDL levels by inhibiting hepatic HDL uptake and also impact TG metabolism. PMID:21935367

  2. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Unhee; Gayles, Travis; Katki, Hormuzd A; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2007-06-01

    Lymphoma patients often exhibit abnormal lipid metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that a decrease in circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may occur during lymphomagenesis, reflecting underlying etiology such as inflammation. We investigated the relationship between prediagnostic HDL-C and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. At baseline, serum HDL-C and total cholesterol concentrations from fasting blood, information on diet and lifestyle, and direct measurements of height, weight, and blood pressure were obtained from 27,074 healthy male smokers of ages 50 to 69 years. Cox proportional hazards models with age as underlying time metric was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We found no association between total or non-HDL cholesterol and the 201 incident NHL cases ascertained during the follow-up (1985-2002), but observed an inverse association between HDL-C and NHL, which changed with length of follow-up. High HDL-C was associated with lower risk of all NHL during the first 10 years (n = 148; RR for 5th versus 1st quintile, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.62; P(trend) < 0.0001), but not with diagnoses during later follow-up (n = 53; RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.55-3.10). The inverse association was similar for NHL subtypes and was not modified by obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, or alcohol intake, but seemed to be stronger in men with lower duration of smoking (P(interaction) = 0.06). Our findings implicate HDL-C as a preclinical indicator of NHL and warrant further prospective investigations for its etiologic contribution.

  3. 16-Dehydropregnenolone lowers serum cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Kumar, Durgesh; Bhateria, Manisha; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2017-04-01

    16-Dehydropregnenolone (DHP) has been developed and patented as a promising antihyperlipidemic agent by CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), India. Although DHP is implicated in controlling cholesterol homeostasis, the mechanism underlying its pharmacological effect in hyperlipidemic disease models is poorly understood. In the present study, we postulated that DHP lowers serum lipids through regulating the key hepatic genes accountable for cholesterol metabolism. The hypothesis was tested on golden Syrian hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD) following oral administration of DHP at a dose of 72mg/kg body weight for a period of one week. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total bile acids (TBA) in feces were measured. Real time comparative gene expression studies were performed for CYP7A1, LXRα and PPARα level in liver tissue of hamsters. The results revealed that the DHP profoundly decreased the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index (AI), whilst elevated the HDL-C/TC ratio. Besides, DHP exhibited an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the HFD induced hyperlipidemic hamsters by means of: (1) up-regulating the gene expression of CYP7A1 encoded cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, that promotes the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid; (2) inducing the gene expression of transcription factors LXRα and PPARα; (3) increasing the TBA excretion through feces. Collectively, the findings presented confer the hypolipidemic activity of DHP via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 pathway that promotes cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and bile acid excretion.

  4. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Lunde, Marianne Sylvana Haug; Haug, Anna

    2013-06-25

    Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, p<0.01. Rats ingesting ammonium chloride as compared with sodium bicarbonate responded with increased desaturase indexes, increased serum triglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid.

  5. Exposure to Polymers Reverses Inhibition of Pulmonary Surfactant by Serum, Meconium, or Cholesterol in the Captive Bubble Surfactometer

    PubMed Central

    López-Rodríguez, Elena; Ospina, Olga Lucía; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H. William; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs is associated with respiratory pathologies such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or meconium aspiration syndrome. Serum, cholesterol, and meconium have been described as inhibitory agents of surfactant’s interfacial activity once these substances appear in alveolar spaces during lung injury and inflammation. The deleterious action of these agents has been only partly evaluated under physiologically relevant conditions. We have optimized a protocol to assess surfactant inhibition by serum, cholesterol, or meconium in the captive bubble surfactometer. Specific measures of surface activity before and after native surfactant was exposed to inhibitors included i), film formation, ii), readsorption of material from surface-associated reservoirs, and iii), interfacial film dynamics during compression-expansion cycling. Results show that serum creates a steric barrier that impedes surfactant reaching the interface. A mechanical perturbation of this barrier allows native surfactant to compete efficiently with serum to form a highly surface-active film. Exposure of native surfactant to cholesterol or meconium, on the other hand, modifies the compressibility of surfactant films though optimal compressibility properties recover on repetitive compression-expansion cycling. Addition of polymers like dextran or hyaluronic acid to surfactant fully reverses inhibition by serum. These polymers also prevent surfactant inhibition by cholesterol or meconium, suggesting that the protective action of polymers goes beyond the mere enhancement of interfacial adsorption as described by depletion force theories. PMID:23062337

  6. Exposure to polymers reverses inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by serum, meconium, or cholesterol in the captive bubble surfactometer.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Elena; Ospina, Olga Lucía; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H William; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2012-10-03

    Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs is associated with respiratory pathologies such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or meconium aspiration syndrome. Serum, cholesterol, and meconium have been described as inhibitory agents of surfactant's interfacial activity once these substances appear in alveolar spaces during lung injury and inflammation. The deleterious action of these agents has been only partly evaluated under physiologically relevant conditions. We have optimized a protocol to assess surfactant inhibition by serum, cholesterol, or meconium in the captive bubble surfactometer. Specific measures of surface activity before and after native surfactant was exposed to inhibitors included i), film formation, ii), readsorption of material from surface-associated reservoirs, and iii), interfacial film dynamics during compression-expansion cycling. Results show that serum creates a steric barrier that impedes surfactant reaching the interface. A mechanical perturbation of this barrier allows native surfactant to compete efficiently with serum to form a highly surface-active film. Exposure of native surfactant to cholesterol or meconium, on the other hand, modifies the compressibility of surfactant films though optimal compressibility properties recover on repetitive compression-expansion cycling. Addition of polymers like dextran or hyaluronic acid to surfactant fully reverses inhibition by serum. These polymers also prevent surfactant inhibition by cholesterol or meconium, suggesting that the protective action of polymers goes beyond the mere enhancement of interfacial adsorption as described by depletion force theories. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An extraction/enzymatic procedure for serum cholesterol measurement: evaluation of performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Franzini, C; Luraschi, P

    1990-12-01

    The performance characteristics of an extraction/enzymatic procedure for serum cholesterol measurement were evaluated. The procedure is substantially derived from the accepted reference method as standardized by the Centers for Disease Control, substituting the enzymatic reaction for the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. Imprecision (CV) was consistently less than 1.5%, and accuracy was comparable to that of the definitive isotope dilution mass spectrometry method and the accepted reference method. Direct comparison of the enzymatic with the Liebermann-Burchard reaction, using a set of 50 human sera, revealed about -0.05 mmol/l constant bias of the former versus the latter, this being possibly due to higher specificity of the enzymatic reaction. As compared with the accepted reference method, the method described is characterized by higher practicability, the reagent being easier to prepare and to handle, and generating a more stable, chemically defined end-product.

  8. Association between baseline serum glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol, and prostate cancer risk categories.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Rhonda; Møller, Henrik; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Stattin, Pår; Malmstrom, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Robinson, David; Jungner, Ingmar; Hemelrijck, Mieke Van

    2016-06-01

    Lifestyle-related risk factors such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia have been associated with several cancers. However, studies exploring their link with prostate cancer (PCa) clinicopathological characteristics are sparse and inconclusive. Here, we investigated the associations between serum metabolic markers and PCa clinicopathological characteristics. The study comprised 14,294 men from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort who were diagnosed with PCa between 1996 and 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the relation between glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol and PCa risk categories, PSA, Gleason score, and T-stage. Mean age at time of PCa diagnosis was 69 years. Men with glucose levels >6.9 mmol/L tend to have PSA<4 μg/L, while those with glucose levels of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L had a greater odds of PSA>20 μg/L compared to PSA 4.0-9.9 μg/L. Hypertriglyceridemia was also positively associated with PSA>20 μg/L. Hyperglycemic men had a greater odds of intermediate- and high-grade PCa and advanced stage or metastatic PCa. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemia was positively associated with high-grade PCa. There was also a trend toward an increased odds of intermediate risk localized PCa and advanced stage PCa among men with hypertriglyceridemia. Total cholesterol did not have any statistically significant association with any of the outcomes studied. Our findings suggest that high serum levels of glucose and triglycerides may influence PCa aggressiveness and severity. Further investigation on the role of markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in influencing PCa aggressiveness and severity is needed as this may help define important targets for intervention.

  9. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced.

  10. Novel gene-by-environment interactions: APOB and NPC1L1 variants affect the relationship between dietary and total plasma cholesterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Plasma cholesterol level is a key risk factor in CVD pathogenesis. Genetic and dietary variation both influence plasma cholesterol; however, little is known about dietary interactions with genetic variants influencing the absorption and transport of dietary cholesterol. We sought to determine whether gut expressed variants predicting plasma cholesterol differentially affected the relationship between dietary and plasma cholesterol levels in 1,128 subjects (772/356 in the discovery/replication cohorts, respectively). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within three genes (APOB, CETP, and NPC1L1) were significantly associated with plasma cholesterol in the discovery cohort. These were subsequently evaluated for gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions with dietary cholesterol for the prediction of plasma cholesterol, with significant findings tested for replication. Novel GxE interactions were identified and replicated for two variants: rs1042034, an APOB Ser4338Asn missense SNP and rs2072183 (in males only), a synonymous NPC1L1 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs 5′ of NPC1L1. This study identifies the presence of novel GxE and gender interactions implying that differential gut absorption is the basis for the variant associations with plasma cholesterol. These GxE interactions may account for part of the “missing heritability” not accounted for by genetic associations. PMID:23482652

  11. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  12. Apple cider vinegar modulates serum lipid profile, erythrocyte, kidney, and liver membrane oxidative stress in ovariectomized mice fed high cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Güler, Mustafa; Özgül, Cemil; Saydam, Gündüzalp; Küçükayaz, Mustafa; Sözbir, Ercan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentially beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar (ACV) supplementation on serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, liver and kidney membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant levels in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed high cholesterol. Four groups of ten female mice were treated as follows: Group I received no treatment and was used as control. Group II was OVX mice. Group III received ACV intragastrically (0.6% of feed), and group IV was OVX and was treated with ACV as described for group III. The treatment was continued for 28 days, during which the mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet. The lipid peroxidation levels in erythrocyte, liver and kidney, triglycerides, total, and VLDL cholesterol levels in serum were higher in the OVX group than in groups III and IV. The levels of vitamin E in liver, the kidney and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH) were decreased in group II. The GSH-Px, vitamin C, E, and β-carotene, and the erythrocyte GSH and GSH-Px values were higher in kidney of groups III and IV, but in liver the vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were decreased. In conclusion, ACV induced a protective effect against erythrocyte, kidney, and liver oxidative injury, and lowered the serum lipid levels in mice fed high cholesterol, suggesting that it possesses oxidative stress scavenging effects, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and increases the levels of antioxidant enzymes and vitamin.

  13. ACAT inhibitors: the search for novel cholesterol lowering agents.

    PubMed

    Pal, Palash; Gandhi, Hardik; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2013-06-01

    Increased level of serum cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) is the most significant risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol levels are affected by factors such as rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, biliary cholesterol excretion and dietary cholesterol absorption. Acyl CoA: Cholesterol O-acyl transferases (ACAT) are a small family of enzymes that catalyze cholesterol esterification and cholesterol absorption in intestinal mucosal cells and maintain the cholesterol homeostasis in the blood. Inhibition of the ACAT enzymes is one of the attractive targets to treat hyperlipidemia. Literature survey shows that structurally diverse compounds possess ACAT inhibitory properties. In this review, a comprehensive presentation of the literature on diverse ACAT inhibitors has been given.

  14. Low serum HDL-cholesterol is associated with raised tumor necrosis factor-alpha during ENL reactions.

    PubMed

    Memon, R A; Kifayet, A; Shahid, F; Lateef, A; Chiang, J; Hussain, R

    1997-03-01

    The concentrations of serum lipids and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were measured in leprosy patients across the spectrum of the disease and in erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) patients at the onset of the reaction and after the reaction had clinically subsided. Lepromatous/borderline lepromatous (LL/BL) patients had significantly higher serum triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol levels; there was no such change in the tuberculoid/borderline tuberculoid (TT/BT) patients. The household contacts (HC) of the LL/BL patients also had significantly lower serum HDL levels. ENL patients during the acute phase of the reaction had significantly lower total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol levels compared to the stable LL/BL patients, and these changes were reversible to pre-ENL levels after the reaction had subsided. Serum TNF levels were significantly higher in household contacts and in LL/BL patients but were not statistically different in TT/BT patients. Serum TNF levels were also significantly higher during the acute phase of ENL, and declined after the clinical remission of the reaction to levels comparable with those of LL/BL patients. There was a significant negative correlation between serum TNF and HDL-cholesterol levels during and after ENL reaction. However, there was no such correlation between TNF and total or LDL-cholesterol levels in ENL patients. Our results suggest that the changes in HDL-cholesterol metabolism are a specific part of the host response to lepromatous leprosy and to the ENL reaction and may be mediated by increased TNF production.

  15. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  16. Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom) affects the expression of genes related to cholesterol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Aline Mayrink; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Souza E Silva, Lorena; Dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    The sun mushroom (Agaricus brasiliensis) is considered a major source of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. Mushrooms typically act as lipid-lowering agents; however, little is known about the mechanisms of action of A. brasiliensis in biological systems. This study aimed to determine the underlying mechanism involved in the cholesterol-lowering effect of A. brasiliensis through the assessment of fecal and serum lipid profiles in addition to gene expression analysis of specific transcription factors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Twenty-four albino Fischer rats approximately 90 days old, with an average weight of 205 g, were divided into four groups of 6 each and fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (C), hypercholesterolemic diet (H), hypercholesterolemic diet +1 % A. brasiliensis (HAb), or hypercholesterolemic diet +0.008 % simvastatin (HS) for 6 weeks. Simvastatin was used as a positive control, as it is a typical drug prescribed for lipid disorders. Subsequently, blood, liver, and feces samples were collected for lipid profile and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analyses. Diet supplementation with A. brasiliensis significantly improved serum lipid profiles, comparable to the effect observed for simvastatin. In addition, A. brasiliensis dietary supplementation markedly promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. Increased expression of 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-transporters (ABCG5/G8), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was observed following A. brasiliensis administration. Our results suggest that consumption of A. brasiliensis improves the serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats by modulating the expression of key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

  17. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  18. Cholesterol derived cationic lipids as potential non-viral gene delivery vectors and their serum compatibility.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jia; Huan, Meng-Lei; Wan, Ning; Hou, Yi-Lin; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jia, Yi-Yang; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-05-15

    Cholesterol derivatives M1-M6 as synthetic cationic lipids were designed and the biological evaluation of the cationic liposomes based on them as non-viral gene delivery vectors were described. Plasmid pEGFP-N1, used as model gene, was transferred into 293T cells by cationic liposomes formed with M1-M6 and transfection efficiency and GFP expression were tested. Cationic liposomes prepared with cationic lipids M1-M6 exhibited good transfection activity, and the transfection activity was parallel (M2 and M4) or superior (M1 and M6) to that of DC-Chol derived from the same backbone. Among them, the transfection efficiency of cationic lipid M6 was parallel to that of the commercially available Lipofectamine2000. The optimal formulation of M1 and M6 were found to be at a mol ratio of 1:0.5 for cationic lipid/DOPE, and at a N/P charge mol ratio of 3:1 for liposome/DNA. Under optimized conditions, the efficiency of M1 and M6 is greater than that of all the tested commercial liposomes DC-Chol and Lipofectamine2000, even in the presence of serum. The results indicated that M1 and M6 exhibited low cytotoxicity, good serum compatibility and efficient transfection performance, having the potential of being excellent non-viral vectors for gene delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause. PMID:26640615

  20. Longitudinal study of low serum LDL cholesterol and depressive symptom onset in postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Persons, Jane E; Robinson, Jennifer G; Coryell, William H; Payne, Martha E; Fiedorowicz, Jess G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and subsequent depressive symptoms onset in postmenopausal women. We secondarily assessed serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), total cholesterol, and triglycerides. This population-based prospective cohort study utilizes data from 24,216 women between 50 and 79 years of age who were participants of the Women's Health Initiative, which originally ran from 1993 to 2005 and has since incorporated 2 extension studies, with the most recent culminating in 2015. Fasting lipids were measured for all participants at baseline and for a subset through 6 years of follow-up. Depressive symptoms were characterized using the Burnam 8-item scale for depressive disorders (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression/Diagnostic Interview Schedule short form) at baseline and during follow-up, using a cut point of 0.06 to indicate presence of depressive symptoms. The lowest quintile of LDL-c was associated with an increased risk of subsequent depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.05-1.49, P = .01), and follow-up analyses demonstrated that the elevated risk appeared to be confined to the lowest decile (LDL-c < 100 mg/dL). Further, this elevated risk was moderated by lipid-lowering drug treatment. Elevated risk was demonstrated among those who reported no lipid-lowering medication use (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47, P = .02), but not among those reporting use (HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.18-2.29, P = .50). Among postmenopausal women, untreated serum LDL-c below 100 mg/dL was associated with an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms. No excess risk was observed in those attaining LDL-c < 100 mg/dL with lipid-lowering therapy. These findings have important implications for risk assessment, treatment considerations, and mechanistic insight. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Varying relationship between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase with sunlight exposure.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Vivek G; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Mughal, Zulf M; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol and cholecalciferol are synthesized from a common substrate 7-dehydrocholesterol. 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to cholesterol by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase enzyme (DHCR7) and to cholecalciferol by ultraviolet B radiation from sunlight. To examine the effect of sunlight exposure and serum DHCR7 levels on cholecalciferol and cholesterol levels and studying any interrelationship. In a cross-sectional observational study, 307 apparently healthy men (aged 40-60 years) were assessed for sunlight exposure, lipid levels, serum DHCR7, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), body composition, and dietary milk calcium intake. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL, 1 ng/mL = 2.496 nmols/L) was found in 56% of subjects. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly with increasing duration of sunlight exposure (P < .05). At lower sunlight exposure (<1 h/d), serum 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (P < .05) but at moderate sunlight exposure (1-2 h/d), there was no significant association. However, with higher sunlight exposure (>2 h/d), serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly negatively associated with HDL-C (P < .05). At moderate and higher sunlight exposure, an inverse significant relationship was observed between 25(OH)D and serum DHCR7 (P < .05); however, at lower sunlight exposure, no significant relationship was seen. 25(OH)D seems to show a varying relationship with HDL-C and serum DHCR7 at different durations of sunlight exposure. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition-induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. High serum total cholesterol is associated with suicide mortality in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Svensson, T; Inoue, M; Sawada, N; Charvat, H; Mimura, M; Tsugane, S

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the association between serum total cholesterol (TC) and suicide using a large general population cohort with long follow-up times. Analyses included 16 341 men and 28 905 women aged 40-69 from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study followed from 1990 to 2012. TC levels were defined per clinical guidelines: low (<4.66 mmol/l [180 mg/dl]), normal (4.66-5.70 mmol/l [180-220 mg/dl]), and high (≥5.70 mmol/l [220 mg/dl]). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) for suicide according to TC level. Mean follow-up time was 19 years for men and 20 years for women. There were 185 suicides (men: 107; women: 78) during follow-up. Compared to women with normal TC, women with high TC had a significantly increased risk of suicide (HR = 1.90, 95% CI, 1.13-3.19). Incremental increases (0.26 mmol/l [10 mg/dl]) of low-density lipoprotein (HR = 1.11, 95% CI, 1.02-1.21) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR = 1.09, 95% CI, 1.01-1.18) were also associated with increased risk of suicide in women. There was no association between TC levels, or lipid fractions, and suicide in men. High TC levels may be associated with an increased risk of suicide in women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Increases Hepatocyte Uptake of Human Plasma High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol1

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K.; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ~400,000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]CE uptake by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was respectively 2.4 and 4.5 times faster than from control HDL. CERM-[3H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[3H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[3H]CE but not HDL-[3H]CE uptake thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful. PMID:20879789

  5. First missense mutation outside of SERAC1 lipase domain affecting intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Martín-Hernández, Elena; de Aragón, Ana Martínez; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We report the clinical and genetic findings in a Spanish boy who presented MEGDEL syndrome, a very rare inborn error of metabolism. Whole-exome sequencing uncovered a new homozygous mutation in the serine active site containing 1 (SERAC1) gene, which is essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Functional studies in patient fibroblasts showed that p.D224G mutation affects the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Only three missense mutations in this gene have been described before, being p.D224G the first missense mutation outside of the SERAC1 serine-lipase domain. Therefore, we conclude that the defect in cholesterol trafficking is not limited to alterations in this specific part of the protein.

  6. Cholesterol and ergosterol affect the activity of Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Tintino, S R; Oliveira-Tintino, C D M; Campina, F F; Costa, M S; Cruz, R P; Pereira, R L S; Andrade, J C; Sousa, E O; Siqueira-Junior, J P; Coutinho, H D M; Leal-Balbino, T C; Balbino, V Q

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ergosterol on steroids and cholesterol efflux pumps in multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. Were used RN4220 harboring plasmid pUL5054, which carries the gene encoding the MsrA macrolide efflux protein; and IS-58, which possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein; 1199B resists hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism and wild strain 1199B. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined and the evaluation of possible inhibition of efflux pumps by reduction of MIC. Some of the detrimental effects on bacterial cells can be attributed to the detergent properties of cholesterol and ergosterol on account of their amphipathic structure. Besides the cholesterol did not affect directly the pump structure, a synergism was observed, maybe due the interaction with the cell membrane and interference in the lipid bilayer.

  7. The efficacy of vitamin C supplementation on reducing total serum cholesterol in human subjects: a review and analysis of 51 experimental trials

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective Observational studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and total serum cholesterol. However, experimental studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the ability of vitamin C to reduce total serum cholesterol. Methods Published reports of trials studying the effects of vitamin C on serum lipids were identified by a search of Medline from 1966 to 2004. Data from 51 experimental studies comprising of 1666 pooled subjects were selected for analysis. Results A very strong negative association was observed between baseline total serum cholesterol and the percent change in cholesterol (r = −0.585, p<0.001). When subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their baseline total serum cholesterol levels, the following weighted mean percent changes in cholesterol from baseline were observed: normal cholesterol (<199mg/dl): 0.91±6.8% (n=508); borderline high cholesterol (200–239mg/dl): 3.90±5.78% (n=605); high cholesterol (240–279mg/dl): 11.40±7.96% (n=300); severe cholesterol (>280mg/dl): 14.30±8.36% (n=253). A significant inverse relationship was found between the baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations and mean percent change in total cholesterol from baseline (r = −0.500, p<0.005). It was also observed that the high and severe baseline cholesterol groups possessed lower baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations than those in the normal cholesterol groups (0.79 and 0.55 versus 1.24 mg/dl respectively). Conclusion This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the cholesterol lowering and cardio-protective benefit of vitamin C supplementation may be in its ability to elevate plasma vitamin C concentrations in those patients who initially possess lower than normal vitamin C plasma concentrations. PMID:19674666

  8. Exploring the Factors That Affect Blood Cholesterol and Heart Disease Risk: Is Dietary Cholesterol as Bad for You as History Leads Us to Believe?12

    PubMed Central

    Kanter, Mitchell M.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Vickers, Kasey C.; Katz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given at the 2011 Experimental Biology meetings about the latest research and a paleoanthropological perspective pertaining to the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease risk. For much of the past 50 years, a great deal of the scientific literature regarding dietary fat and cholesterol intake has indicated a strong positive correlation with heart disease. In recent years, however, there have been a number of epidemiological studies that did not support a relationship between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease. Further, a number of recent clinical trials that looked at the effects of long-term egg consumption (as a vehicle for dietary cholesterol) reported no negative impact on various indices of cardiovascular health and disease. Coupled with data indicating that the impact of lowering dietary cholesterol intake on serum LDL levels is small compared with other dietary and lifestyle factors, there is a need to consider how otherwise healthy foods can be incorporated in the diet to meet current dietary cholesterol recommendations. Because eggs are a healthful food, it is particularly important that sensible strategies be recommended for inclusions of eggs in a healthy diet. PMID:22983850

  9. Exploring the factors that affect blood cholesterol and heart disease risk: is dietary cholesterol as bad for you as history leads us to believe?

    PubMed

    Kanter, Mitchell M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Vickers, Kasey C; Katz, David L

    2012-09-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given at the 2011 Experimental Biology meetings about the latest research and a paleoanthropological perspective pertaining to the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease risk. For much of the past 50 years, a great deal of the scientific literature regarding dietary fat and cholesterol intake has indicated a strong positive correlation with heart disease. In recent years, however, there have been a number of epidemiological studies that did not support a relationship between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease. Further, a number of recent clinical trials that looked at the effects of long-term egg consumption (as a vehicle for dietary cholesterol) reported no negative impact on various indices of cardiovascular health and disease. Coupled with data indicating that the impact of lowering dietary cholesterol intake on serum LDL levels is small compared with other dietary and lifestyle factors, there is a need to consider how otherwise healthy foods can be incorporated in the diet to meet current dietary cholesterol recommendations. Because eggs are a healthful food, it is particularly important that sensible strategies be recommended for inclusions of eggs in a healthy diet.

  10. Serum Cholesterol Levels in College Students: Opportunities for Education and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparling, Phillip B.; Snow, Teresa K.; Beavers, Bill D.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed lipid profiles in 1,088 college students at a university where lipid profiles were available to students in selected health/wellness courses. Mean total cholesterol levels were similar for men and women, but men had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than women. About 11…

  11. Serum Cholesterol Levels in College Students: Opportunities for Education and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparling, Phillip B.; Snow, Teresa K.; Beavers, Bill D.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed lipid profiles in 1,088 college students at a university where lipid profiles were available to students in selected health/wellness courses. Mean total cholesterol levels were similar for men and women, but men had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than women. About 11…

  12. Prickly pear (Opuntia sp.) pectin alters hepatic cholesterol metabolism without affecting cholesterol absorption in guinea pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M L; Lin, E C; Trejo, A; McNamara, D J

    1994-06-01

    Prickly pear pectin intake decreases plasma LDL concentrations by increasing hepatic apolipoprotein B/E receptor expression in guinea pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. To investigate whether prickly pear pectin has an effect on cholesterol absorption and on enzymes responsible for hepatic cholesterol homeostasis, guinea pigs were fed one of three semipurified diets, each containing 15 g lard/100 g diet: 1) the lard-basal diet with no added cholesterol or prickly pear pectin (LB diet); 2) the LB diet with 0.25 g added cholesterol/100 g diet (LC diet); or 3) the LC diet containing 2.5 g prickly pear pectin/100 g diet, added at the expense of cellulose (LC-P diet). Animals fed the LB diet had the lowest plasma LDL and hepatic cholesterol concentrations, followed by animals fed the LC-P diet (P < 0.001). Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was highest in the group fed the LB diet, with similar values for animals in the other two groups. A positive correlation existed between plasma LDL cholesterol concentration and hepatic acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity (r = 0.87, P < 0.001). Cholesterol absorption was not different among the three dietary groups. These results indicate that the decreased plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations of animals fed prickly pear pectin are not explained by differences in cholesterol absorption but rather are due to mechanisms that alter hepatic cholesterol homeostasis, resulting in lower plasma LDL concentrations.

  13. Exposure to gemfibrozil and atorvastatin affects cholesterol metabolism and steroid production in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Al-Habsi, Aziz A; Massarsky, Andrey; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    The commonly used lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals gemfibrozil (GEM) and atorvastatin (ATV) are detected in the aquatic environment; however, their potential effects on non-target fish species are yet to be fully understood. This study examined the effects of GEM and/or ATV on female and male adult zebrafish after a 30d dietary exposure. The exposure led to changes in several biochemical parameters, including reduction in cholesterol, triglycerides, cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol. Changes in cholesterol and triglycerides were also associated with changes in transcript levels of key genes involved with cholesterol and lipid regulation, including SREBP2, HMGCR1, PPARα, and SREBP1. We also noted higher CYP3A65 and atrogin1 mRNA levels in drug-treated male fish. Sex differences were apparent in some of the examined parameters at both biochemical and molecular levels. This study supports these drugs affecting cholesterol metabolism and steroid production in adult zebrafish. We conclude that the reduction in cortisol may impair the ability of these fish to mount a suitable stress response, whereas the reduction of sex steroids may negatively affect reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Joint analyses model for total cholesterol and triglyceride in human serum with near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lijun; Lyu, Ning; Chen, Jiemei; Pan, Tao; Yu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The development of a small, dedicated near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer has promising potential applications, such as for joint analyses of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in human serum for preventing and treating hyperlipidemia of a large population. The appropriate wavelength selection is a key technology for developing such a spectrometer. For this reason, a novel wavelength selection method, named the equidistant combination partial least squares (EC-PLS), was applied to the wavelength selection for the NIR analyses of TC and TG in human serum. A rigorous process based on the various divisions of calibration and prediction sets was performed to achieve modeling optimization with stability. By applying EC-PLS, a model set was developed, which consists of various models that were equivalent to the optimal model. The joint analyses model of the two indicators was further selected with only 50 wavelengths. The random validation samples excluded from the modeling process were used to validate the selected model. The root-mean-square errors, correlation coefficients and ratio of performance to deviation for the prediction were 0.197 mmol L- 1, 0.985 and 5.6 for TC, and 0.101 mmol L- 1, 0.992 and 8.0 for TG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hyperlipidemia were 96.2% and 98.0%. These findings indicate high prediction accuracy and low model complexity. The proposed wavelength selection provided valuable references for the designing of a small, dedicated spectrometer for hyperlipidemia. The methodological framework and optimization algorithm are universal, such that they can be applied to other fields.

  15. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations among South Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Radhika, G; Ganesan, A; Sathya, R M; Sudha, V; Mohan, V

    2009-03-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and premature coronary artery disease. The study population comprised of 2043 individuals aged >/=20 years randomly selected from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study (CURES), an ongoing population-based study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in southern India. Participants with self-reported history of diabetes or heart disease or on drug therapy for dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index and glycemic load were assessed using a validated interviewer administered semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Both dietary glycemic load (P<0.0001) and total dietary carbohydrate intake (P<0.001) were significantly associated with higher serum triglyceride levels and lower serum HDL-C levels. For the lowest to highest quintile of glycemic load, the multivariate-adjusted mean HDL-C values were 44.1 mg per 100 ml and 41.2 mg per 100 ml (6.6% difference, P for trend<0.001), while for total carbohydrate it was less (5% difference, P for trend=0.016). The pattern of decrease in HDL-C for the lowest to highest quintile of glycemic load was more pronounced among men (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 4.3 mg per 100 ml decrease (10.3%)) than women (1st vs 5th quintile: adjusted HDL-C: 3.2 mg per 100 ml decrease (6.9%)). Our findings indicate that both total carbohydrates and dietary glycemic load intake are inversely associated with plasma HDL-C concentrations among Asian Indians, with dietary glycemic load having a stronger association.

