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Sample records for affect serum lipids

  1. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet.

  2. Dietary fiber-rich colloids from apple pomace extraction juices do not affect food intake and blood serum lipid levels, but enhance fecal excretion of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymatic liquefaction on food intake, levels of blood serum lipids, and fecal excretion of bile acids (BA) and neutral sterols (NS) in vivo. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets containing either no apple dietary fiber (DF) (control), a 5% supplementation with juice colloids, or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Apple DF in diets led to lower weight gain in rats fed with B-juice colloids (P< 0.05). For these rats, food intake was not affected but was highest with feeding AIS (10% more than control) to cover energy requirements. The supplementation of diet with apple DF from extraction juices or AIS had minor effects on blood serum lipids. In rats fed either juice colloids or AIS, up to 30% (5.31 micromol/g dry weight) and 88% (7.69 micromol/g dry weight) more primary BA were excreted in feces, respectively, as compared to that in the control group (4.10 micromol/g dry weight) (P < 0.05). In cecal contents, a 15% (juice colloids) to 37% (AIS) increase in primary BA was found. In contrast, concentrations of secondary BA were lower in feces of test groups (P < 0.05). Excretion of total BA and NS was higher in rats fed apple DF (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to prove that there are beneficial physiologic effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymatic liquefaction. These results may help to develop such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin for diminishing the lack of DF intake.

  3. Lipid Removal from Human Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arnold R.; Morrill, William E.; Pope, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of lipid removal from human serum samples obtained by using Cleanascite HC, a commercially available product, was compared to that obtained by the standard chloroform method. Separate samples of 21 frozen, banked human serum samples used in the preparation of samples for proficiency testing were treated with either Cleanascite HC or chloroform. The lipid content was measured before and after treatment. The total percentages of lipid removed ranged from 61 to 70% with Cleanascite HC and from 60 to 62% with chloroform. The advantage of Cleanascite HC over chloroform is based on the simplicity of the procedure with Cleanascite HC without the environmental concerns inherent in the use of chloroform. In 15 serum samples known to contain antibodies to treponemal and nontreponemal syphilis antigens, Cleanascite HC bound some immunoglobulin, but with only minimal loss of reactivity in the serologic tests for syphilis. Cleanascite HC is therefore an acceptable alternative to chloroform for lipid reduction in human serum samples. PMID:10702492

  4. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  5. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  6. Lipid composition of human serum lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Skipski, V. P.; Barclay, Marion; Barclay, R. K.; Fetzer, Valentina A.; Good, J. J.; Archibald, F. M.

    1967-01-01

    1. The lipid compositions of the low-density lipoproteins, the high-density lipoproteins and the ultracentrifugal residue of human serum are presented, with emphasis on certain lipoprotein classes and lipid components not previously described. 2. Except for the lipoproteins with the lowest and highest densities, there is a trend for stepwise successive increase or, respectively, decrease in the relative amounts of the main constituents of lipoproteins. 3. High-density lipoprotein-2 and high-density lipoprotein-3 have different amounts of certain lipids; high-density lipoprotein-2 has relatively more free cholesterol and sphingomyelin; high-density lipoprotein-3 has more free fatty acids, diglycerides and ceramide monohexosides. 4. All the lipoproteins contain hydrocarbons of the alkane series. The greatest amount, which averages 4·4% of total lipid extracted, is in the ultracentrifugal residue; n-alkanes comprise 18–50% of the hydrocarbons. 5. All the lipoproteins contain ceramide monohexosides. The highest relative contents of these glycolipids are in high-density lipoprotein-3 and in the ultracentrifugal residue. 6. The ultracentrifugal residue contains 55% of the total quantity of free fatty acids present in serum. The remaining free fatty acids are distributed among the other lipoprotein classes. 7. The choline-containing phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) comprise about 90% of the phospholipids in all the lipoprotein classes except the low-density lipoprotein-2, which contains about 80% of these phospholipids. 8. The presence of a large amount of lysophosphatidylcholine in the ultracentrifugal residue and the successive decrease of sphingomyelin from the low-density lipoprotein-1 to the ultracentrifugal residue was confirmed. 9. The low-density lipoprotein-2 and the ultracentrifugal residue are characterized by relatively high contents of the lower glycerides. PMID:6048776

  7. Effects of Ferulago angulata Extract on Serum Lipids and Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Gharipour, Mojgan; Darvishzadeh-Boroujeni, Pariya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nowadays, herbs they are considered to be the main source of effective drugs for lowering serum lipids and lipid peroxidation. The present experimental animal study aimed to assess the impact of Ferulago angulata on serum lipid profiles, and on levels of lipid peroxidation. Methods. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 250–300 g, were randomly divided into five equal groups (ten rats in each). The rat groups received different diets as follows: Group I: fat-rich diet; Group II: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 400 mg/kg; Group III: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 600 mg/kg; Group IV: fat-rich diet plus atorvastatin; Group V: common stock diet. The levels of serum glucose and lipids and the atherogenic index were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), thiol oxidation, carbonyl concentrations, C-reactive proteins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in each group of rats. Results. Interestingly, by adding a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata to the high-fat diet, the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the high-fat diet rats were both significantly reduced. This result was considerably greater compared to when atorvastatin was added as an antilipid drug. The beneficial effects of the Ferulago angulata extract on lowering the level of triglycerides was observed only when a high dosage of this plant extraction was added to a high fat diet. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde, was significantly affected by the use of the plant extract in a high-fat diet, compared with a normal regimen or high-fat diet alone. Conclusion. Administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata can reduce serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. It can also inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:24707310

  8. Analysis of polar lipids in the serum from rats fed shiitake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shanggong; Peng, Min; Ronis, Martin; Badger, Thomas; Fang, Nianbai

    2010-12-22

    Consumption of a shiitake mushroom diet has been reported to have effects on serum phospholipids. However, much less is known about the effect on serum polar lipids including lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. In the present study, the effects of a shiitake diet were evaluated on the basis of identification and quantification of individual polar lipid components in rat serum using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. By comparison with standards and published data, 50 lysophospholipids and 32 free fatty acids were identified, and the concentrations of 27 polar lipids in rat serum were determined. Shiitake diets decreased the levels of all individual polar lipid components in the serum of male rat. The total level of serum polar lipids in males fed 4% shiitake diets (1365.71 mol/L) was significantly lower than that of the control (2270.26 mol/L). However, shiitake diets did not significantly affect the levels of serum polar lipids in female rats.

  9. Lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, dietary intake, and drug use of older rural Iowa women.

    PubMed

    Witte-Foster, S R; Garcia, P A; Dove, C R

    1991-06-01

    Serum lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, and serum proteins were investigated in 65 noninstitutionalized older women living in a rural community. All women were mentally and physically able to participate in the study. They did not have any overt disease nor were they taking any prescription or nonprescription drugs that would interfere with the study. Personal interview elicited medical history, drug usage, dietary information, height, and weight from 25 reference women (50 through 64 years old), 28 young-old women (65 through 84 years old), and 12 old-old women (85 through 92 years old). Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants and analyzed for total serum cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), serum albumin, and total serum protein. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by age, drug use, or age-by-drug use interaction. Effects of age were observed for IgA and serum albumin. Mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, serum albumin, and total serum proteins were within normal limits for all participants. Based on this small sample of rural older women, our results indicate that the normal levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the healthy life-styles of these women may help offset any possible negative effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentrations.

  10. Effects of serum, its protein and lipid extracts, and commercial serum proteins and lipid on the isolated frog heart.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Hutton, T; Hussain, M; Waring, J J

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the inotropic effects of serum, its protein and lipid extracts, and commercial serum proteins and lipid on the isolated, spontaneously-beating heart and superfused, hypodynamic ventricle of the frog. Serum taken from either man, horse, calf, frog, or rabbit evoked marked positive inotropic responses which were unaffected by cholinergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptor antagonists. Dialysed serum (dialisand) and void volume fractions from Sephadex G200-120 columns corresponding to large molecular weight constituents evoked marked positive inotropic responses. When serum was separated into fractions containing either proteins or lipids/lipoproteins by high-density ultracentrifugation or activated charcoal, both extracts evoked marked positive inotropic responses. Commercial serum globulins and serum containing a high proportion of immunoglobulins elicited large increases in contractile force, whereas serum albumin evoked a negative inotropic effect. Serum which was either boiled and/or treated with chymotrypsin to denature proteins also caused a marked increase in isometric twitch tension in the frog heart. Similar inotropic response was obtained with fractions of boiled serum eluted on columns of Sephadex G200-120. These fractions corresponded to molecular weight in the region of 60-70 kDa. However, the inotropic effect of boiled serum was abolished following pretreatment with lipase. Superfusion of frog hearts with commercial cardiolipin resulted in marked dose-dependent increases in contractile force. The results demonstrate the presence of at least two large molecular weight cardioactive principles in serum. These substances are comparable in size to constituents of serum proteins (e.g., globulins and immunoglobulins) and serum lipids/lipoproteins (e.g., cardiolipin) and may serve as physiological regulators of cardiac function.

  11. Retroviral vector production under serum deprivation: The role of lipids.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A F; Carmo, M; Alves, P M; Coroadinha, A S

    2009-12-15

    The use of retroviral vectors for gene therapy applications demands high titer preparations and stringent quality standards. However, the manufacturing of these vectors still represents a highly challenging task due to the low productivity of the cell lines and reduced stability of the vector infectivity, particularly under serum-free conditions. With the objective of understanding the major limitations of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation, a thorough study of viral production kinetics, vector characterization and cell growth and metabolic behavior was conducted, for 293 FLEX 18 and Te Fly Ga 18 producer cell lines using different serum concentrations. The reduction of serum supplementation in the culture medium resulted in pronounced decreases in cell productivity of infectious vector, up to ninefold in 293 FLEX 18 cells and sevenfold in Te Fly Ga 18 cells. Total particles productivity was maintained, as assessed by measuring viral RNA; therefore, the decrease in infectious vector production could be attributed to higher defective particles output. The absence of the serum lipid fraction was found to be the major cause for this decrease in cell viral productivity. The use of delipidated serum confirmed the requirement of serum lipids, particularly cholesterol, as its supplementation not only allowed the total recovery of viral titers as well as additional production increments in both cell lines when comparing with the standard 10% (v/v) FBS supplementation. This work identified lower production ratios of infectious particles/total particles as the main restraint of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation; this is of the utmost importance concerning the clinical efficacy of the viral preparations. Lipids were confirmed as the key serum component correlated with the production of infective retroviral vectors and this knowledge can be used to efficiently design medium supplementation strategies for serum-free production. Biotechnol

  12. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  13. [Serum lipid spectrum in patients with obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V K; Mokhov, E M; Mosiagin, A V

    2007-11-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the serum lipid profile in patients with obstructive jaundice (OJ) of various genesis versus those with chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB). The serum lipid profile was studied in 50 patients with OJ whose cause was cancer diseases and calculous cholecystitis in 20 and 30 patients, respectively. Thirty patients with CVHB were examined as a control group. In patients with OJ, the relative serum content of phospholipids was found to be twice less than that in patients with CVHB. In patients with OJ, hyperlipemia was mainly caused by free cholesterol or cholesterol esters. As compared with the patients with calculous cholecystitis and CVHB, the patients with cancer diseases had low sphingomyelin levels; this fact may be used as an additional measure in detecting OJ of cancer genesis.

  14. Impact of Phytoestrogens on Serum Lipids in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Terzic, M.; Micic, J.; Dotlic, J.; Maricic, S.; Mihailovic, T.; Knezevic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of soy- and red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women and to compare the effects to the lipid levels of healthy postmenopausal women without phytoestrogen supplementation. Materials and Methods: Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were assessed. Measurements were performed before treatment and at 6-month intervals over a period of 18 months. The investigation included 74 healthy postmenopausal women randomized into three groups according to treatment. The first group of 23 patients received soy-derived isoflavones, the second group (26 patients) was given red clover-derived phytoestrogens, while the third control group (25 patients) received no supplements. Results: Mean triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL levels of patients in the control group were significantly higher than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001) at all three time points, while mean values did not differ significantly between the soy and the red clover groups. The mean HDL levels of patients in the control group was significantly lower than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Phytoestrogen supplementation had a positive metabolic effect on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women. The impact on serum lipids levels was similar for soy and red clover. PMID:25284841

  15. The role of developing breast cancer in alteration of serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Kamal Eldin A.; Hassan, Ikhlas K.; Sadig, Isam A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The major aim of this study is to examine the role of alterations in lipid profile in women developing breast cancer. This study was carried out between May 2009 and December 2010. Background: The relationship between lipids and breast cancer is undistinguished. Until now, conflicting results have been reported on the association between lipids and risk of breast cancer development in women. Materials and Methods: Plasma lipids (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides [TG] were analyzed from 60 controls and 120 untreated breast cancer patients with clinical and histopathological evidence, under aseptic conditions. Venous blood was drawn from the cases and controls and estimations of lipid profile were done utilizing the standard procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent sample t-test to compare the mean serum levels of lipid profile and TC/HDL ratio between patients and controls. Results: A significant rise in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol values, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected significantly by the breast cancer. Conclusions: The developing breast cancer might be considered as one of the factors in alterations in lipid profile levels. PMID:23626635

  16. [The microanalysis of serum lipoprotein lipids (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leiss, O; Murawski, U; Egge, H

    1979-10-01

    A method is described which allows the determination of phospholipids, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids in lipoprotein fractions starting from 50 microliter of serum. Lipoproteins were separated by successive precipitation: VLDL with Heparin/Mg++, LDL with Dextran sulfate/Mg++ and finally HDL with Dextran sulfate/Mn++. Lipids extracted from the precipitated lipoproteins were determined gravimetrically and by densitometry after thin layer chromatography and charring (van Gent, C.M. (1968), Z. Anal. Chem. 236, 344--350; Egge, H. et al. (1970) Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 8, 488--491). The results obtained from the serum of 12 adult healthy persons were compared with those from lipoprotein fractions separated by preparative ultracentrifugation (Havel, R. J. et al. (1955) J. Clin. Invest. 34, 1345--1353). The distribution of lipids in beta-lipoproteins (d less than 1.063 g/ml) and HDL (1.063 less than d less than 1.21 g/ml) prepared by both methods showed good agreement. Some differences were observed between VLDL (d less than 1.006 g/ml) and VHDL (d greater than 1.21 g/ml) prepared either by precipitation or ultracentrifugation. Compared to the total lipid of the sera, recovery rates were 95--105%. Variation coefficients were in the range of 15--20% for VLDL lipids, 5--10% for LDL and HDL lipids and 10--15% for VHDL lipids. Gravimetrically determined total lipids had a variation coefficient of 4 and 6% for LDL and HDL respectively.

  17. LC/MS lipid profiling from human serum: a new method for global lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Di Veroli, Alessandra; Valeri, Aurora; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have improved the sensitivity and selectivity of LC/MS analyzers, providing very efficient tools for lipidomics research. In particular, the nine lipid classes that constitute 99 % of the human serum lipidome (sterols, cholesteryl esters, phosphocholines, phosphoethanolamines, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, lysophosphocholines, and diacylglycerols) can be easily detected. However, until today there has not been a unique technique for sample preparation that provides a satisfactory recovery for all of these nine classes together. In this work, we have developed and validated a new one-phase extraction (OPE) method that overcomes this limitation. This method was also compared with the gold standard lipid extraction methods such as Folch, Bligh & Dyer, and recently developed methods with methanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether. Results demonstrate that the mixture of methanol/chloroform/MTBE (MMC) provides a recovery very close to 100 % for all nine lipid classes of the human serum investigated. For this extraction method, 100 μL of human serum is incubated with 2 mL of the solvents mixture, then vortexed and centrifuged. For its simplicity of execution, rapidity, reproducibility, and the reduced volume of sample required, this method opens the door to the use of human serum lipid profiling for large-scale applications in scientific research and clinical trials.

  18. Effects of porcine hemoglobin on serum lipid content and fecal lipid excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary hemoglobin on serum and liver lipid contents in rats, and the ability of hemoglobin hydrolysates to disrupt lipid absorption. After rats had been fed on casein- or porcine hemoglobin-containing diets for 4 weeks, their serum and liver lipid contents and fecal cholesterol, bile acid, and nitrogen excretion were measured. To elucidate the mechanism of lipid absorption by dietary hemoglobin, we also examined lipase activity, micellar solubility of cholesterol, and bile acid binding activity in the presence of hemoglobin hydrolysates. Dietary hemoglobin decreased serum and liver triglyceride and cholesterol contents and increased fecal fatty acid, cholesterol, and bile acid excretion. In addition, hemoglobin hydrolysates inhibited lipase activity compared with casein hydrolysates in an in vitro study. These results suggested that the hypolipidemic effect of hemoglobin is mediated by increased fecal lipid excretion, and that decreased lipase activity by hemoglobin is at least partially responsible for this result. The observed effects were documented with an 8 g/kg hemoglobin diet, which is lower than in other studies; therefore. hemoglobin may be useful in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  19. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  20. Effect of dietary alternative lipid sources on haematological parameters and serum constituents of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Babalola, T O O; Adebayo, M A; Apata, D F; Omotosho, J S

    2009-03-01

    The worldwide increase in aquaculture production and the decrease of wild fish stocks has made the replacement of fish oil (FO) in aquafeed industry a priority. Therefore, the use of terrestrial animal fats and vegetable oils, which has lower cost and larger supplies, may be good as substitute for FO. This study investigate the effects of total replacement of FO by two terrestrial animal fats (pork lard and poultry fat) and three vegetable oils (palm kernel oil, sheabutter oil and sunflower oil) on haematological and serum biochemical profile of Heterobranchus longifilis over 70 days. FO-diet was used as the control. The haematological parameters were significantly affected by dietary lipid sources. Serum total protein was not influenced by the dietary lipids. However, serum cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed diet containing sunflower oil. Glucose and activities of liver enzymes in blood serum were significantly reduced in fish fed alternative lipids when compared with the control. These results indicate that FO can be replaced completely with alternative lipids without any serious negative health impacts.

  1. Analysis of the Serum Lipid Profile in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miaoling; Zhang, Xiongze; Liao, Nanying; Ye, Baikang; Peng, Yuting; Ji, Yuying; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the predominant subtype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the Asian population, is associated with genetic polymorphism of lipid metabolism. In this study, we performed the untargeted lipidomics approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to reveal the potential discriminating lipid profile of PCV patients in serum (21 PCV patients and 19 age-matched controls). Unsupervised principal component, supervised orthogonal partial least squares analysis, correlation analysis, and heatmap analysis were performed with the data obtained by UPLC-MS. Forty–one discriminating metabolites were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, pathway analysis and functional analysis were performed subsequently, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) was further selected as the key indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. Finally, the serum level of PAF was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which is significantly higher in PCV patients compared to controls (65 PCV patients and 63 age-matched controls, p < 0.0001), consistent with the UPLC-MS analysis. Our results suggested that PAF is considered as the major indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. PMID:27910906

  2. Quercetin Induces Hepatic Lipid Omega-Oxidation and Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F.; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J. M.; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C. H.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9–15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD. PMID:23359794

  3. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J M; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C H; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  4. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  5. Effect of injectable and oral contraceptives on serum lipids

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Wilkinson, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel on serum lipid levels. Methods Serum lipids were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 3 years on 703 white, black, and Hispanic women using DMPA, OC, or nonhormonal (NH) birth control. DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 additional years. Participants completed questionnaires containing demographic and behavioral measures every 6 months and underwent 24 hour dietary recalls annually. Mixed model regression analyses and general estimating equations procedures were used to estimate changes over time in lipids by method, along with their predictors. Results OC users experienced significantly greater increases in levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than NH users (P<.001). However, no difference was noted in the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio between OC and NH users. Among DMPA users, HDL-C levels initially decreased for 6 months, but then returned to baseline. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio rose during the first 6 months of DMPA use, but then dropped back to baseline over the next 24 months. After DMPA was discontinued, women who used OC increased their TG, TC, VLDL-C, and HDL-C levels significantly more than those who chose NH (P< .05). Conclusion Use of very low dose OC containing desogestrel can elevate lipid levels. DMPA users were at increased risk of developing an abnormally low HDL-C level as well as an abnormally high LDL level and an increase in the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio, although these effects appeared to be temporary. PMID:19888036

  6. Moderate dietary salt restriction does not alter insulin resistance or serum lipids in normal men.

    PubMed

    Grey, A; Braatvedt, G; Holdaway, I

    1996-04-01

    Dietary salt restriction lowers blood pressure and has been advocated as a population-based strategy to reduce the cardiovascular morbidity associated with hypertension. However, the effect of lowering salt intake on metabolic vascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and levels of atherogenic lipids and fasting insulin is uncertain. We have studied the short-term effect of moderate dietary salt restriction on insulin resistance and serum lipids in 34 nonobese (body mass index [mean +/- SD] 23.4 +/- 1.8 kg/m2), normotensive young white men. Subjects were maintained on a low salt diet ( < 80 mmol/day) for the 2-week study period. In a randomized, cross-over, double-blind fashion, each subject also received 120 mmol of sodium chloride per day during one of the study weeks, and a matching placebo during the other. Insulin resistance, serum insulin, lipids, and blood pressure were measured in the fasting state at the end of each study week. Urinary sodium excretion (185 +/- 46 v 52 +/- 25 mmol/day, P < .001), serum sodium (141.2 +/- 1.2 v 140.1 +/- 1.3 mmol/L, P < .001) and body weight (75.4 +/- 9.1 v 75.0 +/- 9.3 kg, P < .05) were higher during the high salt than the low salt period. Serum creatinine was higher during the low salt period (100 +/- 8 v 90 +/- 9 mumols/L, P < .01). There was no difference in blood pressure, insulin resistance, serum insulin, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol or its subfractions, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, or apolipoprotein B between the high salt and low salt periods. We conclude that short-term, moderate dietary salt restriction does not adversely affect insulin sensitivity or levels of atherogenic lipids in normotensive nonobese men.

  7. Influence of smoking on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels among family medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Beganlic, Azijada; Salihefendic, Nizama; Pranjic, Nurka; Kusljugic, Zumreta

    2008-01-01

    Smoking causes decrease of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and increase of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Low HDL-C levels and high cholesterol and LDL-C levels are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of smoking status on serum lipid and lipoproteins levels among patients in family medicine practice. This trial was designed to detect differences in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels between smokers and non-smokers. We had placed a limit of 300 patients for data collection. We excluded 195 patients who met excluding criteria (diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, renal and hepatic failure, hypothyroidism; using beta blockers, thiazide diuretics, hormonal replacement therapy and corticosteroids; more than light physical activity; alcohol consumption and obesity), so the sample size included 105 randomly selected patients from Family Medicine Teaching Center Tuzla, mean age 52.05 +/- 11.61 years. Main outcomes were smoking status in all participants and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in smokers and non-smokers. Our results showed that smoking prevalence was 49.52%. Smokers had significantly higher serum total cholesterol (P=0.01), triglyceride (P=0.002) and LDL-C level (P=0.03) and significantly lower HDL-C level (P=0.003) comparing with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels between ex-smokers and never smokers. These results suggest that cigarette smoking adversely affects serum lipid and lipoprotein levels which further increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  8. Serum Lipid Profile in Subjects with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Laclaustra, Martin; Van Den Berg, Elizabeth Louise Maayken; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilée; Castellote, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Few large studies have examined the relationship between spinal cord injury (SCI) and lipid profile. We studied serum lipid concentrations in subjects with traumatic SCI in relation to the degree of neurological involvement and time since injury, and compared them with values from a reference sample for the Spanish population (DRECE study). Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort was built from 177 consecutive cases with traumatic SCI admitted to the SCI unit of the Miguel Servet Hospital in Aragon (Spain). Outcome measures (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c levels) were analyzed according to the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), neurological level of injury (involvement of all limbs vs. only lower limbs), and time since injury. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Results Cases without preserved motor function (AIS A or B) had lower total and HDL cholesterol than the others (-11.4 [-21.5, -1.4] mg/dL total cholesterol and -5.1 [-8.8, -1.4] mg/dL HDL-c), and cases with all-limb involvement had lower total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol than those with only lower-limb involvement (-14.0 [-24.6, -3.4] mg/dL total cholesterol, -4.1 [-8.0, -0.2] mg/dL HDL-c, and -10.0 [-19.7, -0.3] mg/dL LDL-c) (all p<0.05). No association was found between lipid concentrations and time since injury. Concentrations of lipid subfractions and triglycerides in SCI subjects were lower than in sex- and age-stratified values from the reference sample. Conclusion A high degree of neurological involvement in SCI (anatomically higher lesions and AIS A or B) is associated with lower total cholesterol and HDL-c. PMID:25706982

  9. Design and characterization of a novel lipid-DNA complex that resists serum-induced destabilization.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tianshun; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2003-12-01

    Ineffectiveness of cationic lipids to enhance DNA transfection has been attributed to serum-mediated dissociation and perhaps complement activation of lipid-DNA complexes. To overcome these problems, we have developed a novel lipid-DNA complex that greatly reduces serum-mediated dissociation. The complexes were prepared by mixing cationic liposomes containing 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine and DNA in ethanolic (20% v/v ethanol) solution containing 5% sucrose followed by dehydration via rotating evaporation. Upon hydration in H(2)O, the lipid-DNA complexes [ethanol-dried lipid-DNA (EDL) complexes] were formed. The complexes exhibit a low positive zeta potential and enhanced transfection efficiency in contrast to the suppressed efficiency detected with admixed lipid-DNA complexes in the presence of serum across several cell lines. This result may be attributed to the inability of serum to dissociate DNA from lipids in EDL complexes. Using displacement of ethidium bromide intercalation analysis, we found that in serum, only 50% of DNA was exposed in the EDL complexes, compared with 100% in the admixed lipid-DNA complexes. The EDL complexes also showed increased resistance to DNase digestion in the presence of negatively charged lipid, while reducing complement activation in serum. The EDL complexes may improve the transfection activity of lipid-DNA complexes in serum and, perhaps, in vivo.