  16. [Association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol level among adults in 9 regions of China].

    PubMed

    Song, J; He, J J; Fang, A P; Li, H; Guo, M H; Shen, X; Li, K J

    2017-03-24

    Objective: To analyze the association between food intake and the serum total cholesterol(TC) level in adult Chinese population. Methods: This study included apparent healthy residents aged between 20 and 70 years who participated in the eighth round of China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS) in 9 regions of China including Liaoning, Helongjiang, Shandong, Jiangsu, Henan, Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou provinces and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 2009. The association between the serum TC level and the diet and other related factors were analyzed. Results: (1) Linear trend test showed that age, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and female (all P<0.01), while physical activity level was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 and 46-70 years old male and 46-70 years old female (all P<0.01). (2) Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that livestock meat intake was positively related with serum TC level in following populations: 20-45 years old male, β=0.133, P<0.001; 46-70 years old male, β=0.102, P=0.001; 20-45 years old male, β=0.065, P=0.041; years old female, β=0.059, P=0.045. Vegetable oil intake was negatively related with serum TC level in 20-45 years old male (β=-0.071, P=0.021). Saturated fat intake was positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.084, P=0.019). Total dietary cholesterol intake was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.067, P=0.021; 46-70 years old, β=0.070, P=0.012), but not in female (20-45 years old, β=0.007, P=0.809; 46-70 years old, β=0.038, P=0.144). Cholesterol intake from livestock meat was positively related with serum TC level in male (20-45 years old, β=0.156, P<0.001; 46-70 years old, β=0.099, P=0.001), and positively related with serum TC level in 46-70 years old female (β=0.063, P=0.028). Cholesterol intake from egg was positively

  17. Serum total cholesterol: HDL cholesterol ratios in US white and black adults by selected demographic and socioeconomic variables (HANES II).

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S; Fulwood, R; Carroll, M; Brook, J G; Johnson, C; Kalsbeek, W D; Rifkind, B M

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Framingham Study findings suggest that total cholesterol (TC):High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is a useful summary of the joint contribution of TC and HDL-C to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Information on the distribution of TC:HDL-C in the US population is limited to selected populations and the relationship of the ratio distribution and its correlates has received little attention. METHOD: TC/HDL-C ratios were examined in a representative sample of the United States adult population ages 20 to 74 years, between February 1976 and February 1980 during NHANES II, using stratification and multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Age-adjusted mean ratios were higher in men compared with women and were higher in Whites compared with Blacks. White men had the highest TC/HDL-C mean ratios. These relationships remained after stratification by age, education, body mass index, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Using multivariate analyses, the ratios were positively related to BMI, age, and smoking; and negatively related to female sex, alcohol use, being Black, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Using a ratio reference point of greater than or equal to 4.5 from the Framingham study, at least an estimated 44 million persons ages 25 to 74 years in the US were found to be at higher risk of developing coronary heart disease. PMID:1853996

  18. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  19. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in 3,446 children from a biracial community: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, R R; Srinivasan, S R; Webber, L S; Berenson, G R

    1976-08-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 3,446 (91% of population) children, ages 5-14 years, were determined in a biracial community (Bogalusa, Louisiana) as part of a program investigating the early natural history of atherosclerosis. Black children had significantly higher mean levels of serum cholesterol than white children (170 mg/dl vs 162 mg/dl, P less than 0.0001). On the other hand, significantly lower levels of triglycerides were found in blacks than in whites (61 mg/dl vs 73 mg/dl, P less than 0.0001). Girls had higher levels of triglycerides than boys in both races (blacks, 64 mg/dl vs 59 mg/dl, P less than 0.001; whites, 77 mg/dl vs 69 mg/dl, P less than 0.001). The racial differences in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were even more apparent at the 95th percentile. The serum cholesterol level remained relatively constant in all children until ages 11 and 12 years, after which a slight reduction occurred. This reduction was more pronounced in boys than in girls. In contrast, a significant increase in the level of triglycerides with age was observed in all children except black girls, the increasing slope being most pronounced in white girls.

  20. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice.

    PubMed

    Roopchand, Diana E; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-02-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05-10μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24-74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  2. Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data suggested that intake of sodas and other acid beverages might be associated with increased levels of serum triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, and increased formation of mono unsaturated fatty acids, which are the preferred ones for triglyceride synthesis. The present work is an extension of these studies. Methods Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups. All groups were given the same food, but various beverages: water (W), ammonium chloride, 200 mmol/L (AC), or sodium bicarbonate, 200 mmol/L (SB). Serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and the fatty acid distribution in total serum lipids were determined. Delta9-desaturase in serum lipids was estimated by the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid, and by the oleic/stearic acid ratio. Correlation and ANOVA were used to study associations and group differences. Results After 3 weeks, the AC group had higher triglyceride concentration and higher Delta9 desaturase indexes, but lower serum HDL and body weight as compared with the SB and W groups. In each of the groups, the oleic acid/stearic acid ratio correlated positively with serum triglycerides; in the pooled group the correlation coefficient was r = 0.963, p<0.01. Conclusions Rats ingesting ammonium chloride as compared with sodium bicarbonate responded with increased desaturase indexes, increased serum triglycerides, and lowered HDL cholesterol concentration, thereby possibly contributing to explain the increased triglyceride concentration previously observed in subjects with a frequent intake of acid beverages, such as sodas containing carbonic acid, citric acid, and phosphoric acid. PMID:23800210

  3. Certification of fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum: Standard Reference Material 968b.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J B; Kline, M C; Schiller, S B; Ellerbe, P M; Sniegoski, L T; Duewer, D L; Sharpless, K E

    1996-08-01

    In Standard Reference Material 968b, fat-soluble vitamins and cholesterol in human serum, certified values are provided for cholesterol, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, trans-beta-carotene, total beta-carotene ( trans plus cis isomers), total alpha-carotene, and lutein. Non-certified values are also reported for gamma-tocopherol (includes beta-tocopherol), delta-tocopherol, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, trans-lycopene, trans-lycopene, trans-alpha-carotene, total lycopene, 9- cis-betacarotene, 13- plus 15- cis-beta-carotene, and 15- cis-beta-carotene. Both certified and non-certified values are based on the agreement among results from three different liquid chromatographic analytical procedures developed at NIST and from an interlaboratory comparison exercise among institutions that participate in a NIST-managed Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program. Cholesterol is certified in this material using the NIST isotope dilution/mass spectrometric definitive method.

  4. Per os colchicine administration in cholesterol fed rabbits: Triglycerides lowering effects without affecting atherosclerosis progress.

    PubMed

    Kaminiotis, Vaios Vasileios; Agrogiannis, George; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Androutsopoulou, Vasiliki; Korou, Laskarina Maria; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Dontas, Ismene A; Perrea, Despina; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios C

    2017-09-26

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is promoted, among others, by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 produced by NLRP 3 inflammasome. Development of atherosclerotic lesions is also affected by leptin. Furthermore, inflammasome's action is interfered with other inflammatory diseases, like diabetes. On the other hand, colchicine is reported to act as anti-inflammatory agent inhibiting inflammasome's action and stabilizing atherosclerotic lesions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of per os colchicine on the de novo formation of atherosclerotic lesions and on the levels of IL-18, leptin and insulin in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Twenty-three male, 2 months old New Zealand White rabbits, were seperated in 3 groups and were fed with different types of diet for 7 weeks: standard, cholesterol 1% w/w and cholesterol 1% w/w plus colchicine 2 mg/kg body weight. Blood was collected for biochemical measurements and conduction of ELISA for leptin, IL-18 and insulin. Histologic examination of stained with eosin and hematoxylin aorta specimens was performed. Aortic intimal thickness was evaluated using image analysis. The statistical analysis included non-parametric tests: a) paired-sample Wilcoxon test, b) Spearman correlation coefficient and c) Kruscal-Wallis test. Triglerycide levels were decreased in cholesterol plus colchicine group in the end of the experiment (p < 0.05), whereas the cholesterol group had increased levels. No statistical differences were observed in the levels of IL-18, leptin and insulin between groups. Likewise, there was neither any correlation between IL-18, leptin and intima thickness nor between IL-18 and glucose and between leptin and weight. In cholesterol and colchicine group there was a strong positive correlation between IL-18 and insulin levels in the 4th week (r s = .66, n = 10, p < 0.05), whereas in the 7th week this correlation became strong negative (r s = -.86, n = 10, p

  5. Serum uric acid and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are independent predictors of coronary artery disease in Asian Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jayashankar, C A; Andrews, Henley Punnen; Vijayasarathi; Pinnelli, Venkata BharatKumar; Shashidharan, Basappaji; Nithin Kumar, H N; Vemulapalli, Swaapnika

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify the predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). About fifty Asian Indian patients with type 2 DM patients aged >40 years and fifty sex- and age-matched nondiabetic controls were enrolled for this study. Following complete medical history and baseline clinical data, laboratory investigations were performed to assess fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, lipid profile, blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid levels. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, serum uric acid, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, very LDL cholesterol were significantly higher among diabetic patients compared to controls. On univariate analysis, serum LDL cholesterol (odds ratio [OR]: 29.67, P < 0.001), serum uric acid (OR: 25.65, P < 0.001), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR: 21.12, P < 0.001), hypertension (OR: 17.06, P < 0.001), family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (OR: 9.43, P = 0.002), and duration of diabetes (OR: 4.65, P = 0.03) were identified as predictors of CVD among diabetic patients. On multivariate regression, only LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.51, P = 0.002) and serum uric acid (OR: 1.21, P = 0.01) were the independent predictors of CAD among diabetic patients. Significant positive correlation of serum uric acid with duration of diabetes (r = 0.38, P = 0.006), BMI (r = 0.35, P = 0.01), triglycerides (r = 0.356, P = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (r = 0.38, P = 0.007), HDL cholesterol (r = -0.514, P < 0.001), and hypertension (r = 0.524, P < 0.001) was observed. Serum LDL cholesterol and hyperuricemia may serve as independent predictors of CAD among Asian Indian subjects with type 2 DM.

  6. Serum cholesterol levels, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. The Multicenter Study on Cerebral Haemorrhage in Italy (MUCH-Italy).

    PubMed

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Iacoviello, Licia; Zedde, Marialuisa; Marcheselli, Simona; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Sessa, Maria; Zini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Azzini, Cristiano; Gamba, Massimo; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Gandolfo, Carlo; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Tassi, Rossana; Cavallini, Anna; Chiti, Alberto; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Musolino, Rossella; Bovi, Paolo; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Vandelli, Laura; Ritelli, Marco; Agnelli, Giancarlo; De Vito, Alessandro; Pugliese, Nicola; Martini, Giuseppe; Lanari, Alessia; Ciccone, Alfonso; Lodigiani, Corrado; Malferrari, Giovanni; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Morotti, Andrea; Costa, Paolo; Poli, Loris; De Giuli, Valeria; Bonaiti, Silvia; La Spina, Paolo; Marcello, Norina; Micieli, Giuseppe; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Colombi, Marina; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Although a concern exists that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) might increase the risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), the contribution of these agents to the relationship between serum cholesterol and disease occurrence has been poorly investigated. We compared consecutive patients having ICH with age and sex-matched stroke-free control subjects in a case-control analysis, as part of the Multicenter Study on Cerebral Haemorrhage in Italy (MUCH-Italy), and tested the presence of interaction effects between total serum cholesterol levels and statins on the risk of ICH. A total of 3492 cases (mean age, 73.0±12.7 years; males, 56.6%) and 3492 control subjects were enrolled. Increasing total serum cholesterol levels were confirmed to be inversely associated with ICH. We observed a statistical interaction between total serum cholesterol levels and statin use for the risk of haemorrhage (Interaction OR (IOR), 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12). Increasing levels of total serum cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of ICH within statin strata (average OR, 0.87; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.88 for every increase of 0.26 mmol/l of total serum cholesterol concentrations), while statin use was associated with an increased risk (OR, 1.54; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.81 of the average level of total serum cholesterol). The protective effect of serum cholesterol against ICH was reduced by statins in strictly lobar brain regions more than in non-lobar ones. Statin therapy and total serum cholesterol levels exhibit interaction effects towards the risk of ICH. The magnitude of such effects appears higher in lobar brain regions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Total Serum Cholesterol and Cancer Incidence in the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can)

    PubMed Central

    Strohmaier, Susanne; Edlinger, Michael; Manjer, Jonas; Stocks, Tanja; Bjørge, Tone; Borena, Wegene; Häggström, Christel; Engeland, Anders; Nagel, Gabriele; Almquist, Martin; Selmer, Randi; Tretli, Steinar; Concin, Hans; Hallmans, Göran; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär; Ulmer, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between total serum cholesterol (TSC) and cancer incidence in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can). Methods Me-Can consists of seven cohorts from Norway, Austria, and Sweden including 289,273 male and 288,057 female participants prospectively followed up for cancer incidence (n = 38,978) with a mean follow-up of 11.7 years. Cox regression models with age as the underlying time metric were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quintiles of cholesterol levels and per 1 mmol/l, adjusting for age at first measurement, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. Estimates were corrected for regression dilution bias. Furthermore, we performed lag time analyses, excluding different times of follow-up, in order to check for reverse causation. Results In men, compared with the 1st quintile, TSC concentrations in the 5th quintile were borderline significantly associated with decreasing risk of total cancer (HR = 0.94; 95%CI: 0.88, 1.00). Significant inverse associations were observed for cancers of the liver/intrahepatic bile duct (HR = 0.14; 95%CI: 0.07, 0.29), pancreas cancer (HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.81), non-melanoma of skin (HR = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.46, 0.95), and cancers of the lymph−/hematopoietic tissue (HR = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.54, 0.87). In women, hazard ratios for the 5th quintile were associated with decreasing risk of total cancer (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.79, 0.93) and for cancers of the gallbladder (HR = 0.23, 95%CI: 0.08, 0.62), breast (HR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.61, 0.81), melanoma of skin (HR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.88), and cancers of the lymph−/hematopoietic tissue (HR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44, 0.83). Conclusion TSC was negatively associated with risk of cancer overall in females and risk of cancer at several sites in both males and females. In lag time analyses some associations persisted, suggesting that for these cancer sites reverse

  8. Total serum cholesterol and cancer incidence in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can).

    PubMed

    Strohmaier, Susanne; Edlinger, Michael; Manjer, Jonas; Stocks, Tanja; Bjørge, Tone; Borena, Wegene; Häggström, Christel; Engeland, Anders; Nagel, Gabriele; Almquist, Martin; Selmer, Randi; Tretli, Steinar; Concin, Hans; Hallmans, Göran; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär; Ulmer, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association between total serum cholesterol (TSC) and cancer incidence in the Metabolic syndrome and Cancer project (Me-Can). Me-Can consists of seven cohorts from Norway, Austria, and Sweden including 289,273 male and 288,057 female participants prospectively followed up for cancer incidence (n = 38,978) with a mean follow-up of 11.7 years. Cox regression models with age as the underlying time metric were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quintiles of cholesterol levels and per 1 mmol/l, adjusting for age at first measurement, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. Estimates were corrected for regression dilution bias. Furthermore, we performed lag time analyses, excluding different times of follow-up, in order to check for reverse causation. In men, compared with the 1st quintile, TSC concentrations in the 5th quintile were borderline significantly associated with decreasing risk of total cancer (HR = 0.94; 95%CI: 0.88, 1.00). Significant inverse associations were observed for cancers of the liver/intrahepatic bile duct (HR = 0.14; 95%CI: 0.07, 0.29), pancreas cancer (HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.81), non-melanoma of skin (HR = 0.67; 95%CI: 0.46, 0.95), and cancers of the lymph-/hematopoietic tissue (HR = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.54, 0.87). In women, hazard ratios for the 5th quintile were associated with decreasing risk of total cancer (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.79, 0.93) and for cancers of the gallbladder (HR = 0.23, 95%CI: 0.08, 0.62), breast (HR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.61, 0.81), melanoma of skin (HR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.42, 0.88), and cancers of the lymph-/hematopoietic tissue (HR = 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44, 0.83). TSC was negatively associated with risk of cancer overall in females and risk of cancer at several sites in both males and females. In lag time analyses some associations persisted, suggesting that for these cancer sites reverse causation did not apply.

  9. A study of serum cholesterol level in young adults and its relation to body mass index and waist-circumference.

    PubMed

    Nath, Soumitra; Jahan, Wasima

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the serum total cholesterol (TC) level in young adults of Dibrugarh town of Assam and to find the association of serum cholesterol level with body mass index (BMI) and waist-circumference (WC). A cross-sectional study was done among 150 healthy young adults aged 20-30 years. TC was estimated by the enzymatic method. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as TC > 200 mg/dl. Cases were classified into different categories of BMI and WC according to the recommendations of WHO/IASO/IOTF (2000). The range of TC level in the study group was found to be (146-212) mg/dl. Mean cholesterol level in males and females were 169.5±3.6 and 172.3±15.09 mg/dl respectively. 7% of the cases had hypercholesterolemia. TC was significantly correlated with BMI (r=0.90, p<0.001) and WC (r=0.73, p<0.001 in males and r=0.86, p<0.001 in females). We conclude that young adults ≥20 years of age and especially who are overweight should be advised routine cholesterol testing so that preventive measures can be adopted to avoid hypercholesterolemia and it's complications in future life.

  10. Susceptibility of serum lipids to copper-induced peroxidation correlates with the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Shimonov, M; Pinchuk, I; Bor, A; Beigel, I; Fainaru, M; Rubin, M; Lichtenberg, D

    1999-03-01

    As a first step in evaluating the significance of our recently developed method of monitoring the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation in unfractionated serum, we recorded the kinetics of lipid oxidation in the sera of 62 hyperlipidemic patients and analyzed the correlation between oxidation and lipid composition of the sera [high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides]. We used six factors to characterize the kinetics of oxidation, namely, the maximal absorbance of oxidation products (ODmax), the maximal rate of their production (Vmax), and the time at which the rate was maximal (t(max)) at two wavelengths (245 nm, where 7-ketocholesterol and conjugated dienic hydroperoxides absorb intensely, and 268 nm, where the absorbance is mostly due to dienals). The major conclusions of our analyses are that: (i) Both ODmax and Vmax correlate positively with the sum of concentrations of the major oxidizable lipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. (ii). The value of t(max), which is a measure of the lag preceding oxidation and therefore reflects the resistance of the serum lipids to copper-induced oxidation, exhibits a negative correlation with HDL cholesterol. Although this finding accords with the observation of shorter lags for HDL than for LDL, it is apparently inconsistent with the role of HDL as an antirisk factor in coronary heart diseases.

  11. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    PubMed

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking.

  12. Furin-cleaved proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is active and modulates low density lipoprotein receptor and serum cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Lipari, Michael T; Li, Wei; Moran, Paul; Kong-Beltran, Monica; Sai, Tao; Lai, Joyce; Lin, S Jack; Kolumam, Ganesh; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Arnott, David; Wang, Jianyong; Peterson, Andrew S; Kirchhofer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) regulates plasma LDL cholesterol levels by regulating the degradation of LDL receptors. Another proprotein convertase, furin, cleaves PCSK9 at Arg(218)-Gln(219) in the surface-exposed "218 loop." This cleaved form circulates in blood along with the intact form, albeit at lower concentrations. To gain a better understanding of how cleavage affects PCSK9 function, we produced recombinant furin-cleaved PCSK9 using antibody Ab-3D5, which binds the intact but not the cleaved 218 loop. Using Ab-3D5, we also produced highly purified hepsin-cleaved PCSK9. Hepsin cleaves PCSK9 at Arg(218)-Gln(219) more efficiently than furin but also cleaves at Arg(215)-Phe(216). Further analysis by size exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry indicated that furin and hepsin produced an internal cleavage in the 218 loop without the loss of the N-terminal segment (Ser(153)-Arg(218)), which remained attached to the catalytic domain. Both furin- and hepsin-cleaved PCSK9 bound to LDL receptor with only 2-fold reduced affinity compared with intact PCSK9. Moreover, they reduced LDL receptor levels in HepG2 cells and in mouse liver with only moderately lower activity than intact PCSK9, consistent with the binding data. Single injection into mice of furin-cleaved PCSK9 resulted in significantly increased serum cholesterol levels, approaching the increase by intact PCSK9. These findings indicate that circulating furin-cleaved PCSK9 is able to regulate LDL receptor and serum cholesterol levels, although somewhat less efficiently than intact PCSK9. Therapeutic anti-PCSK9 approaches that neutralize both forms should be the most effective in preserving LDL receptors and in lowering plasma LDL cholesterol.

  13. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. Methods The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. Results High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67–2.94] and 1.39 [0.99–1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28–0.49] and 0.51 [0.37–0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45–0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). Conclusions The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast

  14. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p < 0.01 by dietary cholesterol or type of fat). The dietary cholesterol dependent-elevation of serum cholesterol in the SD rats was less than 1.5-fold (p<0.01) and there was no dietary fat effect. The ExHC rats fed on the safflower oil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (p<0.05). There was no dietary cholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (p<0.05). These results indicate that the hepatic mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and of 7alpha-hydroxylase depended on the dietary combination of cholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of

  15. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  17. Correlation between pretreatment serum LDL-cholesterol levels and prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qiu; Hu, Qiao-Ying; Piao, Yong-feng; Hua, Yong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlations between long-term survival outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and pretreatment serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Patients and methods Between January 2008 and December 2011, 935 patients with newly diagnosed NPC who were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy were included in this retrospective clinical analysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on pretreatment LDL-C levels: normal LDL-C (≤3.64 mmol/L; n=816) and elevated LDL-C (>3.64 mmol/L; n=119). Associations between pretreatment LDL-C levels and treatment outcome were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The overall patient follow-up rate was 95.1%, and 726 patients received more than 5 years of follow-up. Five-year overall survival (OS), local control (LC), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates of the entire patient population were 87.1%, 91.1%, and 87.2%, respectively. Rates of 5-year OS, LC, and DMFS for the elevated versus normal LDL-C groups were 77.0% vs 89.1% (P<0.001), 85.8% vs 91.9% (P=0.041), and 81.1% vs 88.1% (P=0.038), respectively. Compared with normal LDL-C levels, elevated LDL-C levels were identified as an independent prognostic factor of a poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR] =2.171; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.424–3.309), LC rate (HR =1.762; 95% CI =1.021–3.942), and DMFS (HR =1.594; 95% CI =1.003–2.532). Conclusion This study found that elevated pretreatment LDL-C levels are negative prognostic indicators of NPC. Elevated LDL-C levels may be useful indicators of locoregional control and distant metastasis in NPC patients. PMID:27217776

  18. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adults.

    PubMed

    Oelrich, B; Dewell, A; Gardner, C D

    2013-04-01

    The well-established triglyceride (TG) lowering effect of fish oil is accompanied by an increase in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Less is known about the differential impact on LDL particle distribution - the smaller particles being associated with a greater risk for atherosclerosis. We aimed to examine the changes in serum concentrations of four subclasses of LDL particles as well as shifts in LDL phenotype patterns (A, B, AB) among hypertriglyceridemic adults. This was a secondary analysis from a double-blind, parallel design, placebo controlled trial with 42 adults that experienced significant TG lowering and modest increases in total LDL-C concentrations after 12 weeks of 4 g/d EPA + DHA. Reduction in serum TG concentrations (mean ± SEM) was -26 ± 4% (-0.81 ± 10.12 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. Total LDL-C concentration increased by 13 ± 3% (+0.31 ± 0.08 mmol/L), p < 0.0001. The 12-week changes in concentrations of LDL1, LDL2, LDL3 and LDL4 were +0.06 ± 0.02 mmol/L [+2.2 ± 0.7 mg/dL], +0.07 ± 0.03 mmol/L [+2.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL], +0.16 ± 0.05 mmol/L [+6.3 ± 1.8 mg/dL], and +0.04 ± 0.04 mmol/L [+1.4 ± 1.7 mg/dL], respectively (+20 ± 5%, +64 ± 13%, +26 ± 6%, and +17 ± 9%), p < 0.05 for all but LDL4. Changes in LDL phenotype patterns A, B and A/B were negligible and not statistically significant. In this population of hypertriglyceridemic adults, dietary supplementation with fish oil resulted in an increase in total LDL-C concentration which was distributed relatively evenly across the range of smaller and more atherogenic as well as larger and less atherogenic LDL particles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Parents' behavior and attitudes toward screening children for high serum cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Lannon, C M; Earp, J

    1992-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics, concerned that pediatric cholesterol screening may lead to mislabeling and overly restrictive diets, stresses laboratory confirmation and nutritional follow-up for children with elevated cholesterol levels. Parents' behavior and attitudes toward screening children for high cholesterol were studied. During an 8-week period in summer of 1989 all children 2 through 15 years of age seen for well-child examinations at a community pediatric group practice were offered cholesterol screening by finger-stick method. Most parents were well-educated and white. Of 439 children screened, 134 (31%) had cholesterol levels above the recommended cutoff point of 175 mg/dL (75th percentile). Only 63 children returned for confirmatory lipid panels; parents of children who did not return were interviewed. Reasons for noncompliance included "not sure test machine was accurate" (67%); "child too traumatized by finger stick" (47%); and "will try low-cholesterol diet before recheck" (40%). A third of these parents believed that confirmation of an elevated cholesterol level "would make the child worry too much." Only 29% of these parents talked with a dietician. In this middle-class, well-educated population, a large proportion of children had elevated screening cholesterol values, but few complied with American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. As a result, many children may be mislabeled as hypercholesterolemic and may not benefit from screening.

  20. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease?

    PubMed Central

    Law, M. R.; Wald, N. J.; Thompson, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate by how much and how quickly a given reduction in serum cholesterol concentration will reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN--Data on the incidence of ischaemic heart disease and serum cholesterol concentration were analysed from 10 prospective (cohort) studies, three international studies in different communities, and 28 randomised controlled trials (with mortality data analysed according to allocated treatment to ensure the avoidance of bias). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Decrease in incidence of ischaemic heart disease or mortality for a 0.6 mmol/l (about 10%) decrease in serum cholesterol concentration. RESULTS--For men results from the cohort studies showed that a decrease of serum cholesterol concentration of 0.6 mmol/l (about 10%) was associated with a decrease in incidence of ischaemic heart disease of 54% at age 40 years, 39% at age 50, 27% at 60, 20% at 70, and 19% at 80. The combined estimate from the three international studies (for ages 55-64 years) was 38% (95% confidence interval 33% to 42%), somewhat greater than the cohort study estimate of 27%. The reductions in incidence of ischaemic heart disease in the randomised trials (for ages 55-64 years) were 7% (0 to 14%) in the first two years, 22% (15% to 28%) from 2.1-5 years, and 25% (15% to 35%) after five years, the last estimate being close to the estimate of 27% for the long term reduction from the cohort studies. The data for women are limited but indicate a similar effect. CONCLUSIONS--The results from the cohort studies, international comparisons, and clinical trials are remarkably consistent. The cohort studies, based on half a million men and 18,000 ischaemic heart disease events, estimate that a long term reduction in serum cholesterol concentration of 0.6 mmol/l (10%), which can be achieved by moderate dietary change, lowers the risk of ischaemic heart disease by 50% at age 40, falling to 20% at age 70. The randomised trials, based on 45,000 men and 4000

  1. Supplementation with Aspergillus oryzae-fermented kochujang lowers serum cholesterol in subjects with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji-Hee; Jung, Eun-Soo; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Do-Yeoun; Jo, Seung-Wha; Jin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Mi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2015-06-01

    Kochujang, a traditional fermented red pepper paste, is known for its hypocholesterolemic effect; however, these studies used non-commercial preparations of kochujang. In this study, we examined whether commercially-made kochujang in which Aspergillus oryzae (also known as koji) was used as a microorganism for fermentation has the same cholesterol-lowering effects. Hyperlipidemic subjects (based upon criteria of 110 ∼ 190 mg/dL LDL cholesterol or 200 ∼ 260 mg/dL total cholesterol) who had not been diagnosed with any disease and met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into either the kochujang (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) group. All subjects ingested either the kochujang pill (34.5 g/d) or a placebo three times daily during meals for 12 weeks. Outcomes included measurements of efficacy (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride) and safety (adverse events, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and vital signs). In the kochujang-supplemented group, subjects' total cholesterol level significantly decreased (from 215.5 ± 16.1 mg/dL to 194.5 ± 25.4 mg/dL, p = 0.001). LDL-C cholesterol levels were also decreased by kochujang supplementation (from 133.6 ± 14.8 mg/dL to 113.5 ± 23.1 mg/dL); however no significant difference was seen between groups (p = 0.074). There were no statistically significant differences in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the supplemented and non-supplemented groups. None of the subjects complained of any adverse effects. These results indicate that A. oryzae-fermented kochujang elicits a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and might be useful for improving blood cholesterol levels in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. NCT01865370. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of bran in normals. Serum levels of cholesterols, triglyceride, calcium and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid, and intestinal transit time.

    PubMed

    Winreich, J; Pedersen, O; Dinesen, K

    1977-01-01

    After the intake of approximately 24 g wheat bran daily for 5 weeks, 25 trainee nurses showed no changes in the serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium or total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. On the other hand, the study revealed a reduced intestinal transit time with good correlation to an increased frequency of bowel movements. Average body weight fell significantly, by 0.4 kg. The daily caloric intake remained constant throughout the study period, whereas the calcium intake was significantly increased. Among the serum parameters and the dietary constituents, good correlation was found only between serum cholesterol and the dietary cholesterol content. In addition, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between the serum levels of cholesterol and total 3 alpha-hydroxycholanic acid. The significance of this observation is as yet unknown.

  3. Preparation and value assignment of standard reference material 968e fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Duewer, David L; Mugenya, Isaac O; Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Tai, Susan S; Welch, Michael J; Yen, James H

    2012-01-01

    Standard Reference Material 968e Fat-Soluble Vitamins, Carotenoids, and Cholesterol in Human Serum provides certified values for total retinol, γ- and α-tocopherol, total lutein, total zeaxanthin, total β-cryptoxanthin, total β-carotene, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), and cholesterol. Reference and information values are also reported for nine additional compounds including total α-cryptoxanthin, trans- and total lycopene, total α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and coenzyme Q(10). The certified values for the fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in SRM 968e were based on the agreement of results from the means of two liquid chromatographic methods used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from the median of results of an interlaboratory comparison exercise among institutions that participate in the NIST Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program. The assigned values for cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the SRM are the means of results obtained using the NIST reference method based upon gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. SRM 968e is currently one of two available health-related NIST reference materials with concentration values assigned for selected fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum matrix. This SRM is used extensively by laboratories worldwide primarily to validate methods for determining these analytes in human serum and plasma and for assigning values to in-house control materials. The value assignment of the analytes in this SRM will help support measurement accuracy and traceability for laboratories performing health-related measurements in the clinical and nutritional communities.

  4. CNT loading into cationic cholesterol suspensions show improved DNA binding and serum stability and ability to internalize into cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhikara, Bhupender S.; Misra, Santosh K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2012-02-01

    Methods which disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water as ‘debundled’, while maintaining their unique physical properties are highly useful. We present here a family of cationic cholesterol compounds (Chol+) {Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl pyridinium bromide (Chol-PB+), Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl N-methyl pyrrolidinium bromide (Chol-MPB+), Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl N-methyl morpholinium bromide (Chol-MMB+) and Cholest-5en-3β-oxyethyl diazabicyclo octanium bromide (Chol-DOB+)}. Each of these could be easily dispersed in water. The resulting cationic cholesterol (Chol+) suspensions solubilized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by the non-specific physical adsorption of Chol+ to form stable, transparent, dark aqueous suspensions at room temperature. Electron microscopy reveals the existence of highly segregated CNTs in these samples. Zeta potential measurements showed an increase in potential of cationic cholesterol aggregates on addition of CNTs. The CNT-Chol+ suspensions were capable of forming stable complexes with genes (DNA) efficiently. The release of double-helical DNA from such CNT-Chol+ complexes could be induced upon the addition of anionic micellar solution of SDS. Furthermore, the CNT-based DNA complexes containing cationic cholesterol aggregates showed higher stability in fetal bovine serum media at physiological conditions. Confocal studies confirm that CNT-Chol+ formulations adhere to HeLa cell surfaces and get internalized more efficiently than the cationic cholesterol suspensions alone (devoid of any CNTs). These cationic cholesterol-CNT suspensions therefore appear to be a promising system for further use in biological applications.

  5. Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-North Karelia mutation.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, A F; Gylling, H; Turtola, H; Kontula, K; Ketonen, P; Miettinen, T A

    2000-02-01

    In heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are already elevated at birth. Premature coronary heart disease occurs in approximately 30% of heterozygous untreated adult patients. Accordingly, to retard development of atherosclerosis, preventive measures for lowering cholesterol should be started even in childhood. To this end, 19 FH families consumed dietary stanol ester for 3 months. Stanol ester margarine lowers the serum cholesterol level by inhibiting cholesterol absorption. Each individual in the study replaced part of his or her daily dietary fat with 25 g of 80% rapeseed oil margarine containing stanol esters (2.24 g/d stanols, mainly sitostanol). The families who consumed this margarine for 12 weeks included 24 children, aged 3 to 13 years, with the North Karelia variant of FH (FH-NK), 4 FH-NK parents, and 16 healthy family members, and a separate group of 12 FH-NK adults who consumed the margarine for 6 weeks and who were on simvastatin therapy (20 or 40 mg/d). Fat-soluble vitamins were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and cholesterol precursor sterols (indexes of cholesterol synthesis) and cholestanol and plant sterols (indexes of cholesterol absorption efficiency) were assayed by gas-liquid chromatography. No side effects occurred. Serum LDL cholesterol levels were reduced by 18% (P<0.001), 11%, 12% (P<0.001), and 20% (P<0.001) in the 4 groups, respectively. The serum campesterol-to-cholesterol ratios fell by 31% (P<0.001), 29%, 23% (P<0.001), and 36% (P<0.001), respectively, suggesting that cholesterol absorption efficiency was inhibited. Serum lathosterol ratios were elevated by 38% (P<0.001), 11%, 15% (P<0.001), and 19% (P<0.001), respectively, suggesting that cholesterol synthesis was compensatorily upregulated. The FH-NK children increased their serum lathosterol ratio more than did the FH-NK adults treated with stanol ester margarine and simvastatin (P<0.01). In the FH

  6. Recovery of Serum Cholesterol Predicts Survival After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Amanda R.; Kennel, Peter J.; Maldonado, Dawn; Young, James B.; Mountis, Maria M.; Naka, Yoshifumi; Colombo, Paolo C.; Mancini, Donna M.; Starling, Randall C.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background Advanced systolic heart failure is associated with myocardial and systemic metabolic abnormalities, including low levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Low cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein have been associated with greater mortality in heart failure. Implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) reverses some of the metabolic derangements of advanced heart failure. Methods and Results A cohort was retrospectively assembled from 2 high-volume implantation centers, totaling 295 continuous-flow LVAD recipients with ≥2 cholesterol values available. The cohort was predominantly bridge-to-transplantation (67%), with median age of 59 years and 49% ischemic heart failure cause. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels all significantly increased after LVAD implantation (median values from implantation to 3 months post implantation 125–150 mg/dL, 67–85 mg/dL, 32–42 mg/dL, and 97–126 mg/dL, respectively). On Cox proportional hazards modeling, patients achieving recovery of total cholesterol levels, defined as a median or greater change from pre implantation to 3 months post-LVAD implantation, had significantly better unadjusted survival (hazard ratio, 0.445; 95% confidence interval, 0.212–0.932) and adjusted survival (hazard ratio, 0.241; 95% confidence interval, 0.092–0.628) than those without cholesterol recovery after LVAD implantation. The continuous variable of total cholesterol at 3 months post implantation and the cholesterol increase from pre implantation to 3 months were also both significantly associated with survival during LVAD support. Conclusions Initiation of continuous-flow LVAD support was associated with significant recovery of all 4 lipid variables. Patients with a greater increase in total cholesterol by 3 months post implantation had superior survival during LVAD support. PMID:27623768

  7. Effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on levels of serum lipids and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M B; Barnard, R J; Rose, D P; Inkeles, S; Hall, J; Pritikin, N

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated elevated levels of serum estradiol in males as the major predisposing factor for myocardial infarction, with serum cholesterol playing a secondary role. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and daily exercise on levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, and lipids in males. Twenty-one males participating in the Pritikin Longevity Center 26-day residential program volunteered for the study. During the program, serum estradiol levels were significantly reduced from 47.2 +/- 4.6 to 23.8 +/- 2.5 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) whereas serum testosterone levels were unchanged (5.1 +/- 0.3 versus 5.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). Total serum cholesterol levels were reduced from 229 +/- 9 to 181 +/- 7 mg/dl whereas triglyceride levels were reduced from 301 +/- 66 to 151 +/- 13 mg/dl. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels fell from 41 +/- 3 to 35 +/- 1 mg/dl whereas the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was unchanged (5.5 +/- 0.4 versus 5.1 +/- 0.3).

  8. trans-trans Conjugated linoleic acid enriched soybean oil reduces fatty liver and lowers serum cholesterol in obese zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, William; Gadang, Vidya; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal; Devareddy, Latha

    2011-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collection of octadecadienoic fatty acids that have been shown to possess numerous health benefits. The CLA used in our study was produced by the photoisomerization of soybean oil and consists of about 20% CLA; this CLA consists of 75% trans-trans (a mixture of t8,t10; t9,t11; t10,t12) isomers. This method could be readily used to increase the CLA content of all soybean oil used as a food ingredient. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil, fed as a dietary supplement, on body composition, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and markers of glucose control and liver function of obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil lowered the serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by 41 and 50%, respectively, when compared to obese controls. Trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil supplementation also lowered the liver lipid content significantly (P < 0.05) with a concomitant decrease in the liver weight in the obese rats. In addition, glycated hemoglobin values were improved in the group receiving CLA-enriched soybean oil in comparison to the obese control. PPAR-γ expression in white adipose tissue was unchanged. In conclusion, trans-trans CLA-rich soy oil was effective in lowering total liver lipids and serum cholesterol.

  9. Nutritional value of the marine invertebrates Anemonia viridis and Haliothis tuberculata and effects on serum cholesterol concentration in ratsopen star

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M; Caride, B; Lamas, A; Taboada, C

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional value of diets with protein from two marine species (Haliotis tuberculata and Anemonia viridis) as compared to a high-quality protein reference based on casein or casein supplemented with olive oil. We also investigated the effects of these diets on serum lipid levels. Male rats were fed these diets for 23 days. Protein quality indicators (true digestibility, net protein utilization, biological value) were similar to those obtained for casein-based feeds except for lower true digestibility and net protein utilization values for the Anemonia viridis feed. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the groups fed marine species or casein supplemented with olive oil than in the casein group. Total-cholesterol level was higher in the group fed Haliotis tuberculata fed than in the other groups. These results suggest that these marine species are a good protein source, and that they may have positive effects on serum cholesterol level.

  10. Effects of a partially hydrolyzed curdlan on serum and hepatic cholesterol concentration, and cecal fermentation in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Jun; Oka, Masahide; Kudoh, Keita; Wada, Masahiro; Takita, Toshichika; Innami, Satoshi; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Maekawa, Akio

    2002-03-01

    A significant reduction was observed for serum and hepatic cholesterol concentrations in the rats fed diet containing a 5% partially hydrolyzed curdlan (PHCD), whereas only the hepatic cholesterol concentration was decreased in the curdlan (CD)-fed rats. The cecal contents in the CD group contained a significantly larger amount of short-chain fatty acids, but not those in the PHCD group. CD, but not PHCD, significantly increased the population of cecal bifidobacteria. From the in vitro fermentation test with cecal contents from cellulose powder (CP) and CD-fed rats, PHCD proved to be easily fermented by both cecal contents; incidentally CD was more susceptible to the cecal contents from CD-fed rats than to those from CP-fed rats. These results suggest that PHCD is involved in the modulation of lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora through a different manner from the native CD in rats.

  11. Is higher serum cholesterol associated with altered tendon structure or tendon pain? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Benjamin J; Cook, Jill L; Docking, Sean I; Gaida, James E

    2015-12-01

    Tendon pain occurs in individuals with extreme cholesterol levels (familial hypercholesterolaemia). It is unclear whether the association with tendon pain is strong with less extreme elevations of cholesterol. To determine whether lipid levels are associated with abnormal tendon structure or the presence of tendon pain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant articles were found through an electronic search of 6 medical databases-MEDLINE, Cochrane, AMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus. We included all case-control or cross-sectional studies with data describing (1) lipid levels or use of lipid-lowering drugs and (2) tendon structure or tendon pain. 17 studies (2612 participants) were eligible for inclusion in the review. People with altered tendon structure or tendon pain had significantly higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; with mean difference values of 0.66, 1.00, 0.33, and -0.19 mmol/L, respectively. The results of this review indicate that a relationship exists between an individual's lipid profile and tendon health. However, further longitudinal studies are required to determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between tendon structure and lipid levels. This could lead to advancement in the understanding of the pathoaetiology and thus treatment of tendinopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Avasimibe encapsulated in human serum albumin blocks cholesterol esterification for selective cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steve Seung-Young; Li, Junjie; Tai, Jien Nee; Ratliff, Timothy L; Park, Kinam; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2015-03-24

    Undesirable side effects remain a significant challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Here we report a strategy for cancer-selective chemotherapy by blocking acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1)-mediated cholesterol esterification. To efficiently block cholesterol esterification in cancer in vivo, we developed a systemically injectable nanoformulation of avasimibe (a potent ACAT-1 inhibitor), called avasimin. In cell lines of human prostate, pancreatic, lung, and colon cancer, avasimin significantly reduced cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets and elevated intracellular free cholesterol levels, which led to apoptosis and suppression of proliferation. In xenograft models of prostate cancer and colon cancer, intravenous administration of avasimin caused the concentration of avasimibe in tumors to be 4-fold higher than the IC50 value. Systemic treatment of avasimin notably suppressed tumor growth in mice and extended the length of survival time. No adverse effects of avasimin to normal cells and organs were observed. Together, this study provides an effective approach for selective cancer chemotherapy by targeting altered cholesterol metabolism of cancer cells.

  13. Cohort study of serum total cholesterol and in-hospital incidence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, C.; Jacobs, D. R.; Sidney, S.; Claxton, A. J.; Feingold, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    A multiethnic cohort of adult members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (55300 men and 65271 women) was followed for 15 years (1979-93) to assess the association between total cholesterol and risk of infections (other than respiratory and HIV) diagnosed in the in-patient setting. Using multivariate Cox regression, total cholesterol was inversely and significantly related to urinary tract, venereal, musculo-skeletal, and all infections among men; and to urinary tract, all genito-urinary, septicaemia or bacteraemia, miscellaneous viral site unspecified, and all infections among women. The reduction of risk of all infections associated with a 1 S.D. increase in total cholesterol was 8% in both men (95% CI, 4-12 %) and women (95% CI, 5-11%). For urinary tract infections among men, as for septicaemia or bacteraemia and nervous system infections among women, the risk relation was restricted to persons aged 55-89 years. Nervous system infections were positively related to total cholesterol among women aged 25-54. In both genders, the significant inverse association with all infections persisted after excluding the first 5 years of follow-up. Collectively, these data are suggestive of an inverse association, although not entirely consistent, between total cholesterol and incidence of infections either requiring hospitalization or acquired in the hospital. Further research is needed to elucidate whether these associations are biologically plausible or represent uncontrolled confounding by unmeasured risk factors. PMID:9825784

  14. Is higher serum cholesterol associated with altered tendon structure or tendon pain? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, Benjamin J; Cook, Jill L; Docking, Sean I; Gaida, James E

    2015-01-01

    Background Tendon pain occurs in individuals with extreme cholesterol levels (familial hypercholesterolaemia). It is unclear whether the association with tendon pain is strong with less extreme elevations of cholesterol. Objective To determine whether lipid levels are associated with abnormal tendon structure or the presence of tendon pain. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant articles were found through an electronic search of 6 medical databases—MEDLINE, Cochrane, AMED, EMBASE, Web of Science and Scopus. We included all case–control or cross-sectional studies with data describing (1) lipid levels or use of lipid-lowering drugs and (2) tendon structure or tendon pain. Results 17 studies (2612 participants) were eligible for inclusion in the review. People with altered tendon structure or tendon pain had significantly higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; with mean difference values of 0.66, 1.00, 0.33, and −0.19 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusions The results of this review indicate that a relationship exists between an individual’s lipid profile and tendon health. However, further longitudinal studies are required to determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between tendon structure and lipid levels. This could lead to advancement in the understanding of the pathoaetiology and thus treatment of tendinopathy. PMID:26474596

  15. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Wong, F L; Yamada, M; Sasaki, H; Kodama, K; Hosoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    The effects of radiation on the long-term trends of the total serum cholesterol levels of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were examined using data collected in the Adult Health Study over a 28-year period (1958-1986). The growth-curve method was used to model the longitudinal age-dependent changes in cholesterol levels. For each sex, temporal trends of cholesterol levels were characterized with respect to age, body mass index, city and birth year. We then examined whether the temporal trends differed by radiation dose. We showed that the mean growth curve of cholesterol levels for the irradiated subjects were significantly higher than that for the unirradiated subjects, and that the increase was greater for women than for men. No difference in dose response was detected between Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An increased mean level of cholesterol was evident for irradiated women in general, but a notable increase was apparent in males only for the youngest birth cohort of 1935-1945. The difference in the mean cholesterol levels between the irradiated and unirradiated subjects diminished past 70 years of age. It is not known whether this is due to natural progression or is an artifact of nonrandom variation in the rate of participation in the examinations. The maximum predicted increase at 1 Gy for women occurred at age 52 years for the 1930 cohort: 2.5 mg/dl (95% CI 1.6-3.3 mg/dl) for Hiroshima and 2.3 mg/dl (95% CI 1.5-3.1 mg/dl) for Nagasaki. The corresponding increase for men occurred at age 29 years for the 1940 cohort: 1.6 mg/dl (95% CI 0.4-2.8) for Hiroshima and 1.4 mg/dl (95% CI 0.3-2.6) for Nagasaki. Controlling for cigarette smoking did not alter the dose-response relationship. Although the difference in the mean growth curves of the irradiated and unirradiated groups was statistically significant, there was a considerable overlap in the individual growth curves of the two groups. The significant sex difference and the greater magnitude of

  16. Serum cholesterol levels in axenic mice colonized with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Zacconi, C; Bottazzi, V; Rebecchi, A; Bosi, E; Sarra, P G; Tagliaferri, L

    1992-10-01

    Hypocholesterolemic effect was shown in axenic, mono, bicolonized and conventional mice: the effect was different depending on probiotic properties of intestinal microorganisms. Contamination by Enterococcus faecium CX determined the highest effect: haematic cholesterol level decrease was 16.9% in females and 7.8% in males. In mice contaminated by Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 the decrease of haematic cholesterol levels was less and not relevant in mice contaminated by conventional microflora. Enterococcus faecium CX and Lactobacillus acidophilus N5 strains were able to grow in presence of bile salts, to colonize intestinal tract, to survive at gastric conditions and to assimilate cholesterol (E. faecium more than L. acidophilus). The authors consider the possibility to associate probiotic strains with these characteristics for the health of consumers.

  17. Fecal bulk, energy intake, and serum cholesterol: regression response of serum cholesterol to apparent digestibility of dry matter and suboptimal energy intake in rats on fiber-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Normani, M Z; Hussain, S S; Lim, J K; Albrink, M J; Gunnells, C K; Davis, G K

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the rat to determine the relationships of serum cholesterol (SC, mg/dl), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), and digested energy intake (DE, kcal/day) at suboptimal level of energy. The energies in diet and feces were determined by calorimetry. DE as percentage of the National Research Council requirement (DE%) was suboptimal (70 to 85%). The experiments had four to five isofibrous diets, and no fiber diets, supplemented with 0.2% crystalline cholesterol (CChol). Animals in experiment 1 were fed varying amounts of feed with 18% coconut oil in the diets where as these in experiment 2 were given fixed amounts of feed with either 6 or 18% oil. The following regressions (p less than 0.001) for SC were found: experiment 1: -1157.7 -5.97 DDM +105.5 CCI -1.48 CCI2 (r2 0.35), where CCI = CChol, mg/day; -1888.4 -2.66 DE +120.97 CCI -1.62 CCI2 (r2 0.37). Experiment 2: 762.99 -6.15 DDM -0.8 fat cal % -0.87DE% (r2 0.31), where fat cal % = fat calories % of DE. Data indicate that at suboptimal energy intake, SC was inversely related to (1) DDM, (2) fat cal, and (3) total energy intake. Liver cholesterol lowering effect of the dietary fiber was also observed. The above findings help to elucidate various conflicting reports related to diet and blood cholesterol.

  18. Extracted oat and barley β-glucans do not affect cholesterol metabolism in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau; Ejsing, Johnny; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-10-01

    β-Glucans are known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects. Increased intestinal viscosity is thought to be crucial for cholesterol lowering. It is suggested that concentration, molecular mass, and structure, including the ratio of (1→3) to (1→4) glucan bonds in the molecule, are of importance for β-glucan functionality. This study investigated the effects of 3 different β-glucan sources, incorporated into a beverage and yogurt, on blood lipids and fecal endpoints. Fourteen participants completed this randomized, crossover, single-blinded study with four 3-wk periods: control and 3.3 g/d oat, barley, and barley mutant β-glucans of similar molecular mass. Before and after each period, fasting and postprandial blood samples were drawn and 3-d fecal samples were collected. Treatment did not affect changes in total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with control; however, consumption of 3.3 g/d of oat β-glucans for 3 wk resulted in greater decreases in total (-0.29 ± 0.09 mmol/L, P < 0.01), LDL (-0.23 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P < 0.01), and HDL (-0.05 ± 0.03 mmol/L, P < 0.05) cholesterol compared with baseline. Changes in LDL in the β-glucan treatments were not related to β-glucan structure (cellotriosyl:cellotetraosyl). Decreases in fasting triacylglycerol were substantially greater after oat β-glucan treatment compared with control (P = 0.03). Fecal dry and wet weight, stool frequency, fecal pH, and energy excretion were unaffected. The results do not fully support the hypocholesterolemic effects by differently structured oat and barley β-glucans. However, substantial differences compared with baseline suggest a potential for oat β-glucan, presumably due to its higher solubility and viscosity. This underlines the importance of elusive structural β-glucan features for beneficial physiologic effects.

  19. Impact of android overweight or obesity and insulin resistance on basal and postprandial SR-BI and ABCA1-mediated serum cholesterol efflux capacities.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nesrine; Fournier, Natalie; Vedie, Benoît; Cambillau, Michèle; Beaune, Philippe; Ziegler, Olivier; Grynberg, Alain; Paul, Jean-Louis; Guerci, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Since android overweight/obesity and insulin resistance are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we investigated their impact on basal and postprandial scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) and ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated serum cholesterol efflux. Twelve android overweight to obese and 9 normal weight controls women underwent body composition analysis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and an oral fat load with blood sampling at initial time (T0), 4h (T4) and 10h (T10) after the fat load. Serum lipids and HDL-parameters, capacities of serum to promote cholesterol efflux from SR-BI expressing Fu5AH hepatoma cells or from ABCA1-expressing J774 macrophages and to abilities of serum to induce a net removal of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells were measured at T0, T4 and T10. Sera from overweight/obese exhibited moderately decreased SR-BI-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities, in accordance with reduced HDL concentrations, but importantly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and increased cholesterol extraction capacities over the postprandial period, partly related to higher prebeta-HDL concentrations. In multiple regression analyses, android obesity-related parameters and HDL-PL or prebeta-HDL levels remained the only independent correlates for SR-BI or ABCA1-dependent fractional cholesterol efflux while only prebeta-HDL levels remained correlated to cholesterol extraction capacities. Our results suggest that android overweight/obesity may not result in an impaired cholesterol efflux capacity.

  20. The influence of protein and carbohydrate type on serum and liver lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J E; Covert, S J

    1984-11-01

    The non-lipid portions of semi-synthetic diets appear to be important determinants of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Serum and liver lipid concentrations were determined in rabbits which had been pair-fed various protein (casein or soy protein isolate) and carbohydrate (sucrose or dextrose) sources as part of low fat, low cholesterol, semi-synthetic diets. It was verified that casein-containing diets render rabbits hypercholesterolemic, while soy protein caused a degree of hypocholesterolemia. Additionally, sucrose, when fed in conjunction with casein, appears to augment this hypercholesterolemic effect. The distribution of total cholesterol among lipoprotein subclasses was increased in both the intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) (1.006-1.019 g/ml) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (1.019-1.063 g/ml) fractions and decreased in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) (1.063-1.21 g/ml) fraction when casein is fed. Soy protein feeding caused relatively more cholesterol to appear only in the IDL fraction when compared with commercial chow fed rabbits. Reasons for these differences may involve the saturation or suppression of endogenous lipoprotein hepatic receptors.

  1. Serum metabolic variables associated with impaired glucose tolerance induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol diet in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Chen, Younan; Liu, Jingping; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Jiuming; Liao, Guangneng; Shi, Meimei; Yuan, Yujia; He, Sirong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2012-11-01

    Dyslipidemia caused by 'Western-diet pattern' is a strong risk factor for the onset of diabetes. This study aimed to disclose the relationship between the serum metabolite changes induced by habitual intake of high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet and the development of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and insulin resistance through animal models of Macaca mulatta. Sixteen M. mulatta (six months old) were fed a control diet or a HFHC diet for 18 months. The diet effect on serum metabolic profiles was investigated by longitudinal research. Islet function was assessed by intravenous glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test. Metabonomics were determined by (1)H proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Prolonged diet-dependent hyperlipidemia facilitated visceral fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle and disorder of glucose homeostasis in juvenile monkeys. Glucose disappearance rate (K(Glu)) and insulin response to the glucose challenge effects in HFHC monkeys were significantly lower than in control monkeys. Otherwise, serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), lactate and leucine/isoleucine were significantly higher in HFHC monkeys. Sphingomyelin and choline were the most positively correlated with K(Glu) (R(2) = 0.778), as well as negative correlation (R(2) = 0.64) with total cholesterol. The HFHC diet induced visceral fat, abnormal lipid metabolism and IGT prior to weight gain and body fat content increase in juvenile monkeys. We suggest that increased serum metabolites, such as TMAO, lactate, branched-chain amino acids and decreased sphingomyelin and choline, may serve as possible predictors for the evaluation of IGT and insulin resistance risks in the prediabetic state.

  2. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  3. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  4. Serum cholesterol reduction by feeding a high-cholesterol diet containing a lower-molecular-weight polyphenol fraction from peanut skin.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomoko; Inoue, Naoko; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Tadaishi, Miki; Takita, Toshichika; Arai, Soichi; Mura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Feeding a high-cholesterol diet with a water-soluble peanut skin polyphenol fraction to rats reduced their plasma cholesterol level, with an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect was greater with the lower-molecular-weight rather than higher-molecular-weight polyphenol fraction. This effect was possibly due to some oligomeric polyphenols which reduced the solubility of dietary cholesterol in intestinal bile acid-emulsified micelles.

  5. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Thyrotropin and Total and Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Prolonged Antarctic Residence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    significant (Table 2). THYROID AND CHOLESTEROL CHANGES IN ANTARTICA 1161 Table 1. Thyroid Hormone and Carrier Protein Changes With AR Mean Monthly Change Rate...IN ANTARTICA 1163 cold-chamber studies13 will increase T3 requirements and In conclusion, humans appear to have an asymptomatic change thyroid hormone

  6. Egg consumption modulates HDL lipid composition and increases the cholesterol-accepting capacity of serum in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Catherine J; Blesso, Christopher N; Lee, Jiyoung; Barona, Jacqueline; Shah, Dharika; Thomas, Michael J; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2013-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that daily whole egg consumption during moderate carbohydrate restriction leads to greater increases in plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and improvements in HDL profiles in metabolic syndrome (MetS) when compared to intake of a yolk-free egg substitute. We further investigated the effects of this intervention on HDL composition and function, hypothesizing that the phospholipid species present in egg yolk modulate HDL lipid composition to increase the cholesterol-accepting capacity of subject serum. Men and women classified with MetS were randomly assigned to consume either three whole eggs (EGG, n = 20) per day or the equivalent amount of egg substitute (SUB, n = 17) throughout a 12-week moderate carbohydrate-restricted (25-30 % of energy) diet. Relative to other HDL lipids, HDL-cholesteryl ester content increased in all subjects, with greater increases in the SUB group. Further, HDL-triacylglycerol content was reduced in EGG group subjects with normal baseline plasma HDL-C, resulting in increases in HDL-CE/TAG ratios in both groups. Phospholipid analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that HDL became enriched in phosphatidylethanolamine in the EGG group, and that EGG group HDL better reflected sphingomyelin species present in the whole egg product at week 12 compared to baseline. Further, macrophage cholesterol efflux to EGG subject serum increased from baseline to week 12, whereas no changes were observed in the SUB group. Together, these findings suggest that daily egg consumption promotes favorable shifts in HDL lipid composition and function beyond increasing plasma HDL-C in MetS.

  7. Egg Consumption Modulates HDL Lipid Composition and Increases the Cholesterol-Accepting Capacity of Serum in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.; Blesso, Christopher N.; Lee, Jiyoung; Barona, Jacqueline; Shah, Dharika; Thomas, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that daily whole egg consumption during moderate carbohydrate restriction leads to greater increases in plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and improvements in HDL profiles in metabolic syndrome (MetS) when compared to intake of a yolk-free egg substitute. We further investigated the effects of this intervention on HDL composition and function, hypothesizing that the phospholipid species present in egg yolk modulate HDL lipid composition to increase the cholesterol-accepting capacity of subject serum. Men and women classified with MetS were randomly assigned to consume either three whole eggs (EGG, n = 20) per day or the equivalent amount of egg substitute (SUB, n = 17) throughout a 12-week moderate carbohydrate-restricted (25–30 % of energy) diet. Relative to other HDL lipids, HDL-cholesteryl ester content increased in all subjects, with greater increases in the SUB group. Further, HDL-triacylglycerol content was reduced in EGG group subjects with normal baseline plasma HDL-C, resulting in increases in HDL-CE/TAG ratios in both groups. Phospholipid analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that HDL became enriched in phosphatidylethanolamine in the EGG group, and that EGG group HDL better reflected sphingomyelin species present in the whole egg product at week 12 compared to baseline. Further, macrophage cholesterol efflux to EGG subject serum increased from baseline to week 12, whereas no changes were observed in the SUB group. Together, these findings suggest that daily egg consumption promotes favorable shifts in HDL lipid composition and function beyond increasing plasma HDL-C in MetS. PMID:23494579

  8. Lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in major depression and in depressed men with serious suicidal attempts: relationship with immune-inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; Smith, R; Christophe, A; Vandoolaeghe, E; Van Gastel, A; Neels, H; Demedts, P; Wauters, A; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Recently, there have been some reports that changes in serum lipid composition may be related to suicide, major depression and immune-inflammatory responses. Findings from our laboratory suggest that major depression is accompanied by reduced formation of cholesteryl esters and perhaps by impairment of reverse cholesterol transport. The latter is reportedly accompanied by lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The aim of this study was to examine whether (i) major depression is accompanied by lower serum HDL-C or by abnormal levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-C (LDL-C) or vitamin E, (ii) suicidal attempts are related to lower serum HDL-C and (iii) there are significant associations between serum HDL-C and immune/inflammatory markers. A total of 36 subjects with major depression, of whom 28 patients showed treatment resistance, as well as 28 normal control subjects, had blood sampled for the assay of the above lipids, serum zinc (Zn), albumin (Alb) and flow cytometric determination of the T-helper/T-suppressor (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio. In total, 28 depressed subjects had repeated measures of these variables both before and after treatment with antidepressants. Serum HDL-C and total cholesterol, as well as the HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, were significantly lower in subjects with major depression than in normal controls. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly lower in depressed men who had at some time made serious suicidal attempts than in those without such suicidal behaviour. Treatment with antidepressants for 5 weeks did not significantly alter either serum HDL-C or other lipid variables. Serum HDL-C levels were significantly and negatively correlated with the (CD4+/CD8+) T-cell ratio, and positively correlated with serum Alb and Zn. These results suggest that (i) lower serum HDL-C levels are a marker for major depression and suicidal behaviour in depressed men, (ii) lower serum HDL-C levels are probably

  9. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Duan, Yujing; Hu, Yun; Sun, Lili; Wang, Song; Fu, Wenyan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate characteristic of animals related to fear or stress response. Animals can be classified into long TI (LTI) and short TI (STI) phenotypes based on TI test duration. In this study, effect of TI phenotype, chronic corticosterone administration (CORT), and their interaction on cholesterol metabolism in liver was evaluated in broilers. LTI broilers showed higher level of cholesterol in liver compared to STI chickens (p<0.05), and CORT significantly increased hepatic cholesterol content (p<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that both TI and CORT potentially altered ABCA1 and CYP7A1 gene expressions (0.05affected hepatic HMGCR protein expression, and LTI broilers showed higher level of HMGCR protein expression in liver than STI (p<0.05). These results indicate that chronic CORT administration causes hepatic cholesterol accumulation in broiler chickens mainly by enhancing cholesterol synthesis and uptake into liver. LTI chickens had higher amount of total cholesterol in liver, which might be associated with an increase of hepatic HMGCR protein expression. However, there is no interaction between TI and CORT on cholesterol metabolism in liver of broilers.