  10. Genetics of serum and muscle lipids in pigs.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Vidal, O; Pena, R N; Gallardo, D; Manunza, A; Quintanilla, R; Amills, M

    2013-12-01

    Pork meat is one of the most important sources of animal protein in the human diet. Its nutritional properties are partly determined by intramuscular fat content and composition, with existing general consensus about the detrimental effects of cholesterol and saturated fat on cardiovascular health in humans. Because of their physiological resemblance, pigs can be also used as a valuable animal model to study the genetics of human diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity and dyslipidaemias. Heritability estimates and QTL maps of porcine muscle and serum lipid traits evidence that a considerable amount of genetic variance determining these phenotypes exists, but its molecular basis remains mostly unknown. The recent advent of high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies has revolutionised the field of animal genomics. With these powerful tools, finding needles in the genomic haystack has become increasingly feasible. However, these methodological advances should not be deemed as magic bullets. The goal of identifying the many polymorphisms that shape the variability of lipid phenotypes is so challenging that success can be achieved only under the scope of large international consortia.

  11. Serum lipid profiles and dyslipidaemia are associated with retinal microvascular changes in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Guo, Xinxing; Ding, Xiaohu; He, Mingguang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the relationship between serum lipid parameters and retinal microvascular calibres in children and adolescents. A total of 950 participants aged 7 to 19 years were recruited. Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) were measured from digital retinal images. Serological testing was performed to obtain lipid profiles. Dyslipidaemia was defined according to the US national expert panel guideline. After adjusted for age, sex, mean arterial blood pressure, axial length, body mass index and the fellow retinal vascular calibre, no significant association was found between retinal vascular diameters and any lipid parameters (all P > 0.05) in children younger than 12 years. Among the adolescents 12 years and older, increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoB were associated with decrease in CRAE (β = −1.33, −1.83, −1.92 and −7.18, P = 0.031, 0.003, 0.006, and 0.009, respectively). Compared with normolipidemic counterparts, adolescents with dyslipidaemia had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar diameters. No significant relationship between lipid subclass levels and CRVE was revealed in adolescents. The present findings suggest that the elevation of atherogenic lipids in adolescents is closely related to the adverse changes of retinal arterioles. Dyslipidaemia may affect systemic microvasculature from childhood on. PMID:28317946

  12. Prognostic Implications of Serum Lipid Metabolism over Time during Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Moo Suk; Park, Byung Hoon; Jung, Won Jai; Lee, In Seon; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Chung, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite extensive research and an improved standard of care, sepsis remains a disorder with a high mortality rate. Sepsis is accompanied by severe metabolic alterations. Methods. We evaluated 117 patients with sepsis (severe sepsis [n = 19] and septic shock [n = 98]) who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), free fatty acid (FFA), and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I levels were measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. Results. Nonsurvivors had low levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, and Apo A-I on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. In a linear mixed model analysis, the variations in TG, LDL, FFA, and Apo A-I levels over time differed significantly between the groups (p = 0.043, p = 0.020, p = 0.005, and p = 0.015, resp.). According to multivariate analysis, TG levels and SOFA scores were associated with mortality on days 0 and 1 (p = 0.018 and p = 0.008, resp.). Conclusions. Our study illustrated that TG levels are associated with mortality in patients with sepsis. This may be attributable to alterations in serum lipid metabolism during sepsis, thus modulating the host response to inflammation in critically ill patients. PMID:26351639

  13. Effect of O-ethylrutoside on serum and hepatic lipids in acute ethanal-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, J

    1977-01-01

    The serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations, as well as hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, were increased in acutely ethanol-treated rats. Treatment of ethanol-given animals with o-ethylrutoside resulted in a significant reduction in all examined fractions of serum lipids and in the hepatic total cholesterol level.

  14. Fast transmethylation of serum lipids using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Hong; Loewke, James D; Hyun, Duk Y; Leazer, Jay; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2012-11-01

    Microwave irradiation as the energy source for one-step direct transesterification of fatty acids in human serum lipids was examined in a solvent system of methanol: hexane: acetyl chloride based on a Lepage & Roy assay. Innovative and explosion proof single-mode or multimode microwave accelerated reaction system was employed. Recoveries were calculated as the percentage of fatty acid concentrations measured by microwave assay to those by the reference method of the Lepage & Roy assay that utilized conductive heating at 100 °C for 60 min. Under conditions of 100 °C for 1 min in Single-mode (S4-100 × 1), or 125 °C for 5 min in Multimode (M5-125 × 5), the recoveries were 100-103 % for the total fatty acids and 96-106 % for each categorized fatty acid, including saturates, monounsaturates, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA. For individual PUFA, the mean recoveries were 102-105 % for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3; 99, 109, and 95 % for 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, respectively. Thus, fatty acid concentrations determined by microwave fatty acid assay were accurate to those results by the reference method, when the microwave conditions were optimal. In summary, the microwave irradiation could replace conductive heating in one-step direct transesterification, and reduce the duration from 60 min to 5 min or less. This methodology may be applied in both the absolute and relative quantification of serum total fatty acids.

  15. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  16. Association of serum lipids and coronary artery disease with polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Himanshu; Sinha, Nakul; Finn, James; Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants are considered as one of the main determinants of the concentration of serum lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster has been known to affect the concentrations of various lipid sub-fractions and the risk of CAD. The present study assessed associations between polymorphisms of the Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, [ApoA-I,-75G > A, (rs1799837); ApoC-III 3238C > G, (SstI), (rs5128) and ApoA-IV, Thr347Ser(347A > T), (rs675)] with serum lipids and their contributions to CAD in North Indian population. We recruited age, sex matched, 200 CAD patients and 200 healthy controls and tested them for fasting levels of serum lipids. We genotyped selected polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There were no statistically significant association of selected polymorphisms (or their combinations) with CAD even after employing additive, dominant and recessive models. However there was significant association of selected polymorphisms with various lipid traits amongst the control cohort (p < 0.05). Mean levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly higher among controls carrying at least one mutant allele at ApoA1-75G > A (p = 0.019) and ApoCIII SstI (p < 0.001) polymorphism respectively. Our study observed that the selected polymorphisms in the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster although significantly affect various lipid traits but this affect does not seem to translate into association with CAD, at least among North Indian population. PMID:28261635

  17. Effects of Oxidized Tallow on the Rabbit Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Activity of the In-vitro Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Waheed ur

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of thermally oxidized tallow on the serum lipids profile and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the lipids extracted from the different tissues of the rabbits. Tallow was thermally oxidized at 130℃ for 9, 18, 27, 36 and 45 h respectively. Thermally oxidized tallow was fed to the local strain of Himalayan rabbits for one week. Results show that oxidation increases the formation of hydroperoxides and decrease the level of radical scavenging activity of the tallow. The rabbit serum lipids profile showed a dose dependent increase in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. However, no statistically significant increase was observed in the HDL-cholesterol with an increase of oxidation time. Serum glucose and rabbits body weight decrease significantly (p < 0.05) and was highly correlated with the serum lipids profile. The percent RSA of the lipids extracted from the liver, brain and muscles tissues showed a significant decrease with respect to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/body weight as well as oxidation time. Data suggests that thermal oxidation and use of thermally oxidized beef tallow is harmful and therefore an alternative way of cooking should be used. PMID:24278604

  18. Effects of Oxidized Tallow on the Rabbit Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Activity of the In-vitro Lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Waheed Ur

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the effects of thermally oxidized tallow on the serum lipids profile and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the lipids extracted from the different tissues of the rabbits. Tallow was thermally oxidized at 130℃ for 9, 18, 27, 36 and 45 h respectively. Thermally oxidized tallow was fed to the local strain of Himalayan rabbits for one week. Results show that oxidation increases the formation of hydroperoxides and decrease the level of radical scavenging activity of the tallow. The rabbit serum lipids profile showed a dose dependent increase in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. However, no statistically significant increase was observed in the HDL-cholesterol with an increase of oxidation time. Serum glucose and rabbits body weight decrease significantly (p < 0.05) and was highly correlated with the serum lipids profile. The percent RSA of the lipids extracted from the liver, brain and muscles tissues showed a significant decrease with respect to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/body weight as well as oxidation time. Data suggests that thermal oxidation and use of thermally oxidized beef tallow is harmful and therefore an alternative way of cooking should be used.

  19. Prolongation of the lag time preceding peroxidation of serum lipids: a measure of antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants inhibit oxidation processes and by this affect many biological processes. This, in turn, promotes continuing efforts to synthesize new efficient antioxidants and discover compounds of natural origin capable of preventing peroxidation. Although many assays have been developed to evaluate antioxidants, the search for improved protocols is still actual. The presented protocol is based on the effect of antioxidant on the kinetics of peroxidation of lipids in human blood serum. Specifically, we evaluate the capacity of antioxidant by the relative prolongation of lag phase (delay) of copper-induced peroxidation of lipids in unfractionated serum. The main advantage of the assay is that it implements inhibition of peroxidation in physiologically relevant system. We propose expressing the results of the assay either in terms of the relative prolongation of the lag per 1 μM of antioxidant or as the concentration of antioxidant required to double the lag. To allow for comparing the results with those of other assays, these results may be normalized and expressed in terms of the unitless "TROLOX equivalents."

  20. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  1. Determination of lipid hydroperoxides in serum iodometry and high performance liquid chromatography compared.

    PubMed

    Wieland, E; Schettler, V; Diedrich, F; Schuff-Werner, P; Oellerich, M

    1992-06-01

    It is postulated that lipid peroxidation plays a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Efforts have therefore been made to develop reliable and practicable procedures for quantifying lipid peroxidation products such as lipid hydroperoxides in biological specimens. An iodometric cholesterol colour reagent (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) can be used to measure lipid hydroperoxides in isolated low density lipoproteins without lipid extraction. This method has been validated with respect to its analytical performance and suitability for serum samples by comparing it with a high performance liquid chromatography technique. The method was found to have acceptable performance characteristics with aqueous fatty acid hydroperoxide solutions (linoleic acid) and isolated low density lipoproteins, but it cannot be applied to native serum samples without extraction of lipids.

  2. Buffers affect the bending rigidity of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bouvrais, Hélène; Duelund, Lars; Ipsen, John H

    2014-01-14

    In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules.

  3. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values.

    PubMed

    Münstedt, Karsten; Hoffmann, Sven; Hauenschild, Annette; Bülte, Michael; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P < .001) as were BMI and a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P < .001), meaning that subjects with a high BMI had a lower HDL cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation.

  4. How Lipid Membranes Affect Pore Forming Toxin Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojko, Nejc; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-12-15

    , events associated with pore formation can modulate properties of the lipid membrane and affect its organization. Model membranes do not necessarily reproduce the physicochemical properties of the native cellular membrane, and caution is needed when transferring results from model to native lipid membranes. In this context, the utilization of novel approaches that enable studying PFTs on living cells at a single molecule level should reveal complex protein-lipid membrane interactions in greater detail.

  5. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Shabestari, Mahmoud M.; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Bafandeh, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control). The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation. PMID:27486375

  6. Serum lipids in young patients with ischaemic stroke: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Albucher, J; Ferrieres, J; Ruidavets, J; Guiraud-Chaumeil, B; Perret, B; Chollet, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The relation betweem serum lipids and ischaemic stroke remains controversial. Studies of lipid related risk factors in cerebrovascular disease have varied greatly in their findings and also in their definition of the cerebrovascular end points. Serum lipids are thought to interact with the pathogenesis of stroke through an atherosclerosis mechanism. Stroke in young patients have been shown to be related to non-atherosclerotic causes most of the time. The aim was to determine the serum lipid profile and the vascular risk factors for ischaemic stroke in a series of patients under 45 with an ischaemic stroke and to compare them with a series of controls of the same age.
METHODS—Ninety four consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke were compared with 111 controls of the same age recruited from a regional electoral list. Vascular risk factors were recorded and serum lipid profile was determined in all of them.
RESULTS—Multivariate analyses showed that low HDL cholesterol, male sex, smoking, hypertension, and oral contraceptives were risk factors for intracerebral arterial occlusion.
CONCLUSION—Low HDL cholesterol was the only serum lipid index to be associated to an increased risk of stroke in this population. Low HDL cholesterol must be considered in the care management of young patients regardless of the detectable presence of atherosclerosis.

 PMID:10864600

  7. Relationship between the serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids and aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cakiroğlu, D; Meral, Y; Sancak, A A; Cifti, G

    2007-07-14

    The serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids--triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein--were determined in 18 normal dogs and 23 dogs diagnosed as aggressive on the basis of interviews with their owners and an assessment of their behaviour with reference to a canine overt aggression chart. The serum serotonin levels in the aggressive dogs were significantly lower than in the normal dogs (P<0.01), but the differences in serum lipids between the two groups were not statistically significant.

  8. An increase in lipoprotein oxidation and endogenous lipid peroxides in serum of obese women.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Türkoğlu, U; Oztezcan, S; Telci, A; Orhan, Y; Aykaç-Toker, G; Sivas, A; Uysal, M

    2003-02-01

    Endogenous malondialdehyde and diene conjugate levels, the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to copper-induced lipid peroxidation, and antibody titer against oxidized low-density lipoproteins were increased, but serum antioxidant activity was unchanged in obese women. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoproteincholesterol, and trigliceride levels were also elevated, but high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels remained unchanged in obese women. In vitro, oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and levels of antibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlated with body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol levels in obese women. These results indicate that obesity is associated with increases in endogenous lipid peroxides, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and lipids in serum.

  9. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  10. Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns of Iranian horses.

    PubMed

    Asadi, F; Asadian, P; Shahriari, A; Pourkabir, M; Kazemi, A

    2011-12-01

    Patterns of serum biochemical parameters vary among horse breeds. The objective of the present study was to compare serum lipoproteins of Iranian Caspian ponies with those of other horses (Arabs and Thoroughbreds) in the Iranian region. Serum lipoprotein values were determined by agar-agarose gel electrophoresis and measured by scan densitometry. Moreover, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were determined and the results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol values were 1.13 +/- 0.23 and 2.38 +/- 0.18 mmol/l in Caspian ponies, 1.96 +/- 0.49 and 1.92 +/- 0.25 mmol/l in Arab horses and 1.38 +/- 0.26 and 2.17 +/- 0.53 mmol/l in Thoroughbred horses. The relative percentages of alpha- (72.63 +/- 17.76%) and beta-lipoproteins (29.10 +/- 5.49%) in serum electrophoretic tracings from Caspian ponies were not significantly different from those of other horses (p > 0.05). The lipoprotein phenotype in Caspian ponies may be useful for evaluating metabolic diseases.

  11. Racial differences in levels of serum lipids and effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants on lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Olson, James R; Pavuk, Marian; Carpenter, David O

    2014-12-01

    Serum lipid levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition to diet, exercise, genetics, age and race, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) influence concentrations of serum lipids. We investigated associations between fasting concentrations of 35 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and nine organochlorine pesticides in relation to total serum lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in 525 Caucasian and African American residents of Anniston, Alabama, who were not on any lipid-lowering medication. In Model 1, data were adjusted for age, age quadratic, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercise, while in Model 2, additional adjustment was done for other POPs. As compared to Caucasians, African Americans had lower levels of total lipids and triglycerides with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, but higher concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Total pesticides were more strongly associated with elevations in serum lipids than were total PCBs, and the associations were stronger in African Americans. Total DDTs were not associated with serum lipids after adjustment for other POPs in either racial group, while the strongest positive associations were seen for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in both racial groups. Racial differences in lipid profiles, concentrations of POPs and associations between POP concentrations and serum lipids are relevant to racial differences in rates of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  13. Interrelationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and lipid profiles in premenopausal Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal A.; Patel, Prerna P.; Mughal, Zulf; Padidela, Raja; Patel, Ashish D.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, and observational studies have associated it with an atherogenic lipid profile. Aim: To determine the interrelationship between Vitamin D and lipid profile in apparently healthy premenopausal Indian women, considering confounding factors such as lifestyle that independently influence lipids. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty healthy premenopausal women (20–45 year) were recruited from Gujarat, India. Data were collected on anthropometry, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and diet. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone, and lipid profile. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive correlation between serum 25[OH]D concentrations and serum lipids. Results: Ninety-three percent women showed Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D < 20 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed significant inverse correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r = −0.202, P = 0.027), triglycerides (TG) (r = −0.284, P = 0.002), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.184, P = 0.044) and positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.250, P = 0.006). On dichotomizing the population according to median 25(OH)D concentration (11.1 ng/dl), no significant differences were observed between the groups for anthropometry, sunlight exposure, and lifestyle. Serum lipid profiles were significantly different, above median serum 25(OH)D concentration group showed favorable serum lipids (TC: 179.3 ± 30 vs. 191.8 ± 31.7 mg/dl; TG: 140 ± 39.1 vs. 165.5 ± 53.4 mg/dl; LDL-C: 100 ± 30.2 vs. 112 ± 32 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 14 vs. 47.6 ± 9.3 mg/dl)(P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that association of 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile even after considering lifestyle factors which independently influence lipids

  14. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  15. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

    2011-08-01

    Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51 mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials.

  16. Gut microbiota affects lens and retinal lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Oresic, Matej; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yetukuri, Laxman; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Hänninen, Virve

    2009-11-01

    The gut microbiota affects host lipid metabolism and is considered an environmental factor that contributes to development of obesity. To investigate whether the gut microbiota affects the eye lipidome, we performed comprehensive lipidomic profiling of lens and retina from conventionally raised and germ-free mice. Conventionally raised mice had diminished phosphatidylcholines in the lens and elevated ethanolamine plasmalogens in the retina. Diminishment of lens phosphatidylcholines in the presence of gut microbiota suggests that the conventionally raised mice are exposed over time to more oxidative stress than germ-free mice. Consistent with this, their lifespan is also shorter. Our findings may open a new area of investigation how modulation of gut microbiota affects the eye health.

  17. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  18. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  19. The Choice of Euthanasia Method Affects Metabolic Serum Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Paula, Pierozan; Fredrik, Jernerén; Yusuf, Ransome; Oskar, Karlsson

    2017-02-28

    The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO2 inhalation, and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats. The corticosterone and insulin levels were not significantly affected by the euthanasia protocol used. However, euthanasia by an overdose of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) increased the serum levels of glucose, and decreased cholesterol, stearic and arachidonic acids levels compared with euthanasia by CO2 inhalation and decapitation. CO2 inhalation appears to increase the serum levels of triglycerides, while euthanasia by decapitation induced no individual discrepant biomarker level. We conclude that choice of the euthanasia methods are critical for the reliability of serum biomarkers and indicate the importance of selecting adequate euthanasia methods for metabolic analysis in rodents. Decapitation without anaesthesia may be the most adequate method of euthanasia when taking both animal welfare and data quality in consideration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  1. Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-02-02

    Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an

  2. Antibodies to diverse lipids in the serum of patients with clinically cured leprosy and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Arenas, R; Arce-Parades, P; Miranda-Contreras, G

    2003-01-01

    In this study we looked for the presence of antibodies to cardiolipin, cerebrosides, and whole lipids extracted from M. leprae, M. tuberculosis and M. habana, in the serum of patients with clinically cured lepromatous leprosy (sixteen) or tuberculosis (sixteen), 8 to 12 months after arresting the corresponding multi-drug therapy (MDT). Compared to healthy controls (sixteen), both leprosy and tuberculosis ex-patients had still significant levels of antibodies to the three mycobacterial lipids but no detectable levels of antibodies to cardiolipin or cerebroside lipids. Although leprosy and tuberculosis sera recognized the homologous mycobacterial lipids in a preferential fashion, all of them, on the average, reacted more strongly with the lipids of M. habana. This observation backs up, in a certain way, the proposition of using M. habana as a prospective vaccine for leprosy and tuberculosis.

  3. Absence of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation affects lipid metabolism in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Sylvain; Uzbekov, Rustem; Elis, Sébastien; Sanchez, Laura; Kireev, Igor; Lardic, Lionel; Dalbies-Tran, Rozenn; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2013-03-15

    Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO. By Nile Red staining, a significant reduction in total lipid level was evidenced in DO. Global transcriptomic analysis revealed differential expression of genes regulating energy metabolism, transcription, and translation between CEO and DO. By Western blot, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive phospholipase (HSL) proteins were detected in oocytes and in CC, indicating a local lipogenesis and lypolysis. FAS protein was significantly less abundant in DO that in CEO and more highly expressed in CC than in the oocytes. On the contrary, HSL protein was more abundant in oocytes than in CC. In addition, active Ser⁵⁶³-phosphorylated HSL was detected in the oocytes only after IVM, and its level was similar in CEO and DO. In conclusion, absence of CC during IVM affected lipid metabolism in the oocyte and led to suboptimal cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, CC may influence the oocyte by orienting the consumption of nutritive storage via regulation of local fatty acid synthesis and lipolysis to provide energy for maturation.

  4. Effects of Supplemental Exogenous Emulsifier on Performance, Nutrient Metabolism, and Serum Lipid Profile in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Haldar, Sudipto; Mondal, Souvik; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control), 1 (E1) and 2 (E2) % of added fat (saturated palm oil). Live weight gain (P < .07) and feed conversion ratio (P < .05) in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (P < .05). Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (P < .05) and liver fat content decreased (P < .05) linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (P < .001) leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (P < .06) in the E1 group (quadratic response). Metabolizable intake of N (P < .1) and fat (P < .05) increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance. PMID:20671938

  5. Effects of Indoor Cycling Associated with Diet on Body Composition and Serum Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Valle, Valeria S.; de Mello, Danielli B.; Fortes, Marcos de Sa R.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women. Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at…

  6. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  7. Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, Devendra K; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-04-01

    Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks in age weighing between 120-150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD(50)) and carbofuran (50% LD(50)) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD(50) of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms of serum lipid parameters such as high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Treatment with individual doses of carbofuran (50% LD(50)) and cartap (50 % LD(50)) caused significant alterations in the levels of serum lipid parameters. The pesticides treatment resulted in marked decrease in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein where as that of other lipids got significantly elevated. Further, the rats exhibited relatively higher impact of pesticides when treated with the compounds in combination (25 % LD(50) of each). The results indicated that these compounds when used together may exert enhanced effect on the levels of serum lipids in rat.

  8. Effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) Mushroom on serum lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Furuichi, Yukio; Kokean, Yasushi; Nishii, Takafumi; Hisamatsu, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    The effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) mushroom on serum lipid levels was investigated in rats. When the mushroom (fruit body) powder or its hotwater extract was added at a level of 10% to a cholesterol-containing diet, the serum total cholesterol levels of rats fed the fruit body or the hot-water extract were markedly lower than that of controls, though there was no significant difference in serum HDL-cholesterol among the three groups. On a cholesterol-free diet, the addition of fruit body powder at a level of 5% significantly decreased serum total cholesterol. Serum triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly decreased in both the fruit body and hot-water extract groups. Furthermore, Hatakeshimeji in the diet significantly increased the activity of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase, which converts cellular cholesterol to bile acids, as well as the fecal excretion of bile acids.

  9. Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.