  10. Substitution of whole cows' milk with defatted milk for 4 months reduced serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB in a sample of Mexican school-age children (6-16 years of age).

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Lara Zamudio, Yaveth; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Manzano, Alejandra Contreras; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2015-09-14

    We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR.

  11. pH, cholesterol sulfate, and fatty acids affect the stratum corneum lipid organization.

    PubMed

    Bouwstra, J A; Gooris, G S; Dubbelaar, F E; Weerheim, A M; Ponec, M

    1998-08-01

    Lipid mixtures prepared from cholesterol (CHOL), isolated ceramides (CER), and free fatty acids can serve as attractive tools to study the role various stratum corneum (SC) lipids or microenvironmental conditions play in the SC lipid organization, as the phase behavior in these mixtures and in SC are similar: two lamellar phases with periodicities of approximately 6 and 13 nm are present. Because pH and cholesterol sulfate (CSO4) gradients exist in SC and may affect the local SC lipid organization, the effects of pH and CSO4 on lipid phase behavior was examined. X-ray diffraction studies with CHOL:CER mixtures revealed that the lamellar ordering at pH 5 and 7.4 were similar: both the short and the long periodicity phases were present. Upon addition of free fatty acids the phase behavior became pH dependent; the long periodicity phase being more dominant at pH 7.4 than at pH 5. Similar observations have been made upon addition of CSO4. Furthermore, only in the presence of CSO4 did phase-separated CHOL disappear, indicating that CHOL completely dissolves in the lamellar phases. A major phase change from an hexagonal to an orthorhombic lateral packing has been observed in the presence of free fatty acids. Furthermore, in the presence of CSO4 next to orthorhombic also liquid lateral packing could be detected. In contrast to lamellar ordering, changes in pH did not affect the lateral packing in any of the lipid mixtures studied.

  12. [Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol in serum: accuracy and comparison with other methods (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Stähler, F; Munz, E; Kattermann, R

    1975-04-18

    Cholesterol can be specifically measured without difficulty and without complex reagents by means of a newly developed enzymatic colour test. Intensive technical evaluation confirmed its accuracy. Manual use gave a day-to-day coefficient of variation of 2-3 per cent; the sensitivity at a cholesterol concentration of 200 mg/dl was E equals 0.153 (gamma equals 405 nm), with a linearity up to 1000 mg/dl. Recovery of added pure cholesterol solution was 100 plus or minus 2 percent. A quantitative study of 53 representative drugs, anti-coagulants and metabolites was performed both in test tube and on patients. Accuracy of the result was unaffected by any of the substances (alpha equals 0.05). Comparison with the multi-step extraction method used at present as a reference (Abell-Kendall) gave a regression equation of y equals 0.99 times plus 1.1 (x axis: extraction method; y axis: enzymatic colour test). The direct chemical method after Liebermann and Burchard gave, in part, markedly differing results because of considerable systematic and accidental errors.

  13. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Press, R. I.; Geller, J.; Evans, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    Chromium has been implicated as a cofactor in the maintenance of normal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A deficiency of chromium results from diets low in biologically available chromium. Picolinic acid, a metabolite of tryptophan, forms stable complexes with transitional metal ions, which results in an improved bioavailability of the metal ion chromium. To determine whether or not chromium picolinate is effective in humans, 28 volunteer subjects were given either chromium tripicolinate (3.8 micromol [200 micrograms] chromium) or a placebo daily for 42 days in a double-blind crossover study. A 14-day period off capsules was used between treatments. Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B, the principal protein of the LDL fraction, decreased significantly while the subjects were ingesting chromium picolinate. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I, the principal protein of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction, increased substantially during treatment with chromium picolinate. The HDL-cholesterol level was elevated slightly but not significantly during ingestion of chromium picolinate. Only apolipoprotein B, of the variables measured, was altered significantly during supplementation with the placebo. These observations show that chromium picolinate is efficacious in lowering blood lipids in humans. PMID:2408233

  14. Serum lipids, plant sterols, and cholesterol kinetic responses to plant sterol supplementation in phytosterolemia heterozygotes and control individuals123

    PubMed Central

    Myrie, Semone B; Mymin, David; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Jones, Peter JH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plant sterol (PS) supplementation is increasingly accepted as a dietary strategy to lower plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, information is scarce about the effect of increased PS intake in potentially vulnerable groups, such as phytosterolemia heterozygotes (HET). Objective: This study assessed the responsiveness of circulating PS and lipid concentrations and cholesterol kinetics (absorption and synthesis) to daily PS supplementation in HET (ABCG8 S107X mutation) compared with a healthy control cohort. Design: A double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 10 HET and 15 control subjects. The participants had a mean (±SEM) age of 34 ± 2 y and a BMI (in kg/m2) of 29.9 ± 1.1 and consumed ∼1.6 g PS or placebo capsules daily with supper for 4 wk. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were assessed by using [13C]cholesterol and deuterium oxide, respectively. Results: Plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased (P = 0.006) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 2.73 ± 0.19 mmol/L; control: 3.11± 0.19 mmol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 3.12 ± 0.20 mmol/L; control: 3.50 ± 0.21 mmol/L), whereas PS concentrations (campesterol+β-sitosterol) increased (P = 0.03) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 39.72 ± 6.05 μmol/L; control: 24.03 ± 1.65 μmol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 27.32 ± 3.80 μmol/L; control: 21.12 ± 2.05 μmol/L). Cholesterol absorption efficiency decreased (P = 0.010) by ∼22% and ∼17% and synthesis rates increased (P = 0.040) by ∼20% and ∼24% in the HET and control groups, respectively, in response to PS consumption compared with placebo. Conclusion: These data suggest that heterozygosity for the ABCG8 S107X mutation does not influence the action of dietary PS on circulating cholesterol concentrations but may affect sterol absorption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01102647. PMID:22378727

  15. Profound Changes in Sex Hormone Levels during Cross-Sex Hormone Therapy of Transsexuals do not Alter Serum Cholesterol Acceptor Capacity.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Anna; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ott, Johannes; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stangl, Herbert; Strobl, Witta Monika

    2015-06-01

    Men and postmenopausal women exhibit a higher risk for atherosclerosis than premenopausal women. These differences were often attributed to sex steroids, but the role of estrogen and testosterone in atherosclerosis are more complex than anticipated. Cross-sex hormone therapy of transsexuals is an interesting model, which has been used to study hormonal effects on serum lipid profile, insulin resistance, and body composition. However, studies on macrophage cholesterol efflux, the first step in reverse cholesterol transport, are not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cross-sex hormone therapy in transsexuals on the capacity of serum to accept cholesterol from macrophages. Cholesterol acceptor capacity (CAC) of serum from transsexuals before and after at least 6 months of hormone treatment was measured using macrophage tissue culture models. CAC of serum using the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells). Unexpectedly, the CAC of serum from male to female (MtF) transsexuals was not increased, but decreased after hormone therapy. Serum from female to male (FtM) transsexuals showed no changes in CAC. Despite drastic changes in hormone status, no increase in CAC was detected in MtF patients, and no alteration in CAC was seen in FtM patients. These data further challenge the traditional view that estrogen and testosterone exert beneficial and detrimental effects, respectively, on lipoprotein metabolism and ultimately atherosclerosis. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Gas chromatography analysis of serum cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers used to predict the efficacy of simvastatin in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Feng; Wang, Qi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Mi, Shu-Hua; Liu, Yang; Wang, Lv-Ya

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the changes in cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers before and after simvastatin therapy in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. We developed a gas chromatography method to identify cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and measured them in patients with coronary heart disease. We then tested their use in predicting the efficacy of simvastatin in lowering cholesterol. Serum samples from 45 patients and 38 healthy humans (controls) were analyzed in a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Squalene and five non-cholesterol sterols--desmosterol and lathosterol (synthesis markers) and campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol (absorption markers)--were detected. The recovery rates of the markers were 95-102%. After simvastatin treatment for four weeks, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had significantly decreased from the baseline values (p<0.05). The baseline lathosterol level was significantly higher in good responders than in poor responders (p<0.05), and the stigmasterol level was significantly lower in good responders than in poor responders (p<0.05). This method should be suitable for the detection of serum squalene and non-cholesterol markers and can be used to predict the efficacy of simvastatin in patients with coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome scan linkage analysis identifies quantitative trait loci affecting serum clinical-chemical traits in Korean native chicken.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Won; Park, Hee-Bok; Jin, Shil; Cahyadi, Muhammad; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in robustness- and health-related traits lead to physiological changes, such as changes in the serum clinical chemical parameters in individuals. Therefore, clinical-chemical traits can be used as biomarkers to examine the health status of chickens. The aim of the present study was to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing eight clinical-chemical traits (glucose, total protein, creatinine, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and α-amylase) in an F1 nuclear families comprising 83 F0 founders and 585 F1 progeny of Korean native chickens. Genotypic data on 135 DNA markers representing 26 autosomes have been generated for this resource pedigree. The total length of the map was 2729.4 cM. We used a multipoint variance component linkage approach to identify QTLs for the traits. A significant QTL affecting serum α-amylase levels was identified on chicken chromosome (GGA) 7 [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 3.02, P value = 1.92 × 10(-4)]. Additionally, we detected several suggestive linkage signals for the levels of total cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and creatinine on GGA 4, 12, 13, and 15. In this study, serum α-amylase levels related significant QTL was mapped on GGA7 and cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and creatinine traits related suggestive QTLs were detected on GGA4, 12, 13 and 15, respectively. Further verification and fine mapping of these identified QTLs can provide valuable information for understanding the variations of clinical chemical trait in chickens.

  18. Contractility and calcium signaling of human myometrium are profoundly affected by cholesterol manipulation: implications for labor?

    PubMed

    Jie Zhang; Kendrick, Annabelle; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan

    2007-07-01

    The authors elucidate cholesterol's effect on human uterine contractility and calcium signaling to test the hypotheses that elevation of cholesterol decreases uterine activity and that oxytocin cannot augment contraction when cholesterol is elevated. The effects of cholesterol extraction with methyl beta-cyclodextrin and enrichment with low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol on contractile activity and intracellular calcium signaling in spontaneous or oxytocin-stimulated myometrium are determined. Force occurring spontaneously and with oxytocin is significantly increased by cholesterol extraction. Cholesterol enrichment profoundly inhibits force production in a dose-dependent manner and could reverse the effects of cholesterol extraction. Qualitatively similar results are found for nonpregnant and pregnant laboring and non-laboring myometrium. These contractile changes are related to changes in intracellular Ca2+ . Thus, elevated cholesterol is deleterious to contractility and Ca2+ signaling in human myometrium. Cholesterol may contribute to uterine quiescence but could cause difficulties in labor in obese/dyslipidemic women, consistent with their increased cesarean delivery rates.

  19. Effect of the periparturient period on serum lipid and cholesterol lipoprotein concentrations in goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Skotnicka, Ewa; Muszczyński, Zbigniew; Suska, Maria

    2011-12-01

    Blood samples were taken from 12 goats during the periparturient period (4 and 1 weeks before and 2, 10 and 30 days after delivery), and from 10 nonpregnant goats. The following variables were determined: total lipids (TL), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fractions. One week before delivery TL (2.32 ± 0.12 g/l, P ≤ 0.05), TG (0.32 ± 0.16 mmol/l, P ≤ 0.001) and TCH concentrations (1.65 ± 0.42 mmol/l, P ≤ 0.05) were significantly increased as compared to non-pregnant goats (2.08 ± 0.28 g/l, 0.15 ± 0.05 mmol/l, 1.38 ± 0.19 mmol/l, respectively). After delivery, the concentrations of TL, TG, TCH and HDL decreased significantly. The lowest TG concentration was observed 2 days after delivery (0.18 ± 0.02 mmol/l), while TL (1.73 ± 0.21 g/l), TCH (0.95 ± 0.21 mmol/l) and HDL (0.74 ± 0.16 mmol/l) reached the lowest level 10 days after delivery. Two days after delivery a significant increase of LDL concentration was observed (0.38 ± 0.04 mmol/l); however, ten days after delivery a threefold decrease was shown in the LDL concentration (0.12 ± 0.04 mmol/l). A month after delivery all the variables studied reached levels similar to those measured in non-pregnant goats.

  20. The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol affects cholesterol metabolism-related genes in microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Rimmerman, Neta; Juknat, Ana; Kozela, Ewa; Levy, Rivka; Bradshaw, Heather B; Vogel, Zvi

    2011-08-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that is clinically used in a 1:1 mixture with the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for the treatment of neuropathic pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Our group previously reported that CBD exerts anti-inflammatory effects on microglial cells. In addition, we found that CBD treatment increases the accumulation of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA), thus enhancing endocannabinoid signaling. Here we proceeded to investigate the effects of CBD on the modulation of lipid-related genes in microglial cells. Cell viability was tested using FACS analysis, AEA levels were measured using LC/MS/MS, gene array analysis was validated with real-time qPCR, and cytokine release was measured using ELISA. We report that CBD significantly upregulated the mRNAs of the enzymes sterol-O-acyl transferase (Soat2), which synthesizes cholesteryl esters, and of sterol 27-hydroxylase (Cyp27a1). In addition, CBD increased the mRNA of the lipid droplet-associated protein, perilipin2 (Plin2). Moreover, we found that pretreatment of the cells with the cholesterol chelating agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD), reversed the CBD-induced increase in Soat2 mRNA but not in Plin2 mRNA. Incubation with AEA increased the level of Plin2, but not of Soat2 mRNA. Furthermore, MBCD treatment did not affect the reduction by CBD of the LPS-induced release of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β. CBD treatment modulates cholesterol homeostasis in microglial cells, and pretreatment with MBCD reverses this effect without interfering with CBD's anti-inflammatory effects. The effects of the CBD-induced increase in AEA accumulation on lipid-gene expression are discussed.

  1. Acute consumption of walnuts and walnut components differentially affect postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, oxidative stress, and cholesterol efflux in humans with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Claire E; Grieger, Jessica A; West, Sheila G; Chen, Chung-Yen O; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Rothblat, George H; Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2013-06-01

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts.

  2. On the anti-atherogenic effect of the antioxidant BHT in cholesterol-fed rabbits: inverse relation between serum triglycerides and atheromatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Freyschuss, A; Al-Schurbaji, A; Björkhem, I; Babiker, A; Diczfalusy, U; Berglund, L; Henriksson, P

    2001-12-30

    We have shown that inclusion of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the diet protects against development of atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits. In parallel, BHT treatment results in increased plasma triglyceride levels. The present study explores the relationship between the triglyceride-inducing and protective effects of BHT in two different studies. The combined material contains 22 rabbits fed cholesterol and 18 rabbits fed cholesterol in combination with 1% BHT. In the BHT group there was an inverse relationship between triglyceride exposure/cholesterol exposure and extent of lesions with r=0.74 (P=0.0005). Our results show that increased triglyceride exposure parallels the anti-atherogenic effect of BHT. There was no significant correlation between atheromatosis and serum BHT levels. beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) from cholesterol and BHT animals was triglyceride-enriched and smaller compared to beta-VLDL from cholesterol-fed animals, but there was no significant association between the anti-atherogenic effect of BHT and particle size or apolipoprotein pattern of LDL or beta-VLDL. LDL isolated from rabbits treated with cholesterol and BHT was less sensitive to oxidative modification than LDL isolated from rabbits treated with cholesterol only. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the degree of triglyceride exposure may be an important modulator of the anti-atherogenic effect of an antioxidant.

  3. Altered lipid, apolipoprotein, and lipoprotein profiles in inflammatory bowel disease: consequences on the cholesterol efflux capacity of serum using Fu5AH cell system.

    PubMed

    Ripollés Piquer, Blanca; Nazih, Hassan; Bourreille, Arnaud; Segain, Jean Pierre; Huvelin, Jean Michel; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Bard, Jean-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between chronic inflammation condition and atherosclerosis. Infection and inflammation can also impair lipoprotein metabolism and produce a wide variety of changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Twenty-one patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and 28 healthy subjects were recruited. Serum concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, leptin, ghrelin, and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A) were measured, and subjects' lipoproteins were characterized. The ability of patients with serum IBD to efflux free cell cholesterol was measured. Serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apoC-II, apoC-III bound to apoB, phospholipid, and phospholipids not bound to apoB levels were significantly lower, whereas serum triglyceride, serum amyloid A, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in patients with active IBD. Apolipoprotein A-I immunoreactivity (pre-beta small particles and small alpha-high-density lipoprotein particles) is decreased in patients with IBD. In contrast, apoE immunoreactivity (slow/small apoE containing lipoprotein particles [LpE particle]) increased in these patients. The efflux capacity of serum from patients with IBD using [(3)H]-cholesterol-labeled Fu5AH cells was reduced (P < .005). Our results demonstrate that, in subjects with active IBD, inflammation leads to alterations in lipid, apolipoprotein, and lipoprotein profiles and reduced cholesterol efflux. These changes are similar to those proposed to promote atherogenesis and may contribute to the development of cardiovascular events.

  4. Modification of Cellular Cholesterol Content Affects Traction Force, Adhesion and Cell Spreading.

    PubMed

    Norman, Leann L; Oetama, Ratna J; Dembo, Micah; Byfield, F; Hammer, Daniel A; Levitan, Irena; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2010-06-01

    Cellular cholesterol is a critical component of the plasma membrane, and plays a key role in determining the physical properties of the lipid bilayer, such as elasticity, viscosity, and permeability. Surprisingly, it has been shown that cholesterol depletion increases cell stiffness, not due to plasma membrane stiffening, but rather, due to the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane. This indicates that traction stresses of the acto-myosin complex likely increase during cholesterol depletion. Here we use force traction microscopy to quantify the forces individual cells are exerting on the substrate, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy as well as interference reflection microscopy to observe cell-substrate adhesion and spreading. We show that single cells depleted of cholesterol produce larger traction forces and have large focal adhesions compared to untreated or cholesterol-enriched cells. Cholesterol depletion also causes a decrease in adhesion area for both single cells and monolayers. Spreading experiments illustrate a decrease in spreading area for cholesterol-depleted cells, and no effect on cholesterol-enriched cells. These results demonstrate that cholesterol plays an important role in controlling and regulating the cell-substrate interactions through the actin-plasma membrane complex, cell-cell adhesion, and spreading.

  5. Dietary cholesterol concentration affects synaptic plasticity and dendrite spine morphology of rabbit hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Desheng; Zheng, Wen

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies have shown dietary cholesterol can enhance learning but retard memory which may be partly due to increased cholesterol levels in hippocampus and reduced afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude of hippocampal CA1 neurons. This study explored the dose-dependent effect of dietary cholesterol on synaptic plasticity of rabbit hippocampal CA1 neurons and spine morphology, the postsynaptic structures responsible for synaptic plasticity. Field potential recordings revealed a low concentration of dietary cholesterol increased long-term potentiation (LTP) expression while high concentrations produced a pronounced reduction in LTP expression. Dietary cholesterol facilitated basal synaptic transmission but did not influence presynaptic function. DiI staining showed dietary cholesterol induced alterations in dendrite spine morphology characterized by increased mushroom spine density and decreased thin spine density, two kinds of dendritic spines that may be linked to memory consolidation and learning acquisition. Dietary cholesterol also modulated the geometric measures of mushroom spines. Therefore, dietary cholesterol dose-dependently modulated both synaptic plasticity and dendrite spine morphologies of hippocampal CA1 neurons that could mediate learning and memory changes previously seen to result from feeding a cholesterol diet.

  6. A prospective cohort study on risk of acute pancreatitis related to serum triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Lindkvist, Björn; Appelros, Stefan; Regnér, Sara; Manjer, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    To investigate risk for acute pancreatitis related to moderately elevated triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose. This was a prospective cohort study in Malmö, Sweden of 33,346 subjects investigated 1974-1992 and followed until December 31, 2006. Baseline investigation included a self-administered questionnaire and analysis of serum triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glucose. Cases of acute pancreatitis (n = 277, median time since baseline investigation 15.6 years) were identified in diagnosis registries and validated retrospectively. Attacks were classified as obstructive or non obstructive (alcohol or non alcohol related). Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for acute pancreatitis related to relevant risk factors, adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Triglycerides were associated with overall, non obstructive and non obstructive non alcohol related acute pancreatitis with adjusted HRs of 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.36), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.06-2.43) and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.11-1.62) per 1 mmol/l increment, respectively. Corresponding HRs for forth versus first quartile of triglycerides were 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.21), 1.60 (95% CI, 1.60-1.01-1.35) and 2.07 (95% CI, 1.13-3.79). Triglycerides were not associated with obstructive acute pancreatitis and there were no associations between glucose or cholesterol and the risk of acute pancreatitis. We found an association between prediagnostic levels of triglycerides and risk for acute pancreatitis. This association was most pronounced in the non obstructive non alcohol related group. Our findings suggest that triglycerides may be a more important risk factor for acute pancreatitis than what has previously been estimated. Copyright © 2012 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Streptococcal serum opacity factor promotes cholesterol ester metabolism and bile acid secretion in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rodriguez, Perla J; Fields, David W; Raya, Joe L; Lagor, William R; Rosales, Corina; Courtney, Harry S; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2016-03-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations negatively correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. HDL is thought to have several atheroprotective functions, which are likely distinct from the epidemiological inverse relationship between HDL-C levels and risk. Specifically, strategies that reduce HDL-C while promoting reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) may have therapeutic value. The major product of the serum opacity factor (SOF) reaction versus HDL is a cholesteryl ester (CE)-rich microemulsion (CERM), which contains apo E and the CE of ~400,000 HDL particles. Huh7 hepatocytes take up CE faster when delivered as CERM than as HDL, in part via the LDL-receptor (LDLR). Here we compared the final RCT step, hepatic uptake and subsequent intracellular processing to cholesterol and bile salts for radiolabeled HDL-, CERM- and LDL-CE by Huh7 cells and in vivo in C57BL/6J mice. In Huh7 cells, uptake from LDL was greater than from CERM (2-4X) and HDL (5-10X). Halftimes for [(14)C]CE hydrolysis were 3.0±0.2, 4.4±0.6 and 5.4±0.7h respectively for HDL, CERM and LDL-CE. The fraction of sterols secreted as bile acids was ~50% by 8h for all three particles. HDL, CERM and LDL-CE metabolism in mice showed efficient plasma clearance of CERM-CE, liver uptake and metabolism, and secretion as bile acids into the gall bladder. This work supports the therapeutic potential of the SOF reaction, which diverts HDL-CE to the LDLR, thereby increasing hepatic CE uptake, and sterol disposal as bile acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary garlic powder and {alpha}-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken.

    PubMed

    Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P < 0.05). Increasing the levels of garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P < 0.05). The pH and TBA reactive substances values were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by the inclusion of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P < 0.05), and a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were increased (P < 0.05) with the increased garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.

  9. Fasting Serum Glucose and Cholesterol as Predictors of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress in a Sample of African American College Students.

    PubMed

    Clark, Vernessa R; Perkins, Patrice; Carson, Bernice L; Boyd, Kimberly; Jefferson, Trayce M

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are at a greater risk of cardiovascular hyperactivity to stress than Caucasians; however the risk factors for this activity are not clearly delineated for African Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of fasting serum cholesterol concentration and fasting serum glucose (FSG) to predict cardiovascular reactivity to stress in African Americans. Serum cholesterol concentration and FSG levels were measured in 48 (40 women, 8 men) African American college students aged 18-30 years. Heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, mean arterial pressure and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured as the participants viewed a racially noxious scene on a digital video disc. Measurements were taken prior to the scene (pre stressor period), during the scene (stressor period), and while the participant recovered from the scene (recovery period). A multiple regression analysis revealed that total serum cholesterol and LDL significantly predicted diastolic blood pressure during the pre-stressor period. FSG significantly predicted mean arterial pressure during the recovery period, and predicted stroke volume during the pre-stressor period, stressor period, and the recovery period. FSG was a better predictor of cardiovascular reactivity to stress than serum cholesterol concentration, predicting mean arterial pressure and stroke volume. This finding may be due to the association of glucose with diabetes, which is more prevalent in African Americans.

  10. Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiology of total serum cholesterol in patients with non-ischemic chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Raman, Nandita; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Goode, Kevin M; Kazmi, Syed; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Cleland, John G F; Katus, Hugo A; Agewall, Stefan; Clark, Andrew L; Atar, Dan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) increasing levels of total serum cholesterol are associated with improved survival - while statin usage is not. The impact of statin treatment on the "reverse epidemiology" of cholesterol is unclear. 2992 consecutive patients with non-ischemic CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian CHF Registry and the CHF Registries of the Universities of Hull, UK, and Heidelberg, Germany, were studied. 1736 patients were individually double-matched on both cholesterol levels and the individual propensity scores for statin treatment. All-cause mortality was analyzed as a function of baseline cholesterol and statin use in both the general and the matched sample. 1209 patients (40.4%) received a statin. During a follow-up of 13,740 patient-years, 360 statin users (29.8%) and 573 (32.1%) statin non-users died. When grouped according to total cholesterol levels as low (≤3.6mmol/L), moderate (3.7-4.9mmol/L), high (4.8-6.2mmol/L), and very high (>6.2mmol/L), we found improved survival with very high as compared with low cholesterol levels. This association was present in statin users and non-users in both the general and matched sample (p<0.05 for each group comparison). The negative association of total cholesterol and mortality persisted when cholesterol was treated as a continuous variable (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, p<0.001 for matched patients), but it was less pronounced in statin users than in non-users (F-test p<0.001). Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiological association between increasing total serum cholesterol and improved survival in patients with non-ischemic CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lathosterol to cholesterol ratio in serum predicts cholesterol lowering response to plant sterol consumption in a dual center, randomized, single-blind placebo controlled trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Benefits of plant sterols (PS) for cholesterol lowering are compromised by large variability in efficacy across individuals. High fractional cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation has been associated with non-response to PS consumption; however, prospective studies showing this as...

  12. Determination of cholesterol and triglycerides in serum lipoproteins using flow field-flow fractionation coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J; Kok, Wim Th

    2011-11-14

    Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AsFlFFF) was combined with pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry for a sized based fractionation and a detailed compositional study of the triglycerides and cholesterol associated with the various lipoprotein subclasses present in human serum. Serum samples were injected in the AsFlFFF instrument and fractionated with a time-delayed exponential decay cross flow program. The fractions collected after AsFlFFF elution were injected into a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) GC-injector, containing a fritted liner. A temperature and split-flow program for the PTV injector was optimized for the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation of the compounds of interest. The resulting fatty acid and cholesterol methyl esters were separated by GC and characteristic fragment ions were detected by MS. The system was optimized and calibrated with triglyceride and cholesterol standards for quantitative analysis. The possible interference by phospholipids with the quantitative results was investigated and found to be of minor importance. The concentrations and lipoprotein profiles of triglycerides and cholesterol were determined in a pooled serum sample of healthy volunteers and a serum sample of a sepsis patient. The results obtained with the GC-MS approach were compared with those of a previously developed method based on AsFlFFF with a dual enzymatic reaction detection system. A good agreement of the profiles was found, for cholesterol as well as for the triglycerides, even when the GC-MS method quantifies the fatty acids while with the enzymatic reaction method the glycerol concentrations are determined. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration values for the serum samples showed good agreement with the results of the standard enzymatic method as used in practice in the university hospital. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of physical examination and diet consultation on serum cholesterol and health-behavior in the Korean pilots employed in commercial airline.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the "B" airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35-5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation.

  14. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05). A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223-2.334, P<0.01). However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720-1.336, P=0.903) or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  15. Effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice with and without the influence of fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Dong, Hang; Guo, Bao-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Schisandrin B, an active ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in mice. In the present study, the effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice without and with the influence of fenofibrate were investigated. Parameters on hepatic index (the ratio of liver weight to body weight × 100) were also analyzed. Mice were intragastrically treated with schisandrin B at a single dose of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 g/kg, without or with fenofibrate pretreatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 4 days, p.o.). Twenty-four hours after schisandrin B treatment, serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were measured. Schisandrin B treatment dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels as well as hepatic index in mice. In contrast, hepatic total cholesterol levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in schisandrin B-treated mice. Data obtained from effective kinetics analysis indicated that the action of schisandrin B on serum triglyceride had a higher specificity than those on hepatic total cholesterol and hepatic index. While fenofibrate pretreatment inhibited the schisandrin B-induced elevation in serum triglyceride levels, it completely abrogated the elevation of hepatic triglyceride levels in schisandrin B-treated mice. The combined treatment with schisandrin B and fenofibrate decreased hepatic total cholesterol level and increased the hepatic index in an additive or semi-additive manner, respectively. In conclusion, the results of effective kinetics analysis indicated that the schisandrin B-induced hypertriglyceridemia was competitively inhibited by fenofibrate. Schisandrin B may offer the prospect of setting up a mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver for screening triglyceride-lowering drug candidates.

  16. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. Methods There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. Results E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05). A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223–2.334, P<0.01). However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720–1.336, P=0.903) or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759–1.429, P=0.800). Conclusion A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides. PMID:25031531

  17. Dietary cholesterol affects plasma lipid levels, the intravascular processing of lipoproteins and reverse cholesterol transport without increasing the risk for heart disease.