  10. Serum lipid levels in neighboring communities with chlorinated and nonchlorinated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Zeighami, E.A.; Watson, A.P.; Craun, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program was designed to ascertain levels of serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of a total of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. The purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroid hormones differed according to the chlorination of the water supply, or to the calcium and magnesium content (hardness) of the drinking water supply. This report examines the relationship of chlorination and water calcium to estimated community mean serum lipid levels. The estimated community means are adjusted for potential confounders, including age, education level, alcohol intake, smoking, dietary fat and dietary calcium. Serum cholesterol levels proved to be significantly higher in chlorinated communities for females. Levels of serum cholesterol were also higher in chlorinated communities for males, but differences were considerably smaller and not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were also higher in chlorinated communities for females (p = .06). Levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were higher in hard water communities than in soft water communities, although the p-value for the hardness term did not quite reach significance at p < .05 in either model. The regression of community mean HDL levels on both drinking water calcium and magnesium levels was positive, indicating increasing mean HDL levels with increasing calcium and/or magnesium content in the drinking water.

  11. Effects of maternal treatment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in embryonic chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Xue; Zhang, Yuanshu; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, much evidence emerged to suggest that alterations in maternal diets during pregnancy may irreversibly affect aspects of physiological and biochemical functions in the fetus. To explore the effects of maternal dietary treatments with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on lipid metabolism in the embryo, we investigated serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the maternal and embryonic chicken. Sixteen-week-old pullets were allocated into 3 groups (n=30), and after laying, they were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with DHEA at 0, 20 or 100mg/kg diet. Eggs were collected after DHEA treatment and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Blood and liver samples were collected from hens and embryonic chickens. DHEA treatment resulted in decreased body weight and increased relative liver weight in both maternal and embryonic chickens, while the concentrations of blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly lower in the 20mg DHEA/kg group as compared to the control group during embryonic development. The expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI) gene was also reduced following treatment with 20mg DHEA/kg at hatching. However, blood TC, and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the 100mg DHEA/kg group during embryonic development and hatching. Overall, the results of this study indicate that maternal dietary treatment with DHEA regulates serum lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression.

  12. Correlation between serum lipid profile and carotid intima-media thickness in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sarama; Sarkar, Chandan; Biswas, Subhash Chandra; Karim, R

    2008-07-01

    Abnormal lipid profile is often found in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. To assess the impact of abnormal lipid profile on atherosclerosis in young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women, carotid intima-media thickness as judged by B-mode ultrasonography were done in 30 young (18-35 yrs) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women and in similarly age-matched 30 apparently healthy controls. Compared to controls, young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women had significantly elevated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C levels and carotid intima-media thickness. HDL-C level did not differ significantly between two groups of women. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women carotid intima-media thickness was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C and negatively correlated with serum HDL-C. Our study suggests that even young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women are prone to atherosclerosis from early age.

  13. Lipid cross-linking of nanolipoprotein particles substantially enhances serum stability and cellular uptake [Lipid crosslinking enhances the stability of nanolipoprotein particles in serum by multiple orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Sean F.; Blanchette, Craig D.; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Hura, Greg L.; Rasley, Amy; Corzett, Michele; Pan, Chong-xian; Fischer, Nicholas O.; Henderson, Paul T.

    2016-07-13

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) consist of a discoidal phospholipid lipid bilayer confined by an apolipoprotein belt. NLPs are a promising platform for a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, size, definable composition, and amphipathic characteristics. However, poor serum stability hampers the use of NLPs for in vivo applications such as drug formulation. In this study, NLP stability was enhanced upon the incorporation and subsequent UV-mediated intermolecular cross-linking of photoactive DiynePC phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, forming cross-linked nanoparticles (X-NLPs). Both the concentration of DiynePC in the bilayer and UV exposure time significantly affected the resulting X-NLP stability in 100% serum, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of fluorescently labeled particles. Cross-linking did not significantly impact the size of X-NLPs as determined by dynamic light scattering and SEC. X-NLPs had essentially no degradation over 48 h in 100% serum, which is a drastic improvement compared to non-cross-linked NLPs (50% degradation by ~10 min). X-NLPs had greater uptake into the human ATCC 5637 bladder cancer cell line compared to non-cross-linked particles, indicating their potential utility for targeted drug delivery. X-NLPs also exhibited enhanced stability following intravenous administration in mice. Lastly, these results collectively support the potential utility of X-NLPs for a variety of in vivo applications.

  14. Lipid cross-linking of nanolipoprotein particles substantially enhances serum stability and cellular uptake [Lipid crosslinking enhances the stability of nanolipoprotein particles in serum by multiple orders of magnitude

    DOE PAGES

    Gilmore, Sean F.; Blanchette, Craig D.; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; ...

    2016-07-13

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) consist of a discoidal phospholipid lipid bilayer confined by an apolipoprotein belt. NLPs are a promising platform for a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, size, definable composition, and amphipathic characteristics. However, poor serum stability hampers the use of NLPs for in vivo applications such as drug formulation. In this study, NLP stability was enhanced upon the incorporation and subsequent UV-mediated intermolecular cross-linking of photoactive DiynePC phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, forming cross-linked nanoparticles (X-NLPs). Both the concentration of DiynePC in the bilayer and UV exposure time significantly affected the resulting X-NLP stability in 100%more » serum, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of fluorescently labeled particles. Cross-linking did not significantly impact the size of X-NLPs as determined by dynamic light scattering and SEC. X-NLPs had essentially no degradation over 48 h in 100% serum, which is a drastic improvement compared to non-cross-linked NLPs (50% degradation by ~10 min). X-NLPs had greater uptake into the human ATCC 5637 bladder cancer cell line compared to non-cross-linked particles, indicating their potential utility for targeted drug delivery. X-NLPs also exhibited enhanced stability following intravenous administration in mice. Lastly, these results collectively support the potential utility of X-NLPs for a variety of in vivo applications.« less

  15. Effects of supplemental copper on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanling; Wang, Yong; Lin, Xi; Guo, Chunhua

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of copper (Cu) supplementation on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids, thirty-five 3-4-month-old Jian Yang big-eared goat kids (BW 20.3±0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary Cu treatments (n=5/treatment). The dietary Cu concentrations were: (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 20 mg, (3) 40 mg, (4) 80 mg, (5) 160 mg, (6) 320 mg, and (7) 640 mg of supplemental Cu/kg dry matter (DM). Copper was supplemented as CuSO4.5H2O (25.2 % Cu). The goats were fed a high-concentrate basal diet with the different concentrations of supplemental Cu/kg DM for 96 days. The serum lipid profile was determined on day 51 and day 96. Meat quality and carcass composition of longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after the goats were slaughtered at 96 days. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were not affected by treatment (P>0.18). No differences were observed in drip loss, cooking loss, a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values (P>0.17); however, the 24-h pH value (linear; P=0.0009) and L* (brightness) value (linear; P=0.0128) decreased, and shear force increased (linear; P=0.0005) as Cu supplementation increased. The intramuscular fat (%) increased (linear; P=0.001) as supplemental Cu increased. No differences (P>0.21) in the moisture, crude protein, and ash (%) were observed. Results of this study indicate that supplemental Cu does not modify the serum lipid profile; however, it can impact intramuscular fat content and the meat quality of goat kids.

  16. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Ragunath; Lyn, Rodney K.; Srinivasan, Prashanth; Delcorde, Julie; Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Pezacki, John P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  17. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats.

  18. Effects of electromagnetic fields on serum lipids in workers of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaopin; Wang, Lijuan; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Ding, Zheyuan; Liu, Hui; Jin, Wen; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Fei, Ying; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping; Yu, Yunxian

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure on levels of serum lipids in workers of an electric power plant. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an electric power plant in Zhejiang province, China, from August to September 2011. All participants were divided into two groups with high occupational EMF exposure and low occupational EMF exposure. The occupational EMF exposure included radiofrequency EMF and extremely low-frequency EMF. Occupational EMF exposure was associated with an increased level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; β = 0.17 mmol/L, P = 0.022). High EMF exposure group with longer employment duration, longer daily EMF exposure duration, and more mobile phone or electric fee per month had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, or triglyceride than the corresponding reference group. However, significantly decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was only observed in high EMF exposure group with more mobile phone fee per month. Similar results were also found in 544 participants with available data of serum lipids in 2010. The findings showed that chronic EMF exposure was associated with the change of serum lipid levels. EMF exposure might modulate the process of lipid metabolism.

  19. Serum lipid antibodies are associated with cerebral tissue damage in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Rohit; Yeste, Ada; Patel, Bonny; Tauhid, Shahamat; Tummala, Subhash; Rahbari, Roya; Chu, Renxin; Regev, Keren; Kivisäkk, Pia; Weiner, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral immune responses as measured by serum antigen arrays are linked to cerebral MRI measures of disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples were obtained from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 21) and assayed using antigen arrays that contained 420 antigens including CNS-related autoantigens, lipids, and heat shock proteins. Normalized compartment-specific global brain volumes were obtained from 3-tesla MRI as surrogates of atrophy, including gray matter fraction (GMF), white matter fraction (WMF), and total brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). Total brain T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV) was quantified from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Results: We found serum antibody patterns uniquely correlated with BPF, GMF, WMF, and T2LV. Furthermore, we identified immune signatures linked to MRI markers of neurodegeneration (BPF, GMF, WMF) that differentiated those linked to T2LV. Each MRI measure was correlated with a specific set of antibodies. Strikingly, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to lipids were linked to brain MRI measures. Based on the association between IgG antibody reactivity and each unique MRI measure, we developed a lipid index. This comprised the reactivity directed against all of the lipids associated with each specific MRI measure. We validated these findings in an additional independent set of patients with MS (n = 14) and detected a similar trend for the correlations between BPF, GMF, and T2LV vs their respective lipid indexes. Conclusions: We propose serum antibody repertoires that are associated with MRI measures of cerebral MS involvement. Such antibodies may serve as biomarkers for monitoring disease pathology and progression. PMID:26894204

  20. Serum lipid concentrations in six canid and four ursid species in four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Slifka, Kerri A; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann M

    2004-03-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in healthy captive wild canids and ursids, and the values were compared with previously published data. Serum lipid levels were evaluated in blood samples collected from eight African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), three arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), nine gray wolves (Canis lupus), four maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), two Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baleiyi), nine red wolves (Canis rufus), two brown bears (Ursus arctos), six polar bears (Ursus maritimus), six spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus), and five sun bears (Ursus malayanus). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Although the results showed a great variation among species, circulating lipids appeared especially high, sometimes extremely so, in the spectacled bears, polar bears, sun bears, and maned wolves compared with all other species sampled. The study provides a substantial basis for comparing lipid levels in presumed healthy animals and indicates a need for controlled study of the effects of diet on circulating lipid levels.

  1. Hepatic and serum lipid signatures specific to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Chiappini, Franck; Desterke, Christophe; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Guettier, Catherine; Le Naour, François

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a precursor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Markers for diagnosis of NASH are still lacking. We have investigated lipid markers using mouse models that developed NAFL when fed with high fat diet (HFD) or NASH when fed using methionine choline deficient diet (MCDD). We have performed a comprehensive lipidomic analysis on liver tissues as well as on sera from mice fed HFD (n = 5), MCDD (n = 5) or normal diet as controls (n = 10). Machine learning approach based on prediction analysis of microarrays followed by random forests allowed identifying 21 lipids out of 149 in the liver and 14 lipids out of 155 in the serum discriminating mice fed MCDD from HFD or controls. In conclusion, the global approach implemented allowed characterizing lipid signatures specific to NASH in both liver and serum from animal models. This opens new avenue for investigating early and non-invasive lipid markers for diagnosis of NASH in human. PMID:27510159

  2. [Effect of nuts enrich in monounsaturated acid on serum lipid of hyperlipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaofang; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Junbo; Liang, Xuejun

    2003-03-01

    In order to observe the regulatory effect of monounsaturated acid-enriched almond and macadamia nuts on blood lipid-level (TC, TG, HDL-C), the hyperlipidemia Wistar rats were used as the model and a diet containing almond and macadamia at the doses of between 12.5% and 25.0% was given for six weeks. The results showed that the level of the serum TC and TG in each study group was significantly lower than that of high fat chow control group (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum HDL-C level in the high fat chow group with high-dose macadamias compared with that in the high fat chow control group. The findings suggested that nuts enrich in monounsaturated acid could decrease the level of serum TC and TG and macadamias could increased the level of serum HDL-C in the hyperlipidemia rats.

  3. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Jäntti, J; Nikkari, T; Solakivi, T; Vapaatalo, H; Isomäki, H

    1989-01-01

    The serum concentration of lipids and composition of fatty acids after overnight fasting were studied in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 12 weeks with either 20 ml of evening primrose oil containing 9% of gamma-linolenic acid or olive oil. The serum concentrations of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and apolipoprotein B decreased and those of linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased during treatment with evening primrose oil. During olive oil treatment the serum concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid decreased and those of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased slightly. The decrease in serum eicosapentaenoic acid and the increase in arachidonic acid concentrations induced by evening primrose oil may not be favourable effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the light of the roles of these fatty acids as precursors of eicosanoids. PMID:2649022

  4. A Controlled Study of Serum Lipid Profiles in Indian Patients with Depressive Episode

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Khandelwal, Sudhir K.; Chadda, Rakesh K.; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lower levels of circulating lipid fractions and cholesterol are risk factors for impulsivity and depressive disorder. A lower level of serum cholesterol is also associated with patients presenting with history of self-harm. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 depressive patients and 30 healthy matched control subjects were recruited from the department of Psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. We measured serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels of both patient and control group. Results: The serum TC and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be significantly lower in study group than that of control group. Conclusion: Lower levels of serum cholesterol are associated with depressive disorder. PMID:24860211

  5. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  6. Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. )

    1991-03-15

    An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

  7. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals.

  8. Influence of coumarin and some coumarin derivatives on serum lipid profiles in carbontetrachloride-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Ezel; Atmaca, Mukadder; Yıldırım, Yaşar; Bilgin, Hakkı Murat; Demirtaş, Berjan; Obay, Basra Deniz; Kelle, Mustafa; Oflazoğlu, Hüda Diken

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, coumarin and some coumarin derivatives (esculetin, scoparone, and 4-methylumbelliferone) were investigated for their lipid-lowering effect in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) were divided into six groups and each group comprised of five rats. Hepatic injury-dependent hyperlipidemia was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1.25 ml/kg). Coumarin and coumarin derivatives esculetin (35 mg/kg), scoparone (35 mg/kg), 4-methylumbelliferone (35 mg/kg), or coumarin (30 mg/kg) were administered to experimental groups at 12-h intervals. Animals received the derivatives esculetin, scoparone or 4-methylumbelliferone prior to the administration of a single toxic dose of CCl4. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels significantly increased in CCl4-treated group ( p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively), while levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased ( p < 0.01). 4-Methylumbelliferone had no recovery effects on serum TC levels, however, significantly prevented CCl4-induced hyperlipidemia by reducing TG and VLDL-C levels ( p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, coumarin had no recovery effect on any of the serum lipid parameters against CCl4-induced hyperlipidemia. Among the coumarin derivatives only esculetin and scoparone significantly prevented serum HDL-C in CCl4-induced dyslipidemia. The results from this study indicate that the chemical structure of coumarins plays an important role on the regulation of serum lipid profiles.

  9. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors.

  10. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors. PMID:26889364

  11. Apolipoprotein serum amyloid A down-regulates smooth-muscle cell lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, B M; Veverbrants, M; Fine, R E; Blusztajn, J K; Salmona, M; Patel, A; Sipe, J D

    1999-01-01

    The addition of acute-phase apolipoprotein serum amyloid A (SAA) to cultured aortic smooth-muscle cells caused a decrease in the incorporation of [(14)C]acetate into lipids. Optimal inhibition of lipid biosynthesis was achieved with 2 microM SAA, and the effect was maintained for up to 1 week when SAA was included in the culture medium. Lipid extracts were subjected to TLC and it was determined that the SAA-induced decrease in [(14)C]acetate incorporation into lipids was attributable to decreases in cholesterol, phospholipid and triglyceride levels. The accumulated mass of cholesterol and phospholipid in SAA-treated cultures was significantly less than that of controls, with no change in the accumulated protein. Moreover, SAA had no effect on either protein synthesis or DNA synthesis, suggesting that SAA specifically alters lipid synthesis. By using a peptide corresponding to the cholesterol-binding domain of acute-phase SAA (amino acids 1-18), it was shown that this region of the molecule was as effective as the full-length protein in decreasing lipid synthesis and the accumulation of cholesterol and phospholipid. The implications of these findings for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease are discussed. PMID:10548527

  12. Adiposity, serum lipid levels, and allergic sensitization in Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Kumar, Rajesh; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Story, Rachel E.; Liu, Xin; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Liu, Xue; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Wenbin; Fang, Yaping; Zhang, Shanchun; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and allergic diseases have increased dramatically in recent decades. While adiposity has been associated with asthma, associations with allergic sensitization have been inconsistent. Objective To examine the association of adiposity and lipid profiles with allergic sensitization. Methods This study included 1,187 rural Chinese twins (653 men) aged 18-39 years, with skin prick tests (SPT), anthropometric and DEXA-assessed adiposity measures, and lipid assessments. Allergic sensitization was defined as positive SPT to ≥1 allergen (9 foods and 5 aeroallergens tested). We applied gender-stratified generalized estimating equations to assess the association of adiposity and serum lipids with allergic sensitization, and structural equation models to estimate the genetic/environmental influences on any observed associations. Results Males had lower percent body fat (%BF) (13.9% vs. 28.8%) but higher rates of allergic sensitization (56.2% vs. 36.7%) than females. Males in the highest %BF quartile were 2.1 times more likely sensitized than the lowest quartile (95%CI 1.3-3.5, P-trend=0.003). In males, the risk of allergic sensitization increased with HDL<40 mg/dl (OR=4.0, 95%CI 1.8-9.2) and higher LDL quartiles (P-trend=0.007). This appeared to be partially explained by shared genetic factors between serum lipid levels and allergic sensitization. In females, lower HDL was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization. Conclusions In this relatively lean Chinese population, higher %BF, lower HDL and higher LDL were associated with greater risk of allergic sensitization, most notable in males. The observed associations between adiposity, serum lipids and allergic sensitization in males appear to be partially explained by common genetic influences on these traits. PMID:19135238

  13. The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

  14. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in malaria - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum lipid profile changes have been observed during malaria infection. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on those serum lipid profile changes, and to discuss possible underlying biological mechanisms and the role of lipids in malaria pathogenesis. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine lipid profile changes during malaria was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines. Without language restrictions, Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, Biosis Previews and the African Index Medicus were searched for studies published up to 11 July, 2013, that measured serum lipid parameters in malaria patients. Also, major trial registries were searched. Mean differences in lipid profile parameters were combined in fixed and random effects meta-analysis, with a separate analysis for different groups of controls (healthy, other febrile illnesses or very low parasitaemia). These parameters were also compared between severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Funnel plots were used to test for publication bias. Results Of 2,518 studies reviewed, 42 met the criteria for inclusion in the qualitative analysis, and of these, 15 reported the necessary data for inclusion in the meta-analysis for cholesterol; nine for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), eight for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and nine for triglycerides, respectively. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL concentrations were lower in malaria and other febrile diseases compared to healthy controls. The decline was more pronounced and statistically significant during malaria compared to other febrile diseases. These results were consistent across included studies. Triglycerides were raised compared to healthy controls, but not statistically significant when compared to symptomatic controls. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the observed lipid profile changes are characteristic

  15. The modification of serum lipids after acute coronary syndrome and importance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Balci, Bahattin

    2011-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pathology characterized by low-grade vascular inflammation rather than a mere accumulation of lipids. Inflammation is central at all stages of atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndrome significantly affects the concentration and composition of the lipids and lipoproteins in plasma. Plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein levels increase, while high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels decrease. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. However, post-event changes in lipid and lipoproteins lead to delays in the choice of the treatment. This review focuses on the mechanism and the clinical importance of the relevant changes.

  16. Abnormal serum lipid profile in Brazilian police officers with post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Marmar, Charles R; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Metzler, Thomas; Nóbrega, Augusta; Peres, Mhara C; Coutinho, Evandro S; Volchan, Eliane; Figueira, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background To measure the serum lipid composition of a sample of Brazilian police officers with and without PTSD regularly exposed to potentially traumatic situations. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 118 active duty male police officers. Serum concentrations for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were enzymatically determined. Body mass index (BMI) was obtained for each participant. Results Officers with PTSD exhibited significantly higher serum total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides levels than those without PTSD. Total cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-C, remained associated with PTSD diagnosis after controlling for confounding influences (i.e. socio-demographics, BMI, and tobacco, alcohol and medication use). Limitations The sample size was small. A nutritional interview was employed instead of established scales to assess alimentary habits, tobacco or alcohol consumption. A self-report screening tool was used to assess the prevalence of PTSD. Conclusions The association between PTSD and abnormal serum lipid profile and a tendency to exhibit higher BMI suggests that individuals with PTSD may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, a condition that by itself could account for many of the most serious PTSD-related physical health problems. PMID:17888517

  17. Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Barnard, N D; Scialli, A R; Bertron, P; Hurlock, D; Edmonds, K; Talev, L

    2000-04-15

    Few controlled trials have studied cholesterol-lowering diets in premenopausal women. None has examined the cholesterol-lowering effect of a low-fat vegetarian diet, which, in other population groups, leads to marked reductions in serum cholesterol concentrations and, in combination with other life-style changes, a regression of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that a low-fat, vegetarian diet significantly reduces serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations in premenopausal women. In a crossover design, 35 women, aged 22 to 48, followed a low-fat vegetarian diet deriving approximately 10% of energy from fat for 2 menstrual cycles. For 2 additional cycles, they followed their customary diet while also taking a "supplement" (placebo) pill. Serum lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and during each intervention phase. Mean serum LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and total cholesterol concentrations decreased 16. 9%, 16.5%, and 13.2%, respectively, from baseline to the intervention diet phase (p<0.001), whereas mean serum triacylglycerol concentration increased 18.7% (p<0.01). LDL/HDL ratio remained unchanged. Thus, in healthy premenopausal women, a low-fat vegetarian diet led to rapid and sizable reductions in serum total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol concentrations.

  18. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, W. Y.; Palomaki, G. E.; Haddow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    To examine the association between cigarette smoking in adults and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations the results of 54 published studies were analysed. Overall, smokers had significantly higher serum concentrations of cholesterol (3.0%), triglycerides (9.1%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (10.4%), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.7%) and lower serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (-5.7%) and apolipoprotein AI (-4.2%) compared with nonsmokers. Among non-smokers and light, moderate, and heavy smokers a significant dose response effect was present for cholesterol (0, 1.8, 4.3, and 4.5% respectively), triglycerides (0, 10.7, 11.5, and 18.0%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, 7.2, 44.4, and 39.0%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -1.1, 1.4, and 11.0%), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -4.6, -6.3, and -8.9%), and apolipoprotein AI (0, -3.7 and -5.7% in non-smokers and light and heavy smokers). These dose response effects may provide new evidence for a causal relation between exposure to cigarette smoke and changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations whether as a direct result of physiological changes or of dietary changes induced by smoking. Adequate prospective data to estimate the excess risk of coronary artery disease existed only for cholesterol concentration. When that information was combined with data from the present study, and given that smokers as a group face an average overall excess risk of coronary artery disease of 70%, it was estimated that the observed increased serum cholesterol concentration in smokers may account for at least 9% of that excess risk. Furthermore, the dose response effect of smoking on serum cholesterol concentration suggests a gradient of increased absolute risk of coronary artery disease between light and heavy smokers. PMID:2496857

  19. Modifications and oxidation of lipids and proteins in human serum detected by thermochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Shnizer, Sergei; Kagan, Tamara; Lanir, Amos; Maor, Irit; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2003-01-01

    Detection of electronically excited species (EES) in body fluids may constitute an important diagnostic tool in various pathologies. Examples of such products are triplet excited carbonyls (TEC), which can be a source for photon emission in the 400-550 nm range. The aim of the present study was to determine the actual contribution of lipid and protein components (protein carbonyls) to photon emission generated by thermochemiluminescence (TCL) during the heating of biological fluids. In this study, a new TCL Photometer device, designed by Lumitest Ltd, Israel, was used. Samples were heated to a constant temperature of 80 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 280 s and photon emission was measured at several time points. In order to compare the results of TCL measurements to conventional methods of detecting lipid and protein oxidation, each examined sample was also heated in a waterbath at 80 degrees C for 10-280 s. Lipid and protein oxidation were subsequently measured using conventional methods. The TCL of four polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with three to six double bonds was measured. The elevation of the PUFA TCL amplitude correlated with the increase in the number of double bonds of PUFA. A correlation between the increase in TCL intensity and protein carbonyl generation in bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also observed. In the venous blood serum, our study showed that an increase of TCL intensity during heating reflected the cleavage of TEC of lipid origin. Our study suggests that biological molecules such as proteins, lipids and other molecules, which may become unstable during heating, are capable of generating EES. We demonstrated that a TCL curve can be used as a kinetic model for measuring oxidative processes, which reflects modifications of different molecules involved in the oxidative stress phenomena.

  20. Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Bautista, Claudia J; Tovar, Armando R; Ordáz, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Ortiz, Victor; Granados, Omar; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

    2010-02-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of protein restriction in pregnancy on maternal liver lipid metabolism at 19 days of gestation (dG) and its effect on fetal brain development. Control (C) and restricted (R) mothers were fed with isocaloric diets containing 20 and 10% of casein. At 19 dG, maternal blood and livers and fetal livers and brains were collected. Serum insulin and leptin levels were determinate in mothers. Maternal and fetal liver lipid and fetal brain lipid quantification were performed. Maternal liver and fetal brain fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography. In mothers, liver desaturase and elongase mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Maternal body and liver weights were similar in both groups. However, fat body composition, including liver lipids, was lower in R mothers. A higher fasting insulin at 19 dG in the R group was observed (C = 0.2 +/- 0.04 vs. R = 0.9 +/- 0.16 ng/ml, P < 0.01) and was inversely related to early growth retardation. Serum leptin in R mothers was significantly higher than that observed in C rats (C = 5 +/- 0.1 vs. R = 7 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In addition, protein restriction significantly reduced gene expression in maternal liver of desaturases and elongases and the concentration of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids. In fetus from R mothers, a low body weight (C = 3 +/- 0.3 vs. R = 2 +/- 0.1 g, P < 0.05), as well as liver and brain lipids, including the content of DHA in the brain, was reduced. This study showed that protein restriction during pregnancy may negatively impact normal fetal brain development by changes in maternal lipid metabolism.

  1. The molecular basis for the prolonged blood circulation of lipidated incretin peptides: Peptide oligomerization or binding to serum albumin?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Kanai, Sonoko; Alex, Rainer; Belli, Sara; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Benedek, George B

    2016-11-10

    Hybrid incretin peptides are a new generation of drugs for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Despite their biological potency, the effectiveness of these peptides as drugs is limited by their short circulation time in blood (typically within minutes). In this work, we show that lipid conjugated forms of a GLP-1/GIP/glucagon hybrid peptides stay in circulation for hours. We studied the oligomerization and albumin-binding of the unconjugated hybrid peptide as well as its lipidated variants. These lipidated peptides differ in the N-terminal mutation, the position of lipidation and the linkage to lipid. We found that these lipidated peptides form stable oligomers at concentrations above 1mg/mL. This concentration range is relevant to formulation and storage of the peptides. We observed no binding between the peptide oligomers and human serum albumin. However, at the expected therapeutic concentration range (~10-100ng/mL), the oligomers dissociate into monomers. The monomers of lipidated peptides bind to albumin. We have determined the dissociation constants of binding between the lipidated peptides and serum albumin. The dissociation constants of albumin-binding of our lipidated peptides are all very close and similar to that of the fatty acid binding of albumin. Our findings suggest that the monomeric lipidated peptides bind to HSA mainly by the fatty acid chain. Therefore, albumin binding is likely to be a universal mechanism of the prolonged circulating duration of lipidated pharmaceutical peptides.

  2. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and paraoxonase activity in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Demir, B; Demir, S; Atamer, Y; Guven, S; Atamer, A; Kocyigit, Y; Hekimoglu, A; Toprak, G

    2011-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and the oxidation of lipoproteins were investigated in 35 women with pre-eclampsia and in 35 healthy control women with normal pregnancies. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and PON1 activity were assessed. There were no significant between-group differences in subject age, gestational age at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and ApoB levels. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum Lp(a) were significantly higher in subjects with pre-eclampsia than in controls. Mean serum HDL, ApoA1 and PON1 activity were significantly lower in subjects with pre-eclampsia compared with controls. In conclusion, lipids and oxidized lipoproteins may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  3. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients.

  4. Effects of cupric and ferric ions on in vitro lipid peroxidation of human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Peng, Y.; Zdunek, T. )

    1991-03-15

    Transition metal ions especially ferric ions can catalytically generate free radicals by the Haber-Weiss reaction and initiate lipid peroxidation. Such processes may contribute to the mechanism of acute toxicity by transition metals. Serum pools were prepared from normal blood donors and incubated with 1mM cupric or ferric ions at 37C for 24h. Lipid peroxidation products were subsequently measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid assay as described by Yagi and the values were expressed as {mu}mol/L malonaldehyde equivalents. In another experiment, lipoproteins were coprecipitated with other proteins by 10% phosphotungstic acid/sulfuric acid and precipitates in aqueous suspension were incubated with 1 mM cupric or ferric ions. When sera were incubated, the authors observed higher concentrations of lipid peroxidation products with cupric ions compared to samples supplemented with ferric ions. The mean value for peroxidation products in control group was 2.5 {mu}mol/L. However, the effect was reversed when protein precipitates were incubated in presence of such ions. Ferric ions also caused more peroxidation of linoleic acid and phosphatidylcholine isolated from egg yolk when compared to cupric ions. Such differential behavior may be attributed to different degree of chelation of ferric and cupric ions with serum proteins.

  5. Ranking antioxidants based on their effect on human serum lipids peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Ilya; Shoval, Hila; Bor, Ariela; Schnitzer, Edit; Dotan, Yedidya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of antioxidants is commonly based on measurements of the effect of a specific antioxidant on redox reactions conducted in a solution. Given the difference between reactions that occur in homogeneous solutions and those that occur at lipid-water interfaces, as in biological membranes and lipoproteins, the relevance of the commonly-used assays (such as TEAC and ORAC) to the antioxidative activity in biological systems is questionable. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a more relevant assay. Based on our results, we propose an assay based on prolongation of the lag preceding fast peroxidation of serum lipids. The assay employs our previously developed procedure for determination of susceptibility of serum lipids to peroxidation. The effect of antioxidants is expressed in terms of the relative prolongation of the lag preceding peroxidation. It can be considered reliable because it is only marginally dependent on the specific sera used for the assay. The resultant ranking of antioxidants may be expressed either as the relative prolongation of the lag per 1μM of antioxidant or as the concentration of antioxidant required to double the lag. As expected, the observed ranking order is very different from that reported for TEAC or ORAC assays, undermining the relevance of these assays for oxidation that occurs at interfaces.

  6. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  7. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  8. Analysis of polar lipids in the serum from rats fed shiitake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/sass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a shiitake mushroom diet has been reported to have effects on serum phospholipids. However, much less is known about the effect on serum polar lipids, including lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. In the present study, the effects of a shiitake diet were evaluated on the basis of ...

  9. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  10. Dietary intake and serum and hair concentrations of minerals and their relationship with serum lipids and glucose levels in hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2011-02-01

    Inadequate minerals intake, as well as disruption of some metabolic processes in which microelements are cofactors, are suggested to lead to the development of hypertension. The role of minerals in the pathogenesis of hypertension still remains to be explained. In the present study, we sought to determine associations between serum and hair mineral concentrations and serum lipids and glucose levels. Forty obese hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. Blood pressure, BMI, and insulin resistance were recorded in all subjects. Levels of lipids, glucose, sodium and potassium, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in serum. Iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in hair. Dietary intake of the analyzed minerals was estimated. We found distinctly higher concentrations of serum iron and serum and hair calcium as well as markedly lower levels of hair zinc in the hypertensive subjects. The study group manifested also significantly lower daily intake of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We observed a relationship between the concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper in serum and hair and high and low range of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose serum levels in the studied patients. Moreover, this study demonstrated significant correlation between serum and hair concentrations of selected minerals and their dietary intake and levels of serum lipids and glucose and blood pressure in the study and the control groups. The obtained results seem to indicate the association between lipid and glucose metabolism and iron, copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in blood and hair of hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

  11. Effects of Vaccinium Berries on Serum Lipids: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yitong; Miao, Ya; Meng, Zheying; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of anthocyanins consumption on cardiovascular risk are supported by mechanistic and epidemiologic evidence. In order to explore the effects of Vaccinium berries rich in anthocyanins on serum lipids, we conducted a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Sixteen studies with 1109 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Significant heterogeneity confirmed differential effects between Vaccinium subclasses. The whortleberry group is significantly superior to placebo in lipids improvement. Besides, bilberry groups show significant differences in reducing LDL-C and increasing HDL-C in comparison with other treatments. For many of the other subgroups and comparison arms, there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about efficacy. PMID:26345230

  12. Effect of Gymnema montanum Leaves on Serum and Tissue Lipids in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Latha, M.; Ramkumar, K. M.; Pari, L.; Baskar, C.; Bai, V. Narmatha

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Gymnema montanum leaves on alloxaninduced hyperlipidemia was studied in male Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of G. montanum leaves was administered orally and different doses of the extract on blood glucose, serum and tissue lipids, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, and glutathione in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were studied. G. montanum leaf extract (GLEt) at doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks suppressed the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. GLEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be comparable to glibenclamide, a reference drug. These data indicate that G. montanum represents an effective antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic adjunct for the treatment of diabetes and a potential source of discovery of new orally active agent for future therapy. PMID:15061646

  13. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Lalitha, Gurusamy; Shirony, Nicholson Puthanveedu; Baskaran, Rathinasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane. PMID:23569870

  14. NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Seth; Agrawal, Prashansa; Jain, Nitin U.

    2009-01-23

    Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a serum glycoprotein that binds to the Lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity as part of the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxins. In order to investigate structural interactions of Lipid A with sCD14, we have prepared an isotopically labeled form of a fully active and chemically defined endotoxin, Kdo{sub 2}-Lipid A, which allowed us to carry out detailed NMR spectral mapping of this agonist ligand bound to sCD14 and identify for the first time structural regions that are strongly affected during complex formation with sCD14. These map to two adjacent areas comprising the lower portions of the sugar headgroup and upper half of the acyl chains I, III, and V, which are spatially proximal to the 1- and 4'-phosphate ends. Additionally, we have detected for the first time, presence of differential dynamic behavior for the affected resonances, suggesting a likely role for dynamics in the mechanism of Lipid A pattern recognition by sCD14.

  15. Comparison of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV Positive Patients on ART with ART Naïve Patients

    PubMed Central

    V, Vijay; Shekhanawar, M.S.; Rajeshwari; M, Amareshwaras; D, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients has coincided with increasing reports of complications like HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and the metabolic alterations, affecting the lipid and glucose metabolism. Evidences in support of lipodystrophy and dyslipidaemia associated with First- line HAART in our area is scarce. The aim of the present study was 1) to study and compare Lipid profile in HIV positive patients on ART with that of freshly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART. 2) To assess lipodystrophy syndrome in patients on ART. Materials and Methods: Hundred newly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART were taken as controls (ART-Naïve).Hundred randomly selected HIV+ patients who were already on First-line ART regimen (Stavudine/Zudovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) for more than 12 months were taken as cases (ART). This study was conducted for a period of 12 months at the VIMS ART centre, Bellary, Karnataka, India. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, VLDL, Non-HDL -C & TC/HDL-C ratio in ART patients compared to ART-naïve patients. Of the 100 ART patients 23 had lipodystrophy syndrome (buffalo hump, abnormal fat deposition around neck & back, buccal fat resorption, increase in abdominal fat). Conclusion: To conclude, it is evident from our study that there is increase in lipid profile (except HDL) in ART patients compared to ART Naïve group and 23 ART patients showed lipodystrophy syndrome. Hence it appears reasonable to measure fasting lipid levels before and 3-6 months after antiretroviral therapy is initiated or when ART regimen is changed. PMID:25478335

  16. Serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation in pregnant women with preeclampsia in gorgan.

    PubMed

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  17. Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association

  18. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels and lipid peroxidation in children with chronic giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Delibas, Namik; Altuntas, Irfan; Oktem, Faruk; Yönden, Zafer

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated the levels of iron, zinc, and copper and their demolishing effects against lipid peroxidation in chronic giardiasis. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels, erythrocyte cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in 34 children with chronic giardiasis and were compared with controls. The serum iron and zinc levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher among the children with chronic giardiasis compared to the control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in copper levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). Consequently, the oxidant-antioxidant balance may tilt towards the oxidative side due to weakness of the antioxidant system in giardiasis. If early and proper treatment is not performed, free radical-mediated damage might occur in children with chronic giardiasis.

  19. No long-term benefits of supplementation with arabinogalactan on serum lipids and glucose.

    PubMed

    Marett, Rebecca; Slavin, Joanne L

    2004-04-01

    We conducted a 6-month randomized, double-blind, parallel trial in which subjects consumed their usual diet plus arabinogalactan, a functional fiber isolated from either larch or tamarack. Healthy human subjects (28 men, 26 women) ages 18 to 55 years old consumed 8.4 g/day larch arabinogalactan (n=18), tamarack arabinogalactan (n=19), or a placebo of rice starch (n=17). Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, glucose, and insulin were measured monthly. Three-day food records, body weight, blood pressure, and gastrointestinal symptom surveys were obtained monthly. Serum lipids seemed to decrease at month 2, but there were no statistically significant differences among diets for any measured endpoint. Arabinogalactan is a recognized soluble fiber and is currently being used in products because it is not viscous, is easily incorporated into foods and beverages, and is well accepted by consumers.

  20. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  1. The effects of classic ketogenic diet on serum lipid profile in children with refractory seizures.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Parviz; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Badv, Reza Shervin; Tavassoli, Ali Reza; Azizi Malamiri, Reza

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 % of children with epilepsy develop refractory seizures unresponsive to both old and new generation anticonvulsants. Since such seizures have a serious negative impact on the quality of life, other treatment options are considered. The ketogenic diet is a well-known treatment for managing refractory seizures, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies have shown that this diet is as good as, or better than, any of the newer medications in reducing seizure frequency. However, concerns about adverse effects have been raised. We conducted an open label trial to show the effects of this diet on serum lipid profile. Thirty-three children with refractory epilepsy were treated with the ketogenic diet and were followed for 6 months. Their serum lipid profile was assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after initiating the diet. Seizure frequency was reduced in 63 % of children (no seizures in 2/33 and reduced >50 % in 19/33). However, after 6 months of administering the diet, median triglyceride was significantly increased (from 84 to 180 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median total cholesterol was significantly increased (from 180 to 285 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was significantly increased (from 91 to 175 mg/dl, P < 0.001), and median serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased (from 51 to 58 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Results of this study indicate that a classic ketogenic diet in children with refractory seizures is effective in seizure reduction, but leads to development of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  2. Multiscale structures of lipids in foods as parameters affecting fatty acid bioavailability and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michalski, M C; Genot, C; Gayet, C; Lopez, C; Fine, F; Joffre, F; Vendeuvre, J L; Bouvier, J; Chardigny, J M; Raynal-Ljutovac, K

    2013-10-01

    On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen.

  3. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL.

  4. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  5. Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidaemia, and Associated Risk Factors Among Northern Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E.; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. Results: The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11–4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35–3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Conclusions: Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level. PMID:27379432

  6. Lowering serum lipids via PCSK9-targeting drugs: current advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    He, Ni-Ya; Li, Qing; Wu, Chun-Yan; Ren, Zhong; Gao, Ya; Pan, Li-Hong; Wang, Mei-Mei; Wen, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng; Tang, Zhi-Han; Liu, Lu-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), also known as neural apoptosis regulated convertase (NARC1), is a key modulator of cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 increases the serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by escorting low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) from the membrane of hepatic cells into lysosomes, where the LDLRs are degraded. Owing to the importance of PCSK9 in lipid metabolism, considerable effort has been made over the past decade in developing drugs targeting PCSK9 to lower serum lipid levels. Nevertheless, some problems and challenges remain. In this review we first describes the structure and function of PCSK9 and its gene polymorphisms. We then discuss the various designs of pharmacological targets of PCSK9, including those that block the binding of PCSK9 to hepatic LDLRs (mimetic peptides, adnectins, and monoclonal antibodies), inhibit PCSK9 expression (the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 platform, small molecules, antisense oligonucleotides, and small interfering RNAs), and interfere with PCSK9 secretion. Finally, this review highlights future challenges in this field, including safety concerns associated with PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, the limited utility of PCSK9 inhibitors in the central nervous system, and the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors.

  7. Lowering serum lipids via PCSK9-targeting drugs: current advances and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    He, Ni-ya; Li, Qing; Wu, Chun-yan; Ren, Zhong; Gao, Ya; Pan, Li-hong; Wang, Mei-mei; Wen, Hong-yan; Jiang, Zhi-sheng; Tang, Zhi-han; Liu, Lu-shan

    2017-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), also known as neural apoptosis regulated convertase (NARC1), is a key modulator of cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 increases the serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by escorting low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) from the membrane of hepatic cells into lysosomes, where the LDLRs are degraded. Owing to the importance of PCSK9 in lipid metabolism, considerable effort has been made over the past decade in developing drugs targeting PCSK9 to lower serum lipid levels. Nevertheless, some problems and challenges remain. In this review we first describes the structure and function of PCSK9 and its gene polymorphisms. We then discuss the various designs of pharmacological targets of PCSK9, including those that block the binding of PCSK9 to hepatic LDLRs (mimetic peptides, adnectins, and monoclonal antibodies), inhibit PCSK9 expression (the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 platform, small molecules, antisense oligonucleotides, and small interfering RNAs), and interfere with PCSK9 secretion. Finally, this review highlights future challenges in this field, including safety concerns associated with PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, the limited utility of PCSK9 inhibitors in the central nervous system, and the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors. PMID:28112180

  8. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  9. Fucoidan improves serum lipid levels and atherosclerosis through hepatic SREBP-2-mediated regulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Yeom, Mijung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to the hypolipidemic activity of fucoidan, complex polysaccharides from brown seaweeds, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study was performed to investigate whether and how fucoidan has lipid-lowering potential in poloxamer-407 (P407)-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Fucoidan treatment 2 h after acute administration of P407 in these mice significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels, but increased the levels of HDL cholesterol. In HepG2 hepatocytes and the liver, fucoidan decreased the expression of FAS and ACC mRNA with no or only a moderate inhibitory effect on SREBP-1c mRNA expression. Furthermore, fucoidan attenuated the hepatic expression of mature SREBP-2 protein with a subsequent decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression and an increase in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA expression. In addition, atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of chronically P407-treated mice were also reduced by fucoidan. These findings indicate that fucoidan improves serum lipid levels by regulating the expression of key enzymes of cholesterol and triglyceride syntheses in the liver through modulation of SREBP-2.

  10. RNA interference silencing of a major lipid droplet protein affects lipid droplet size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Moellering, Eric R; Benning, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells store oils in the chemical form of triacylglycerols in distinct organelles, often called lipid droplets. These dynamic storage compartments have been intensely studied in the context of human health and also in plants as a source of vegetable oils for human consumption and for chemical or biofuel feedstocks. Many microalgae accumulate oils, particularly under conditions limiting to growth, and thus have gained renewed attention as a potentially sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. However, little is currently known at the cellular or molecular levels with regard to oil accumulation in microalgae, and the structural proteins and enzymes involved in the biogenesis, maintenance, and degradation of algal oil storage compartments are not well studied. Focusing on the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the accumulation of triacylglycerols and the formation of lipid droplets during nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Mass spectrometry identified 259 proteins in a lipid droplet-enriched fraction, among them a major protein, tentatively designated major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). This protein is specific to the green algal lineage of photosynthetic organisms. Repression of MLDP gene expression using an RNA interference approach led to increased lipid droplet size, but no change in triacylglycerol content or metabolism was observed.

  11. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238

  12. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  13. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  14. Effects of Anthocyanin on Serum Lipids in Dyslipidemia Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Bo, Yacong

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia was present in most of the patients with coronary heart disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that anthocyanin has some effects on the serum lipid. However, these results are controversial. This study aimed at collecting current clinical evidence and evaluating the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in dialysis patients. Methods The search included PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database (up to July 2015) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the association between anthocyanin and serum lipids. RevMan (version 5.2) was used for Meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger’s weighted regression tests were performed by using STATA software (version 12.0; StatCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Results Six studies (seven arms) involving 586 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that anthocyanin supplementation has significant effects on TC [MD = -24.06, 95% CI(-45.58 to -2.64) mg/dL, I2 = 93%], TG [MD = -26.14, 95%CI(-40.20 to -3.08) mg/dL, I2 = 66%1], LDL-C [MD = -22.10, 95% CI (-34.36 to -9.85) mg/dL, I2 = 61%], and HDL-C(MD = 5.58, 95% CI (1.02 to 10.14) mg/dL;I2 = 90%). Conclusion Anthocyanin supplementation significantly reduces serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in patients with dyslipidemia, and increases HDL-C. Further rigorously designed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the effectiveness of anthocyanin supplementation for dyslipidemia, especially hypo high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia. PMID:27589062

  15. Medication compliance and serum lipid changes in the Helsinki Heart Study.

    PubMed Central

    Mäenpää, H; Heinonen, O P; Manninen, V

    1991-01-01

    1. To control the bias caused by poor medication compliance in the Helsinki Heart Study three methods were used to measure medication compliance during the total 5 years follow up time: continuous capsule counting, semi-annual urine gemfibrozil analysis and a new method, the digoxin marker at the end of the third and fifth study years. 2. The serum lipid responses to gemfibrozil treatment varied linearly with the level of medication compliance, e.g. the mean change in serum total cholesterol was -11.4% among those whose apparent capsule consumption was greater than or equal to 90% of the scheduled dosage, -11.2% among those who had greater than or equal to 90% positive gemfibrozil analyses and -11.4% among those with good compliance according to both digoxin marker measurements. In contrast the mean serum cholesterol change was only -0.02% if the mean daily capsule count was less than 50%, -1.7% with fewer than 50% positive gemfibrozil analyses and -1.1% if the result was poor in both digoxin marker measurements. 3. Combining the different method findings revealed that the cholesterol changes tended to be small in those groups who had poor compliance classification measured by any of the methods, even if the other results showed good compliance. PMID:1958432

  16. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with benign breast disease and all the markers were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls. All the markers had a low accuracy (AUCs < 0.75) in differentiating between breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  17. Effects of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of human serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Kiran D K; Kunde, Dale A; Ball, Madeleine J; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2006-08-23

    The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is believed to be the initiating factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The active ingredients of spices such as chili and turmeric (capsaicin and curcumin, respectively) have been shown to reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. One of the techniques used to study the oxidation of LDL is to isolate LDL and subject it to metal-induced (copper or iron) oxidation. However, whole serum may represent a closer situation to in vivo conditions than using isolated LDL. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0.1-3 microM) of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of serum lipoproteins. The lag time (before initiation of oxidation) and rate of oxidation (slope of propagation phase) were calculated. The lag time increased, and the rate of oxidation decreased with increasing concentrations of the tested antioxidants (p < 0.05). A 50% increase in lag time (from control) was observed at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 microM for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin. This study shows that oxidation of serum lipids is reduced by capsaicinoids and curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner.

  18. Effect of synbiotic supplementation and dietary fat sources on broiler performance, serum lipids, muscle fatty acid profile and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, H A; Shivazad, M; Mirzapour Rezaei, S S; Karimi Torshizi, M A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a synbiotic supplement to diets containing two different types of fat on performance, blood lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat in broilers. A total of 800 one-d-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 treatments with 4 replicates of 25 birds per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 4 concentrations of synbiotic (0, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and 2 types of fat [sunflower oil (SO) or canola oil (CO)] at an inclusion rate of 50 g/kg diet. Dietary fat type did not affect body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period (0-42 d). However, fat type modified serum lipid profile and FA composition and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in breast and thigh meat. The addition of synbiotic to the diet linearly improved overall BWG and FCR and also decreased serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The TBARS value in thigh meat after 30 d of storage at 4°C was linearly decreased as the synbiotic inclusion concentrations in the diets increased. Dietary synbiotic also decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in thigh meat, whereas the FA profile of breast meat was not affected by synbiotic supplementation. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio in the breast meat was linearly increased when synbiotic was included in the CO-containing diets. In conclusion, the addition of synbiotic to broiler diets had a positive effect on growth performance, blood lipid profile and meat quality. The results also support the use of synbiotic to increase the capacity of canola oil for enhancing PUFA/SFA ratio of breast meat in broilers.