    PubMed

    Barona, Jacqueline; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-08-01

    The associations between dietary cholesterol and heart disease are highly controversial. While epidemiological studies and clinical interventions have shown the lack of correlation between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, there is still concern among health practitioners and the general population regarding dietary cholesterol. In this review, several clinical studies utilizing cholesterol challenges are analyzed in terms of changes that occur in lipoprotein metabolism resulting from excess consumption of cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase both LDL and HDL in those individuals who respond to a cholesterol challenge without altering the LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, a key marker of CVD risk. Further, dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase only HDL with no changes in LDL with average cholesterol consumption and during weight loss interventions. Ingestion of cholesterol has also been shown to increase the size of both LDL and HDL particles with the associated implications of a less atherogenic LDL particle as well as more functional HDL in reverse cholesterol transport. Other changes observed in lipoprotein metabolism are a greater number of large LDL and decreases in small LDL subfractions. All this information put together points to specific roles of dietary cholesterol in substantially altering intravascular processing of lipoproteins as well as reverse cholesterol transport.

  18. Dietary Cholesterol Affects Plasma Lipid Levels, the Intravascular Processing of Lipoproteins and Reverse Cholesterol Transport without Increasing the Risk for Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barona, Jacqueline; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2012-01-01

    The associations between dietary cholesterol and heart disease are highly controversial. While epidemiological studies and clinical interventions have shown the lack of correlation between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, there is still concern among health practitioners and the general population regarding dietary cholesterol. In this review, several clinical studies utilizing cholesterol challenges are analyzed in terms of changes that occur in lipoprotein metabolism resulting from excess consumption of cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase both LDL and HDL in those individuals who respond to a cholesterol challenge without altering the LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio, a key marker of CVD risk. Further, dietary cholesterol has been shown to increase only HDL with no changes in LDL with average cholesterol consumption and during weight loss interventions. Ingestion of cholesterol has also been shown to increase the size of both LDL and HDL particles with the associated implications of a less atherogenic LDL particle as well as more functional HDL in reverse cholesterol transport. Other changes observed in lipoprotein metabolism are a greater number of large LDL and decreases in small LDL subfractions. All this information put together points to specific roles of dietary cholesterol in substantially altering intravascular processing of lipoproteins as well as reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:23016129

  19. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  20. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050

  1. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A

    2015-09-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Apolipoprotein E mediates enhanced plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol clearance by low-dose streptococcal serum opacity factor via hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Corina; Tang, Daming; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant streptococcal serum opacity factor (rSOF) mediates the in vitro disassembly of human plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, a neo-HDL that is cholesterol poor, and a cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) containing apoE. Given the occurrence of apoE on the CERM, we tested the hypothesis that rSOF injection into mice would reduce total plasma cholesterol clearance via apoE-dependent hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). rSOF (4 μg) injection into wild-type C57BL/6J mice formed neo-HDL, CERM, and lipid-free apoA-I, as observed in vitro, and reduced plasma total cholesterol (-43%, t(1/2)=44±18 minutes) whereas control saline injections had a negligible effect. Similar experiments with apoE(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice reduced plasma total cholesterol ≈0% and 20%, respectively. rSOF was potent; injection of 0.18 μg of rSOF produced 50% of maximum reduction of plasma cholesterol 3 hours postinjection, corresponding to a ≈0.5-mg human dose. Most cholesterol was cleared hepatically (>99%), with rSOF treatment increasing clearance by 65%. rSOF injection into mice formed a CERM that was cleared via hepatic LDLR that recognize apoE. This reaction could provide an alternative mechanism for reverse cholesterol transport.

  3. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-10-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, beta-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and gamma-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development.

  4. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  5. Non-cholesterol sterols in serum, lipoproteins, and red cells in statin-treated FH subjects off and on plant stanol and sterol ester spreads.

    PubMed

    Ketomäki, Anna; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A

    2005-03-01

    Serum plant sterol levels are increased by consumption of statins and dietary plant sterols, and decreased by dietary plant stanols, but little is known about combination therapy of statin and plant sterols. We measured plant sterols in serum, lipoproteins, and red cells in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (n=18) treated with variable doses of statins off and on plant stanol (STA) and sterol ester (STE) spreads. STA and STE spreads lowered LDL cholesterol approximately 15%. Plant sterols were decreased in serum, lipoproteins, and red cells by approximately 25% with STA and increased from 37% to 80% with STE, especially with high statin doses. The changes in serum were related to those in red cells. The baseline levels of serum plant sterols were negatively (r-range -0.639 to -0.935) and positively (r-range 0.526 to 0.598) correlated with the respective changes evoked by the STA and STE spreads. STE reduces LDL cholesterol, but increases serum, lipoprotein, and red cell plant sterol levels in statin-treated FH subjects, while all the respective values are decreased with STA. Recent predictions that elevated serum plant sterols pose an increased coronary risk suggest that increases of serum plant sterol levels should be avoided, especially in atherosclerosis-prone individuals, such as subjects with FH.

  6. The miscibility of milk sphingomyelin and cholesterol is affected by temperature and surface pressure in mixed Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ken; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Lopez, Christelle

    2017-06-01

    The miscibility of milk sphingomyelin (milk-SM) and cholesterol was investigated in this study. The effect of different physical states of milk-SM on its interactions with cholesterol was determined by the recording of isotherms of compression of Langmuir films for temperatures above and below the gel to Lα phase transition of milk-SM (Tm∼34°C). For T=15°CTm, the milk-SM molecules were in a LE phase regardless of the surface pressure applied. A phase diagram pressure - milk-SM/cholesterol composition was established. This study demonstrated that both temperature and surface pressure affected the miscibility between the milk-SM and cholesterol. The strongest attractive forces (i.e. condensing effect) were identified for 30mol% cholesterol when the milk-SM was in the LE phase state.

  7. Hypomorphic sialidase expression decreases serum cholesterol by downregulation of VLDL production in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Abraham; Gyulay, Gabriel; Mitchell, Mark; White, Elizabeth; Trigatti, Bernardo L; Igdoura, Suleiman A

    2012-12-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is an important contributing factor in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma lipoproteins and their receptors are heavily glycosylated and sialylated, and levels of sialic acids modulate their biological functions. Sialylation is controlled by the activities of sialyltranferases and sialidases. To address the impact of sialidase (neu1) activity on lipoprotein metabolism, we have generated a mouse model with a hypomorphic neu1 allele (B6.SM) that displays reduced sialidase expression and sialidase activity. The objectives of this study are to determine the impact of sialidase on the rate of hepatic lipoprotein secretion and lipoprotein uptake. Our results indicate that hepatic levels of cholesterol and triglycerides are significantly higher in B6.SM mice compared with C57Bl/6 mice; however, VLDL-triglyceride production rate is lower. In addition, B6.SM mice show significantly lower levels of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and active sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-2 but higher levels of diglyceride acyltransferase (DGAT)2; these are all indicative of increased hepatic lipid storage. Rescue of sialidase activity in hypomorphic sialidase mice using helper-dependent adenovirus resulted in increased VLDL production and an increase in MTP levels. Furthermore, hypomorphic sialidase expression results in stabilization of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) protein expression, which enhances LDL uptake. These findings provide novel evidence for a central role of sialidase in the cross talk between the uptake and production of lipoproteins.

  8. The Level of Serum Cholesterol is Negatively Associated with Lean Body Mass in Korean non-Diabetic Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun Yeup; Bu, So Young

    2016-04-01

    Due to poor nutrition and abnormal energy metabolism, cancer patients typically experience the loss of muscle mass. Although the diabetic conditions or dyslipidemia have been reported as a causal link of cancer but the consequence of such conditions in relation to gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of lean body mass and systemic parameters related to lipid metabolism in non-diabetic cancer patients using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. As results the level of serum total cholesterol (total-C) was negatively associated with both total lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass in cancer patients after adjustment for sex, physical activity, energy intake and comorbidity. The associations between consumption of dietary factors (energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat) and lean body mass were disappeared after adjusting comorbidities of cancer patients. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis by quartiles of serum total-C showed that higher quartile group of total-C had significantly lower percent of lean body mass than reference group in cancer patients. The data indicate that serum lipid status can be the potential estimate of loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients and be referenced in nutrition care of cancer patients under the onset of cachexia or parenteral/enteral nutrition. This data need to be confirmed with large pool of subjects and should be specified by stage of cancer or the site of cancer in future studies.

  9. The Level of Serum Cholesterol is Negatively Associated with Lean Body Mass in Korean non-Diabetic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Due to poor nutrition and abnormal energy metabolism, cancer patients typically experience the loss of muscle mass. Although the diabetic conditions or dyslipidemia have been reported as a causal link of cancer but the consequence of such conditions in relation to gain or loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of lean body mass and systemic parameters related to lipid metabolism in non-diabetic cancer patients using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. As results the level of serum total cholesterol (total-C) was negatively associated with both total lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass in cancer patients after adjustment for sex, physical activity, energy intake and comorbidity. The associations between consumption of dietary factors (energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat) and lean body mass were disappeared after adjusting comorbidities of cancer patients. Multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis by quartiles of serum total-C showed that higher quartile group of total-C had significantly lower percent of lean body mass than reference group in cancer patients. The data indicate that serum lipid status can be the potential estimate of loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients and be referenced in nutrition care of cancer patients under the onset of cachexia or parenteral/enteral nutrition. This data need to be confirmed with large pool of subjects and should be specified by stage of cancer or the site of cancer in future studies. PMID:27152302

  10. Low-calorie diet-induced reduction in serum HDL cholesterol is ameliorated in obese women with the -3826 G allele in the uncoupling protein-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Taku; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Nagai, Narumi; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Matsuoka, Yukiyo; Sano, Yoshiko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Kiyohara, Natsuki; Tanaka, Seitaro; Yoshimura, Makiko; Egawa, Kahori; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Moritani, Toshio; Sakane, Naoki

    2009-12-01

    The uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene is of major importance for regulation of body weight and lipid/lipoprotein metabolism. Our cross-sectional study has shown that subjects with the G/G genotype of the -3826 A/G polymorphism in the UCP-1 gene have higher levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than those with other genotypes. Low circulating HDL-C level has been regarded as a major atherosclerotic risk factor. We therefore investigated whether the -3826 A/G polymorphism affects the obesity- and lipid-related parameters during a low-calorie diet (LCD) intervention. In 32 obese women (49.9 +/- 8.4 years of age), anthropometric, physiological and biochemical characteristics were measured before and after a 2-month LCD treatment, which restricted each subject to the same energy intakes, such as 5,120 kJ/day. The -3826 A/G polymorphism was detected using a PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism method. There were 6 subjects with the A/A genotype, 15 with the A/G genotype and 11 with the G/G genotype. The LCD intervention decreased weight (P < 0.001) and serum HDL-C levels (P < 0.05) in all subjects. There was no difference in the levels of change in weight, nutrient intake, physiological measurements in energy expenditure, and fat oxidation between subjects with and without the G allele. In contrast, the degree of the reduction in the HDL-C levels was significantly smaller in subjects with the G allele than those without the G allele. These results suggest that the G allele at -3826 in the UCP1 gene may ameliorate the reduction in serum HDL-C levels in obese women during LCD.

  11. Treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease by lowering serum cholesterol levels; from the pioneer work of C.D. de Langen to the third "Dutch Consensus on Cholesterol".

    PubMed

    Jukema, J W; Simoons, M L

    1999-06-01

    In the beginning of this century a possible relation was observed between cholesterol-rich foods, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis by "pioneers" in this field as Anitschkow and De Langen. In the second half of this century a definite link was established between serum cholesterol levels and development of coronary heart disease (CHD). In angiographic studies it has recently been shown that a decrease in total cholesterol as well as in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level results in a retardation of the progression of vascular disease. Furthermore, clinical event intervention trials demonstrated that therapy with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors reduces not only cardiovascular and total mortality, but also other manifestations of CHD. These recent results prompted to revise, for the second time, the Dutch consensus text for lipid lowering therapy, with the following conclusions. Hypercholesterolaemia is treated with a low-saturated fat diet and normalisation of weight. For individuals, this might result in a reduction of the risk for myocardial infarction or death and for the population in a decrease of the mean serum cholesterol concentration and a reduction of the incidence of CHD. The indication for drug therapy is founded on the expected effectiveness to reduce the incidence of (new manifestations of) CHD, which is related to the level of the absolute risk of vascular disease. Treatment with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors must be considered in (a) patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia; (b) all patients with a history of myocardial infarction or other symptomatic vascular disease with a total cholesterol concentration above 5.0 mmol/l and a life expectancy of at least five years; (c) persons without known vascular disease with a combination of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, cigarette smoking and high risk for development of CHD, rising from 25% per 10 years at the age of 40 years to 35-40% per 10 years at the age

  12. Effects of Labisia pumila var alata extracts on the lipid profile, serum antioxidant status and abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats.

    PubMed

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jalil, Juriyati; Amran, Athirah Zawani

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies on Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) have showed that it could inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and provide protection on myocardial infarction in rats. We hypothesized that LPva extracts can modulate the lipid profiles and serum antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of LPva on atherogenic and serum antioxidant parameters as well as changes in abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats. The major components of the extracts, gallic acid, flavonoids and alkyl resorcinols were analyzed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The rats were induced to hypercholesterolemic status with daily intake of 2% cholesterol for a duration of 8 weeks. Three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) of the extracts were administered daily on the 4th week onwards. The rats were then sacrificed and the blood was collected via abdominal aorta and serum was separated by centrifugation for biochemical analysis. Part of the aorta tissues were excised immediately for histopathological examination. The serum of LPva treated rats showed significant reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and the abdominal aorta showed a significant decrease of atheroma lesions in treated rats. Serum lipid profiles of treated rats showed a decrease in total cholesterol, total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as compared to control group. The atherogenic indices in treated rats were significantly improved along with an increasing level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The extracts also exhibited significant increase of antioxidant enzymes and decrease of MDA as a product of lipid peroxidation. LPva extracts can reduce the risk of dyslipidemia by improving the serum lipid profiles and modulating serum antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  13. Effects of phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat milk on serum lipoprotein profile in mildly hypercholesterolaemic patients are not related to dietary cholesterol or saturated fat intake.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Bañuls, Celia; Rocha, Milagros; Morillas, Carlos; Martínez-Triguero, María L; Víctor, Víctor M; Lacomba, Ramón; Alegría, Amparo; Barberá, Reyes; Farré, Rosaura; Lagarda, María Jesús

    2010-10-01

    Phytosterols (PS) are recommended to reduce LDL-cholesterol. However, the influence of cholesterol and fat intake on the lipid-lowering effect of PS in mildly hypercholesterolaemia is unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the efficacy of PS is related to the composition of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol intake. Additionally, serum carotenoid content was analysed to evaluate to what extent it was undermined by PS. This was a 3-month randomised, parallel trial with a three-arm design. Patients were divided into three groups: healthy diet (n 24), healthy diet+PS (n 31) and free diet+PS (n 29), receiving 2 g/d of PS. Healthy and free diets were characterised by a daily ingestion of 6.8 % of saturated fat and 194.4 mg of cholesterol and 12.7 % of saturated fat and 268.1 mg of cholesterol, respectively. After PS therapy, patients receiving the healthy diet+PS or a free diet+PS exhibited a similar reduction in total cholesterol (6.7 and 5.5 %), LDL-cholesterol (9.6 and 7.0 %), non-HDL-cholesterol (12.2 and 8.9 %) and apo B-100/apo A-I ratio (11.5 and 11.6 %), respectively. In patients following the healthy diet, (β-carotene concentration rose by 26.9 %, whereas the β-carotene and lycopene levels dropped by 21.0 and 22.8 % in the group receiving the free diet+PS, respectively. No change was observed in carotenoid levels in healthy diet+PS group. In conclusion, the efficacy of PS in relation to lipoprotein profile is not influenced by saturated fat or dietary cholesterol intake, which confirms the positive effect of healthy diet therapy in improving the negative effects that PS exert on carotenoid levels.

  14. Disruption of astrocyte-neuron cholesterol cross talk affects neuronal function in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, M; Marullo, M; Di Paolo, E; Cesana, E; Zuccato, C; Biella, G; Cattaneo, E

    2015-01-01

    In the adult brain, neurons require local cholesterol production, which is supplied by astrocytes through apoE-containing lipoproteins. In Huntington's disease (HD), such cholesterol biosynthesis in the brain is severely reduced. Here we show that this defect, occurring in astrocytes, is detrimental for HD neurons. Astrocytes bearing the huntingtin protein containing increasing CAG repeats secreted less apoE-lipoprotein-bound cholesterol in the medium. Conditioned media from HD astrocytes and lipoprotein-depleted conditioned media from wild-type (wt) astrocytes were equally detrimental in a neurite outgrowth assay and did not support synaptic activity in HD neurons, compared with conditions of cholesterol supplementation or conditioned media from wt astrocytes. Molecular perturbation of cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux in astrocytes caused similarly altered astrocyte–neuron cross talk, whereas enhancement of glial SREBP2 and ABCA1 function reversed the aspects of neuronal dysfunction in HD. These findings indicate that astrocyte-mediated cholesterol homeostasis could be a potential therapeutic target to ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in HD. PMID:25301063

  15. Streptococcal serum opacity factor increases the rate of hepatocyte uptake of human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2010-11-16

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ∼400000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins, and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E-dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The uptake of [(3)H]CE by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was 2.4 and 4.5 times faster, respectively, than from control HDL. CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[(3)H]CE but not HDL-[(3)H]CE uptake, thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases the rate of CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase the level of hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful.

  16. Intake of partially defatted Brazil nut flour reduces serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Huguenin, Grazielle V B; Luiz, Ronir R; Moreira, Annie S B; Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-06-16

    Thyroid hormones can lower levels of atherogenic lipoproteins, and selenium is important in thyroid hormone homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the effects of a healthy diet associated with the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) in dyslipidemic and hypertensive patients. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Seventy-seven dyslipidemic and hypertensive patients already receiving lipid-lowering drugs received either a dietary treatment associated with partially defatted Brazil nut flour (13 g/day providing 227,5 μg of selenium/day),or with dyed cassava flour as a placebo. All patients received a personalized dietary guideline with nutritional recommendations for dyslipidemia and hypertension and were followed for 90 days. The Brazil nut group showed reductions in total cholesterol (-20.5 ± 61.2 mg/dL, P = 0.02), non HDL-cholesterol (-19.5 ± 61.2 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and Apo A-1 (-10.2 ± 26.7 mg/dL, P = 0.03) without significant alterations in the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio. The placebo group showed a reduction in FT3 levels (-0.1 ± 0.4, P = 0.03) and increased Lp(a) levels (5.9 ± 18.0 mg/dL, P = 0.02). There were no statistical differences in blood pressure and serum lipids between Brazil nut and placebo group. Supplementation with Brazil nuts seems to favor the maintenance of FT3 levels and contributes to lipemia reduction in hypercholesterolemic and euthyroid patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01990391.

  17. Impact of quality of dietary fat on serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease: focus on plant sterols and other non-glyceride components.

    PubMed

    Ghafoorunissa

    2009-01-01

    Elevated serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease; dietary as well as therapeutic regimens target reduction of serum LDL cholesterol to decrease the morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease. The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has a marked impact on serum LDL cholesterol and other risk factors of diet-related chronic diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes and coronary heart disease). Besides fatty acids, which constitute > 95% of their content, fats in foods contain other fat-soluble chemicals collectively called non-glyceride components. Sterols are a major part of the non-glyceride components of fats in plant foods and get concentrated in vegetable oils. Current evidence suggests that properly solubilized plant sterols or stanols incorporated in ester or free form in various food formulations effectively restrict the absorption of both dietary and biliary cholesterol causing 10%-14% reduction in serum LDL cholesterol in normal, hyperlipidaemic and diabetic subjects. The carotenoid-lowering effect of foods enriched with plant sterols can be corrected by increasing the intake of foods rich in carotenoids. The use of foods enriched with plant sterols as a part of a heart-healthy diet is recommended only after consulting a clinician. Recent studies strongly suggest that even smaller amounts of sterols available from natural plant foods and vegetable oils are important dietary components for lowering serum LDL cholesterol. Furthermore, some of the other non-glyceride components of food fats have one or more of the following functions-vitamin activity, serum LDL cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant activity. Since the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects ofa combination of the non-glyceride components may be more than their individual effects, increasing dietary plant sterols and non-glyceride components from natural plant foods and vegetable oils could provide an additional dietary means

  18. Effect of white wheat bread containing sugar beet fiber on serum lipids and hepatic mRNA in rats fed on a cholesterol-free diet.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yumi; Kanazawa, Mizuki; Liyanage, Ruvini; Iijima, Setsuko; Han, Kyu-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Yamauchi, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Naoto; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2009-06-01

    We examined the effects of white wheat bread powder (BP) and white wheat bread powder containing sugar beet fiber (BBP) on serum cholesterol. The total cholesterol (-11%, -16%), HDL-cholesterol (-12%, -11%), non-HDL-cholesterol (-9%, -18%) and triacylglycerol (-44%, -58%) concentrations in the BP and BBP groups, respectively, were significantly different from those in the control group. The fecal excretion of neutral sterols in the BP and BBP groups and of acidic sterols in the BBP group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA level in the BP and BBP groups was significantly higher than that in the control group. The cecal total short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the BBP group were significantly higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that the observed changes in serum lipid levels in the BP and BBP groups were due to the increased fecal lipid and CYP7A1 mRNA levels.

  19. Reductions in serum levels of LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides and lipoprotein(a) in hypercholesterolaemic patients treated with the liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist eprotirome.

    PubMed

    Angelin, Bo; Kristensen, Jens D; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Bo; Klein, Irwin; Olsson, Anders G; Chester Ridgway, E; Ladenson, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Liver-selective thyromimetic agents could provide a new approach for treating dyslipidaemia. We performed a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eprotirome, a liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist, in 98 patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. After previous drug wash-out and dietary run-in, patients received 100 or 200 μg day(-1) eprotirome or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was change in serum LDL cholesterol; secondary end-points included changes in other lipid parameters and safety measures. Eprotirome treatment at 100 and 200 μg daily reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels by 23 ± 5% and 31 ± 4%, respectively, compared with 2 ± 6% for placebo (P < 0.0001). Similar reductions were seen in non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B, whereas serum levels of HDL cholesterol and apo A-I were unchanged. There were also considerable reductions in serum triglycerides and lipoprotein(a), in particular in patients with elevated levels at baseline. There was no evidence of adverse effects on heart or bone and no changes in serum thyrotropin or triiodothyronine, although the thyroxine level decreased. Low-grade increases in liver enzymes were evident in most patients. In hypercholesterolaemic patients, the liver-selective thyromimetic eprotirome decreased serum levels of atherogenic lipoproteins without signs of extra-hepatic side effects. Selective stimulation of hepatic thyroid hormone receptors may be an attractive way to modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidaemia. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  20. Mechanism of hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rats: reduction of cholesterol absorption and increase of plasma cholesterol removal.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Ozdin, L; Kuniak, L

    1994-03-01

    The content of cholesterol in the serum and liver of male Wistar rats fed, for the period of 8 weeks shortly after weaning, a diet containing 0.3% of cholesterol was reduced by 33 and 27% by the addition of 5% of dried oyster mushroom powder. Although the level of serum triacylglycerols was not affected by oyster mushroom, their content in liver of rats on mushroom diet was reduced by 41%. Very-low-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins participated by 55 and 38%, respectively, in the total reduction of serum cholesterol. Cholesterol content in high-density lipoproteins was not significantly affected by oyster mushroom. Cholesterol absorption as determined by dual-isotope plasma ratio method was significantly reduced by 14% with oyster mushroom diet. Similarly, this diet increased by 42% the fractional catabolic rate of cholesterol determined by the analysis of decay curve of [4-14C]cholesterol.

  1. Fibre intake in relation to serum total cholesterol levels and CHD risk: a comparison of dietary assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Ward, H A; Keogh, R; Lentjes, M; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T

    2012-03-01

    Prospective diet diaries may be more accurate than retrospective food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). The objective of this study was to compare FFQ and 7-day diet diary (7DD) measurements of fibre intake with the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). We compared 7DD and FFQ fibre intake in a nested case-control study in a population of 25639 men and women aged 40-79 years, surveyed in 1993-97 and followed up until 2007. Among 2151 CHD cases and 5354 controls, FFQ and 7DD fibre intake (6 g/day) was examined in relation to serum total cholesterol and CHD using linear and logistic regression adjusted for age and additionally for body mass index, physical activity, smoking status, family history of CHD, social class, diabetes, alcohol, energy, saturated fat and use of lipid lowering medication, antihypertensive medication or aspirin. Age-adjusted serum total cholesterol was inversely associated with 7DD fibre among men and women, but with FFQ fibre among men only. In the multivariate analysis, associations with 7DD fibre were attenuated among men (regression coefficient -0.036 mmol/l, s.e. 0.021, P-value 0.087) and women (regression coefficient -0.069 mmol/l, s.e. 0.036, P-value 0.053), and were non-significant for FFQ fibre. Among men, age-adjusted CHD risk was inversely associated with 7DD fibre (odds ratio (OR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.90), but not with FFQ fibre (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-1.12). Among women, age-adjusted CHD risk was inversely associated with 7DD fibre (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.93), and had a weaker inverse borderline-significant association with FFQ fibre (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-1.01). Multivariate models yielded similar results. Inconsistencies in diet-CHD relationships in population studies may be associated with the use of different dietary assessment methods.

  2. Association of coronary heart disease mortality with risk factors according to length of follow-up and serum cholesterol level in men: the Oslo Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Holme, Ingar; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to clarify the strength of the association between conventional and metabolic risk factors to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality across short, intermediate, and long periods of follow-up and whether the effects of risk factors are heterogeneous across serum cholesterol levels. The Oslo Study prospective cohort of 14,846 men aged 40-49 years was followed from screening in 1972-73 until 2006, during which time 1655 subjects died of CHD. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional models compared hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CHD mortality across 0-12, 12-24, and 24-33 years of follow-up. Interactions between risk factors and quartile level of total serum cholesterol were assessed. Total cholesterol, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were associated with CHD mortality in multivariate analyses across all follow-up periods. Nonfasting triglyceride levels were associated with CHD in multivariate analyses (0-12 years, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25; 12-24 years, HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23; 24-33 years, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19; 0-33 years, HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.16). A metabolic risk factor score (based on blood pressure, triglycerides, body mass index, and glucose) retained predictivity across all periods. The relations between systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic risk factor score to CHD were stronger in the lower than the upper quartiles of serum cholesterol (p < 0.001). Conventional risk factors and nonfasting triglycerides increased CHD mortality across all periods of follow-up. The association with metabolic variables was strongest in men with low total cholesterol levels supporting the idea that lowering cholesterol should be the primary target of primary prevention.

  3. Effect of long-term optional ingestion of canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter on serum, muscle and liver cholesterol status in rats.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Farzad; Shahriari, Ali; Chahardah-Cheric, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of long-term optional intake of vegetable oils (canola, grape seed, corn) and yogurt butter on the serum, liver and muscle cholesterol status. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into five groups (n=5) as follows: control, canola oil, grape seed oil, corn oil and manually prepared yogurt butter. In each group, 24h two bottle choice (oil and water) tests were performed for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol values showed a trend to decrease in grape seed oil, corn oil and yogurt butter groups compared to the control. Optional intake of yogurt butter made a significant increase in HDL-C values (42.34+/-9.98 mg/dL) yet decrease in LDL-C values (11.68+/-2.06 mg/dL) compared to the corresponding control (19.07+/-3.51; 30.96+/-6.38 mg/dL, respectively). Furthermore, such findings were concomitant with a significant decrease in the liver TC levels (1.75+/-0.31 mg/g liver) and an increase in the muscle TC levels (1.85+/-0.32 mg/g liver) compared to the corresponding control (2.43+/-0.31; 0.94+/-0.14 mg/g liver, respectively). Optional intake of manually prepared yogurt butter has more beneficial effects on serum lipoprotein cholesterol values with some alterations in the liver and muscle cholesterol states than the vegetable oils.

  4. Food products containing free tall oil-based phytosterols and oat beta-glucan lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Shinnick, Fred; Seeley, Marlyn A; Veith, Patricia E; Quinn, Laura C; Hallissey, Pamela J; Temer, Arlene; Davidson, Michael H

    2003-03-01

    This randomized, double-blind, controlled trial evaluated the influence of low fat, low saturated fat food products that contained free tall oil-based phytosterols (TOP) and oat beta-glucan (from whole oats and bran concentrate) on serum lipid concentrations in adults with mild-to-moderate hypercholesterolemia. After a 5-wk National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet lead-in period, 112 subjects incorporated one of two treatments into their diets for 6 wk: food products (cereal, snack bar and beverage) that provided 1.8 g TOP and 2.8 g beta-glucan/d and contained < or =3.0 g total fat and < or =1.0 g saturated fat (TOP/beta-glucan treatment) or similar control foods. The serum LDL cholesterol response from baseline to the end of study was significantly larger in the TOP/beta-glucan treated group than in the control group, in which there was no change (-3.7 vs. 0.4%; P = 0.013). Likewise, total cholesterol decreased in the TOP/beta-glucan treatment group and did not change significantly in the controls (-2.3 vs. 0.8%; P = 0.043). Serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride responses did not differ between the groups. The results of this trial suggest that consumption of a group of low fat, TOP and beta-glucan- containing foods is a useful adjunct in the dietary management of hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum.