  19. Serum amyloid a gene polymorphism and its association with lipid profile in Saudi females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdu-Allah, Azza M.; Tarhouny, Shereen A. El; Baghdadi, Hussam Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Osteoporosis can be defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural decline of bone tissue. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of protein that increases up to 1,000-fold in blood during inflammation. In this study, we aimed to study the relationship between SAA1 gene polymorphism (rs12218) and lipid profile and osteoporosis. Methods: The study was performed on the female students of Taibah University in Al Medina, KSA during June 2014 to April 2015. According to BMD; osteoporosis group (138 students) and control group (128 students). All groups were subjected to; BMI, BMD, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, lipid profile and SAA. Polymerase chain reaction and Real Time were done to determine the distribution of allele and genotype frequency of SAA (rs12218) C/T polymorphism. Results: This study shows that the TT genotype of rs12218 was more frequent in osteoporosis group than control group (P<0.001). Also, TT genotype and T allel was found to be associated with plasma total cholesterol, TG, LDLc, HDLc, Tscore, Zscore and SAA1 level in osteoporosis group (P=0.000, P=0.05, and P=0.000, P=0.000, P=0.01, P=0.02, P=0.000 respectively). The logistic regression analysis with and without lipid disorders in the osteoporosis group also show that the TT genotype of rs12218 still differed significantly between these two groups (P=0.001, OR=1.814, 95% CI: 0.719-4.577). Conclusion: The results of this study shows a significant association between TT genotype of rs12218 and both lipid level and osteoporosis in Saudi female population. PMID:26648999

  20. 10-Year Trends in Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidemia Among Children and Adolescents From Several Schools in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenqing; Cheng, Hong; Yan, Yinkun; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Fangfang; Huang, Guimin; Hou, Dongqing; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum lipid trends in children and adolescents are predictors of the future prevalence of cardiovascular disease in adults. Methods Data were obtained from cross-sectional studies conducted in 2004 and 2014. A total of 3249 children aged 6–18 years were included in the present study; serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Results Overall, upward trends in mean TC, non-HDL-C, and LDL-C levels, and in geometric mean TG levels, were observed (all P < 0.001). Mean HDL-C levels significantly decreased between 2004 and 2014 (from 1.54 mmol/L to 1.47 mmol/L; P < 0.001). The prevalence of abnormal levels of serum lipids, with the exception of the prevalence of low HDL-C (P = 0.503), significantly increased over the study period (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hyperlipidemia (from 13.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6%–15.0% to 24.5%; 95% CI, 22.4%–26.6%; P < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (from 18.8%; 95% CI, 16.9%–20.7% to 28.9%; 95% CI, 26.7%–31.3%; P < 0.001) also increased from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of abnormal serum lipids increased, and mean serum lipid levels, with the exception of TC levels, worsened in subjects with obesity compared with non-overweight subjects, as well as in subjects with mixed obesity compared with non-obese subjects (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Adverse trends in serum lipid concentrations over the past 10 years were observed among children aged 6–9 years, with the exception of specific lipids, and among adolescents aged 10–18 years, from several schools in Beijing, China. PMID:27397598

  1. Weight loss increased serum adiponectin but decreased lipid levels in obese subjects whose body mass index was lower than 30 kg/m².

    PubMed

    Lang, Hui-Fen; Chou, Ching-Ya; Sheu, Wanye Huey-Herng; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-05-01

    We hypothesized that weight loss in obese subjects may affect adipokine levels, such as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. This study investigated the effects of an 8-week weight-control program on serum adiponectin, TNF-α, and blood lipid level profiles in obese subjects. Twenty obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 kg/m² were recruited for this weight loss program that used dietetic control and aerobic exercise training. A total of 3 obese men and 11 obese women (mean age, 40.3 ± 10.8 years; BMI, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m²) finished the program. Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics in subjects before and after the program were determined. The results showed that subjects' body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly (P < .05) decreased during the program. Further analysis showed a negative correlation between delta adiponectin and delta TNF-α, triacylglycerol, and systolic blood pressure in obese subjects. Subgroup analysis showed that obese subjects whose original BMI was less than 30 kg/m² had significantly increased serum adiponectin levels, and more than 3% weight reduction markedly improved blood lipids and body fat profiles during the program. Our findings suggest that weight reduction through an 8-week weight loss program may have anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects via increased serum adiponectin levels and improvements in blood lipid profiles and systolic blood pressure.

  2. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  3. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Julia L.; Pressman, Eva K.; Cooper, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Tera R.; Bar, Haim Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. PMID:25367051

  4. Evaluation of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins concentrations in cord blood serum of newborns from rural and urban environments.

    PubMed

    Pac-Kozuchowska, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to check the influence of rural and urban environments on some of the parameters of lipids metabolism in the cord blood serum in healthy newborns, as well as the evaluation of the concentration of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in the cord blood serum with relation to risk factors of atherosclerosis in the family of the studied newborns. The study included 75 newborns (37 from rural areas and 38 from urban areas). Newborns weight and length were recorded at birth. On the basis of the family history taken from the mothers, the atherosclerosis risk factors were established in the families of the studied newborns. In all of the studied newborns, concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, VLDL and HDL cholesterol as well as of apolipoproteins (apo-Al, apo-B) in the cord blood serum sampled soon after birth were performed. No statistically significant differences between the mean levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol of fractions: LDL, VLDL, HDL and apolipoproteins (apo-AI, apo-B) in the cord blood serum in the newborns from rural and urban areas were found. However, when analysing the concentration of parameters of lipid metabolism in cord blood serum in newborns with regard to gender, higher concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo-AI in female newborns from rural areas, and higher HDL cholesterol and apo-AI in female newborns from urban regions were confirmed. When analysing the concentration of lipids and lipoproteins in cord blood serum in newborns from families with risk factors confirmed as compared to the families without that risk, both in the rural and urban regions no significant differences were confirmed. The studies have not proved any significant differences between the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in the cord blood serum in newborns from rural and urban areas.

  5. Reduction of the infectivity of baculovirus stocks frozen at ultra-low temperature in serum-free media: The role of lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Ignacio; Gioria, Verónica Viviana; Micheloud, Gabriela Analía; Claus, Juan Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The infectivity of stocks of baculoviruses produced in serum-free media is sensitive to freezing at ultra-low temperatures. The objective of this work was to elucidate the causes of such sensitivity, using as a model the freezing of stocks of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a baculovirus widely employed as biological insecticide. Titers of supernatants of cell cultures infected with AgMNPV in four different serum-free media supplemented with lipid emulsions were reduced by 50 to 90% after six months freezing. By using a full factorial experiment, freezing and lipid emulsion, as well as the interaction between them, were identified as the main factors reducing the viral titer. The virucidal effect of the lipid emulsion was reproduced by one of their components, the surfactant Polysorbate 80. Damaged viral envelopes were observed by transmission electron microscopy in most particles frozen in a medium supplemented with lipid emulsion or Polysorbate 80. Additionally, Polysorbate 80 also affected the infectivity of AgMNPV stocks that were incubated at 27°C. The identification of the roles played by the lipid emulsion and Polysorbate 80 is not only a contribution to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the inactivation of baculovirus stocks produced in serum-free media during storage at ultra-low temperature, but is also an input for the rational development of new procedures aimed at improving both the preservation of baculovirus stocks and the composition of culture media for the production of baculovirus-based bioproducts in insect cells. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1559-1569, 2016.

  6. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  7. In vitro lipid peroxidation of human serum catalyzed by cupric ion: Antioxidant rather than prooxidant role of ascorbate

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Zdunek, T. )

    1992-01-01

    Ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting human serum from lipid peroxidation induced by azo dye-generated free radicals. On the other hand, ascorbate is readily oxidized in the presence of transition metal ions, (especially cupric ion) and accelerates lipid peroxidation in tissue homogenates by producing free radicals. Interestingly, the authors observed an antioxidant rather than an expected prooxidant role of ascorbate when human serum supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L ascorbate underwent lipid peroxidations initiated by 2mmol/L copper sulfate. The antioxidant role of ascorbate was confirmed by studying the conventional thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as well as by observing the protective effect of ascorbate on the copper-induced peroxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The antioxidation protection provided by ascorbate was comparable to that of equimolar {alpha}-tocopherol when incubated for 24h. However, lipid peroxidation products were lower in serum supplemented with {alpha}-tocopherol after 48h of incubation. This effect may be attributed to the binding of copper by serum proteins, thus preventing direct interaction between cupric ions and ascorbate. This proposed mechanisms is based on the observation that the concentration of ascorbate decreased more slowly in serum than in phosphate buffer at physiological pH.

  8. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on hepatic and serum lipid profiles in zebrafish exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Hermes, Djuli Milene; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Guizzo, Ranieli; Fracasso, Laísa Beduschi; de-Paris, Fernanda; Meurer, Fábio; Barth, Afonso Luis; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2014-08-01

    Zebrafish is a powerful tool in pharmacological research and useful to identify new therapies. Probiotics can offer therapeutic options in alcoholic liver disease. This study was done in two independent experiments: first, we confirmed the intestinal colonization of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) after ethanol exposure. Second, four groups were performed: control (C), probiotic (P), ethanol (E), and probiotic+ethanol (P+E). Liver histology, hepatocytes morphometry, hepatic and serum lipid quantifications were conducted in second experiment. During 4 weeks, P and P+E groups were fed with LGG supplemented feed; E and C unsupplemented. E and P+E groups received 0.5% of ethanol added into tank water. Zebrafish exposed to ethanol (E group) presented intense liver steatosis after 28 days in contrast to the almost normalized liver histology of P+E group at the same period. Liver morphometry showed a significant enlargement of hepatocytes of E group after 4 weeks (p<0.0001). Serum triglycerides decreased in P+E group compared with C, P (p<0.001), and E (p=0.004), after 14 and 28 days similarly. Serum cholesterol was also decreased by LGG; P group decreased compared with C and E after 14 days (p=0.002 and p=0.007, respectively) and P+E group decreased significantly compared with E and C groups (p<0.0001) after 28 days. Hepatic triglycerides were reduced in P+E group after 28 days compared to E (p=0.006). The persistence of LGG in zebrafish intestines was demonstrated. LGG decreased serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and improved hepatic steatosis.

  9. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuelan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Peipei; Shi, Tianhong; Wei, Xiangfa

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell. PMID:27383812

  10. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid as markers for carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Vivas, I; Spagnuolo, L; Palacios, P

    1992-08-01

    Concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) were determined in serum samples from 88 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 26 normal subjects, and 44 patients with benign uterine or ovarian disease. TSA concentrations in patients with cervical cancer were found to correlate with advanced-stage disease. LSA concentrations were only increased in stage IV of the disease. Sensitivity of the test for stage IB was zero for TSA and 27% for LSA. The specificity of both markers was about 80% due to a low incidence of false-positive values in the pathologic control group. Measurements of TSA or LSA appear to be of no value for the early detection of cervical cancer or to complement the clinical staging of this tumor.

  11. Stronger relationship of serum apolipoprotein A-1 and B with diabetic retinopathy than traditional lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ankit, B. S.; Mathur, G.; Agrawal, R. P.; Mathur, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common preventable cause of blindness where early detection and treatment can be sight-saving. Search for biomarkers of the disease has been relentless. We aimed to determine whether lipoproteins apolipoproteins A1 and B1 (Apo-A1 and Apo-B1) have stronger associations with DR in contrast to conventionally measured low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study and studied 117 patients. Serum lipid profile was assessed by autoanalyzer. Serum Apo-A1 and Apo-B were measured using immunoturbidimetric kit on an autoanalyzer. Apo-B/A1 ratio was calculated. Retinopathy was graded from the digital retinal photographs, taken with nonmydriatic auto fundus camera and classified according to International Clinical DR Disease Severity Scale. Results: Mean Apo-A1 for mild, moderate, severe retinopathy, and proliferative DR (PDR) shows a significant negative correlation (P = 0.001) with severity of retinopathy. Mean Apo-B for mild, moderate, severe, PDR displayed a significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P = 0.001). Mean Apo-B/A1 for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed highly significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P < 0.001). In contrast, mean LDL for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed insignificant association with severity of DR (P = 0.081). Conclusion: Apo-A1 and Apo-B have a stronger association with the development of DR than traditional lipids and can thus facilitate early detection and treatment of the disease. PMID:28217507

  12. Serum heat inactivation affects protein corona composition and nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Anna; Campbell, Abigail; Monopoli, Marco P; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles are of an appropriate size to interact with cells, and are likely to use a range of cellular machinery for internalisation and trafficking to various sub-cellular compartments. It is now understood that once in contact with biological fluids, the nanoparticle surface gets covered by a highly specific layer of proteins, forming the nanoparticle protein corona. This protein layer is stable for times longer than the typical time scale of nanoparticle import, and thus can impact on particle uptake and trafficking inside the cells. In this work, the effect of the corona composition on nanoparticle uptake has been investigated, by studying the impact of serum heat inactivation and complement depletion on the load of nanoparticles accumulated inside the cell. For the same material and nanoparticle size, cellular uptake was found to be significantly different when the nanoparticles were dispersed in medium where the serum was heat inactivated or not heat inactivated, even for non-specialized cells, suggesting that different sera can lead to different nanoparticle doses. The fact that uptake was correlated with the amount of protein bound into the nanoparticle corona suggests the need for commonly agreed dispersion protocols for in vitro nanoparticle-cell studies.

  13. Pistachio diet improves erectile function parameters and serum lipid profiles in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Kayıgil, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Antep pistachio on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) parameters and serum lipid levels in patients with ED. A total of 17 married male patients with ED for at least 12 months were included in this prospective study. Patients were put on a 100 g pistachio nuts diet for 3 weeks. IIEF and PCDU were evaluated before and after the pistachio diet. In addition, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were measured before and after dietary modifications from all subjects. Mean IIEF-15 score was 36 ± 7.5 before the diet and 54.2 ± 4.9 after the diet (P=0.001). Similarly, an increase in all five domains of IIEF was observed after the diet (P<0.05). Mean peak systolic velocity values before and after the pistachio diet were 35.5 ± 15.2 and 43.3 ± 12.4 cm s(-1), respectively (P=0.018). After the pistachio diet, TC and LDL levels decreased significantly, whereas HDL level increased (P=0.008, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). We demonstrated that a pistachio diet improved IIEF scores and PCDU parameters without any associated side effects in patients with ED. Furthermore, the lipid parameters showed statistically significant improvements after this diet.

  14. Reduction in blood pressure and serum lipids by lycosome formulation of dark chocolate and lycopene in prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y; Chalyk, Natalia E; Klochkov, Victor; Kyle, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine healthy volunteers aged 47–69 years old were randomly assigned to a 28-day oral intake of different dark chocolate (DC) formulations. The main group received daily 30 g of proprietary lycopene-containing (L-tug) lycosome formulation of DC with enhanced bioavailability of cocoa flavanols. Two control groups daily consumed either 30 g of regular DC alone or along with 7 mg of lycopene, which corresponds to the amount of lycopene ingested with L-tug formulation. It was found that L-tug was more efficient in reducing diastolic blood pressure (mean value of −6.22 mmHg, 95% CI: 5.00, 8.00) when compared with the regular DC group (−3.00 mmHg, P < 0.05) or the group which ingested the DC and lycopene as two separate formulations (mean reduction of −4 mmHg, 95% CI: 2.47, 6.00, P = 0.0262). Only marginal superiority for L-tug formulation in the reduction in systolic blood pressure was seen. However, the L-tug formulation was the only formulation of DC which affected serum lipids. There was a reduction in total cholesterol (from median 228.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 206.2, 242.5] to 187.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 166.2, 202.2, P < 0.05]) with corresponding decline of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (from a median of 166.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 130.8, 177.0] to 151.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 122.8, 167.4; P < 0.05]) at the end of the intervention period. Similar decline was seen in serum triglycerides (P < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP) values remained statistically unchanged in all study groups throughout the intervention period. A superior biological activity of the L-tug lycosome formulation of DC extending beyond its antihypertensive effect to lipid-lowering ability opens up new possibilities for the use of DC for health purposes helping to reduce daily caloric intake without compromising on the health benefits of DC consumption. PMID:25493193

  15. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk.

  16. [Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices and lipid metabolism in Coilia nasus].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guang-Lian; Xu, Gang-Chun; Gu, Ruo-Bo; Xu, Pao

    2013-12-01

    Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices, and enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in fingerlings Coilia nasus at age of 6 months were investigated during 60-day experiment in this study. Fingerlings with similar body length and mass were fed with one of 3 types of diets (diet 1: soft pellet; diet 2: soft pellet mixed with fish oil; diet 3: slow-sinking hard pellet). Fish fed with diets 2 or 3 had significantly higher total body mass, rate of mass gain, specific growth rate, and fullness coefficient than those fed with diet 1. Fish fed with diet 3 exhibited the lower food coefficient compared to those fed with diets 1 or 2. Growth traits (length, length to mass ratio, length to width ratio, hepatopancreas somatic indices and viscera somatic index) and serum biochemical indices (total protein, albumin, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides) in all three treatments were not significantly different. Fish fed with diet 1 exhibited significantly higher carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I than those fed with diets 2 or 3, while fish fed with diet 2 exhibited significantly lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II. However, amylase, pepsin, lipase activity, lipoprotein lipase and acetyl-coa carboxylase had no significant difference in fish body among all groups. Results suggested that fish oil as a diet supplement highly facilitated fish growing. The slow-sinking pellet had the highest utilization efficiency and was suitable to feed fish fingerlings of C. nasus.

  17. Catalase and lipid peroxidation values in serum of Tunisian patients with pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abida, Olfa; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Gargouri, Bochra; Ben Ayed, Mourad; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Turki, Hamida; Masmoudi, Hatem; Lassoued, Saloua

    2012-12-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder resulting from the interaction between autoantibodies and desmoglein. Oxidative stress seems to be responsible for the onset/aggravation of many human diseases. Actually, it is considered as one of the several factors for the etiopathogenesis of pemphigus. The present study aims to evaluate the oxidative state in the sera of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus patients by assessing lipid peroxidation, proteins oxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activity. This study included 36 pemphigus vulgaris and 42 pemphigus foliaceus patients as well as a group of controls consisting of 78 healthy volunteers. Malondialdehyde levels (p < 0.001) and catalase activity (p < 0.001) are higher in both groups of patients than in the control group. The two groups of patients showed a nonsignificant decrease in the thiol groups compared with the healthy one. A nonsignificant difference was shown between pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus patients, except for the catalase which shows an increase in the pemphigus vulgaris group. We have also found significant correlations between serum oxidative stress marker levels and serum anti-desmoglein antibody levels in the two pemphigus groups. These findings underline the implication of oxidative stress in the physiopathology of pemphigus by the increase in the autoantibodies' reactivity.

  18. Serum metabolomics analysis reveals changes in signaling lipids in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Wang, Qiaolian; Chen, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer death among women worldwide. It is a biologically variable disease with different molecular subtypes, risk factors, clinical behaviors and responses to treatment. Better understanding of the molecular changes associated with each subtype is essential for identifying new therapeutic targets and markers for the monitoring of treatment responses. In this pilot study, mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the changes in serum profiles of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) - the most common type of breast cancer. Serum samples from 20 IDC patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were analyzed and 15 differentially expressed metabolites were identified. These metabolites are involved in several metabolic pathways such as sphingolipid metabolism, phospholipid metabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation. Among these, two classes of signaling lipids, lysophosphatidylethanolamine and ceramide, may play an important role in IDC development and progression. This study demonstrates metabolic profiling as a promising tool for finding disease biomarkers and our findings provide new directions for further mechanistic studies on the pathology of IDC.

  19. Effects of Greek orthodox christian church fasting on serum lipids and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sarri, Katerina O; Tzanakis, Nikolaos E; Linardakis, Manolis K; Mamalakis, George D; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2003-01-01

    Background No study to date has focused on the impact of Greek Orthodox Christian fasting on serum lipoproteins and obesity yet. Methods 120 Greek adults were followed longitudinally for one year. Sixty fasted regularly in all fasting periods (fasters) and 60 did not fast at all (controls). The three major fasting periods under study were: Christmas (40 days), Lent (48 days) and Assumption (August, 15 days). A total of 6 measurements were made during one year including pre- and end-fasting blood collection, serum lipoprotein analyses and anthropometric measurements. Results Statistically significant end-fasting total and LDL cholesterol differences were found in fasters. Fasters compared to controls presented 12.5% lower end-total cholesterol (p < 0.001), 15.9% lower end-LDL cholesterol (p < 0.001) and 1.5% lower end-BMI (p < 0.001). The end- LDL/HDL ratio was lower in fasters (6.5%, p < 0.05) while the change in end- HDL cholesterol in fasters (4.6% decline) was not significant. Similar results were found when the pre- and end-fasting values of fasters were compared. No change was found in control subjects. Conclusions Adherence to Greek Orthodox fasting periods contributes to a reduction in the blood lipid profile including a non-significant reduction in HDL cholesterol and possible impact on obesity. PMID:12753698

  20. Effect of alpha-linolenic acid-rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Henna M; Aro, Antti; Tapola, Niina S; Salminen, Irma; Uusitupa, Matti I j; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2002-10-01

    Camelina sativa-derived oil (camelina oil) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. The proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in serum fatty acids is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effects of camelina oil on serum lipids and on the fatty acid composition of total lipids in comparison to rapeseed and olive oils in a parallel, double-blind setting. Sixty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 28 to 65 years were randomly assigned after a 2-week pretrial period to 1 of 3 oil groups: camelina oil, olive oil, and rapeseed oil. Subjects consumed daily 30 g (actual intake, approximately 33 mL) of test oils for 6 weeks. In the camelina group, the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in fatty acids of serum lipids was significantly higher (P <.001) compared to the 2 other oil groups at the end of the study: 2.5 times higher compared to the rapeseed oil group and 4 times higher compared to the olive oil group. Respectively the proportions of 2 metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid (eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids) increased and differed significantly in the camelina group from those in other groups. During the intervention, the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration decreased significantly by 12.2% in the camelina oil group, 5.4% in the rapeseed oil group, and 7.7% in the olive oil group. In conclusion, camelina oil significantly elevated the proportions of alpha-linolenic acid and its metabolites in serum of mildly or moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Camelina oil's serum cholesterol-lowering effect was comparable to that of rapeseed and olive oils.

  1. Status of serum magnesium in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Shahbah, Doaa; El Naga, Amr Abo; Hassan, Tamer; Zakaria, Marwa; Beshir, Mohamed; Al Morshedy, Salah; Abdalhady, Mohamed; Kamel, Ezzat; Rahman, Doaa Abdel; Kamel, Lamiaa; Abdelkader, May

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, having 25% to 39% prevalence. This deficit could be associated with the development of late diabetic complications, especially macroangiopathy.We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assess its relation to glycemic control and lipid profile.We included 71 Egyptian children with type 1diabetes having their follow-up at Pediatric Endocrinology outpatient clinic, Zagazig University Hospital and 71 age- and sex-matched control. We measured Serum magnesium, HbA1c, and lipid profile in all study subjects.Diabetic children had significantly lower serum magnesium level compared to control children (1.83 ± .27 mg/dL in diabetic children versus 2.00 ± .16 mg/dL in control children). Taking cut-off level of serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dL for definition of hypomagnesemia, hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% of diabetic children compared to 9.9% of control children. In diabetic patients, there was statistically significant difference in HbA1c between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic group being higher in the low magnesium group, as it is mean ± SD was 11.93 ± 3.17 mg/dL in group I versus 8.92 ± 0.93 mg/dL in the normomagnesemic group. Serum magnesium was found to be positively correlated with HDL (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001).We concluded that total serum magnesium was frequently low in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and it is correlated with HbA1c and with lipid profile. Hypomagnesemia was more evident in patients with poor diabetic control and those with higher atherogenic lipid parameters. We suggest that low serum magnesium may be included in pathogenesis of poor glycemic control and abnormal lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes. We need to perform further

  2. Status of serum magnesium in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahbah, Doaa; El Naga, Amr Abo; Hassan, Tamer; Zakaria, Marwa; Beshir, Mohamed; Al Morshedy, Salah; Abdalhady, Mohamed; Kamel, Ezzat; Rahman, Doaa Abdel; Kamel, Lamiaa; Abdelkader, May

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, having 25% to 39% prevalence. This deficit could be associated with the development of late diabetic complications, especially macroangiopathy. We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assess its relation to glycemic control and lipid profile. We included 71 Egyptian children with type 1diabetes having their follow-up at Pediatric Endocrinology outpatient clinic, Zagazig University Hospital and 71 age- and sex-matched control. We measured Serum magnesium, HbA1c, and lipid profile in all study subjects. Diabetic children had significantly lower serum magnesium level compared to control children (1.83 ± .27 mg/dL in diabetic children versus 2.00 ± .16 mg/dL in control children). Taking cut-off level of serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dL for definition of hypomagnesemia, hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% of diabetic children compared to 9.9% of control children. In diabetic patients, there was statistically significant difference in HbA1c between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic group being higher in the low magnesium group, as it is mean ± SD was 11.93 ± 3.17 mg/dL in group I versus 8.92 ± 0.93 mg/dL in the normomagnesemic group. Serum magnesium was found to be positively correlated with HDL (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001). We concluded that total serum magnesium was frequently low in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and it is correlated with HbA1c and with lipid profile. Hypomagnesemia was more evident in patients with poor diabetic control and those with higher atherogenic lipid parameters. We suggest that low serum magnesium may be included in pathogenesis of poor glycemic control and abnormal lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes. We need to perform

  3. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  4. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  5. A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Matthew J; Kraemer, William J; Love, Dawn M; Avery, Neva G; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Volek, Jeff S

    2002-07-01

    Very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets are popular yet little is known regarding the effects on serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examined the effects of a 6-wk ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial serum biomarkers in 20 normal-weight, normolipidemic men. Twelve men switched from their habitual diet (17% protein, 47% carbohydrate and 32% fat) to a ketogenic diet (30% protein, 8% carbohydrate and 61% fat) and eight control subjects consumed their habitual diet for 6 wk. Fasting blood lipids, insulin, LDL particle size, oxidized LDL and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin responses to a fat-rich meal were determined before and after treatment. There were significant decreases in fasting serum TAG (-33%), postprandial lipemia after a fat-rich meal (-29%), and fasting serum insulin concentrations (-34%) after men consumed the ketogenic diet. Fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL were unaffected and HDL cholesterol tended to increase with the ketogenic diet (+11.5%; P = 0.066). In subjects with a predominance of small LDL particles pattern B, there were significant increases in mean and peak LDL particle diameter and the percentage of LDL-1 after the ketogenic diet. There were no significant changes in blood lipids in the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to document the effects of a ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial CVD biomarkers independent of weight loss. The results suggest that a short-term ketogenic diet does not have a deleterious effect on CVD risk profile and may improve the lipid disorders characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  6. Short-term magnesium deficiency results in decreased levels of serum sphingomyelin, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Li, Zhiqiang; Perez-Albela, José Luis; Sica, Anthony C; Altura, Bella T

    2009-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would 1) result in decreased serum(s) [the present study tested the levels of Mg, sphingomyelin (SM), and phosphatidylcholine (PC)]; 2) promote DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation (LP), and activation of caspase-3 in cardiac (ventricular and atrial) and vascular(aortic) muscle; and 3) low levels of Mg(2+) added to drinking water would either prevent or greatly ameliorate these manifestations. The data indicate that short-term Mg deficiency (10% normal dietary intake) resulted in profound reductions in serum-ionized Mg and total Mg with an elevation in serum-ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), significant lowering of serum SM and serum PC, with concomitant LP, DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspase-3 in ventricular (right and left chambers), atrial (right and left chambers) and abdominal aortic smooth muscle. The greater the reduction in serum-ionized Mg, the greater the effects on DNA fragmentation, LP, and caspase-3 activity. The intake of water-borne Mg(2+) at all levels greatly attenuated or inhibited the reductions in serum SM and serum PC, activation of LP, DNA fragmentation, and the activation of caspase-3; even very low levels of Mg(2+) in drinking water (i.e., 15 parts.million(-1).day(-1)) were cardio- and vascular protective. In addition, we demonstrate that short-term dietary deficiency of Mg probably results in a downregulation of SM synthase and a decreased synthesis of PC.

  7. Lipid composition affects the rate of photosensitized dissipation of cross-membrane diffusion potential on liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ytzhak, Shany; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic or amphiphilic tetrapyrrole sensitizers are taken up by cells and are usually located in cellular lipid membranes. Singlet oxygen is photogenerated by the sensitizer and it diffuses in the membrane and causes oxidative damage to membrane components. This damage can occur to membrane lipids and to membrane-localized proteins. Depolarization of the Nernst electric potential on cells’ membranes has been observed in cellular photosensitization, but it was not established whether lipid oxidation is a relevant factor leading to abolishing the resting potential of cells’ membranes and to their death. In this work we studied the effect of liposomes’ lipid composition on the kinetics of hematoporphyrin-photosensitized dissipation of K+-diffusion electric potential that was generated across the membranes. We employed an electrochromic voltage-sensitive spectroscopic probe that possesses a high fluorescence signal response to the potential. We found a correlation between the structure and unsaturation of lipids and the leakage of the membrane, following photosensitization. As the extent of non-conjugated unsaturation of the lipids is increased from 1 to 6 double bonds, the kinetics of depolarization become faster. We also found that the kinetics of depolarization is affected by the percentage of the unsaturated lipids in the liposome: as the fraction of the unsaturated lipids increases the leakage trough the membrane is enhanced. When liposomes are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes and photosensitization is being carried out under usual photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions, photodamage to the lipids is not likely to cause enhanced permeability of ions through the membrane, which would have been a mechanism that leads to cell death. PMID:20536150

  8. Effects of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Homocysteine Levels in a Post-Menopausal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Umar, Nor Aini; Mokhtar, Norhayati; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on serum lipid profile, homocysteine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in estrogen-deficient rats. Twenty-four female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then were divided equally into four groups. The control group was given 2% cholesterol diet only throughout the study period. The three treatment groups received 2% cholesterol diet fortified with fresh, once-heated or five-times-heated palm oil, respectively. Serum TBARS, lipid profile and homocysteine levels were measured prior to ovariectomy and at the end of four months of the study. Five-times-heated palm oil caused a significant increase in TBARS and total cholesterol (TC) compared to control (F = 22.529, p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in serum homocysteine in the control as well as five-times heated palm oil group compared to fresh and once-heated palm oil groups (F = 4.432, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that repeatedly heated palm oil increase lipid peroxidation and TC. Ovariectomy increases the development of atherosclerosis as seen in this study. Feeding with fresh and once-heated palm oil does not cause any deleterious effect but repeatedly heated oil may be harmful because it causes oxidative damage thereby predisposing to atherosclerosis. PMID:19148313

  9. Evaluation of Serum, Urine, and Hair Chromium Levels as Indices of Chromium Exposure and the Relationship of these Indices to Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Janis Avril

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr) in hair, serum, and urine, and serum concentrations of insulin and lipids of a selected group of men exposed to trivalent Cr (Cr III) were compared with those of men not exposed to Cr. Seventy -three tannery workers (TW) (mean age 37 +/- 12 years) from four Southern Ontario tanneries and fifty-two control subjects (CS) (mean age 41 +/- 13 years), matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status, from the Guelph and Toronto areas participated. The median hair and serum Cr concentrations for the TW were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for the CS (hair Cr 453 vs 124 ng/g; serum Cr 0.49 vs 0.15 ng/ml). Median urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (Cr/Cre) for the TW on Monday morning (0.83 ng/mg) and Friday afternoon (0.68 ng/mg) were also significantly higher (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively) than the median urinary Cr/Cre ratio for the urine samples collected on a Friday afternoon from the CS (0.18 ng/mg). For the TW, the median Friday urinary Cr/Cre ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than the corresponding Monday Cr/Cre ratio. For the TW, urinary Cr/Cre ratios (Monday and Friday) were correlated significantly and positively with both Cr concentrations in serum (r = 0.45, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.01, respectively) and in hair (r = 0.43, p < 0.01; r = 0.64, p < 0.01, respectively). Concentrations of Cr in hair and in serum were also significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the TW and CS in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides, or in calculated values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, %HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Likewise, no significant differences in serum insulin concentrations were noted between the two groups. Results of this study indicate that Cr III, from compounds used in the leather tanning industry, is absorbed and retained. Absorption of Cr III had no significant effect on serum insulin

  10. Effects of Erxian decoction, a Chinese medicinal formulation, on serum lipid profile in a rat model of menopause

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk of cardiovascular disease increase after menopause in correlation with the progression of abnormality in the serum lipid profile and the deprivation of estrogen. Erxian decoction (EXD), a Chinese medicinal formulation for treating menopausal syndrome, stimulates ovarian estrogen biosynthesis. This study investigates whether EXD improves the serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model. Methods Twenty-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EXD and its constituent fractions. Premarin was administered for comparison. After eight weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were determined. The hepatic protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density-lipoprotein receptor were assessed with Western blot. Results The serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in the EXD-treated group than in the constituent fractions of EXD or premarin groups. However, the serum levels of triglyceride and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were not significantly different from the control groups. Results from Western blot suggest that EXD significantly down-regulated the protein level of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and up-regulated low-density-lipoprotein receptor. Conclusion EXD improves serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model through the suppression of the serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, possibly through the down-regulation of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA and up-regulation of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor. PMID:22047073

  11. Apple cider vinegar modulates serum lipid profile, erythrocyte, kidney, and liver membrane oxidative stress in ovariectomized mice fed high cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Güler, Mustafa; Özgül, Cemil; Saydam, Gündüzalp; Küçükayaz, Mustafa; Sözbir, Ercan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentially beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar (ACV) supplementation on serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, liver and kidney membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant levels in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed high cholesterol. Four groups of ten female mice were treated as follows: Group I received no treatment and was used as control. Group II was OVX mice. Group III received ACV intragastrically (0.6% of feed), and group IV was OVX and was treated with ACV as described for group III. The treatment was continued for 28 days, during which the mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet. The lipid peroxidation levels in erythrocyte, liver and kidney, triglycerides, total, and VLDL cholesterol levels in serum were higher in the OVX group than in groups III and IV. The levels of vitamin E in liver, the kidney and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH) were decreased in group II. The GSH-Px, vitamin C, E, and β-carotene, and the erythrocyte GSH and GSH-Px values were higher in kidney of groups III and IV, but in liver the vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were decreased. In conclusion, ACV induced a protective effect against erythrocyte, kidney, and liver oxidative injury, and lowered the serum lipid levels in mice fed high cholesterol, suggesting that it possesses oxidative stress scavenging effects, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and increases the levels of antioxidant enzymes and vitamin.

  12. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  13. Noni juice improves serum lipid profiles and other risk markers in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids.

  14. [Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants.

  15. Lipid peroxidation and serum antioxidant enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Feroza N; Naqvi, Farzana N; Shafiq, Fakhra

    2006-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by fasting hyperglycemia, with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Persons are also known to be prone to develop complications related to elevated blood glucose concentrations, including atherosclerosis, retinal damage, cataract, and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia may also result in increased production of the reactive oxygen species within numerous biochemical pathways that have the potential to initiate changes in endothelial function. This article demonstrates the presence of lipid peroxidation products in the red cell membranes of type 2 diabetic patients compared to the normal subjects. These membranes are more susceptible to exogenous oxidative stress than those of normal healthy individuals. Significantly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely, serum peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were found in type 2 diabetic patients as compared to control. This study led us to conclude that elevated levels of glucose induce oxidative stress that is ultimately reflected by the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocyte ghost membranes of diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia also induced an increase in antioxidant enzymes and a relationship seems to exist between diabetic complications and elevated levels of these enzymes. It is suggested that these antioxidant enzymes may be considered as markers for vascular injury.

  16. Intravenous lipid emulsion given to volunteers does not affect symptoms of lidocaine brain toxicity.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine.

  17. TCDD-Elicited Effects on Liver, Serum, and Adipose Lipid Composition in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zacharewski, Timothy Richard

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates alterations in hepatic lipid composition elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to further investigate the effects of TCDD, liver, serum, and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and lipids were examined in fasted 4-week-old female mice orally gavaged with 30 µg/kg TCDD at 24, 72, and 168h postdose. Mean hepatic FAME levels increased (236.7 µmol/g in controls compared with 392.2 µmol/g in TCDD treated) with minimal changes in gWAT and serum. In the liver, TCDD decreased saturated fatty acids (SFAs 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0) and increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs 16:1n7, 18:1n9, and 20:1n9). Hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 20:2n6, 20:3n6, 18:3n3, and 22:5n3 also increased, whereas 20:4n6 and 22:6n3 levels decreased. gWAT PUFAs 20:2n6 and 20:3n6 exhibited modest increases, whereas serum 18:0 decreased and 18:1n9 increased. Serum analyses also identified a ~25% decrease in total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein following TCDD treatment. The decrease in serum CHOL was consistent with the induction of hepatic reverse CHOL transport genes Lcat (2.0-fold), Apoa1 (1.7-fold), and Ldlr (3.6-fold), and the repression of CHOL biosynthesis genes Hmgcs1 (−2.1-fold) and Hmgcr (−2.3-fold). In addition, TCDD decreased serum Apob100 (4.4-fold) and Apob48 (2.2-fold) protein levels, suggesting serum lipid clearance and decreased hepatic efflux. Collectively, the TCDD-elicited decreases in serum lipid levels are consistent with AhR-mediated enhancement of dietary fat distribution to the liver. PMID:22977169

  18. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  19. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat.

  20. Consumption of sericin reduces serum lipids, ameliorates glucose tolerance and elevates serum adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Kakehi, Shoko; Xu, Yonghui; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Masahiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Norihisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect was examined of dietary sericin on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats were fed with a 20% beef tallow diet with or without sericin at the level of 4% for 5 weeks. The final body weight and white adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary manipulation. The consumption of sericin significantly reduced the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and LDL-phospholipids were also significantly reduced by the sericin intake. Liver triglyceride and the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, the lipogenic enzymes, were also reduced by the sericin intake. Dietary sericin caused a marked elevation in serum adiponectin. The consumption of sericin suppressed the increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. These results imply the usefulness of sericin for improving the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

  1. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    PubMed

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (≤250µM) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125µM; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-α-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50µM, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl.

  2. EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL ELDERLY WOMEN: ASSOCIATION WITH ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA GENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    SAI, ADARSH J.; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER; FANG, XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine the effect of conjugated equine estrogens alone (ET), conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone (EPT), calcitriol alone, calcitriol plus EPT/ET or placebo on serum lipid profile and analyze the interaction with estrogen receptor alpha gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (ESR-α SNPs) on response to therapy. Methods 489 postmenopausal women > 65 years age enrolled in 3-year double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial Results In both intent to treat and complier (>80% adherent) analysis, there was significant increase in serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL), significant decrease in serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and LDL:HDL ratio in all hormone treatment groups compared to placebo (p<0.05). However, serum triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) increased in EPT and ET+ calcitriol groups' versus placebo (p <0.05). ESR-α SNPs PvuII and XbaI appeared to have a significant effect on response to treatment. Genotypes containing p allele showed significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol and VLDL than those having P allele in the ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05) and those with x allele had significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol in HT plus calcitriol group at the end of 3 years versus X allele and a greater decrease in serum LDL in alleles x versus X in ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05). Conclusions ET with or without progesterone had a favorable effect on lipid profile in postmenopausal elderly women and this was dependent on estrogen receptor SNP's – PvuII and XbaI. However, this interaction with ESR-α SNPs need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:21712736

  3. Serum trace elements are associated with hemostasis, lipid spectrum and inflammatory markers in men suffering from acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Klimenko, Lydmila L; Turna, Aliya A; Budanova, Maria N; Baskakov, Ivan S; Savostina, Marina S; Mazilina, Aksana N; Deyev, Anatoly I; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-02-20

    The primary objective of the study is investigation of the association between trace elements status and hemostasis, lipid spectrum and inflammatory markers in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A total of 30 men suffering from AIS and 30 healthy controls were involved in the current survey. Blood count, serum lipid spectrum, complement components C4 and C3a, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), S100B protein, NR2 antibodies (NR2Ab), and total antioxidant status (TAS), as well as plasma fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were assessed. Serum trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. AIS patients were characterized by significantly increased fibrinogen, D-dimer, TG, C3a, C4, NR2Ab, and VEGF levels. The leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum atherogenic index were also increased in stroke patients. Oppositely, TAS and APTT values, bleeding and blood coagulation time were decreased. AIS patients were characterized by significantly decreased serum Fe and Co concentrations, whereas the level of Cu, I, Li, Mn, Se, Zn, As, Pb, Ni, and especially V and B in serum was significantly increased. Serum V and B tightly correlated with the procoagulant state and inflammatory markers. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant inverse association between serum Se levels and stroke markers after adjustment for covariates. Therefore, it is hypothesized that elements like vanadium and boron may be closely involved in stroke pathogenesis by modulation of hemostasis and inflammation, whereas the observed increase in Se levels may be considered as a compensatory reaction.

  4. Correlation of serum triglyceride and its reduction by omega-3 fatty acids with lipid transfer activity and the neutral lipid compositions of high-density and low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Brauchi, D; Kilinç, C; Osmundsen, K; Pao, Q; Payton-Ross, C; Gotto, A M; Ballantyne, C M

    1999-04-01

    Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are inversely correlated and mechanistically linked by means of lipid transfer activities. Phospholipid transfer activity (PLTA) moves phospholipids among serum lipoproteins; cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA), which exchanges cholesteryl esters (CE) and TG among lipoproteins, is stimulated by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The aims of this study were (a) to develop a quantitative model that correlates the neutral lipid (NL = CE + TG) compositions of HDL and LDL with serum TG concentration; (b) identify the serum lipid determinants of CETA and PLTA, and; (c) identify the effects of serum TG reductions on the neutral lipid compositions of HDL and LDL, serum NEFA concentrations, and on PLTA and CETA. These aims were addressed in 40 hypertriglyceridemic subjects before and after treatment with an 85% concentrate of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor) and in 16 untreated normolipidemic subjects. In vivo, the NL compositions of LDL and HDL were described by a mathematical model having the form of adsorption isotherms: HDL - (TG/NL) = (0.90 +/- 0.07) serum TG/(7.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l + serum TG) and LDL - (TG/NL) = (0.65 +/- 0.08) serum TG/(4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/l + serum TG). Reduction of serum TG was associated with reductions in HDL - (TG/NL), serum NEFA concentration, and serum CETA but not PLTA. These data suggest that both hypertriglyceridemia and the attendant elevated serum CETA but not PLTA are determinants of HDL and LDL composition and structure and that serum TG concentrations are good predictors of the NL compositions of HDL and LDL.

  5. Analysis of the effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides on serum lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anniston, Alabama, is the site of a former Monsanto plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured from 1929 until 1971. Residents of Anniston are known to have elevated levels of PCBs. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. Methods Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Associations between toxicant concentrations and lipid levels were determined using multiple linear regression analysis. Results We observed that elevated serum concentrations of lipids were associated with elevated serum concentrations of ΣPCBs and summed pesticides in analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercising status. The strongest associations were seen for PCB congeners with three, four, or at least eight substituted chlorines. Mono-ortho substituted congeners 74 and 156, di-ortho congeners 172 and 194, and tri- and tetra-ortho congeners 199, 196–203, 206 and 209 each were significantly associated with total lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Serum concentrations of HCB and chlordane also had strong associations with lipid components. Conclusions Increased concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides are associated with elevations in total serum lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides, but the patterns are different for different groups of PCBs and different pesticides. These

  6. Pigmented Rice Bran and Plant Sterol Combination Reduces Serum Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kitts, David D.; Zawistowski, Jerzy; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Kopeć, Aneta; Pope, Benjamin T.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the dietary effect of including pigmented rice bran with or without plant sterols on lipid profiles during energy restriction–induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults not taking cholesterol-lowering medication. In addition, the study examined the effect of intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods A group of 24 overweight and obese adults (age: 43 ± 6 years, body mass index 32 ± 1 kg/m2, 18 females) were randomized to a 25% calorie-restricted diet containing either pigmented rice bran (RB) or the RB with addition of plant sterols (RB + PS) snack bars for 8 weeks. The individualized nutrient-balanced diet contained ~70% of daily energy needs assessed from indirect calorimetry measured resting energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity-related EE assessed using accelerometry. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, urinary F2-isoprostanes, C-reactive protein, insulin, and leptin were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results Participants lost approximately 4.7 ± 2.2 kg (p < 0.001). Weight loss was not significant between the RB + PS and RB group (p = 0.056). Changes in body fat corresponded to changes in body weight. Average decrease in total cholesterol was significantly higher in the RB + PS group than in the RB group (difference 36 ± 25 g/dL vs 7 ± 16 g/dL; p = 0.044). A similar pattern was observed for the decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (difference 22.3 ± 25.2 g/dL vs 4.4 ± 18.9 g/dL; p = 0.062). Changes in systolic blood pressure, serum levels of leptin, and F2-isoprostanes were significant between baseline values and after 8 weeks on the diet in both groups (p < 0.05) but did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusions A nutrient-balanced and energy-restricted diet supplemented with rice bran and plant sterols resulted in a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol in overweight and obese adults. PMID

  7. Prospective associations between serum biomarkers of lipid metabolism and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    His, Mathilde; Zelek, Laurent; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Blacher, Jacques; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-02-01

    Experimental studies provided evidence about mechanisms by which cholesterol, especially high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), could influence carcinogenesis, notably through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, prospective studies that investigated the associations between specific lipid metabolism biomarkers and cancer risk provided inconsistent results. The objective was to investigate the prospective associations between total cholesterol (T-C), HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1 (apoA1) and B, and triglycerides and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk. Analyses were performed on 7,557 subjects of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants Study, a nationwide French cohort study. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism were measured at baseline and analyzed regarding the risk of first primary incident cancer (N = 514 cases diagnosed during follow-up, 1994-2007), using Cox proportional hazards models. T-C was inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.82-1.00; P = 0.04) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.69-0.99; P = 0.04) cancer risk. HDL-C was also inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.61, 95 % CI 0.46-0.82; P = 0.0008) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.28-0.83; P = 0.009) cancer risk. Consistently, apoA1 was inversely associated with overall (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.39-0.82; P = 0.003) and breast (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.36, 95 % CI 0.18-0.73; P = 0.004) cancer risk. This prospective study suggests that pre-diagnostic serum levels of T-C, HDL-C and ApoA1 are associated with decreased overall and breast cancer risk. The confirmation of a role of cholesterol components in cancer development, by further large prospective and experimental studies, may have important implications in terms of public health, since cholesterol is already crucial in cardiovascular prevention.

  8. Effects of rice bran oil enriched with n-3 PUFA on liver and serum lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rajni; Sambaiah, Kari

    2009-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare different structured lipids (SL) from rice bran oil (RBO) by replacing some of the fatty acids with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from linseed oil (LSO) and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from cod liver oil (CLO). In one SL, the ALA content was 20% whereas in another the long chain n-3 PUFA content was 10%. Most of the n-3 PUFA were incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol. The influence of SL with RBO rich in ALA and EPA + DHA was studied on various lipid parameters in experimental animals. Rats fed RBO showed a decrease in total serum cholesterol by 10% when compared to groundnut oil (GNO). Similarly structured lipids with CLO and LSO significantly decreased total serum cholesterol by 19 and 22% respectively compared to rice bran oil. The serum TAGs level of rats fed SLs and blended oils were also significantly decreased by 14 and 17% respectively compared to RBO. Feeding of an n-3 PUFA rich diet resulted in the accumulation of long chain n-3 PUFA in various tissues and a reduction in the long chain n-6 PUFA. These studies indicate that the incorporation of ALA and EPA + DHA into RBO can offer health benefits.

  9. Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Qi; Yin, Rui-Xing; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Huang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels. PMID:26722494

  10. Susceptibility of serum lipids to copper-induced peroxidation correlates with the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Shimonov, M; Pinchuk, I; Bor, A; Beigel, I; Fainaru, M; Rubin, M; Lichtenberg, D

    1999-03-01

    As a first step in evaluating the significance of our recently developed method of monitoring the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation in unfractionated serum, we recorded the kinetics of lipid oxidation in the sera of 62 hyperlipidemic patients and analyzed the correlation between oxidation and lipid composition of the sera [high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides]. We used six factors to characterize the kinetics of oxidation, namely, the maximal absorbance of oxidation products (ODmax), the maximal rate of their production (Vmax), and the time at which the rate was maximal (t(max)) at two wavelengths (245 nm, where 7-ketocholesterol and conjugated dienic hydroperoxides absorb intensely, and 268 nm, where the absorbance is mostly due to dienals). The major conclusions of our analyses are that: (i) Both ODmax and Vmax correlate positively with the sum of concentrations of the major oxidizable lipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. (ii). The value of t(max), which is a measure of the lag preceding oxidation and therefore reflects the resistance of the serum lipids to copper-induced oxidation, exhibits a negative correlation with HDL cholesterol. Although this finding accords with the observation of shorter lags for HDL than for LDL, it is apparently inconsistent with the role of HDL as an antirisk factor in coronary heart diseases.