    PubMed

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas; Hooda, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM-5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  6. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components. PMID:26885393

  7. [Correlation values of total cholesterol and cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions in maternal serum and umbilical cord blood in high risk pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Rosić, B

    1989-01-01

    In 20 healthy and 40 high-risk pregnancy women (diabets mellitus and EPH gestosis) total cholesterol and cholesterol in lipoprotein fractions were estimated. This was done in mothers' sera and cord blood by using the "Lipoprotein Proffiling System Beckman". Total cholesterol was significantly increased in the sera of diabetic mothers (7.775 mmol/L, SD 1.512 in healthy and 10.475 mmol/L, SD 2.102 in diabetic mothers); it was slightly increased in the cord. In all groups with high-risk pregnancy HDL cholesterol was significantly decreased (1.539 mmol/L, SD 0.449 in healthy and 1.240 mmol/L, SD 0.179 in diabetic mothers; EPH gestoses 1.241 mol/L, SD 0.222); it was slightly decreased in the umbilical cord in the cases with EPH gestosis. LDL cholesterol values were significantly increased in diabetic mothers' sera (3.782 mmol/L, SD 1.174 in healthy and 4.616 mmol/L, SD 1.275 in diabetic pregnant women); in those with EPH gestoses they were on the borderline of significance. In mothers' sera of all high-risk groups VLDL cholesterol values were significantly increased (2.470 mmol/L, SD 1022 in healthy and 4.837 mmol/L, SD 1.484 in diabetic pregnant women; EPH gestoses 3.641 mmol/L, SD 0.974), while in the cord they were increased only in diabetic women and EPH gestoses (0.232 mmol/L, SD 0.186 in healthy and 0.650 mmol/L, SD 0.405 in diabetic women; EPH gestoses 0.497 mmol/L, SD 0.104).

  8. Rapid Increase in Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration during Hepatitis C Interferon-Free Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abiru, Seigo; Komori, Atsumasa; Nagaoka, Shinya; Saeki, Akira; Uchida, Shinjiro; Bekki, Shigemune; Kugiyama, Yuki; Nagata, Kazuyoshi; Nakamura, Minoru; Migita, Kiyoshi; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim We performed lipid analyses at the early period of therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment, and we attempted to identify the factors that contributed to a rapid increase in the patients’ serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 100 consecutive patients with HCV infection treated at the National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center: 24 patients underwent daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) combination therapy (DCV/ASV) for 24 weeks, and the other 76 patients underwent ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination therapy (LDV/SOF) for 12 weeks. ΔLDL-C was defined as the changed in LDL-C level at 28 days from the start of therapy. To determine whether ΔLDL-C was associated with several kinds of factors including viral kinetics, we performed a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. Results The LDL-C levels in patients treated with LDV/SOF were markedly and significantly elevated (87.45 to 122.5 mg/dl; p<10−10) compared to those in the DCV/ASV-treated patients (80.15 to 87.8 mg/dl; p = 0.0056). The median levels of ΔLDL-C in the LDV/SOF and DCV/ASV groups were 33.2 and 13.1, respectively. LDV/SOF combination therapy as an IFN-free regimen (p<0.001) and ΔHCV core antigen (0–1 day drop) (p<0.044) were identified as independent factors that were closely related to the ΔLDL-C. Conclusions A rapid increase in the serum LDL-C concentration during the IFN-free treatment of hepatitis C was associated with the type of HCV therapy and a decline of HCV core protein. PMID:27680885

  9. Genome-wide linkage scans for loci affecting total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides: the Family Blood Pressure Program.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Suzette J; Tang, Weihong; Pankow, James S; Miller, Michael B; Mosley, Thomas H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Olshen, Richard A; Curb, J David; Jaquish, Cashell E; Rao, D C; Weder, Alan; Arnett, Donna K

    2006-10-01

    Atherosclerosis accounts for 75% of all deaths from cardiovascular disease and includes coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and other diseases of the arteries. More than half of all CHD is attributable to abnormalities in levels and metabolism of lipids. To locate genes that affect total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides, genome-wide linkage scans for quantitative trait loci were performed using variance components methods as implemented in SOLAR on a large diverse sample recruited as part of the Family Blood Pressure Program. Phenotype and genetic marker data were available for 9,299 subjects in 2,953 families for total cholesterol, 8,668 subjects in 2,736 families for HDL, and 7,760 subjects in 2,499 families for triglycerides. Mean lipid levels were adjusted for the effects of sex, age, age2, age-by-sex interaction, body mass index, smoking status, and field center. HDL-C and triglycerides were further adjusted for average total alcoholic drinks per week and estrogen use. Significant linkage was found for total cholesterol on chromosome 2 (LOD=3.1 at 43 cM) in Hispanics and for HDL-C on chromosome 3 (LOD=3.0 at 182 cM) and 12 (LOD=3.5 at 124 cM) in Asians. In addition, there were 13 regions that showed suggestive linkage (LOD >or= 2.0); 7 for total cholesterol, 4 for HDL, and 2 for triglycerides. The identification of these loci affecting lipid phenotypes and the apparent congruence with previous linkage results provides increased support that these regions contain genes influencing lipid levels.

  10. Low-level cigarette smoking and longitudinal change in serum cholesterol among adolescents. The Berlin-Bremen Study.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J H; Rieger-Ndakorerwa, G E; Semmer, N K; Fuchs, R; Lippert, P

    1988-05-20

    The current study was conducted to determine if smokers and nonsmokers differ in serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) before smoking initiation and if a decline in HDL-C levels could be detected among adolescents during the first two years of smoking. Changes in HDL-C levels and smoking were observed longitudinally in 1983, 1984, and 1985 among 691 seventh and eighth graders (age range, 12 to 14 years) from two German cities; 82% were nonsmokers at baseline. For these baseline nonsmokers, no differences in baseline HDL-C concentrations were found between those who became smokers and those who remained nonsmokers. In contrast, those who became light (one to 39 cigarettes per week) or moderate (greater than or equal to 40 cigarettes per week) smokers by one or two years after the initial examination evidenced lower mean HDL-C concentrations relative to persistent nonsmokers at follow-up, constituting a decrement of -0.016 mmol/L [SE = .035] (-0.6 mg/dL) [SE = 1.4] for light smokers and -0.114 mmol/L [SE = .064] (-4.4 mg/dL) [SE = 2.5] for moderate smokers. These findings suggest that short-term exposure to cigarette smoke at low levels may have atherogenic consequences.

  11. Factors affecting serum oxytetracycline levels in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Mercer, H D; Rollins, L D; Carter, G G; Gural, R P; Bourne, D W; Dittert, L W

    1977-08-01

    Fifteen Aberdeen Angus steers, 295-364 kg, were dosed with either 4.4 or 11 mg of oxytetracycline hydrochloride/kg im. The antimicrobial activity of the serum was determined periodically, and the resulting data were treated statistically to determine the sources of variation. Variance in serum levels of oxytetracycline activity was attributed to dose, time of bleeding, order of dosing, animal, and assay. The total variance component was proportionately greater for the 11-mg/kg dose than for the 4.4-mg/kg dose. Animal variance increased with the higher dose level of oxytetracycline. The influence of dose on serum level was tested by applying a t test to the mean serum levels and their standard deviations at each bleeding time. The 4.4- and 11-mg/kg serum levels were significantly different (p less than 0.01) at all bleeding times. The 4.4-mg/kg serum levels mutliplied by 2.5 were not significantly different (p less than 0.05) from the 11-mg/kg serum levels at all bleeding times.

  12. Acute Consumption of Walnuts and Walnut Components Differentially Affect Postprandial Lipemia, Endothelial Function, Oxidative Stress, and Cholesterol Efflux in Humans with Mild Hypercholesterolemia1234

    PubMed Central

    Berryman, Claire E.; Grieger, Jessica A.; West, Sheila G.; Chen, Chung-Yen O.; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Rothblat, George H.; Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2013-01-01

    Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and oxidative stress. Cholesterol efflux (ex vivo) was assessed in the whole walnut treatment only. A randomized, 4-period, crossover trial was conducted in healthy overweight and obese adults (n = 15) with moderate hypercholesterolemia. There was a treatment × time point interaction for triglycerides (P < 0.01) and increased postprandial concentrations were observed for the oil and whole walnut treatments (P < 0.01). Walnut skins decreased the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) compared with baseline (P = 0.02) such that a difference persisted between the skin and oil treatments (P = 0.01). The Framingham RHI was maintained with the oil treatment compared with the skins and whole nut (P < 0.05). There was a treatment effect for the ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) (P < 0.01), and mean FRAP was greater with the oil and skin treatments compared with the nutmeat (P < 0.01). Cholesterol efflux increased by 3.3% following whole walnut consumption in J774 cells cultured with postprandial serum compared with fasting baseline (P = 0.02). Walnut oil favorably affected endothelial function and whole walnuts increased cholesterol efflux. These 2 novel mechanisms may explain in part the cardiovascular benefits of walnuts. PMID:23616506

  13. Similar Reduction of Cholesterol-Adjusted Vitamin E Serum Levels in Simple Steatosis and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pastori, Daniele; Baratta, Francesco; Carnevale, Roberto; Cangemi, Roberto; Del Ben, Maria; Bucci, Tommaso; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Nocella, Cristina; Scardella, Laura; Pani, Arianna; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Reduced vitamin E levels have been reported in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but no conclusive data on patients with simple steatosis (SS) are available. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum vitamin E levels and SS. Methods: A cohort of 312 patients with cardio-metabolic risk factors was screened for liver steatosis by ultrasonography (US). We reasonably classified as SS patients with US-fatty liver, normal liver function tests (LFTs) and with Cytokeratin 18 <246 mIU/ml. Liver biopsy was performed in 41 patients with US-fatty liver and persistent elevation of LFTs (>6 months). Serum cholesterol-adjusted vitamin E (Vit E/chol) levels were measured. Results: Mean age was 53.9±12.5 years and 38.4% were women. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was detected at US in 244 patients; of those 39 had biopsy-proven NASH and 2 borderline NASH. Vit E/chol was reduced in both SS (3.4±2.0, P<0.001), and NASH (3.5±2.1, P=0.006) compared with non-NAFLD patients (4.8±2.0 μmol/mmol chol). No difference was found between SS and NASH (P=0.785). After excluding patients with NASH, a multivariable logistic regression analysis found that Vit E/chol (odds ratio (OR): 0.716, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.602–0.851, P<0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, OR: 1.093, 95% CI 1.029–1.161, P=0.004), body mass index (OR: 1.162, 95% CI 1.055–1.279, P=0.002) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 5.725, 95% CI 2.247–14.591, P<0.001) were factors independently associated with the presence of SS. Conclusions: Reduced vitamin E serum levels are associated with SS, with a similar reduction between patients with SS and NASH, compared with non-NAFLD patients. Our findings suggest that the potential benefit of vitamin E supplementation should be investigated also in patients with SS. PMID:26426796

  14. Association of Serum Triglyceride to HDL Cholesterol Ratio with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Incident Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tae Ik; Streja, Elani; Soohoo, Melissa; Kim, Tae Woo; Rhee, Connie M; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kashyap, Moti L; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Moradi, Hamid

    2017-04-03

    Elevated serum triglyceride/HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality in the general population. However, the association of this important clinical index with mortality has not been fully evaluated in patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We hypothesized that the association of serum TG/HDL-C ratio with all-cause and CV mortality in patients with ESRD on MHD is different from the general population. We studied the association of serum TG/HDL-C ratio with all-cause and CV mortality in a nationally representative cohort of 50,673 patients on incident hemodialysis between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2011. Association of baseline and time-varying TG/HDL-C ratios with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with adjustment for multiple variables, including statin therapy. During the median follow-up of 19 months (interquartile range, 11-32 months), 12,778 all-cause deaths and 4541 CV deaths occurred, respectively. We found that the 10th decile group (reference: sixth deciles of TG/HDL-C ratios) had significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99] in baseline and 0.86 [95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 0.94] in time-varying models) and CV mortality (hazard ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.96] in baseline and 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.90] in time-varying models). These associations remained consistent and significant across various subgroups. Contrary to the general population, elevated TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with better CV and overall survival in patients on hemodialysis. Our findings provide further support that the nature of CV disease and mortality in patients with ESRD is unique and distinct from other patient populations. Hence, it is vital that future studies focus on identifying risk factors unique to patients on MHD and decipher the underlying

  15. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  16. Effects of Physical Examination and Diet Consultation on Serum Cholesterol and Health-behavior in the Korean Pilots Employed in Commercial Airline

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Yun Young; KIM, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the “B” airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35–5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation. PMID:24131872

  17. Hypercholesterolemia screening. Does knowledge of blood cholesterol level affect dietary fat intake?

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, M.; Godin, G.; Vézina, L.; Maziade, J.; Desharnais, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether knowing blood cholesterol test results influences people's intention to lower their dietary fat intake and to assess changes in diet after 3 months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical study. SETTING: Two hospital-based family medicine centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 526 patients aged 18 to 65, without prior knowledge of their blood cholesterol levels, were recruited. Seventy did not appear for their appointments, and 37 did not meet study criteria, leaving 419 participants. From that group, 391 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: Patients submitted to cholesterol screening were randomly assigned to one of two groups, completing the study questionnaires either before (control group) or after (experimental group) being informed of their screening test results. All participants were called 3 months after transmission of test results to assess their dietary fat intake at that time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in intention to adopt a low-fat diet reported between the experimental and control groups and differences in dietary fat intake modification after 3 months between patients with normal and abnormal blood cholesterol test results. RESULTS: Knowledge of test results influenced patients' intentions to adopt low-fat diets (F1,417 = 5.4, P = .02). Patients reported lower mean dietary fat intake after 3 months than at baseline (P < .0001). The reduction was greater in patients with abnormal screening results (F2,388 = 3.6, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Being informed of personal blood cholesterol levels effects an immediate change in eating habits that translates into reduced dietary fat intake. PMID:9640523

  18. High-fat, cholesterol-rich diet affects leptin expression in the aortic layers.

    PubMed

    Krawczynska, Agata; Olczak, Elzbieta; Rembiszewska, Alina; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is stated to be an important mediator between obesity and cardiovascular disease. However, whether leptin location in the aorta is dependent on diet and its atherogenic character is still unknown. This study examined the relationship between a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol and the expression of leptin in aortic layers. Forty male rats were fed a high-fat diet with fish or grape seed oil as a dietary fat source, with or without cholesterol, to enhance the atherogenic character of their diet. The experiments lasted for three and six weeks, respectively. Plasma lipid profile, plasma leptin concentration and leptin expression in the endothelium (E), myometrium (M) and adventitia (A) were examined. The length of feeding was a key factor which influenced both the lipid profile and leptin expression in the aorta. Leptin concentration positively correlated with body weight and plasma triglycerides only in the three-week experiment, which suggests that the physiological actions of leptin can be disturbed by prolonged consumption of a high-fat diet. Short-term intake of a high-fat diet with fish oil, increasing high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) level and decreasing total cholesterol (TC)/HDL ratio, enhanced leptin expression in E in comparison to the group fed grape seed oil. However, in the group with the highest diet intake, leptin expression in each layer was lowest. Generally, leptin expression was most common in E; however, an extension of the period of feeding in groups fed a diet with grape seed oil with or without additional cholesterol increased leptin presence in M and A in comparison to the group fed fish oil. Significantly higher values of TC and HDL in the same groups may suggest that leptin changes in the aorta and the atherogenic impact of grape seed oil can be connected when the consumption of a high-fat diet is excessive.

  19. Relationships between the serum cholesterol levels, production of monocyte proinflammatory cytokines and long-term prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nakagomi, Akihiro; Seino, Yoshihiko; Noma, Satsuki; Kohashi, Keiichi; Kosugi, Munenori; Kato, Katsuhito; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Shimizu, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Low serum cholesterol is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the relationships between the serum cholesterol level, production of monocyte proinflammatory cytokines and long-term prognosis in CHF patients remain unclear. A total of 95 CHF patients who had not been treated with statins and had a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 26.0±6.0% were examined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and the production of monocyte tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 was measured and expressed as the mean ± SD (pg/mL/10(6) PBMCs). The production of monocyte TNF-α and IL-6 was found to be significantly and negatively associated with the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level (TNF-α: r=-0.515, p<0.001, IL-6: r=-0.419, p<0.001). During a median follow-up of 66.0 months, 49 patients developed cardiac events, including 21 cardiac deaths and 28 readmissions for worsening CHF. A multivariate Cox hazard analysis showed that a monocyte TNF-α level of ≥4.9 pg/mL/10(6) PBMCs [hazard ratio (HR) 187.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.92-4,434.94, p=0.001] and LDL-cholesterol level of <120 mg/dL (HR 9.41, 95% CI 1.02-86.66, p=0.048) were independently associated with the incidence of cardiac events. Low LDL-cholesterol and the upregulation of monocyte proinflammatory cytokine production are both significantly and independently associated with poor outcomes in CHF patients.

  20. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of bran on serum cholesterol, faecal mass, fat, bile acids and neutral sterols, and biliary lipids in patients with diverticular disease of the colon 1

    PubMed Central

    Tarpila, S.; Miettinen, T. A.; Metsäranta, L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon were randomly allocated to control and high-fibre groups so that the long-term effect (up to 12 months) of bran on serum, faecal and biliary lipids could be studied. Even in cases of high initial values, faecal mass was increased by bran and the change was positively correlated with the change in dietary fibre. Faecal fat and dry weight were also increased. Faecal bile acids were initially slightly raised and were positively correlated with wet weight both off and on bran. The latter significantly decreased the excretion and concentration of bile acids, in particular the high initial values. The change in bile acids was not correlated with the change in dietary fibre or faecal wet weight. Sterol balance values indicated that the bran-induced decrease in faecal bile acids was associated with a lower cholesterol synthesis. Serum cholesterol decreased significantly in two hypercholesterolaemic individuals only. Correlations between different parameters revealed that the higher the initial level or the greater the drop in cholesterol synthesis, the greater the decrease in serum cholesterol. Bran had no effect on the biliary saturation of cholesterol. The percentage of biliary deoxycholate was negatively correlated with faecal mass (less so with faecal bile acid output) both before and during bran and was significantly decreased by bran. The percentage of cholic acid increased correspondingly and that of chenodeoxycholate remained unchanged. Faecal bile acids also indicated that the synthesis of the two primary bile acids was lowered by bran to the same degree. PMID:344156

  2. Cigarette smoking and random serum cholesterol levels in a Northern Ireland general practice population of 18- to 20-year-old students and non-students.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J S; Steele, K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease is the commonest cause of death in Northern Ireland, but few data exist on the incidence of risk factors in young adult students and non-students. AIM: To gather data on the prevalence of cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol in a population of 18- to 20-year-old students and non-students. METHOD: Subjects were patients are Mountsandel Surgery, Coleraine on 1 January 1989 and were 18-20 years of age inclusive on that date. Subjects were interviewed by a research nurse who recorded socio-demographic data, tobacco consumption and random serum total cholesterol. Smoking status validation was by serum thiocyanate and expired air carbonmonoxide estimations. RESULTS: Out of the 832 subjects surveyed, 570 were students and 262 were non-students. Cigarettes were smoked by 239 (28.7%) subjects, and a significantly greater proportion of non-students compared with students were smokers (36.6% and 25.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). The proportion of males compared with females who smoked cigarettes was not significantly different, but males smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than females (14 and 11 cigarettes, respectively; P = 0.005). The average age for commencing regular cigarette smoking was 15.3 years, and 49.9% of smokers had started regular smoking by the age of 16 years. A greater proportion of non-students (65.7%) compared with students (39.2%) had started smoking before the age of 16 years. Out of those sampled, 156 (19.2%) had random serum cholesterol levels above 5.2 mmol l-1. Mean total cholesterol for non-students was significantly higher than for students (4.61 and 4.45 mmol l-1, respectively; P = 0.01) and increased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03). Three subjects recorded cholesterol levels above 7.8 mmol l-1. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol were prevalent among an apparently healthy population of students and non-students. These young adults may be

  3. Racial differences in the association between preoperative serum cholesterol and prostate cancer recurrence: results from the SEARCH database

    PubMed Central

    Allott, Emma H.; Howard, Lauren E.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Kane, Christopher J.; Amling, Christopher L.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Black men are disproportionately affected by both cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer. Epidemiologic evidence linking dyslipidemia, an established cardiovascular risk factor, and prostate cancer progression is mixed. As existing studies were conducted in predominantly non-black populations, research in black men is lacking. Methods We identified 628 black and 1,020 non-black men who underwent radical prostatectomy and never used statins before surgery in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database. Median follow up was 2.9 years. The impact of preoperative hypercholesterolemia on risk of biochemical recurrence was examined using multivariable, race-stratified proportional hazards. In secondary analysis, we examined associations with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides, overall and among men with dyslipidemia. Results High cholesterol was associated with increased risk of recurrence in black (HRper10mg/dl 1.06; 95%CI 1.02–1.11) but not non-black men (HRper10mg/dl 0.99; 95%CI 0.95–1.03; p-interaction=0.011). Elevated triglycerides were associated with increased risk in both black and non-black men (HRper10mg/dl 1.02; 95%CI 1.00–1.03 and 1.02; 95%CI 1.00–1.02, respectively; p-interaction=0.458). There were no significant associations between LDL or HDL and recurrence risk in either race. Associations with cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides were similar among men with dyslipidemia, but low HDL was associated with increased risk of recurrence in black, but not non-black men with dyslipidemia (p-interaction=0.047). Conclusion Elevated cholesterol was a risk factor for recurrence in black but not non-black men, whereas high triglycerides were associated with increased risk regardless of race. Impact Significantly contrasting associations by race may provide insight into prostate cancer racial disparities. PMID:26809276

  4. Differential effect of walnut oil and safflower oil on the serum cholesterol level and lesion area in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masako; Kono, Misaki; Kawamoto, Daisuke; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2002-01-01

    Walnut oil (WO) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. We compared the effects of WO and high-linoleic safflower oil (HLSO) on the serum lipid level and atherosclerosis development in male and female apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. The WO diet resulted in a higher level of serum cholesterol than with HLSO. Female mice fed on the WO diet had a greater lesion area in the aortic root than did those on the HLSO diet. There was no diet-dependent difference in the level of cholesterol and its oxidation products in the abdominal and thoracic aorta. These results suggest that the unpleasant effects of the WO diet on apo E-deficient mice may be attributable to alpha-linolenic acid.

  5. LXR driven induction of HDL-cholesterol is independent of intestinal cholesterol absorption and ABCA1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, Kristina; Gåfvels, Mats; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Slätis, Katharina; Hu, Xiaoli; Jorns, Carl; Steffensen, Knut R; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether: (1) liver X receptor (LXR)-driven induction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and other LXR-mediated effects on cholesterol metabolism depend on intestinal cholesterol absorption; and (2) combined treatment with the LXR agonist GW3965 and the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe results in synergistic effects on cholesterol metabolism that could be beneficial for treatment of atherosclerosis. Mice were fed 0.2 % cholesterol and treated with GW3965+ezetimibe, GW3965 or ezetimibe. GW3965+ezetimibe treatment elevated serum HDL-C and Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, effectively reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased the excretion of faecal neutral sterols. No changes in intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 or ABCG5 protein expression were observed, despite increased mRNA expression, while hepatic ABCA1 was slightly reduced. The combined treatment caused a pronounced down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and reduced hepatic and intestinal cholesterol levels. GW3965 did not affect the intestinal cholesterol absorption, but increased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels. GW3965 also increased Apoa1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and HEPA1-6 cells. Ezetimibe reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption, ABCA1 and ABCG5, but did not affect the serum HDL-C or ApoAI levels. Thus, the LXR-driven induction of HDL-C and ApoAI was independent of the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased expression of intestinal or hepatic ABCA1 was not required. Inhibited influx of cholesterol via NPC1L1 and/or low levels of intracellular cholesterol prevented post-transcriptional expression of intestinal ABCA1 and ABCG5, despite increased mRNA levels. Combined LXR activation and blocked intestinal cholesterol absorption induced effective faecal elimination of cholesterol.

  6. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  7. Use and outcomes of a cholesterol-lowering intervention for rural elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Ives, D G; Kuller, L H; Traven, N D

    1993-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the efficacy of cholesterol-lowering interventions in a community setting and have included a control or comparison group. As part of a preventive health demonstration project in rural Pennsylvania, Medicare beneficiaries underwent cholesterol screening to identify high-risk individuals with serum cholesterol levels > or = 240 mg/dL. These high-risk individuals were randomized to a cholesterol-lowering intervention through either local hospitals or physicians' offices or to a control group. Baseline and follow-up serum cholesterol levels collected two to three years later were compared according to service location (hospital versus physician's office), intervention attendance, degree of participation, baseline heart disease history, and cholesterol-lowering medication use at follow-up. Serum cholesterol levels decreased between 5.7% and 6.6% in the hospital-based and physician-based groups, as well as in a control group not offered the intervention. Participation rates did not differ between treatment groups, nor did participation affect serum cholesterol levels. Attendance level and heart disease history were not associated with a greater decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Individuals reporting cholesterol-lowering drug use at follow-up had significantly higher baseline serum cholesterol levels and a significantly greater decrease in total serum cholesterol (P < .0001) than those not on medication. Both nonpharmacological (diet) and pharmacological (drug) interventions will reduce serum cholesterol levels and heart attack risk. The study results suggest that, at least for older individuals, the impact of nonpharmacological interventions on the community is minimal. We conclude that only very aggressive treatment will significantly loser serum cholesterol levels in older individuals at risk for heart attack.

  8. Evidence for several independent genetic variants affecting lipoprotein (a) cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wensheng; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Keping; Wang, Hong; Gerhard, Glenn S; Still, Christopher D; Chu, Xin; Yang, Rongze; Parihar, Ankita; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Pollin, Toni I; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Quon, Michael J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Fu, Mao

    2015-04-15

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related events that is under strong genetic control (heritability = 0.68-0.98). However, causal mutations and functional validation of biological pathways modulating Lp(a) metabolism are lacking. We performed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels in the Old Order Amish. We confirmed a previously known locus on chromosome 6q25-26 and found Lp(a) levels also to be significantly associated with a SNP near the APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23 linked in the Amish to the APOC3 R19X null mutation. On 6q locus, we detected associations of Lp(a)-cholesterol with 118 common variants (P = 5 × 10(-8) to 3.91 × 10(-19)) spanning a ∼5.3 Mb region that included the LPA gene. To further elucidate variation within LPA, we sequenced LPA and identified two variants most strongly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol, rs3798220 (P = 1.07 × 10(-14)) and rs10455872 (P = 1.85 × 10(-12)). We also measured copy numbers of kringle IV-2 (KIV-2) in LPA using qPCR. KIV-2 numbers were significantly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol (P = 2.28 × 10(-9)). Conditional analyses revealed that rs3798220 and rs10455872 were associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels independent of each other and KIV-2 copy number. Furthermore, we determined for the first time that levels of LPA mRNA were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of rs10455872 (P = 0.0001) and were not different between carriers and non-carriers of rs3798220. Protein levels of apo(a) were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of both rs10455872 and rs3798220. In summary, we identified multiple independent genetic determinants for Lp(a)-cholesterol. These findings provide new insights into Lp(a) regulation.

  9. Evidence for several independent genetic variants affecting lipoprotein (a) cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wensheng; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Keping; Wang, Hong; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Chu, Xin; Yang, Rongze; Parihar, Ankita; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Pollin, Toni I.; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Quon, Michael J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Fu, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related events that is under strong genetic control (heritability = 0.68–0.98). However, causal mutations and functional validation of biological pathways modulating Lp(a) metabolism are lacking. We performed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels in the Old Order Amish. We confirmed a previously known locus on chromosome 6q25-26 and found Lp(a) levels also to be significantly associated with a SNP near the APOA5–APOA4–APOC3–APOA1 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23 linked in the Amish to the APOC3 R19X null mutation. On 6q locus, we detected associations of Lp(a)-cholesterol with 118 common variants (P = 5 × 10−8 to 3.91 × 10−19) spanning a ∼5.3 Mb region that included the LPA gene. To further elucidate variation within LPA, we sequenced LPA and identified two variants most strongly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol, rs3798220 (P = 1.07 × 10−14) and rs10455872 (P = 1.85 × 10−12). We also measured copy numbers of kringle IV-2 (KIV-2) in LPA using qPCR. KIV-2 numbers were significantly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol (P = 2.28 × 10−9). Conditional analyses revealed that rs3798220 and rs10455872 were associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels independent of each other and KIV-2 copy number. Furthermore, we determined for the first time that levels of LPA mRNA were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of rs10455872 (P = 0.0001) and were not different between carriers and non-carriers of rs3798220. Protein levels of apo(a) were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of both rs10455872 and rs3798220. In summary, we identified multiple independent genetic determinants for Lp(a)-cholesterol. These findings provide new insights into Lp(a) regulation. PMID:25575512

  10. Higher serum cholesterol is associated with intensified age-related neural network decoupling and cognitive decline in early- to mid-life.

    PubMed

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Sadeh, Naomi; Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Salat, David H

    2017-03-31

    Mounting evidence indicates that serum cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease intensify normative trajectories of age-related cognitive decline. However, the neural mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. To understand the impact of cholesterol on brain networks, we applied graph theory to resting-state fMRI in a large sample of early- to mid-life Veterans (N = 206, Meanage  = 32). A network emerged (centered on the banks of the superior temporal sulcus) that evidenced age-related decoupling (i.e., decreased network connectivity with age), but only in participants with clinically-elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL). Crucially, decoupling in this network corresponded to greater day-to-day disability and mediated age-related declines in psychomotor speed. Finally, examination of network organization revealed a pattern of age-related dedifferentiation for the banks of the superior temporal sulcus, again present only with higher cholesterol. More specifically, age was related to decreasing within-module communication (indexed by Within-Module Degree Z-Score) and increasing between-module communication (indexed by Participation Coefficient), but only in participants with clinically-elevated cholesterol. Follow-up analyses indicated that all findings were driven by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, rather than high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or triglycerides, which is interesting as LDL levels have been linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas HDL levels appear inversely related to such disease. These findings provide novel insight into the deleterious effects of cholesterol on brain health and suggest that cholesterol accelerates the impact of age on neural trajectories by disrupting connectivity in circuits implicated in integrative processes and behavioral control. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prognostic significance of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST Trial).