  11. Palm oil versus hydrogenated soybean oil: effects on serum lipids and plasma haemostatic variables.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jan I; Muller, Hanne; Seljeflot, Ingebjorg; Kirkhus, Bente

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if replacement of trans fatty acids by palmitic acid in an experimental margarine results in unfavourable effects on serum lipids and haemostatic factors. We have compared the effects of three different margarines, one based on palm oil (PALM-margarine), one based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil (TRANS- margarine) and one with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-margarine), on serum lipids in 27 young women. In nine of the participants fasting levels and diurnal postprandial levels of haemostatic variables on the 3 diets were compared. The sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 provided 11% of energy (E%) in the PALM diet, the same as the sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 and trans fatty acids in the TRANS-diet. Oleic acid provided 10-11E% in all three diets, while PUFA provided 5.7, 5.5 and 10.2 E%, respectively. Total fat provided 30-31% and the test margarines 26% of total energy in all three diets. Each of the diets was consumed for 17 days in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB between the TRANS- and the PALM-diet. HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I were significantly higher on the PALM-diet compared to the TRANS-diet while the ratio of LDL- to HDL-cholesterol was lower, although not significantly (P = 0.077) on the PALM-diet. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB were significantly lower on the PUFA-diet compared to the two other diets. HDL-cholesterol was not different on the PALM- and the PUFA-diet while it was significantly lower on the TRANS-diet compared to the PUFA-diet. Triglycerides and Lp(a) were not different among the three diets. The diurnal postprandial state level of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was significantly decreased on the TRANS-diet compared to the PALM-diet. t-PA activity was also decreased on the PUFA-diet compared to PALM-diet although not significantly (P=0.07). There were no significant differences in neither fasting

  12. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid in herbal plants, protects pancreatic islets and serum lipids in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-07-27

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) damages pancreatic islets, gradually causing chronic complications. This study investigated the berberine effect on T1D in vivo. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were grouped and administered 50, 150, and 500 mg of berberine/kg of body weight over 14 weeks using consecutive tube feeding. Changes in pancreatic islets, serum insulin, berberine, and lipid levels were determined. The results showed that berberine supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the number of decreased islets and raised serum berberine levels in dose-dependent manners in experimental mice. Berberine supplementation also increased insulin levels, but decreased the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, serum berberine levels showed a significantly positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the HDL-C/TC ratio, but a negative correlation with the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. This study suggests that berberine administration in vivo protects pancreatic islets and serum lipids in NOD mice.

  13. Comparison of Serum Apolipoproteins and Traditional Lipids in Eyes with Diabetic Retinopathy in Indian Population: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gunjan; Agrawal, Rachit; Satsangi, S. K.; Prakash, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To review the associations of serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients of DR. DR was graded according to modified Airlie House Classification system. Traditional serum lipids (total, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol and triglycerides [TGs]), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apoB-to-apoAI ratios were assessed. The analysis of variance test was applied. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, and P < 0.001 was considered highly significant. Results: Twenty-four patients with DR were evaluated. Serum apoAI was statistically significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of having more severe DR levels (P < 0.001). Increasing levels of apoB (P < 0.001) and apoB-to-apoAI ratio (P < 0.001) were statistically significantly associated with increasing DR severity levels. The association of total (P > 0.05) and LDL cholesterol (P > 0.05) with severity of DR was not statistically significant. HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the severity of DR (P < 0.05). TGs were also statistically significantly associated with the severity of DR (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum apolipoprotein levels may be stronger biomarkers of DR than traditional lipids. PMID:27162455

  14. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  15. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  16. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    PubMed Central

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; vanDam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal amounts of protein, cholesterol and phospholipid, whereas the classical DRM/lipid raft markers Src, caveolin-1 and flotillin display the same gradient distribution. DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts themselves are severely depleted of sphingolipids. The fatty acid profile of the remaining sphingolipids as well as that of the glycerophospholipids shows several differences compared with control, most prominently an increase in highly saturated C16 species. The glycerophospholipid headgroup composition is unchanged in sphingolipid-depleted cells and cell-derived detergent-free lipid rafts. Sphingolipid depletion does not alter the localization of MRP1 (multidrug-resistance-related protein 1) in DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts or MRP1-mediated efflux of carboxyfluorescein. We conclude that extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity in two cell lines and does not affect the function of the lipid-raft-associated protein MRP1. PMID:20604746

  17. Quantitative analysis of polar lipids in the nanoliter level of rat serum by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polar lipids in serum, including lysophospholipids (LPLs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), have a broad range of biological activities and require a suitable method for their quantitative analysis. Conventional methods use multistep procedures to simultaneously purify and analyze polar lipids and non-po...

  18. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  19. A spectrophotometric assay for lipid peroxides in serum lipoproteins using a commercially available reagent.

    PubMed

    el-Saadani, M; Esterbauer, H; el-Sayed, M; Goher, M; Nassar, A Y; Jürgens, G

    1989-04-01

    A method is described for measuring lipid peroxides by means of the color reagent of a commercially available test kit for cholesterol estimation. In principle, this assay makes use of the oxidative capacity of lipid peroxides to convert iodide to iodine, which can be measured photometrically at 365 nm. Calibration curves were obtained using peroxides such as H2O2, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. A stoichiometric relationship was observed between the amount of organic peroxides assayed and the concentration of iodine produced. Concentrations of lipid peroxides as small as 1 nmol/ml could be measured. The ability to estimate lipid peroxides of isolated low density lipoprotein was demonstrated.

  20. Effect of substratum, serum and linoleic acid on the lipid synthesis of isolated alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cott, G.R.; Edeen, K.E.; Hale, S.G.; Mason, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    The authors examined the effect of cellular substratum (plastic or amnionic basement membrane (ABM)) and serum additive (fetal bovine (FBS), pork, horse, rat or human) on phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells. The cells were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 48 hours under the various substratum and serum conditions, and then incubated for an additional 2 hours with (1-/sup 14/C) acetate. ABM consistently caused a significant increase in the percent of radiolabel incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Serum also had a significant effect with the highest values of PC and saturated PC being obtained with rat serum and the highest PG values with horse serum. The fatty acid composition of the sera used varied according to species with the largest variations in percent linoleic acid. Supplementing media with linoleic acid resulted in a marked increase in saturated PC values and a fall in PG values. Therefore, they conclude that: 1) ABM improves differentiated function, 2) FBS supplementation may not be optimal, and 3) the different effects of linoleic acid supplementation on PC, saturated PC, and PG values suggests an independent regulation of synthesis for these lipid species in vitro.

  1. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2009-07-22

    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.

  2. Influence of Sorghum Kafirin on Serum Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats (In Vitro and In Vivo Studies)

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz Cruz, Raquel A.; Cárdenas López, José L.; González Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Astiazarán García, Humberto; Gorinstein, Shela; Canett Romero, Rafael; Robles Sánchez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract. Diets supplemented with sorghum kafirin extract have improved lipid metabolism and increased the serum antioxidant potential (67%) especially in rats fed with added cholesterol. The bioactive peptides generated from kafirin in vivo hydrolysis appear to be associated with the positive effect on serum lipids and antioxidant activity. According to these results, sorghum kafirin extract at the levels used in this study apparently could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases. PMID:26634202

  3. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  4. Effects of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, on serum lipid levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Kawakami, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Imazato, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Naoki; Fujikawa, Keita; Aramaki, Toshiyuki; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Ida, Hiroaki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effects of anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab (TCZ), on lipid metabolism. Nineteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), entered in clinical case-control study of SAMURAI trial at Sasebo Chuo Hospital, were examined. Nine patients received TCZ monotherapy at 8 mg/kg intravenously every 4 weeks (TCZ group) and 10 patients received conventional DMARDs (control group). Serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), apolipoprotein (Apo) A-1, Apo A-2 and Apo B as well as disease activity score (DAS), C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein were examined at baseline and after 3 months of the treatment. IL-6 inversely was correlated with LDL, Apo A-1 and Apo A-2, and also tended to correlate with Apo B. In TCZ group, serum levels of TC, HDL, LDL, Apo A-1 and Apo A-2 were significantly increased after 3 months treatment with TCZ. There was no significant change in Apo B, the atherogenic index, and TC/HDL by the TCZ treatment. Changes in the DAS28-ESR negatively correlated with those in TC. In one patient, whose serum level of TCZ was not detected after 3 months of the treatment, the absence of the increment in serum levels of Apo A-1 and A-2 in the patient was remarkable. All of the markers did not change during 3 months in control group. These data may raise an important issue to evaluate the impact of these alternations in lipid metabolism for longer periods in RA patients treated with TCZ.

  5. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Elahe; Rafraf, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef¬fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa¬tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure¬ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con¬centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both) and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048) compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women. PMID:24688934

  6. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Metgud, Rashmi; Bajaj, Saumya

    2014-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the pathogenesis of malignancy. Overall, lipid peroxidation levels are indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the most frequently used biomarker to detect oxidative changes. Antioxidant defense systems such as glutathione (GSH) limit cell injury induced by ROS. Therefore, MDA and GSH can be used to monitor oxidative stress (OS). Hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare both salivary and serum levels of MDA and GSH in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 100 subjects comprising 30 apparently healthy controls, 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 40 clinically and histologically diagnosed patients with OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for MDA and GSH. The study revealed enhanced MDA levels in saliva and serum in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. On the other hand, significant decreases were seen in serum and salivary GSH levels in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. Augmentation of OS in blood and saliva is reflected by increase in MDA and decrease in GSH levels, indicating that tumor processes cause an imbalance of oxidant-antioxidant status in cell structures.

  7. Alterations of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and serum trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Razavi, S M; Nazifi, S; Bateni, M; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-25

    In order to investigate the alterations of erythrocyte protective antioxidant mechanisms, lipid peroxidation and trace elements associated with anemia in bovine tropical theileriosis, an infected group comprised of 50 crossbred Holstein cattle, about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%, >5%) and also 10 healthy cattle as control were selected. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase and serum concentrations of some antioxidant trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese and selenium) were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. The results showed a conspicuous decrease in the activities of SOD, GPX and catalase (P<0.01), and a significant decrease in the serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in cattle with higher than 1% parasitemia (P<0.05) compared to the control. In addition, remarkable elevations in the MDA level (P<0.01) and serum concentration of iron (P<0.05) were observed in the infected animals. These findings pointed to the occurrence of exacerbating oxidative injuries to erythrocytes during parasitemia. Furthermore, it can be concluded that infection with T. annulata can interfere with protective antioxidant mechanisms of RBCs against oxidative damages, which promote the development of anemia.

  8. [Dyslipidemic patients with coronary cardiopathy. Effect of different doses of OMEGA-3 fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Arteaga, A; Villanueva, C L; Skorin, C; Guasch, V; Solís de Ovando, F; Velasco, N; Acosta, A M; Leighton, F

    1993-06-01

    Twenty one male patients aged 35 to 70 years, with coronary artery disease and dislipidemia refractory to dietary treatment, were assigned to three parallel groups of 7 individuals each that received a supplemental dose of 2, 4 and 6 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids during 60 days. After a 30 days wash-out period and 60 of supplementation, subjects were weighed, a dietary survey was performed, serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, the lipid content of serum lipoproteins and the content of EPA+DHA in plasma phospholipids were measured. A dose dependent increase in EPA+DHA content of phospholipids and no changes in weight or nutrient intake were observed during the supplementation period. With the 6 g dose, a significant reduction in total cholesterol, with a reduction in VLDL and increase in LDL cholesterol and a decline in VLDL triglycerides was observed. With the 4 g dose a reduction in total cholesterol at the expense of VLDL and HDL cholesterol and a reduction in VLDL triglycerides but no changes in total triglycerides was observed. No changes in serum lipids were observed with 2 g dose. In patients with type IIA hyperlipidemia, a significant positive correlation was observed between DHA+EPA content of plasma phospholipids and LDL cholesterol, this correlation was not observed in patients with IIB or IV phenotypes. It is concluded that omega-3 fatty acids are ineffective as the only treatment for dislipidemias refractory to diet.

  9. Comparison of effect of cafetière and filtered coffee on serum concentrations of liver aminotransferases and lipids: six month randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Urgert, R.; Meyboom, S.; Kuilman, M.; Rexwinkel, H.; Vissers, M. N.; Klerk, M.; Katan, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of prolonged intake of cafetière coffee, which is rich in the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, on serum aminotransferase and lipid concentrations. DESIGN: Randomised parallel controlled trial. SUBJECTS: 46 healthy men and women aged 19 to 69. INTERVENTION: Consumption of five to six strong cups (0.9 litres) a day of either cafetière (22 subjects) or filtered coffee (24 subjects) for 24 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean changes in serum aminotransferase and lipid concentrations. RESULTS: Cafetière coffee raised alanine aminotransferase concentration by up to 80% above baseline values relative to filtered coffee. After 24 weeks the rise was still 45% (9 U/l (95% confidence interval 3 to 15 U/l), P = 0.007). Alanine aminotransferase concentration exceeded the upper limit of normal in eight of the 22 subjects drinking cafetière coffee, being twice the upper limit of normal in three of them. Cafetière coffee raised low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by 9-14%. After 24 weeks the rise was 0.26 mmol/l (0.04 to 0.47 mmol/l) (P = 0.03) relative to filtered coffee. Triglyceride concentrations initially rose by 26% with cafetière coffee but returned close to baseline values within six months. All increases were reversible after the intervention was stopped. CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of five to six cups of strong cafetière coffee affects the integrity of liver cells as suggested by small increases in serum alanine aminotransferase concentration. The effect does not subside with prolonged intake. High intakes of coffee brews rich in cafestol and kahweol may thus be responsible for unexplained increases in this enzyme activity in apparently healthy subjects. Cafetière coffee also raises low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and thus the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:8956701

  10. Choline or CDP-choline alters serum lipid responses to endotoxin in dogs and rats: involvement of the peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Ilcol, Yesim Ozarda; Yilmaz, Zeki; Cansev, Mehmet; Ulus, Ismail H

    2009-09-01

    We showed previously that choline administration protects dogs from endotoxin-induced multiple organ injury and platelet dysfunctions. Because sepsis/endotoxemia is associated with alterations in lipid metabolism, we have investigated whether choline or cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline, a choline donor, alters serum lipid responses to endotoxin in dogs and rats. In response to endotoxin, serum concentrations of triglycerides, choline-containing phospholipids, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in a dose- and time-related manner. Administration of choline (20 mg/kg i.v. in dogs or 90 mg/kg i.p. in rats) or cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline (70 mg/kg i.v. in dogs) 5 min before and 4 and 8 h after endotoxin blocked or attenuated the increases in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and nonesterified fatty acids. Endotoxin-induced elevations in serum phospholipid levels did not change in rats and were enhanced in dogs by choline. In rats, serum lipid response to endotoxin was accompanied by severalfold elevations in serum levels of hepatorenal injury markers; their elevations were also blocked by choline. Pretreatment with hexamethonium blocked choline's effects on serum lipids and hepatorenal injury markers. Pretreatment with atropine blocked endotoxin-induced elevations in serum lipid and hepatorenal injury markers, but failed to alter choline's actions on these parameters. Choline treatment improved survival rate of rats in lethal endotoxin shock. In conclusion, these data show that choline treatment alters serum lipid responses to endotoxin and prevents hepatorenal injury during endotoxemia through a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated mechanism. Hence, choline and choline-containing compounds may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endotoxemia/sepsis.

  11. Metabolomic study of lipids in serum for biomarker discovery in Alzheimer's disease using direct infusion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, R; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the potential of direct infusion mass spectrometry for the lipidomic characterization of Alzheimer's disease. Serum samples were extracted for lipids recovery, and directly analyzed using an electrospray source. Metabolomic fingerprints were subjected to multivariate analysis in order to discriminate between groups of patients and healthy controls, and then some key-compounds were identified as possible markers of Alzheimer's disease. Major differences were found in lipids, although some low molecular weight metabolites also showed significant changes. Thus, important metabolic pathways involved in neurodegeneration could be studied on the basis of these perturbations, such as membrane breakdown (phospholipids and diacylglycerols), oxidative stress (prostaglandins, imidazole and histidine), alterations in neurotransmission systems (oleamide and putrescine) and hyperammonaemia (guanidine and arginine). Moreover, it is noteworthy that some of these potential biomarkers have not been previously described for Alzheimer's disease.

  12. The effect of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Khadir, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Joorsaraee, Seyyed Gholamali; Feizi, Farideh; Sorkhi, Hadi; Yousefi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressant drug with therapeutic and toxic actions. The use of CsA is limited by its toxicity. Several researchers had proposed that oxidative stress could play an important role in CsA-induced toxicity. Arbutin has recently been shown to possess antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine treated rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n=8/group): (I) control (no CsA and arbutin administration), (II and III) were treated subcutaneously (Sc) with arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw), respectively, (IV) administered CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) intraperitoneally (IP), (V and VI) received the combination of CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) i.p and arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw) Sc daily, respectively. At the end of the treatment (after3 weeks), serum lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and serum total antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) was assayed based on spectrophotometric method. Results: TBARS had been significantly increased by CsA administration compared with control rats. Arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) completely prevented this effect, but arbutin (100 mg/kg/bw) alone or in combination with CsA significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with controls. Conclusion: Our data indicate that arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) had protective effect in the CsA-induced toxicity but high concentration of arbutin (100mg/kg/bw) showed meaningful oxidative and lipoperoxidative effects. PMID:26644892

  13. Association of the variants in the PPARG gene and serum lipid levels: a meta-analysis of 74 studies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Chen, Rong; Bie, Lizhan; Zhao, Dandan; Huang, Chunkai; Hong, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Considerable studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of PPARG (Pro12Ala, C161T and C1431T) and serum lipid levels, but the results were inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify the association. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically. The subgroup analysis was performed based on ethnicity. Seventy-four studies with 54,953 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. In Pro12Ala, the group with the ‘PP’ (C/C genotype) genotype group had lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) (mean difference, MD: −0.02, P < 0.00001; I2 = 28%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: −0.02, P < 0.00001; I2 = 30%) and higher levels of triglyceride (TG) (MD: 0.06, P < 0.00001; I2 = 30%) than the combined ‘PA+AA’ (PA = C/G genotype, AA = G/G genotype) genotype group in Asian population, and the group with the ‘PP’ genotype had higher levels of TG (MD: 0.07, P < 0.02; I2 = 67%) than the combined ‘PA+AA’ genotype group in non-Asian population. No statistically significant differences in the levels of TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C were detected between different genotypes in C161T(Asian or non-Asian) and C1431T(Asian) polymorphisms. This meta-analysis was a renewed and confirmed study to assess the association between PPARG polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in Asian and non-Asian populations. There is a prominent association between Pro12Ala polymorphism and the levels of TC, LDL-C and TG in Asian population. No statistically significant differences in serum lipid levels were detected between different genotypes in C161T and C1431T polymorphisms. PMID:25265984

  14. Serum Lipid Transfer Proteins in Hypothyreotic Patients Are Inversely Correlated with Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Rogala, Natalia; Szuba, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2016-11-30

    BACKGROUND Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is often decreased in patients with hypothyroidism, whereas less is known about the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). We aimed to evaluate simultaneously serum CETP and PLTP activity in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. MATERIAL AND METHODS The selection criteria for control group members (without thyroid dysfunction) in this case to case study were levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides similar to those in study group patients (101 patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism). Serum CETP and PLTP activities were measured by homogenous fluorometric assays using synthetic donor particle substrates. RESULTS Serum CETP and PLTP activities in hypothyreotic patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with those in healthy subjects. This lowering was associated with significant changes in HDL-C subclasses: decrease in HDL2- and increase in HDL3 cholesterol levels. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking showed a strong association between hypothyroidism and activity of lipid transfer proteins. A linear inverse relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and CETP (r=-0.21; p<0.01) and between TSH and PLTP (r=-0.24; p<0.001) was shown. There also was a positive correlation (p<0.001) between CETP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.27) and between PLTP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.37). A negative correlation between CETP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=-0.22: p<0.01) and between PLTP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=-0.24; p<0.001) has been demonstrated as well. CONCLUSIONS The decreased HDL2 and increased HDL3 cholesterol levels in subjects with hypothyroidism are consequences of decreased activity of lipid transfer proteins. These changes are early symptoms of lipid disturbances in hypothyroidism.

  15. Serum Lipid Transfer Proteins in Hypothyreotic Patients Are Inversely Correlated with Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Rogala, Natalia; Szuba, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is often decreased in patients with hypothyroidism, whereas less is known about the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). We aimed to evaluate simultaneously serum CETP and PLTP activity in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Material/Methods The selection criteria for control group members (without thyroid dysfunction) in this case to case study were levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides similar to those in study group patients (101 patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism). Serum CETP and PLTP activities were measured by homogenous fluorometric assays using synthetic donor particle substrates. Results Serum CETP and PLTP activities in hypothyreotic patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with those in healthy subjects. This lowering was associated with significant changes in HDL-C subclasses: decrease in HDL2- and increase in HDL3 cholesterol levels. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking showed a strong association between hypothyroidism and activity of lipid transfer proteins. A linear inverse relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and CETP (r=−0.21; p<0.01) and between TSH and PLTP (r=−0.24; p<0.001) was shown. There also was a positive correlation (p<0.001) between CETP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.27) and between PLTP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.37). A negative correlation between CETP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=−0.22: p<0.01) and between PLTP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=−0.24; p<0.001) has been demonstrated as well. Conclusions The decreased HDL2 and increased HDL3 cholesterol levels in subjects with hypothyroidism are consequences of decreased activity of lipid transfer proteins. These changes are early symptoms of lipid disturbances in hypothyroidism. PMID:27899788

  16. Serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein changes in gestational diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional and prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Koukkou, E; Watts, G F; Lowy, C

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To compare serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations during and six to 12 months after pregnancy in control and diabetic women. METHODS: The serum lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured in 20 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 22 women with normal glucose tolerance (controls) during the third trimester of pregnancy and six to 12 months after delivery. RESULTS: During pregnancy the women with GDM had higher serum triglyceride (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)), 2.91 (2.22-3.51) v 2.1 (1.75-2.52)) but lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations compared with controls (mean (SD), 3.08 (1.2) v 4.01 (1.1). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. After pregnancy, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein A1 and B decreased in a parallel manner, resulting in lower concentrations, comparable between the two groups. LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased after pregnancy in the controls (mean (SD), 4.01 (1.1) v 2.69 (0.6)) but not in those with GDM (3.08 (1.2) v 2.72 (0.7)). The change in lipid concentrations was not related to change in weight. CONCLUSION: Development of diabetes during pregnancy induces a state of dyslipidaemia characterised by elevated triglyceride concentrations, as seen in other insulin resistance states. However, GDM seems to blunt the increase in LDL cholesterol during pregnancy and this requires further investigation. Whether the changes in lipoprotein metabolism in GDM are significant for the health status of the mother and the foetus requires further study. PMID:8881912

  17. The Lipid Composition and Physical Properties of the Yeast Vacuole Affect the Hemifusion-Fusion Transition

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Surya; Fratti, Rutilio A.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast vacuole fusion requires the formation of SNARE bundles between membranes. Although the function of vacuolar SNAREs is controlled in part by regulatory lipids, the exact role of the membrane in regulating fusion remains unclear. Because SNAREs are membrane-anchored and transmit the force required for fusion to the bilayer, we hypothesized that the lipid composition and curvature of the membrane aid in controlling fusion. Here, we examined the effect of altering membrane fluidity and curvature on the functionality of fusion-incompetent SNARE mutants that are thought to generate insufficient force to trigger the hemifusion-fusion transition. The hemifusion-fusion transition was inhibited by disrupting the 3Q:1R stoichiometry of SNARE bundles with the mutant SNARE Vam7pQ283R. Similarly, replacing the transmembrane domain of the syntaxin homolog Vam3p with a lipid anchor allowed hemifusion, but not content mixing. Hemifusion-stalled reactions containing either of the SNARE mutants were stimulated to fuse with chlorpromazine, an amphipathic molecule that alters membrane fluidity and curvature. The activity of mutant SNAREs was also rescued by the overexpression of SNAREs, thus multiplying the force transferred to the membrane. Thus, we conclude that either increasing membrane fluidity, or multiplying SNARE-generated energy restored the fusogenicity of mutant SNAREs that are stalled at hemifusion. We also found that regulatory lipids differentially modulated the complex formation of wild-type SNAREs. Together, these data indicate that the physical properties and the lipid composition of the membrane affect the function of SNAREs in promoting the hemifusion-fusion transition. PMID:23438067

  18. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid source affect cholesterol metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Larroquet, Laurence; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-10-28

    Plant feedstuffs (PF) are rich in carbohydrates, which may interact with lipid metabolism. Thus, when considering dietary replacement of fishery by-products with PF, knowledge is needed on how dietary lipid source (LS) and carbohydrates affect lipid metabolism and other metabolic pathways. For that purpose, a 73-d growth trial was performed with European sea bass juveniles (IBW 74 g) fed four diets differing in LS (fish oil (FO) or a blend of vegetable oils (VO)) and carbohydrate content (0 % (CH-) or 20 % (CH+) gelatinised starch). At the end of the trial no differences among diets were observed on growth and feed utilisation. Protein efficiency ratio was, however, higher in the CH+ groups. Muscle and liver fatty acid profiles reflected the dietary LS. Dietary carbohydrate promoted higher plasma cholesterol and phospholipids (PL), whole-body and hepatic (mainly 16 : 0) lipids and increased muscular and hepatic glycogen. Except for PL, which were higher in the FO groups, no major alterations between FO and VO groups were observed on plasma metabolites (glucose, TAG, cholesterol, PL), liver and muscle glycogen, and lipid and cholesterol contents. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme - lipogenesis-related enzymes - increased with carbohydrate intake. Hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was up-regulated with carbohydrate (HMGCR and CYP3A27) and VO (HMGCR and CYP51A1) intake. No dietary regulation of long-chain PUFA biosynthesis at the transcriptional level was observed. Overall, very few interactions between dietary carbohydrates and LS were observed. However, important insights on the direct relation between dietary carbohydrate and the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in European sea bass were demonstrated.