    PubMed

    Greene, Stephen J; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Lupi, Laura; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Mentz, Robert J; Konstam, Marvin A; Nodari, Savina; Subacius, Haris P; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bonow, Robert O; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2013-02-15

    Lower cholesterol levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and have been shown to predict in-hospital mortality. The relation between lipid profile and postdischarge outcomes in patients hospitalized for worsening HF is less clear. In this post hoc analysis of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study With Tolvaptan (EVEREST), 3,957 patients hospitalized for worsening HF with ejection fractions ≤40% were examined. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured <48 hours after admission and evaluated as continuous variables. The primary end points of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF were compared using Cox regression models. Patient characteristics at randomization were also compared among quartiles of total cholesterol. Patients with lower total cholesterol tended to have lower blood pressure, ejection fractions, serum sodium, and albumin, and were more likely to have worse HF functional class, to have higher natriuretic peptide levels, and to have histories of diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, and coronary revascularization (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for baseline clinical risk factors, total cholesterol was predictive of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 0.85, p <0.001) and cardiovascular mortality or hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.82, p <0.001) at median follow-up of 9.9 months. Lower baseline triglyceride level was also associated with worse outcomes. In conclusion, lower baseline total cholesterol is correlated with a high-risk patient profile and is a marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized for worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction. Baseline total cholesterol and triglyceride levels are predictive of mortality and HF rehospitalization beyond traditional risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  13. BmNHR96 participate BV entry of BmN-SWU1 cells via affecting the cellular cholesterol level.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Long; Liu, Tai-Hang; Wang, Wei; Pan, Cai-Xia; Du, Guo-Yu; Wu, Yun-Fei; Pan, Min-Hui; Lu, Cheng

    2017-01-22

    B.mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which produces BV and ODV two virion phenotypes in its life cycle, caused the amount of economic loss in sericulture. But the mechanism of its infection was still unclear. In this study we characterized B.mori nuclear hormone receptor 96 (BmNHR96) as a NHR96 family member, which was localized in the nucleus. We also found BmNHR96 over-expression could enhance the entry of BV as well as cellular cholesterol level. Furthermore, we validated that BmNHR96 increased membrane fusion mediated by GP64, which could probably promote BV-infection. In summary, our study suggested that BmNHR96 plays an important role in BV infection and this function probably actualized by affecting cellular cholesterol level, and our results provided insights to the mechanisms of BV-infection of B.mori.

  14. How do elevated triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol affect inflammation and atherothrombosis?

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K

    2013-09-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The "functionality" of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C.

  15. How Do Elevated Triglycerides and Low HDL-Cholesterol Affect Inflammation and Atherothrombosis?

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Francine K.

    2015-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The “functionality” of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C. PMID:23881582

  16. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P < 0.01) ADFI than those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets throughout the experimental period. During wk 4 to 6 and overall, hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P < 0.01) egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness than hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P < 0.01) by feeding hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P < 0.01) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower (P = 0.03) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P < 0.05) of energy and nutrient density and the

  17. Cholesterol, the central lipid of mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; van Meer, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Despite its importance for mammalian cell biology and human health, there are many basic aspects of cholesterol homeostasis that are not well understood. Even for the well-characterized delivery of cholesterol to cells via lipoproteins, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered recently, involving a serum protein called PCSK9, which profoundly affects lipoproteins and their receptors. Cells can export cholesterol by processes that require the activity of ABC transporters, but the molecular mechanisms for cholesterol transport remain unclear. Cholesterol levels in different organelles vary by 5–10 fold, and the mechanisms for maintaining these differences are now partially understood. Several proteins have been proposed to play a role in the inter-organelle movement of cholesterol, but many aspects of the mechanisms for regulating intracellular transport and distribution of cholesterol remain to be worked out. The endoplasmic reticulum is the main organelle responsible for regulation of cholesterol synthesis, and careful measurements have shown that the proteins responsible for sterol sensing respond over a very narrow range of cholesterol concentrations to provide very precise, switch-like control over cholesterol synthesis. PMID:20627678

  18. Updating the Evidence on the Association between Serum Cholesterol and Risk of Late-Life Dementia: Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anstey, Kaarin J.; Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Peters, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cohort studies have reported that midlife high total serum cholesterol (TC) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in late-life but findings have been based on few studies and previous reviews have been limited by a lack of compatible data. Objective: We synthesized all high quality data from cohort studies reporting on the association between total serum cholesterol measured and late-life cognitive outcomes including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), any dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline. Methods: The literature was searched up to October 2016 using a registered protocol. Thirty-four articles meeting study criteria were identified. Seventeen studies published from 1996 to 2014, including 23,338 participants were included in meta-analyses. Results: Relative risk of developing AD for adults with high TC in midlife was 2.14 (95% CI 1.33–3.44) compared with normal cholesterol. Individual studies that could not be pooled also reported high TC in midlife increased the risk of MCI and cognitive decline in late-life. High TC in late-life was not associated with MCI, AD, VaD, any dementia, or cognitive decline. Late-life measured HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were not associated with increased risk of VaD, and HDL was not associated with risk of MCI, AD, or any dementia. There were insufficient data to examine other cholesterol sub-fractions, sex differences, or APOE interactions. Conclusions: Significant gaps in the literature regarding TC and late-life dementia remain. Evidence suggests that high midlife TC increases risk of late-life AD, and may correlate with the onset of AD pathology. PMID:27911314

  19. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Molecular-Weight β-Glucan Decreases Serum Cholesterol Differentially Based on the CYP7A1 rs3808607 Polymorphism in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Harding, Scott V; Eck, Peter; Thandapilly, Sijo J; Gamel, Tamer H; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Crow, Gary H; Tosh, Susan M; Jones, Peter Jh; Ames, Nancy P

    2016-04-01

    β-Glucan, a soluble fiber with viscous property, has a documented cholesterol-lowering effect. The molecular weight (MW) of β-glucan, which contributes to viscosity, and an individual's genotype might influence the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of β-glucan. This study was designed to determine whether the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of barley β-glucan varied as a function of MW and the daily dose consumed. Our second aim was to determine whether any gene-diet interactions are associated with the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of β-glucan. In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 30 mildly hypercholesterolemic adults [12 men and 18 women, aged 27-78 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 20-40; total cholesterol (TC): 5.0-8.0 mmol/L; LDL cholesterol: 2.7-5.0 mmol/L] were randomly assigned to receive a breakfast that contained either barley β-glucan at 3 g high MW (HMW)/d, 5 g low MW (LMW)/d, or 3 g LMW/d or a control diet, each for 5 wk. The washout period between the phases was 4 wk. Fasting blood samples were collected at the start and end of each phase for blood lipid analysis and genotyping. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan/d lowered TC by -0.12 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.24, -0.006 mmol/L) compared with the control diet (P= 0.0046), but the LMW β-glucan, at either 3 g/d or 5 g/d, did not change serum cholesterol concentrations. This effect of HMW β-glucan was associated with gene-diet interaction, whereby individuals with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3808607-G allele (GG or GT) of the cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 gene (CYP7A1) had greater responses to 3 g HMW β-glucan/d in lowering TC than TT carriers (P= 0.0006). The HMW β-glucan rather than LMW β-glucan reduced circulating TC effectively in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. The cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan may also be determined by the genetic characteristics of an individual. These data show that individuals carrying theCYP7A1SNP rs3808607-G allele are more

  1. Refeeding with conjugated linoleic acid increases serum cholesterol and modifies the fatty acid profile after 48 hours of fasting in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela Salim; Andreoli, María Florencia; Illesca, Paola G; Payão Ovídio, Paula; Bernal, Claudio A; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2014-12-01

    There is no consensus about the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism, especially in animals fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum, liver and adipose tissue, as well as the oxidative stress generated in rats refed with high-fat diets after a 48 hour fast. Rats were refed with diets containing soybean oil, rich in linoleic acid [7% (Control Group - C) or 20% (LA Group)], CLA [CLA Group - 20% CLA mixture (39.32 mole% c9,t11-CLA and 40.59 mole% t10,c12- CLA)], soybean oil + CLA (LA+CLA Group - 15.4% soybean oil and 4.6% CLA) or animal fat (AF, 20% lard). The CLA group showed lower weight gain and liver weight after refeeding, as well as increased serum cholesterol. The high dietary fat intake induced fat accumulation and an increase in -tocopherol in the liver, which were not observed in the CLA group. Circulating -tocopherol was increased in the CLA and CLA+LA groups. The high- fat diets reduced liver catalase activity. CLA isomers were incorporated into serum and tissues. In this shortterm refeeding experimental model, CLA prevented hepatic fat accumulation, although it produced an increase in serum cholesterol.

  2. An examination of the evidence supporting the association of dietary cholesterol and saturated fats with serum cholesterol and development of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Volk, Marion G

    2007-09-01

    The lipid hypothesis is the basis for much of the contemporary diet advice and drug therapy aimed at preventing coronary heart disease (CHD), and was developed from a sequential association of dietary lipids, cholesterol, and CHD nearly 100 years ago. The lipid hypothesis considers pathological changes that relate to the end stage of the complex chronic condition summarized as CHD, not to its genesis. Ongoing research provides only inconclusive evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors or statins, the highest selling drugs in medical history, may provide evidence that the lipid hypothesis is based on erroneous assumptions, since some of the mechanisms of action of statins seem to be independent of cholesterol reduction. This article assesses the methodology and assumptions underlying the early studies that gave rise to the current assumption of a causal relationship between dietary fat consumption and CHD. It argues that flaws in methodology have led to inaccurate and highly debatable conclusions. It assesses research supporting criticism of these early studies and considers other factors that may influence CHD. It offers alternative interpretations of the use of statins in controlling CHD. Finally, it provides an historical context suggesting different causes of CHD that have no relation to fat intake.

  3. Myeloperoxidase and serum amyloid A contribute to impaired in vivo reverse cholesterol transport during the acute phase response but not group IIA secretory phospholipase A2[S

    PubMed Central

    Annema, Wijtske; Nijstad, Niels; Tölle, Markus; de Boer, Jan Freark; Buijs, Ruben V. C.; Heeringa, Peter; van der Giet, Markus; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is linked to inflammation. HDL protects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, mainly by mediating cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The present study aimed to test the impact of acute inflammation as well as selected acute phase proteins on RCT with a macrophage-to-feces in vivo RCT assay using intraperitoneal administration of [3H]cholesterol-labeled macrophage foam cells. In patients with acute sepsis, cholesterol efflux toward plasma and HDL were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). In mice, acute inflammation (75 µg/mouse lipopolysaccharide) decreased [3H]cholesterol appearance in plasma (P < 0.05) and tracer excretion into feces both within bile acids (−84%) and neutral sterols (−79%, each P < 0.001). In the absence of systemic inflammation, overexpression of serum amyloid A (SAA, adenovirus) reduced overall RCT (P < 0.05), whereas secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2, transgenic mice) had no effect. Myeloperoxidase injection reduced tracer appearance in plasma (P < 0.05) as well as RCT (−36%, P < 0.05). Hepatic expression of bile acid synthesis genes (P < 0.01) and transporters mediating biliary sterol excretion (P < 0.01) was decreased by inflammation. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that acute inflammation impairs cholesterol efflux in patients and macrophage-to-feces RCT in vivo in mice. Myeloperoxidase and SAA contribute to a certain extent to reduced RCT during inflammation but not sPLA2. However, reduced bile acid formation and decreased biliary sterol excretion might represent major contributing factors to decreased RCT in inflammation. PMID:20061576

  4. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet.

  5. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Kent, Tera R; Bar, Haim Y; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Julia L.; Pressman, Eva K.; Cooper, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Tera R.; Bar, Haim Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. PMID:25367051

  7. High-temperature GC-MS-based serum cholesterol signatures may reveal sex differences in vasospastic angina[S

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hyun-Hwa; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Seo, Hong Seog; Kim, Hyun Hee; Chung, Bong Chul; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-01-01

    Alterations of cholesterol metabolism are responsible for vasospastic angina and atherosclerosis. To comprehensively evaluate cholesterol metabolism, 18 sterols, including cholesterol, 6 cholesteryl esters (CEs), 3 cholesterol precursors, and 8 hydroxycholesterols (OHCs), were simultaneously analyzed using hybrid solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification coupled to high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HTGC-MS). Methanol-based hybrid SPE increased the selective extraction, and HTGC resulted in a good chromatographic resolution for the separation of lipophilic compounds. The limits of quantification of cholesterol and CEs ranged from 0.2 to 10.0 μg/ml, while OHCs and cholesterol precursors ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 μg/ml. Linearity as the correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 with the exception of cholesteryl laurate, myristate, oleate, and linoleate (r2 > 0.98). The precision (% coefficient of variation) and accuracy (% bias) ranged from 1.1 to 9.8% and from 75.9 to 125.1%, respectively. The overall recoveries of CEs ranged from 26.1 to 64.0%, and the recoveries of other sterols ranged from 83.8 to 129.3%. The cholesterol signatures showed sex differences in patients with vasospastic angina and may associate with 24-reductases. This technique can be useful for making clinical diagnoses and for an increased understanding of the pathophysiology of vasospastic angina. PMID:24220886

  8. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Alexey M. Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F. Yakovleva, Anastasia A. Zefirov, Andrei L.

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.

  9. Oxidation process affecting fatty acids and cholesterol in fried and roasted salmon.

    PubMed

    Echarte, M; Zulet, M A; Astiasaran, I

    2001-11-01

    Salmon was processed by three different culinary techniques: pan-frying with olive oil, pan-frying with soya oil, and roasting. Roasting did not modify the fat content from that of raw samples. Frying increased the fat content 2-fold, with no difference between samples fried with different oils. Total cholesterol oxidized products (COPs) were 0.74, 2.98, 3.35, and 7.38 microg/g fat in raw, fried with olive oil, fried with soya oil, and roasted salmon, respectively, which represent 0.01, 0.08, 0.09, and 0.15% of cholesterol. A significant correlation (r = 0.902, < or = 0.01) was found between acidity index and total COPs. The most abundant COPs were 7-ketocholesterol, which appeared in all the samples, and cholestanetriol (one of the most citotoxic COP), which appeared only in cooked samples (1.05-1.33 microg/g fat). All cooked samples supplied more omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than raw samples and showed higher omega-6/omega-3 ratios. Roasted salmon showed the lowest omega-3 content and the highest PUFAs/(SFAs)-C18:0 and MUFAs+PUFAs/(SFAs-C18:0) ratios.

  10. Blueberry Consumption Affects Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Older Adults in a Sex-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Carol L.; Vazquez-Vidal, Itzel; Medlin, Amanda; Voruganti, V. Saroja

    2016-01-01

    Blueberries are rich in antioxidants and may protect against disease. Uric acid accounts for about 50% of the antioxidant properties in humans. Elevated levels of serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to determine the effect of blueberries on SUA in older adults. Participants (n = 133, 65–80 years) experiencing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomized in a double-blind 6-month clinical trial to either blueberry or placebo. A reference group with no MCI received no treatment. The mean (SD) SUA at baseline were 5.45 (0.9), 6.4 (1.3) and 5.8 (1.4) mg/dL in reference, placebo, and treatment groups, respectively. Baseline SUA was different in men and women (6.25 (1.1) vs. 5.35 (1.1), p = 0.001). During the first three months, SUA decreased in the blueberry group and was significantly different from the placebo group in both men and women (p < 0.0003). Sex-specific differences became apparent after 3 months, when only men showed an increase in SUA in the blueberry group and not in the placebo (p = 0.0006) between 3 and 6 months. At 6 months SUA had rebounded in both men and women and returned to baseline levels. Baseline SUA was correlated with CVD risk factors, waist circumference and triglycerides (p < 0.05), but differed by sex. Overall, 6 m SUA changes were negatively associated with triglycerides in men, but not in women. Group-wise association between 6 m SUA changes and CVD risk factors showed associations with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in women of the Blueberry group but not in men or any sex in the placebo group. In summary, blueberries may affect SUA and its relationship with CVD risk in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27916816

  11. Dietary freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract suppresses accumulation of hepatic lipids and increases in serum cholesterol and aminotransferase activities induced by dietary chloretone in rats.

    PubMed

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Umeki, Miki; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yutaro; Yamada, Koji; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone.

  12. Changes in relative fatty acid composition of serum lecithin and cholesterol ester after treatment with two gonane progestins administered alone and in combination with ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Crona, N; Enk, L; Samsioe, G; Silfverstolpe, G

    1984-01-01

    Twenty women, oophorectomized as part of treatment for cervical carcinoma of the cervix participated in the study. Ten of them were given desogestrel (DG) 150 micrograms/day for 3 weeks followed by DG + 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) for 6 weeks, and finally EE alone for 3 weeks. The other 10 women were given 150 micrograms levonorgestrel (NORG) and EE in a similar way. Before treatment and after each period of treatment the relative fatty acid composition of serum lecithin and serum cholesterol ester were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. In both groups ethinyl estradiol, when administered alone, increased arachidonic acid in serum lecithin. This increase was not observed on the DG + EE or the NORG + EE combination indicating that both progestins counteracted this estrogenic effect.

  13. Is High Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio an Emerging Risk Factor for Sudden Cardiac Death? Findings from the KIHD Study.

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-06-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), which are components of total cholesterol, have each been suggested to be linked to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, the relationship between LDL-c/HDL-c ratio and the risk of SCD has not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the associations of LDL-c, HDL-c, and the ratio of LDL-c/HDL-c with the risk of SCD. Serum lipoprotein concentrations were assessed at baseline in the Finnish Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study of 2,616 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were assessed. During a median follow-up of 23.0 years, a total of 228 SCDs occurred. There was no significant evidence of an association of LDL-c or HDL-c with the risk of SCD. In analyses adjusted for age, examination year, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, years of education, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein, there was approximately a two-fold increase in the risk of SCD (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.21-3.11; p=0.006), comparing the top (>4.22) versus bottom (≤2.30) quintile of serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In this middle-aged male population, LDL-c or HDL-c was not associated with the risk of SCD. However, a high serum LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was found to be independently associated with an increased risk of SCD. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanistic pathways underlying this association.

  14. The effects of clozapine on levels of total cholesterol and related lipids in serum of patients with schizophrenia: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, S M; Szemis, A; Andrews, H; Reveley, M A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on levels of cholesterol and related lipids in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University department associated with a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients (6 women and 2 men) with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia consistent with DSM-IV criteria. The patients were classified as treatment-resistant and had not responded to treatment with at least 2 conventional antipsychotics. INTERVENTIONS: Current antipsychotic medications were tapered and treatment with clozapine was initiated. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cholesterol and serum lipid levels, as well as Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were measured before and after 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine. RESULTS: Clozapine treatment significantly improved the BPRS scores but did not significantly alter serum lipid levels, except triglyceride levels, which increased. CONCLUSION: The previously reported lower levels of cholesterol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia cannot be attributed to the effects of clozapine administration. Further research is required to support and clarify the effects of antipsychotic drugs on lipid levels. Images Fig. 1 PMID:10586536

  15. Positive correlation of serum HDL cholesterol with blood mercury concentration in metabolic syndrome Korean men (analysis of KNANES 2008-2010, 2013).

    PubMed

    Park, S J; Yeum, K J; Choi, B; Kim, Y S; Joo, N S

    2016-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) is anti-inflammatory in the basal state and pro-inflammatory during the acute-phase response. Blood mercury also has an inflammatory property. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum HDLC and blood mercury concentration in relation with metabolic syndrome (MS). The data of 7616 subjects (3713 men and 3903 women), over 20 years of age, from 2008 to 2013, Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were selected for cross-sectional analyses. Correlation and regression of serum HDLC and blood mercury were initially done. We compared serum HDLC concentration according to blood mercury quartile after adjustment for relevant variables in subjects with MS. Mean blood mercury concentrations is 5.6 and 3.9 μg/dL in men and women, respectively. Blood mercury concentration in MS subjects was positively correlated with serum HDLC concentration, especially in men. In addition, HDLC concentration was significantly higher according to the higher blood mercury quartile. Serum HDLC was positively associated with blood mercury concentration in MS Korean men. Therefore, elevated blood mercury may be a factor to increase serum HDLC concentration in MS men.

  16. Serum heat inactivation affects protein corona composition and nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Anna; Campbell, Abigail; Monopoli, Marco P; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles are of an appropriate size to interact with cells, and are likely to use a range of cellular machinery for internalisation and trafficking to various sub-cellular compartments. It is now understood that once in contact with biological fluids, the nanoparticle surface gets covered by a highly specific layer of proteins, forming the nanoparticle protein corona. This protein layer is stable for times longer than the typical time scale of nanoparticle import, and thus can impact on particle uptake and trafficking inside the cells. In this work, the effect of the corona composition on nanoparticle uptake has been investigated, by studying the impact of serum heat inactivation and complement depletion on the load of nanoparticles accumulated inside the cell. For the same material and nanoparticle size, cellular uptake was found to be significantly different when the nanoparticles were dispersed in medium where the serum was heat inactivated or not heat inactivated, even for non-specialized cells, suggesting that different sera can lead to different nanoparticle doses. The fact that uptake was correlated with the amount of protein bound into the nanoparticle corona suggests the need for commonly agreed dispersion protocols for in vitro nanoparticle-cell studies.

  17. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  18. Association between serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lu, Da; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yuying; Xu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Huihong; Liu, Liping; Tian, Zhiyan

    2016-08-26

    Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) could be a good predictor of vascular disease outcomes. To evaluate the association between serum non-HDL-C and cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A total of 725 hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. They received conventional treatment. Cognitive function was assessed on the 3rd day after admission using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, and Hamilton depression rating scale 21-item (HAMD-21). Lipid profile and biochemical markers were measured, and non-HDL-C was calculated. Compared with patients with normal non-HDL-C, those with high non-HDL-C showed lower MMSE (23.1 ± 4.9 vs. 26.0 ± 4.6, P < 0.001) and MoCA (20.4 ± 6.4 vs. 22.2 ± 5.3 P = 0.01) scores, higher NPI (6.2 ± 1.2 vs. 3.3 ± 1.5, P < 0.001) and HADM-21 (6.0 ± 2.2 vs. 4.5 ± 1.9, P < 0.001) scores, and higher homocysteine (16.0 ± 3.8 vs. 14.3 ± 2.0 mmol/L, P = 0.044), fasting blood glucose (6.4 ± 2.7 vs. 6.1 ± 2.1 mmol/L, P = 0.041), and HbA1c (6.80 ± 1.32 % vs. 6.52 ± 1.17 %, P = 0.013) levels. MMSE (r = -0.526, P < 0.001), MoCA (r = -0.216, P < 0.001), and NPI (r = 0.403, P < 0.001) scores were correlated with non-HDL-C levels. High non-HDL-C levels were an independent risk factor for cognitive disorders after acute ischemic stroke (P = 0.034, odds ratio = 3.115, 95 % confidence interval: 1.088-8.917). High serum non-HDL-C levels, age, education, homocysteine levels, and HAMD score were independent risk factors of cognitive impairment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The risk of cognitive disorders after acute ischemic stroke increased with increasing non-HDL-C levels. This parameter is easy to assess in the clinical setting.

  19. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, T.K.; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule patients. The significance of these findings has been discussed. PMID:21965991

  20. A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Matthew J; Kraemer, William J; Love, Dawn M; Avery, Neva G; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Volek, Jeff S

    2002-07-01

    Very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets are popular yet little is known regarding the effects on serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examined the effects of a 6-wk ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial serum biomarkers in 20 normal-weight, normolipidemic men. Twelve men switched from their habitual diet (17% protein, 47% carbohydrate and 32% fat) to a ketogenic diet (30% protein, 8% carbohydrate and 61% fat) and eight control subjects consumed their habitual diet for 6 wk. Fasting blood lipids, insulin, LDL particle size, oxidized LDL and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin responses to a fat-rich meal were determined before and after treatment. There were significant decreases in fasting serum TAG (-33%), postprandial lipemia after a fat-rich meal (-29%), and fasting serum insulin concentrations (-34%) after men consumed the ketogenic diet. Fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL were unaffected and HDL cholesterol tended to increase with the ketogenic diet (+11.5%; P = 0.066). In subjects with a predominance of small LDL particles pattern B, there were significant increases in mean and peak LDL particle diameter and the percentage of LDL-1 after the ketogenic diet. There were no significant changes in blood lipids in the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to document the effects of a ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial CVD biomarkers independent of weight loss. The results suggest that a short-term ketogenic diet does not have a deleterious effect on CVD risk profile and may improve the lipid disorders characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  1. Increasing Serum Half-life and Extending Cholesterol Lowering in Vivo by Engineering Antibody with pH-sensitive Binding to PCSK9*

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Liang, Hong; DeVay, Rachel M.; Bai, Lanfang; Sutton, Janette E.; Chen, Wei; Geng, Tao; Lindquist, Kevin; Casas, Meritxell Galindo; Boustany, Leila M.; Brown, Colleen L.; Chabot, Jeffrey; Gomes, Bruce; Garzone, Pamela; Rossi, Andrea; Strop, Pavel; Shelton, Dave; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Target-mediated clearance and high antigen load can hamper the efficacy and dosage of many antibodies. We show for the first time that the mouse, cynomolgus, and human cross-reactive, antagonistic anti-proprotein convertase substilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) antibodies J10 and the affinity-matured and humanized J16 exhibit target-mediated clearance, resulting in dose-dependent pharmacokinetic profiles. These antibodies prevent the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptor, thus lowering serum levels of LDL-cholesterol and potently reducing serum cholesterol in mice, and selectively reduce LDL-cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys. In order to increase the pharmacokinetic and efficacy of this promising therapeutic for hypercholesterolemia, we engineered pH-sensitive binding to mouse, cynomolgus, and human PCSK9 into J16, resulting in J17. This antibody shows prolonged half-life and increased duration of cholesterol lowering in two species in vivo by binding to endogenous PCSK9 in mice and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. The proposed mechanism of this pH-sensitive antibody is that it binds with high affinity to PCSK9 in the plasma at pH 7.4, whereas the antibody-antigen complex dissociates at the endosomal pH of 5.5–6.0 in order to escape from target-mediated degradation. Additionally, this enables the antibody to bind to another PCSK9 and therefore increase the antigen-binding cycles. Furthermore, we show that this effect is dependent on the neonatal Fc receptor, which rescues the dissociated antibody in the endosome from degradation. Engineered pH-sensitive antibodies may enable less frequent or lower dosing of antibodies hampered by target-mediated clearance and high antigen load. PMID:22294692

  2. Low serum total cholesterol level is a surrogate marker, but not a risk factor, for poor outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: a report from the Korean Heart Failure Registry.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Youn, Tae-Jin; Ahn, Soyeon; Choi, Dong-Ju; Cho, Goo-Young; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Ji; Cho, Hyungjun; Han, Seongwoo; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Jae-Joong; Ryu, Kyu-Hyung; Oh, Byung-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for incident coronary artery disease and the prevalence of heart failure (HF). The causal relationship between low total cholesterol (TC) levels and poor clinical outcome in patients with acute HF has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effect of cholesterol levels on the long-term outcome in patients hospitalized due to acute HF. We analyzed a cohort of 2,797 HF patients who were eligible for analysis in 3,200 patients of the Korean Heart Failure Registry. Patients were stratified into quartiles of TC (Q1 <133, Q2 133-158, Q3 159-190, and Q4 >190 mg/dL). Propensity score matching was performed with the patients in Q1 and Q4. Patients with lower serum TC had lower blood pressure, lower hemoglobin, lower serum sodium, and higher natriuretic peptide levels than patients with higher TC levels. Low TC was associated with increased risks for death and readmission due to HF; the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of Q1 compared with Q4 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.90). However, propensity score matching analysis revealed that low cholesterol itself did not affect outcome (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.85-1.48). Low TC is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity in patients with HF. However, low TC seemed to be a secondary result of the patient's state rather than an independent risk factor for poor outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethamsylate (Dicynone) interference in determination of serum creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, and cholesterol in assays involving the Trinder reaction; in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dastych, Milan; Wiewiorka, Ondrej; Benovská, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our research was the quantification of interfering properties of the haemostatic drug Dicynone (ethamsylate) in serum creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, and triglyceride assays using the Trinder reaction. Blood from patients was collected before and 15 minutes after administration of 500 mg Dicynone dose i.v. and the above mentioned analytes were quantified using Roche assays (Cobas 8000). In our in vitro experiment, we measured concentrations of the analytes in pooled serum aliquots with final concentrations of Dicynone additions 0, 30, 60, 150, and 300 mg/L. Aliquots with 60 mg/L Dicynone were also measured at 2, 6, and 8 hours after initial measurement when stored in 22 degrees C and 4 degrees C for comparison. Concentrations of the measured analytes in samples from patients administered with a 500 mg dose of Dicynone were lower in all cases (n = 10) when compared to values in samples taken immediately before treatment. The in vitro samples showed that considerable negative interference occurred even with the low concentrations of Dicynone additions (30 and 60 mg/L), showing the strongest negative interference in creatinine values, followed by uric acid, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Using in vitro samples, we showed strong time and temperature dependence on Dicynone interference. We found and proved significant negative interference of the drug Dicynone (ethamsylate) in the clinical analysis of blood using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Furthermore, we observed a change of this effect in serum matrix over time and at different storage temperatures.

  4. Rice α-globulin decreases serum cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and ameliorates atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Li-Tao; Fujimoto, Yumiko; Shimizu, Naoki; Tsukino, Mariko; Akasaka, Taiki; Kato, Yukiko; Iwamoto, Wakako; Shiratake, Sawako; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2012-05-01

    The hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effects of rice α-globulin remain unclear. We investigated the hypocholesterolemic effect of rice α-globulin in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. The rats were divided into 4 groups and were orally administrated the following three proteins or a vehicle for 4weeks: rice protein, rice α-globulin, or soy β-conglycinin at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight or carboxymethylcellulose to the control rats. In the rice α-globulin group, serum cholesterol concentrations were 28% lower than the control group and fecal neutral steroid excretion was increased by 30%. The hypocholesterolemic effect of rice α-globulin was equal to soy β-conglycinin in SD rats fed the hypercholesterolemic diet. However, the serum cholesterol concentrations in the rice protein group did not change compared to the control group. To investigate the antiatherogenic effects of rice α-globulin, male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were orally administered the same dose of rice α-globulin for 9weeks. The en face lesion area in the aorta was 46% lower than in the control group. In conclusion, administration of rice α-globulin improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet by increasing the fecal excretion of neutral sterols, and inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The anti-atherosclerotic effect exerts by mechanism(s) other than the regulation of serum MCP-1 and NO concentrations.

  5. High-dose atorvastatin causes a rapid sustained increase in human serum PCSK9 and disrupts its correlation with LDL cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Welder, Greg; Zineh, Issam; Pacanowski, Michael A; Troutt, Jason S; Cao, Guoqing; Konrad, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. PCSK9 is secreted by the liver into the plasma and binds the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR), causing its subsequent degradation. We first demonstrated that a moderate dose of atorvastatin (40 mg) increases PCSK9 serum levels, suggesting why increasing statin doses may have diminished efficacy with regard to further LDL-C lowering. Since that initial observation, at least two other groups have reported statin-induced PCSK9 increases. To date, no analysis of the effect of high-dose atorvastatin (80 mg) on PCSK9 over time has been conducted. Therefore, we studied the time course of atorvastatin (80 mg) in human subjects. We measured PCSK9 and lipid levels during a 2-week lead-in baseline period and every 4 weeks thereafter for 16 weeks. We observed that atorvastatin (80 mg) caused a rapid 47% increase in serum PCSK9 at 4 weeks that was sustained throughout 16 weeks of dosing. Importantly, while PCSK9 levels were highly correlated with total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG) levels at baseline, atorvastatin (80 mg) completely abolished all of these correlations. Together, these results further suggest an explanation for why increasing doses of statins fail to achieve proportional LDL-C lowering.

  6. High-dose atorvastatin causes a rapid sustained increase in human serum PCSK9 and disrupts its correlation with LDL cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Welder, Greg; Zineh, Issam; Pacanowski, Michael A.; Troutt, Jason S.; Cao, Guoqing; Konrad, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. PCSK9 is secreted by the liver into the plasma and binds the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR), causing its subsequent degradation. We first demonstrated that a moderate dose of atorvastatin (40 mg) increases PCSK9 serum levels, suggesting why increasing statin doses may have diminished efficacy with regard to further LDL-C lowering. Since that initial observation, at least two other groups have reported statin-induced PCSK9 increases. To date, no analysis of the effect of high-dose atorvastatin (80 mg) on PCSK9 over time has been conducted. Therefore, we studied the time course of atorvastatin (80 mg) in human subjects. We measured PCSK9 and lipid levels during a 2-week lead-in baseline period and every 4 weeks thereafter for 16 weeks. We observed that atorvastatin (80 mg) caused a rapid 47% increase in serum PCSK9 at 4 weeks that was sustained throughout 16 weeks of dosing. Importantly, while PCSK9 levels were highly correlated with total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG) levels at baseline, atorvastatin (80 mg) completely abolished all of these correlations. Together, these results further suggest an explanation for why increasing doses of statins fail to achieve proportional LDL-C lowering. PMID:20525997

  7. Serum albumin correlates with affective prosody in adult males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Grabemann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Zimmermann, Marco; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2014-07-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum albumin, affective prosody, and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found coincidentally in a recently published study. Here, serum albumin levels were assessed as a covariate. Twenty healthy male adults (controls) and 20 adult male patients with ADHD participated in the study on two study days. Serum albumin levels and performance in an affective prosody task were assessed, and correlations were determined. Serum albumin had a significant correlation with performance on an affective prosody task on both of the 2 study days. The same correlations were not significant in the healthy control group. There was no difference in the serum albumin level between patients with ADHD and healthy controls. The association between serum albumin and affective prosody in adults with ADHD is a novel finding. However, to date, there is no clear theory that explains this association. Future research should analyze whether serum albumin influences causes changes in performance in affective prosody using experimental designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of the lipidemic profile of diabetic patients. Negative correlation of cholesterol levels of diabetes type I patients with serum amylase concentration.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriou, Phaedra; Tseka, Eros; Varaga, Evagelia; Nasiou, Margarita; Sampanis, Christos; Zografou, Ioanna; Oulorgia, Jensila; Damontsidou, Katerina; Zaimi, Terpsithea; Markou, Helen-Irene; Varsamidis, Kostantinos; Petrou, Christos; Limberaki, Eugenia; Ganou, Christina-Joulia

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type I (DM1) and II (DM2) share the common characteristic of high blood glucose concentration and the health complications resulting from uncontrolled hyperglycemia such as hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular problems, stroke, ketoacidosis, kidney failure and blindness but have different etiology. DM1 is practically an autoimmune disease. Genetic susceptibility together with environmental factors leads to disease development. The main characteristics of Diabetes type II (DM2) is insulin resistance in muscle and liver cells accompanied by loss of β-cell function. However, adipose tissue, gastro-intestinal tract, pancreatic a-cell activity, may be involved in disease development. In parallel to the impairment of endocrine pancreatic function, a reduction in exocrine function has also been observed in all types of Diabetes Mellitus. A decrease in amylase and lipase activity has been mentioned by many authors, although cases with elevated amylase have been referred. Most recently a trend for positive correlation between HDL cholesterol and amylase in Diabetes type II patients was shown. In the present study we evaluated the lipidemic profile and related factors such as cortisol, total serum antioxidant capacity (TAC) and amylase in patients suffering from diabetes type I and II. The relationship between different parameters was examined. Blood serum from 20 DM1 patients and 45 DM2 patients was used. Serum from 50 healthy individuals was used as control. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured using an enzymatic colorimetric method. Serum cortisol, auto-antibodies and anti-Neu5Gc antibodies were measured using immunoenzyme assays and TAC measurement was made using the ABTS method. Mean total cholesterol was 245.5mg/dL in Diabetes I patients and was significantly elevated compared to healthy individuals as well as Diabetes II patients (168.71±76.0mg/dL). The observed difference was statistically significant (P=0.0004). On the contrary

  9. Serum cholesterol and acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study from the GISSI-2 trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto-Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'Infarto Miocardico Investigators.

    PubMed

    Nobili, A; D'Avanzo, B; Santoro, L; Ventura, G; Todesco, P; La Vecchia, C

    1994-05-01

    To examine the role of serum cholesterol in acute myocardial infarction in a population of patients with no history of coronary heart disease and to establish the nature of this association, the degree of risk, and the possible interaction between serum cholesterol and other major risk factors for acute myocardial infarction. Case-control study. 90 hospitals in northern, central, and southern Italy. 916 consecutive cases of newly diagnosed acute myocardial infarction and 1106 hospital controls admitted to hospital with acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for coronary heart disease. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire and blood samples were taken by venepuncture as soon as possible after admission to hospital from cases and controls. Blood cholesterol concentrations were available for 614 cases and 792 controls. After adjustment by logistic regression for sex, age, education, geographical area, smoking status, body mass index, history of diabetes and hypertension, and family history of coronary heart disease the estimated relative risks of acute myocardial infarction for quintiles of serum cholesterol (from lowest to highest) were 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 3.4), 3.1 (95% CI 2.1 to 4.6), 4.1 (95% CI 2.8 to 6.0), and 5.2 (95% CI 3.5 to 7.7). The estimated relative risk across selected covariates increased from the lowest to the highest quintile of serum cholesterol particularly for men, patients under 55 years of age, and smokers. When the possible interaction of known risk factors with serum cholesterol was examined, smoking habits, diabetes, and hypertension had approximately multiplicative effects on relative risk. This study indicates that serum cholesterol was an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. This association was linear, with no threshold level. Moreover, there was a multiplicative effect between cholesterol and other major risk factors on the relative risk of acute myocardial

  10. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic.

  11. Low preoperative serum cholesterol level is associated with aggressive pathologic features and poor cancer-specific survival in patients with surgically treated renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok Joong; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Wun-Jae; Hwang, Eu Chang; Kang, Seok Ho; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Chung, Jinsoo; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kwak, Cheol; Byun, Seok-Soo; Kim, Yong-June

    2017-08-08

    The prognostic implications of preoperative serum total cholesterol (TC) level in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain poorly understood. We investigated the prognostic role of preoperative serum TC in patients with surgically treated RCC from a large, multi-institutional Korean collaboration. A database of 3064 patients with RCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy between 1999 and 2011 at eight academic centers was analyzed. Preoperative serum TC levels were measured in fasting blood samples. Low preoperative serum TC level was associated with aggressive tumor characteristics, including large tumor size, advanced stage, high nuclear grade, lymph node involvement, and sarcomatous differentiation (all P < 0.001). Low TC level was associated with poor recurrence-free or cancer-specific survival (CSS) in the entire cohort, whereas the significance of the association changed after stratification by disease stage and histologic subtype. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that preoperative TC, as a continuous or categorical variable, was an independent predictor of CSS. Preoperative low serum TC level was associated with aggressive tumor characteristics and poor CSS in patients with surgically treated RCC. Preoperative TC may provide additional guidance regarding the choice of therapeutic strategies to improve prognosis.

  12. Daily consumption of a dark chocolate containing flavanols and added sterol esters affects cardiovascular risk factors in a normotensive population with elevated cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robin R; Carson, LeaAnn; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Evans, Ellen M; Erdman, John W

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies with plant sterols (PS) and cocoa flavanols (CF) provide support for their dietary use in maintaining cardiovascular health. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study evaluated the efficacy of daily consumption of a cocoa flavanol-containing dark chocolate bar with added PS on serum lipids, blood pressure, and other circulating cardiovascular health markers in a population with elevated serum cholesterol. We recruited 49 adults (32 women, 17 men) with serum total cholesterol concentrations of 5.20-7.28 mmol/L and blood pressure of < or = 159/99 mm Hg. Following a 2-wk lead-in utilizing the AHA style diet, participants were randomized into 2 groups and instructed to consume 2 cocoa flavanol-containing dark chocolate bars per day with (1.1 g sterol esters per bar) or without PS. Each 419-kJ bar was nutrient-matched and contained approximately 180 mg CF. Participants consumed 1 bar 2 times per day for 4 wk then switched to the other bar for an additional 4 wk. Serum lipids and other cardiovascular markers were measured at baseline and after 4 and 8 wk. Blood pressure was measured every 2 wk. Regular consumption of the PS-containing chocolate bar resulted in reductions of 2.0 and 5.3% in serum total and LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05), respectively. Consumption of CF also reduced systolic blood pressure at 8 wk (-5.8 mm Hg; P < 0.05). Results indicate that regular consumption of chocolate bars containing PS and CF as part of a low-fat diet may support cardiovascular health by lowering cholesterol and improving blood pressure.

  13. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992-2007.

    PubMed

    Paalanen, Laura; Prättälä, Ritva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2012-10-26

    Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992-2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key foods influencing serum cholesterol levels

  14. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key

  15. The effects of polyoxyethylated cholesterol on fecal bile acids and nitrogen and on cholesterol balance in rats.

    PubMed

    Amorosa, L E; Martucci, C P; Stevenson, N R; Khachadurian, A K

    1991-03-01

    Polyoxyethylated cholesterol (POEC) is a water soluble derivative of cholesterol which decreases cholesterol absorption in rats without affecting body weight, fatty acid excretion, or intestinal histology. In the present study rat feces were analyzed for cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, muricholic and lithocholic acid following 3 months of feeding a standard or a 2% enriched cholesterol diet with or without 1.5% POEC. In rats maintained on the cholesterol free diet, POEC increased total bile acids (mg/day) by 50% from 14 +/- 3 to 21 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM) but only the increase in chenodeoxycholic acid was significant (P less than 0.05). The corresponding POEC effect in the 2% cholesterol diet was 31% (70 +/- 8 to 93 +/- 3, P less than 0.01). Fecal nitrogen and serum cholesterol did not vary among groups. Comparing these data with neutral steroid excretion previously determined showed that POEC in the cholesterol-free diet increased the negative cholesterol balance more than three-fold (34 +/- 7 vs 118 +/- 13 P less than 0.01). In rats fed 2% cholesterol, POEC caused a negative cholesterol balance of 222 +/- 8 compared to the control of 27 +/- 52 (P less than 0.01). The data indicate that POEC exerts complex effects in the intestinal tract which increase both bile acid and cholesterol excretion.

  16. Serum extracellular vesicle depletion processes affect release and infectivity of HIV-1 in culture.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhaohao; Muth, Dillon C; Eitan, Erez; Travers, Meghan; Learman, Lisa N; Lehrmann, Elin; Witwer, Kenneth W

    2017-05-31

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication and affect processes including immune and antiviral responses. Blood serum, a common cell culture medium component, is replete with EVs and must be depleted prior to EV-related experiments. The extent to which depletion processes deplete non-EV particles is incompletely understood, but depleted serum is associated with reduced viability and growth in cell culture. Here, we examined whether serum depleted by two methods affected HIV-1 replication. In cell lines, including HIV-1 latency models, increased HIV-1 production was observed, along with changes in cell behavior and viability. Add-back of ultracentrifuge pellets (enriched in EVs but possibly other particles) rescued baseline HIV-1 production. Primary cells were less sensitive to serum depletion processes. Virus produced under processed serum conditions was more infectious. Finally, changes in cellular metabolism, surface markers, and gene expression, but not miRNA profiles, were associated with depleted serum culture. In conclusion, depleted serum conditions have a substantial effect on HIV-1 production and infectivity. Dependence of cell cultures on "whole serum" must be examined carefully along with other experimental variables, keeping in mind that the effects of EVs may be accompanied by or confused with those of closely associated or physically similar particles.

  17. Dietary Tuna Dark Muscle Protein Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis and Increases Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obese Type-2 Diabetic/Obese KK-A(y) Mice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hayato; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukuda, Mari; Ikeda, Yuki; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2017-05-01

    Tuna muscle consists of light and dark muscle in approximately equal proportions. However, besides for the light muscle of tuna, cod, sardine, and salmon, few researches have assessed the health-promoting functions of fish protein. Therefore, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying the alteration of lipid storage and cholesterol metabolism following the intake of tuna dark muscle protein (TDMP) by obese type-2 diabetic/obese mice. Four-week-old male KK-A(y) mice were separated into 2 dietary groups, with one group receiving a casein-based diet and the other receiving a diet with the substitution of part of the protein (50%, w/w) by TDMP (TDMP diet) for 4 wk. The TDMP diet significantly increased the content of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, partly due to the reduction of the expression of scavenger receptor class B member 1 in epididymal white adipose tissue. In addition, dietary TDMP decreased the content of hepatic triacylglycerol, which could be due to the enhancement of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 activity through the activation of the expression of the peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-α in the liver. These results suggest that TDMP could have the potential to prevent the development of obesity-related diseases by suppressing the storage of hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Polysorbates as novel lipid-modulating candidates for reducing serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaorong; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Yuhang; Ho, Yeung; Yang, Dongxu; Chen, Yi; Hu, Xiaomin; Xue, Ming

    2011-06-25

    Polysorbates are amphiphilic, non-ionic surfactants composed of fatty acid esters of polyoxyethylene sorbitan which are widely used in the cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries owing to these special characteristics and their low toxicity profiles. In the present study, polysorbates were investigated for their hypolipidemic activity. C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet for four weeks, then were divided into several groups, normal saline, polysorbates and positive control drugs such as lovastatin and colestyramine were administered orally to the animals for another four weeks. Complete lipid profiles of the experimental animals were determined by assessing the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results indicate that polysorbates significantly lowered the lipid components. Polysorbates are potential candidates for preventing intestinal absorption of redundant lipid from daily intake and subsequently for preventing hyperlipidemia as well as atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-sectional relationships between dietary fat intake and serum cholesterol fatty acids in a Swedish cohort of 60-year-old men and women.

    PubMed

    Laguzzi, F; Alsharari, Z; Risérus, U; Vikström, M; Sjögren, P; Gigante, B; Hellénius, M-L; Cederholm, T; Bottai, M; de Faire, U; Leander, K

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to describe the relationship between self-reported dietary intake and serum cholesterol fatty acids (FAs) in a Swedish population of 60-year-old men and women. Cross-sectional data collected in 1997-1998 from 4232 individuals residing in Stockholm County were used. Five diet scores were created to reflect the intake of saturated fats in general, as well as fats from dairy, fish, processed meat and vegetable oils and margarines. Gas chromatography was used to assess 13 FAs in serum cholesterol esters. The association between each diet score and specific FAs was assessed by percentile differences (PD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile of each FA across levels of diet scores using quantile regression. Fish intake was associated with high proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). For each point increase in fish score, the 50th PD in EPA and DHA was 32.78% (95% CI = 29.22% to 36.35%) and 10.63% (95% CI = 9.52% to 11.74%), respectively. Vegetable fat intake was associated with a high proportion of linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a low proportion of total saturated fatty acids (SFA). The intake of saturated fats in general and dairy fat was slightly associated with specific SFA, although the intake of fat from meat was not. In the present study population, using a rather simple dietary assessment method, the intake of fish and vegetable fats was clearly associated with serum PUFA, whereas foods rich in saturated fats in general showed a weak relationship with serum SFA. Our results may contribute to increased knowledge about underlying biology in diet-cardiovascular disease associations. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Serum Cholesterol Levels within the High Normal Range are Associated with Better Cognitive Performance among Chinese Elderly

    PubMed Central

    LV, Yue-Bin; YIN, Zhao-Xue; CHEI, Choy-Lye; Brasher, Melanie Sereny; ZHANG, Juan; Kraus, Virginia Byers; QIAN, Frank; SHI, Xiao-Ming; Matchar, David Bruce; ZENG, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The association between cognitive function and cholesterol levels is poorly understood and inconsistent results exist among the elderly. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of cholesterol level with cognitive performance among Chinese elderly. Design A cross-sectional study was implemented in 2012 and data were analyzed using generalized additive models, linear regression models and logistic regression models. Setting Community-based setting in eight longevity areas in China. Subjects A total of 2000 elderly aged 65 years and over (mean 85.8±12.0 years) participated in this study. Measurements Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration were determined and cognitive impairment was defined as Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score≤23. Results There was a significant positive linear association between TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C and MMSE score in linear regression models. Each 1 mmol/L increase in TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C corresponded to a decreased risk of cognitive impairment in logistic regression models. Compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of TC, LDL-C and HDL-C had a lower risk of cognitive impairment. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% CI were 0.73(0.62–0.84) for TC, 0.81(0.70–0.94) for LDL-C and 0.81(0.70–0.94) for HDL-C. There was no gender difference in the protective effects of high TC and LDL-C levels on cognitive impairment. However, for high HDL-C levels the effect was only observed in women. High TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels were associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment in the oldest old (aged 80 and older), but not in the younger elderly (aged 65 to 79 years). Conclusions These findings suggest that cholesterol levels within the high normal range are associated with better cognitive performance in Chinese elderly, specifically in the oldest old. With further validation, low

  1. A meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Adam M; Ding, Eric L; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    Certain algae contain the (n-3) fatty acid DHA, yet the relation between algal oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been systematically examined. Our objective was to examine the relation between algal oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials published between 1996 and 2011 examining the relation between algal oil supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk factors and performed a meta-analysis of the association between algal oil DHA supplementation and changes in the concentrations of TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). We identified 11 randomized controlled trials with 485 healthy participants that evaluated the relation between algal oil DHA supplementation and TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. The median dose of algal DHA was 1.68 g/d. The pooled estimate for the change in TG concentration was -0.20 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.27 to -0.14), 0.23 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.16-0.30) for LDL-C, and 0.07 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05-0.10) for HDL-C. DHA supplementation from algal oil, a marine source of (n-3) fatty acids not extracted from fish, may reduce serum TG and increase HDL-C and LDL-C in persons without coronary heart disease.

  2. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  3. [Effect of a 10-day animal fat-free diet on cholesterol and glucose serum levels, blood pressure and body weight in 50-year-old volunteers].

    PubMed

    Slavícek, J; Kittnar, O; Dohnalová, A; Trojan, S; Novák, V; Tichý, J A; Trefný, Z M

    2001-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in developed countries including Czech Republic. The lifestyle decreases it in 50%. The aim of this work was to ascertain if the short lasting stay without stress and with vegetarian diet (without eggs) and physical activity is able to decrease the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In 106 volunteers, mean age 49.1 (+/- 14.1) years, 83 women and 23 men, the body weight, blood pressure, serum cholesterol and blood glucose (Accutrend GC, Boehringer, Mannheim, BRD) have been measured before and after the stay at the same conditions. Eighty persons were healthy, seven persons with essential hypertension, eight persons with ischemic heart disease, four persons with diabetes mellitus and seven persons with other than cardiovascular diseases. In some persons the lipid spectrum was measured. Cholesterol decreased in blood serum from 4.9 to 4.3 mmol/l (11%--p < 0.01), blood glucose decreased from 4.2 to 3.3 mmol/l (p < 0.05), blood pressure systolic from 121.5 to 117.4 mm Hg (p < 0.01) and diastolic from 76.5 to 73.8 mm Hg (p < 0.05), body weight was not significantly changed. Our results showed, that 10-days lasting stay containing vegetarian diet and physical activity decreased the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in 50 years-old volunteers.

  4. Effect of high beta-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men--a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Chikako; Kihara, Makoto; Aoe, Seiichiro; Araki, Shigeki; Ito, Kazutoshi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Watari, Junji; Sakata, Yukikuni; Ikegami, Sachie

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated whether the consumption of a diet in which high-beta-glucan barley replaced rice would reduce the visceral fat area as well as the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemic Japanese men. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 44 hypercholesterolemic Japanese men with a body mass index (BMI) >22 kg/m2. The subjects were randomly assigned to groups consuming either rice (placebo group) or a mixture of rice and pearl barley with a high beta-glucan content (test group, 7.0 g beta-glucan per day) for 12 weeks. Blood samples were taken, and CT scan obtained before the trial and every four weeks during the trial. The pearl barley intake significantly reduced serum concentrations of LDL-C (P = 0.041) and TC (P = 0.037) during the trial. Significant differences between the test and placebo groups were found for the visceral fat (P = 0.039), BMI (P = 0.015), and waist circumference (P = 0.011) at the end point. The consumption of pearl barley with a high beta-glucan content reduces not only LDL-C but also visceral fat area.

  5. Effect of an RNA interference drug on the synthesis of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and the concentration of serum LDL cholesterol in healthy volunteers: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin; Frank-Kamenetsky, Maria; Shulga-Morskaya, Svetlana; Liebow, Abigail; Bettencourt, Brian R; Sutherland, Jessica E; Hutabarat, Renta M; Clausen, Valerie A; Karsten, Verena; Cehelsky, Jeffrey; Nochur, Saraswathy V; Kotelianski, Victor; Horton, Jay; Mant, Timothy; Chiesa, Joseph; Ritter, James; Munisamy, Malathy; Vaishnaw, Akshay K; Gollob, Jared A; Simon, Amy

    2014-01-04

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to LDL receptors, leading to their degradation. Genetics studies have shown that loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 result in reduced plasma LDL cholesterol and decreased risk of coronary heart disease. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of ALN-PCS, a small interfering RNA that inhibits PCSK9 synthesis, in healthy volunteers with raised cholesterol who were not on lipid-lowering treatment. We did a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 dose-escalation study in healthy adult volunteers with serum LDL cholesterol of 3·00 mmol/L or higher. Participants were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio by computer algorithm to receive one dose of intravenous ALN-PCS (with doses ranging from 0·015 to 0·400 mg/kg) or placebo. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability of ALN-PCS. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ALN-PCS and its pharmacodynamic effects on PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol. Study participants were masked to treatment assignment. Analysis was per protocol and we used ANCOVA to analyse pharmacodynamic endpoint data. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01437059. Of 32 participants, 24 were randomly allocated to receive a single dose of ALN-PCS (0·015 mg/kg [n=3], 0·045 mg/kg [n=3], 0·090 mg/kg [n=3], 0·150 mg/kg [n=3], 0·250 mg/kg [n=6], or 0·400 mg/kg [n=6]) and eight to placebo. The proportions of patients affected by treatment-emergent adverse events were similar in the ALN-PCS and placebo groups (19 [79%] vs seven [88%]). ALN-PCS was rapidly distributed, with peak concentration and area under the curve (0 to last measurement) increasing in a roughly dose-proportional way across the dose range tested. In the group given 0·400 mg/kg of ALN-PCS, treatment resulted in a mean 70% reduction in circulating PCSK9 plasma protein (p<0·0001) and a mean 40% reduction in LDL cholesterol from baseline relative to placebo (p<0

  6. Trend in prevalence of uncontrolled total serum cholesterol for cardio-cerebro-vascular disease in a mediterranean area, 1988/89-2008/09.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto; Borrelli, Maria Immacolata; Capuano, Rocco; Notari, Elisabetta; Iannone, Anna Grazia; Marchese, Federica; Sonderegger, Matteo; Capuano, Eduardo

    2013-11-26

    To examine trends of uncontrolled total serum cholesterol, treatment and control in a Mediterranean region (Campania). We considered and compared the data collected as part of "Montecorvino Rovella Project" 1988-1989 and cross-sectional data from the two phases of the "VIP Project-Valle dell'Irno Prevenzione": 1998-1999 (1(st) phase) and 2008-2009 (2(nd) phase), in the 35-74-year-old-population. Data show a reduction of mean cholesterolemia in the last twenty years of 7.3 mg/dL for men and unchanged values for women. In the three surveys the mean values for serum cholesterol are in men: 205.2 ± 47.1 mg/dL (1988/89), 200 ± 38.9 mg/dL (1998/99) and 197.9 ± 40.2 mg/dL (2008/09); in the women: 203.1 ± 42.5 mg/dL (1988/89), 198.9 ± 37.9 mg/dL (1998/99) and 203.3 ± 39.3 mg/dL (2008/09). Prevalence of uncontrolled high cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL for men decreased from 20.8% (1988/89) to 14.3% (1998/99) and 13.9% (2008/9), P = 0.002; for women the values decreased from 19.9% (1988/89), to 18.2% (1998/99) and 18.1% (2008/09), P = 0.007. Is statistically increased the number of patients treated and those treated to target. Encouraging increases in awareness, treatment, and control of hypercholesterolemia occurred from 1988 through 2008. Nevertheless, control of hypercholesterolemia remains poor.

  7. Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2011-12-20

    The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

  8. About Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 Whether you’ve just ... Quiz This content was last reviewed April 2017. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  9. What's Cholesterol?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  10. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  11. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and a mean ± SE decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 2.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg (P < 0.002) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis of trials in hypertensive subjects (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg) at baseline revealed a larger significant reduction in SBP of 8.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 10) and in DBP of 6.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 6). A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol

  12. Genetic parameters of serum vitamin A and total cholesterol concentrations and the genetic relationships with carcass traits in an F1 cross between Japanese Black sires and Holstein dams.

    PubMed

    Kato, Y; Ito, M; Hirooka, H

    2011-04-01

    Blood sample and carcass trait data were collected from 841 and 3,219 fattening animals of an F(1) cross between Japanese Black sires and Holstein dams, respectively. Data on serum vitamin A and total cholesterol concentrations containing 582 to 739 records at 4 stages of beef-fattening production were used to estimate variance components and heritabilities for the 2 traits, based on fattening periods: less than 13 mo of age (stage 1), 14 to 18 mo of age (stage 2), 19 to 21 mo of age (stage 3), and greater than 22 mo of age (stage 4). Furthermore, the genetic correlations of serum vitamin A and total cholesterol concentrations with beef marbling standards, carcass weight, ribeye area, rib thickness, and subcutaneous fat thickness were estimated. The heritability estimates of serum vitamin A concentration were consistently and drastically decreased from 0.37 ± 0.15 to 0.07 ± 0.07 from stages 1 to 4 because of considerable decreases in sire variances, whereas the residual variances remained large and stable throughout all 4 stages. Serum total cholesterol concentration was moderately heritable (approximately 0.35 to 0.64) throughout all 4 stages. The genetic correlations among serum vitamin A concentrations and beef marbling standards were high and negative (-0.94) in stage 4. The genetic correlations between serum vitamin A concentration and carcass weight in stages 3 and 4 were moderate and positive (approximately 0.26 to 0.36). Moderate to high positive genetic correlations between serum vitamin A concentration and subcutaneous fat thickness were obtained throughout the stages (approximately 0.40 to 0.75). Genetic correlations of serum total cholesterol concentration with carcass weight and rib thickness were moderate and positive (approximately 0.29 to 0.46) in stages 2, 3, and 4. These results indicate serum vitamin A and total cholesterol concentrations could be effective physiological indicators for improving carcass traits.

  13. Vitamin C may have similar beneficial effects to Gemfibrozil on serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Amini, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-T2) is commonly associated with increased triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Fibrates like gemfibrozil are frequently used in diabetic patients to decrease TG and increase HDL-C levels. We compared the efficacy of Vitamin C, an antioxidant vitamin, with gemfibrozil on serum HDL-C in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetic patients, referred to our out-patient clinic were randomly divided into three groups. After 1 month of lifestyle and diet modifications, groups A, B, and C were prescribed 1000 mg Vitamin C, 600 mg gemfibrozil and combination of both, respectively. Before the study initiation and after 6(th) week of drug prescription, the blood samples were taken and analyzed for total cholesterol (Total-C), HDL-C, TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Sixty-seven patients entered, and 50 patients (18 male, 32 female) finished the study. Overall, serum HDL-C increased significantly from 39.8 to 45.2 mg/dL in the participants (P = 0.001). HDL-C increased 6.3, 4.4 and 5.0 mg/dL in groups A, B and C, respectively (related significances were 0.017, 0.022 and 0.033, respectively). Significant decrease of serum TG and Total-C occurred in gemfibrozil and combination groups, but not in Vitamin C group. Changes in serum HDL-C between three groups were not significant (P = 0.963). We found a significant decrease in TG and Total-C in the groups B and C (P < 0.05), but no significant changes of TG, Total-C, LDL-C, FBS and HbA1c in group A (P > 0.05). The results demonstrated that Vitamin C may have beneficial effects on HDL-C in diabetic patients without significant effects on plasma glucose or other lipid parameters; however, its role for the treatment of low HDL-C patients should be evaluated in larger studies.

  14. Cholesterol affects the interaction between an ionic liquid and phospholipid vesicles. A study by differential scanning calorimetry and nanoplasmonic sensing.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giacomo; Witos, Joanna; Rantamäki, Antti H; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2017-09-11

    The present work aims at studying the interactions between cholesterol-rich phosphatidylcholine-based lipid vesicles and trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate ([P8881][OAc]), a biomass dissolving ionic liquid (IL). The effect of cholesterol was assayed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nanoplasmonic sensing (NPS) measurement techniques. Cholesterol-enriched dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles were exposed to different concentrations of the IL, and the derived membrane perturbation was monitored by DSC. The calorimetric data could suggest that the binding and infiltration of the IL are delayed in the vesicles containing cholesterol. To clarify our findings, NPS was applied to quantitatively follow the resistance of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine incorporating 0, 10, and 50mol% of cholesterol toward the IL exposure over time. The membrane perturbation induced by different concentrations of IL was found to be a concentration dependent process on cholesterol-free lipid vesicles. Moreover, our results showed that lipid depletion in cholesterol-enriched lipid vesicles is inversely proportional to the increasing amount of cholesterol in the vesicles. These findings support that cholesterol-rich lipid bilayers are less susceptible toward membrane disrupting agents as compared to membranes that do not incorporate any sterols. This probably occurs because cholesterol tightens the phospholipid acyl chain packing of the plasma membranes, increasing their resistance and reducing their permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increa