  19. Blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR after diets supplemented with evening primrose, sunflowerseed or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Moritz, V; Wirth, M; Berger, I; Forster, D

    1990-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 4 weeks of age were fed a diet supplemented with sunflowerseed oil (SO), evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil (FO) or EPO + FO for 22 weeks. A diet with commercially available pellets served as control. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower during and after FO, EPO and EPO + FO, whereas the lower level after SO was not significant when compared with the controls. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were lowest after EPO followed FO. The combination of both EPO and FO resulted in unexpected high values of triglycerides and cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was likewise highest after EPO + FO. The results indicate a quantitatively different depression of blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR by individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

  20. The effect of raw carrot on serum lipids and colon function.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J; Brydon, W G; Tadesse, K; Wenham, P; Walls, A; Eastwood, M A

    1979-09-01

    Two hundred grams of raw carrot eaten at breakfast each day for 3 weeks significantly reduced serum cholesterol by 11%, increased fecal bile acid and fat excretion by 50%, and modestly increased stool weight by 25%. This suggests an associated change in bacterial flora or metabolism. The changes in serum cholesterol, fecal bile acids, and fat persisted 3 weeks after stopping treatment.

  1. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  2. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

  3. Influence of dietary copper concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, T; Cui, H; Guo, J; Guo, Q; Gao, X; Yang, F

    2016-03-01

    A 75-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary Cu concentrations on growth performance, serum lipid profiles, antioxidant defenses, and fur quality in growing-furring male blue foxes. Seventy-five male blue foxes (5.78 ± 0.09 kg BW) were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of the following 5 dietary treatments: 1) control (basal diet without supplemental Cu; 7.78 mg Cu/kg), 2) 12.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu20), 3) 32.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu, 4) 72.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu80), and 5) 152.22 mg/kg supplemental Cu (Cu160). A dry feed that consisted of animal meals, soybean meal, extruded corn, and soybean oil was used as the basal diet and Cu was supplemented as reagent grade CuSO∙5HO. The results showed that Cu supplementation increased the ADG ( < 0.05) and fat digestibility ( < 0.01) and tended to improve G:F ( = 0.09). The ADFI, however, was not affected by dietary Cu ( > 0.10). Additionally, Cu supplementation linearly increased the concentration of fecal Cu, liver Cu, serum total protein, and albumin ( < 0.01). Foxes in the Cu160 group had higher serum Cu concentration than those in the control and Cu20 groups ( < 0.05). The concentration of serum cholesterol decreased with dietary Cu supplementation ( < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein, on the contrary, tended to increase with Cu supplementation ( = 0.09). Copper supplementation increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase ( < 0.05) and tended to increase the activity of serum ceruloplasmin ( = 0.07). For fur quality, skin length in the Cu80 group was greater than that in the control and Cu20 groups. In addition, hair color tended to deepen with the increasing of dietary Cu concentrations ( = 0.08). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Cu supplementation can promote growth and increase fat digestibility and fur length. Additionally, dietary Cu supplementation can enhance antioxidant capacity and reduce serum cholesterol in growing-furring blue foxes.

  4. Aging of myelinating glial cells predominantly affects lipid metabolism and immune response pathways.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Valérie; Csárdi, Gábor; de Preux-Charles, Anne-Sophie; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Smit, August B; Verheijen, Mark H G; Bergmann, Sven; Chrast, Roman

    2012-05-01

    Both the central and the peripheral nervous systems are prone to multiple age-dependent neurological deficits, often attributed to still unknown alterations in the function of myelinating glia. To uncover the biological processes affected in glial cells by aging, we analyzed gene expression of the Schwann cell-rich mouse sciatic nerve at 17 time points throughout life, from day of birth until senescence. By combining these data with the gene expression data of myelin mouse mutants carrying deletions of either Pmp22, SCAP, or Lpin1, we found that the majority of age-related transcripts were also affected in myelin mutants (54.4%) and were regulated during PNS development (59.5%), indicating a high level of overlap in implicated molecular pathways. The expression profiles in aging copied the direction of transcriptional changes observed in neuropathy models; however, they had the opposite direction when compared with PNS development. The most significantly altered biological processes in aging involved the inflammatory/immune response and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, both these pathways were comparably changed in the aging optic nerve, suggesting that similar biological processes are affected in aging of glia-rich parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Our comprehensive comparison of gene expression in three distinct biological conditions including development, aging, and myelin disease thus revealed a previously unanticipated relationship among themselves and identified lipid metabolism and inflammatory/immune response pathways as potential therapeutical targets to prevent or delay so far incurable age-related and inherited forms of neuropathies.

  5. Factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Lu, Cui-Tao

    2008-03-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors that affect the efficiency of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide(AS-ODNs) transfection by insonated gas-filled lipid microbubbles. Methods: Lipid microbubbles filled with two types of gases-air and C3F8, were prepared respectively. An AS-ODNs sequence HA824 and a breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 were used to define the various operating variables determining the transfection efficiency of insonated microbubbles. Two mixing methods, three levels of mixing speed, different mixing durations and various ultrasound initiation time after mixing were examined respectively. Transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Results: C3F8 microbubbles gave higher levels of AS-ODNs transfection efficiency than air microbubbles in all test conditions. Transfection efficiency resulted from mixing method A (incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells) did not show significant difference with that of mixing method B (without incubation of HA824 and microbubbles before mixing cells). Mixing speed, duration of mixing and ultrasound initiation time after mixing were central to determining HA824 transfection efficiency in vitro. The optimum parameters for SK-BR-3 cells were found at a mixing speed of 40-50 rpm for 30-60 s with less than 60 s delay before ultrasound. Conclusion: Ultrasound-mediated AS-ODNs transfection enhanced by C3F8-filled lipid microbubbles represents an effective avenue for AS-ODNs transfer.

  6. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome, known also as the insulin resistance syndrome, refers to the clustering of several risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia is a hallmark of the syndrome and is associated with a whole body reduction in the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme under the regulation of the class of nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a triterpenoid saponin, is the primary bioactive constituent of the roots of the shrub Glycyrrhiza glabra. Studies have indicated that triterpenoids could act as PPAR agonists and GA is therefore postulated to restore LPL expression in the insulin resistant state. Results Oral administration of 100 mg/kg of GA to high-fat diet-induced obese rats for 28 days led to significant reduction in blood glucose concentration and improvement in insulin sensitivity as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.05). LPL expression was up-regulated in the kidney, heart, quadriceps femoris, abdominal muscle and the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues but down-regulated in the liver - a condition in reverse to that seen in high-fat diet-induced obese rats without GA. With regard to lipid metabolism, GA administration led to significant hypotriglyceridemic and HDL-raising effects (p < 0.05), with a consistent reduction in serum free fatty acid, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and significant decrease in tissue lipid deposition across all studied tissue (p < 0.01). Conclusion In conclusion, GA may be a potential compound in improving dyslipidaemia by selectively inducing LPL expression in non-hepatic tissues. Such up-regulation was accompanied by a GA-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity, which may be associated with a decrease in tissue lipid deposition. The HDL-raising effect of GA suggests the antiatherosclerotic properties of GA. PMID:20670429

  7. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on serum lipids and vascular inflammation in patients with end-stage renal disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tianhua; Sun, Yiting; Sun, Wei; Yao, Li; Sun, Li; Liu, Linlin; Ma, Jianfei; Wang, Lining

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) are associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults. However, this association in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial prompting the need for investigation into the role of O3FAs on serum lipids and vascular inflammation markers. The present meta-analysis summarized the effects of O3FA supplementation on serum lipids and vascular inflammatory markers in patients with ESRD. PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focused on serum lipids and vascular inflammation markers in patients with ESRD. Standard mean differences (SMD) were used to measure the effect of O3FA supplementation on serum lipids and vascular inflammatory markers. The final pooled analysis included 20 RCTs involving 1,461 patients with ESRD. The results indicated that O3FA supplementation reduced TG by 0.61, LDL by 0.35 and CRP by 0.56. However, O3FA had no significant effect on TC, HDL, albumin, hemoglobin, homocysteine, DBP, glucose, lipoprotein(a), and ferritin. O3FA supplementation is associated with lower several serum lipids and vascular inflammation markers in patients with ESRD. PMID:28008943

  8. Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin improves the viability and hatching ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Chie; SAKAGUCHI, Yosuke; HOSHI, Hiroyoshi; YOSHIOKA, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lipid-rich bovine serum albumin (LR-BSA) on the development of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro were examined. Addition of 0.5 to 5 mg/ml LR-BSA to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) from Day 5 (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization) significantly increased the hatching rates of blastocysts on Day 7 and the total cell numbers in Day-7 blastocysts. When Day-5 blastocysts were cultured with PBM alone, PBM containing LR-BSA, recombinant human serum albumin or fatty acid-free BSA, addition of LR-BSA significantly enhanced hatching rates and the cell number in blastocysts that survived compared with other treatments. The diameter, ATP content and numbers of both inner cell mass and total cells in Day-6 and Day-7 blastocysts cultured with PBM containing LR-BSA were significantly higher than in blastocysts cultured with PBM alone, whereas LR-BSA had no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and β-oxidation (ACSL1, ACSL3, CPT1, CPT2 and KAT) in Day-7 blastocysts were significantly upregulated by the addition of LR-BSA. The results indicated that LR-BSA enhanced hatching ability and quality of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro, as determined by ATP content, blastocyst diameter and expression levels of the specific genes, suggesting that the stimulatory effects of LR-BSA arise from lipids bound to albumin. PMID:26582048

  9. Lipid-rich bovine serum albumin improves the viability and hatching ability of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chie; Sakaguchi, Yosuke; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshioka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lipid-rich bovine serum albumin (LR-BSA) on the development of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro were examined. Addition of 0.5 to 5 mg/ml LR-BSA to porcine blastocyst medium (PBM) from Day 5 (Day 0 = in vitro fertilization) significantly increased the hatching rates of blastocysts on Day 7 and the total cell numbers in Day-7 blastocysts. When Day-5 blastocysts were cultured with PBM alone, PBM containing LR-BSA, recombinant human serum albumin or fatty acid-free BSA, addition of LR-BSA significantly enhanced hatching rates and the cell number in blastocysts that survived compared with other treatments. The diameter, ATP content and numbers of both inner cell mass and total cells in Day-6 and Day-7 blastocysts cultured with PBM containing LR-BSA were significantly higher than in blastocysts cultured with PBM alone, whereas LR-BSA had no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential. The mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and β-oxidation (ACSL1, ACSL3, CPT1, CPT2 and KAT) in Day-7 blastocysts were significantly upregulated by the addition of LR-BSA. The results indicated that LR-BSA enhanced hatching ability and quality of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro, as determined by ATP content, blastocyst diameter and expression levels of the specific genes, suggesting that the stimulatory effects of LR-BSA arise from lipids bound to albumin.

  10. Alexithymia, Suicide Ideation, C-Reactive Protein, and Serum Lipid Levels Among Outpatients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Serroni, Nicola; Campanella, Daniela; Marini, Stefano; Rapini, Gabriella; Valchera, Alessandro; Iasevoli, Felice; Mazza, Monica; Fornaro, Michele; Perna, Giampaolo; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-01-02

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymia, suicide ideation, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and serum lipid levels in adult outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Seventy consecutive patients with GAD were recruited and evaluated. Measures were the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Scale of Suicide Ideation (SSI), and the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). All patients were assessed for: CRP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C). TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were also evaluated. Alexithymic patients showed higher scores on almost all rating scales and altered serum CRP and lipid levels vs. non-alexithymics. In the hierarchical regression model, the presence of higher MADRS scores together with higher scores at the Difficulty in Identifying Feelings dimension of TAS-20 were associated with higher rates of suicide ideation. Although alexithymic subjects with GAD may show a CRP and cholesterol dysregulation, this latter seems independent on increased suicide ideation, rather to Difficulty in Identifying Feelings, and subthreshold depressive symptoms. Study limitations and future research implications are discussed.

  11. Reaction conditions affecting the relationship between thiobarbituric acid reactivity and lipid peroxides in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, D; Ciofani, G; Pierdomenico, S D; Giamberardino, M A; Cuccurullo, F

    2001-08-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity of human plasma was studied to evaluate its adequacy in quantifying lipid peroxidation as an index of systemic oxidative stress. Two spectrophotometric TBA tests based on the use of either phosphoric acid (pH 2.0, method A) or trichloroacetic plus hydrochloric acid (pH 0.9, method B) were employed with and without sodium sulfate (SS) to inhibit sialic acid (SA) reactivity with TBA. To correct for background absorption, the absorbance values at 572 nm were subtracted from those at 532 nm, which represent the absorption maximum of the TBA:MDA adduct. Method B gave values of TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) 2-fold higher than those detected with method A. SS lowered TBARS by about 50% with both methods, indicating a significant involvement of SA in plasma TBA reactivity. Standard SA, at a physiologically relevant concentration of 1.5 mM, reacted with TBA, creating interference problems, which were substantially eliminated by SS plus correction for background absorbance. When method B was carried out in the lipid and protein fraction of plasma, SS inhibited by 65% TBARS formation only in the latter. Protein TBARS may be largely ascribed to SA-containing glycoproteins and, to a minor extent, protein-bound MDA. Indeed, EDTA did not affect protein TBARS assessed in the presence of SS. TBA reactivity of whole plasma and of its lipid fraction was instead inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that lipoperoxides (and possibly monofunctional lipoperoxidation aldehydes) are involved as MDA precursors in the TBA test. Pretreatment of plasma with KI, a specific reductant of hydroperoxides, decreased TBARS by about 27%. Moreover, aspirin administration to humans to inhibit prostaglandin endoperoxide generation reduced plasma TBARS by 40%. In conclusion, reaction conditions affect the relationship between TBA reactivity and lipid peroxidation in human plasma. After correction for the interfering effects of SA in the TBA test, 40% of plasma TBARS

  12. Serum lipids and their relationship with other coronary risk factors in healthy subjects in a city clinic.

    PubMed

    Khoo, K L; Tan, H; Liew, Y M

    1997-03-01

    Over a thousand subjects who visited a city private medical clinic for health screening and advice were examined for their lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk factors. The mean TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C were 5.43, 1.45, 3.61 and 1.15 mmol/l. Their derived ratios viz, TC:HDL-C and LDL:HDL-C were 5.11 and 3.43 respectively. The prevalence of hyperlipidaemia was moderately high. Of the subjects studied 58.5% had elevated serum cholesterol, 14.8% had raised triglycerides, 64.9% had raised LDL-C and 20.8% had low HDL-C. Male subjects generally showed higher mean values and abnormality frequency in TC, TG, LDL-C, TC:HDL-C and LDL:HDL-C as compared to female subjects. Although significant ethnic differences were not detected for certain lipid parameters (e.g. TC, TG and HDL-C), the Indians appeared to have higher mean lipid values (except HDL-C), and higher percentage abnormality for all the lipid parameters as compared to the Chinese and the Malays. In correlation studies, the following lipid parameters:- TC versus TG, LDL-C, TC:HDL-C; TG versus TC:HDL-C and LDL:HDL-C; LDL-C versus TC:HDL-C and LDL:HDL-C; were positively correlated. On the other hand, TC versus HDL-C, TG versus HDL-C, LDL-C and HDL-C, and HDL-C versus TC:HDL-C and LDL:HDL-C were negatively correlated. The coronary risk factors which generally showed positive correlations with lipid parameters were BMI and blood pressure. Positive correlations were also recorded between fasting blood glucose and TG; uric acid with TG, TC:HDL-C and LDL:HDL-C. In contrast, risk factors of negative correlations were observed between HDL-C and the coronary risk factors of BMI, diastolic blood pressure and uric acid. Smoking showed raised per cent lipid abnormality for TG, HDL-C, TC:HDL-C and LDL:HDL-C. Alcohol consumption also increased the mean level and abnormality frequency for TG. The implication of this investigation is discussed.

  13. Effects of dietary betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and serum lipids in broilers subjected to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    He, Shaojun; Zhao, Shujing; Dai, Sifa; Liu, Deyi; Bokhari, Shehla Gul

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplementing betaine on growth performance, fat deposition and lipid metabolism status in broilers kept under chronic heat stress. Five hundred and forty chicks were randomly divided into six groups and the two normal temperature groups were held at normal ambient temperature and fed the basal diet (CONT) and basal diet plus 0.1% betaine, respectively. Heat stressed (HS) broilers were held at 32 ± 1°C from days 22 to 42 and fed the basal diet containing variable levels of betaine. Broilers were examined at days 28, 35 and 42 for body weight, feed consumption, fat deposition and serum lipids. The CONT and betaine-supplemented groups showed higher (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) feed consumption, body weight gain, and lower feed : gain ratio compared with the HS-CONT group. Meanwhile, heat stress increased abdominal, intermuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition, whereas the supplemental betaine significantly decreased those compared with the HS-CONT group. Additionally, betaine supplementation significantly decreased triglyceride, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with HS-CONT. Chronic HS reduces broiler production performance. However, betaine can reverse these negative effects partially and thus improve carcass composition by changing lipid metabolism.

  14. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and serum lipids in young and adult hamsters.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V; Miranda, J; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine whether t-10, c-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was able to reduce body fat accumulation and improve the serum lipid profile in adult hamsters fed an atherogenic diet, in order to compare these effects with those observed in young growing hamsters. Young and adult hamsters were fed semi-purified atherogenic diets supplemented with 0.5 % linoleic acid or 0.5% t-10, c-12 CLA for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were measured every two days. Adipose tissue from different anatomical locations, liver and gastrocnemious muscle were dissected and weighed. Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and proteins were determined spectrophotometrically and water content by gravimetry. In young hamsters, no significant differences were found in food intake, final body weight and gastrocnemious muscle weight. White adipose tissue weights were reduced, liver weight was increased and cholesterol and triacyl-glycerols in both serum and liver were reduced. In adult hamsters, CLA feeding decreased food intake and adipose tissue weights. No changes were observed in other parameters. The present study demonstrates that age has an influence in hamster responsiveness to t-10, c-12 CLA because, although when this isomer is added to an atherogenic diet it reduces body fat accumulation in both young and adults hamsters, the lessening of the effects on serum lipids brought about by atherogenic feeding is only observed in young animals. Moreover, it is clear that liver is a target for CLA in young but not in adult hamsters.

  15. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers. PMID:25557818

  16. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, and total lipase activities were linearly increased as the coconut oil level increased (p<0.01). Abdominal fat weight/eviscerated weight (p = 0.05), intermuscular fat width (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat thickness (p<0.01) showed a significant quadratic relationship, with the lowest value at R75. These results indicated that replacement of 75% of the soybean oil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  17. Correlation between anthropometric measurement, lipid profile, dietary vitamins, serum antioxidants, lipoprotein (a) and lipid peroxides in known cases of 345 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 y-A hospital based study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To address the association of dietary vitamins, anthropometric profile, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in hypertensive participant compared with normotensive healthy controls. Methods Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both hypertensive participants and normotensive age-sex matched healthy controls. The associated changes in serum antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were also assessed along with lipid profile and anthropometric measurements in both groups of subjects under study. Results Dietary vitamins intake was higher in hypertensive participants excepting for vitamin B2 and ascorbic acid compared to normotensive controls. Anthropometric variables in the hypertensive showed significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and mid-arm circumference. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride were significantly higher (P<0.001) in hypertensive except high-density lipoprotein cholesterol which was significantly higher (P<0.001) in normotensive. The serum endogenous antioxidants and enzyme antioxidants were significantly decreased in hypertensive except serum albumin levels compared to normotensive along with concomitant increase in serum lipoprotein (a) malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels. Conclusions Based on the observations, our study concludes that hypertension is caused due to interplay of several confounding factors namely anthropometry, lipid profile, depletion of endogenous antioxidants and rise in oxidative stress. PMID:25183079

  18. Effect of peppermint oil on serum lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes after immobility stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Rahmati, Reza; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghary, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influences of various doses of peppermint oil on the hepatic en-zymes, alanine transaminase, apartate tranaminase, alkaline phosphotase and gamma glutamyl transferase and the level of malondialdehyde in the serum of mice with and without immobility stress. The mice exposed to drink water, 0.9, 27 and 60 mg/kg peppermint oil from the days 1 to 5 for a period of 4 h before and after immobility stress. Serum MDA in-creased in treatment group II, III and IV after immobility stress. There was a significant decrease in ALT in treatment group III and IV after immobility stress. There were also significant decreases in ALP and GGT in treatment group IV af-ter immobility stress. This result may suggest that, MDA level is higher in immobilization stress group than in the un-immobilized animals in serum and this results show that enzyme activities decreased after immobilization stress.

  19. Local and serum IgE in patients affected by otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M L; Tabar, A I; Manrique, M; Oehling, A

    1986-01-01

    Various mechanisms intervene in the etiopathogenesis of otitis media with effusion (OME), but to date it is not clear which mechanism is the most important. We studied twenty children affected with persistent otitis media with effusion (OME) inspite of the indicated treatments, and the possible incidence of atopic features, total serum IgE and in effusion, obtained by myringotomy and aspiration were evaluated. In order to evaluate the presence of atopy, an allergic history and skin tests against the different suspected allergens (inhalants and foods) were realized.

  20. The effect of meat products enriched with plant sterols and minerals on serum lipids and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tapola, Niina S; Lyyra, Mari L; Karvonen, Henna M; Uusitupa, Matti I; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of non-esterified plant sterol-enriched and mineral-enriched low-fat and low-salted meat products compared with control meat products, on serum total and lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure in subjects with mildly to moderately elevated serum cholesterol concentration. A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, repeated measure design was used. Altogether 21 volunteers completed the study. The study began with a pre-trial period of 1-2 weeks, which was followed by three different test periods in the following order: meat products enriched with plant sterols (1.2 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP1); meat products with no added plant sterols and minerals (control); and meat products with plant sterols (2.1 g/day), potassium, calcium and magnesium (MP2). Each test period lasted for 3 weeks. During the MP2 period, the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration decreased 4.9+/-7.5% (P<0.05) and 4.6+/-11.3% (not significant), respectively, compared with the control period. No differences in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglyceride concentrations or in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were found among the test periods. In conclusion, the present study showed that frankfurters and cold cuts enriched with plant sterols from tall oil, potassium, calcium and magnesium, as part of habitual Finnish diet reduced the serum total cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolemic subjects when the intake of sitosterols was 2.1 g/day, but not with the lower dose.

  1. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced.

  2. Effects of cerium oxide supplementation to laying hen diets on performance, egg quality, some antioxidant enzymes in serum and lipid oxidation in egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, S C; Al-Sagan, A A; Ürüşan, H; Erhan, M K; Durmuş, O; Kurt, N

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary cerium oxide levels (0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg) on the laying performance, egg quality, some blood serum parameters and egg lipid peroxidation of laying hen. In total, one hundred and twenty 22-week-old brown Lohman LSL laying hens were randomly assigned to five groups equally (n = 24). Each treatment was replicated six times. Dietary supplementation of cerium oxide had no significant effect on feed intake and egg weight. The addition of cerium oxide to the laying hens' feed improved feed conversion ratio and increased (p < 0.05) egg production. Quality criteria of egg for except shell breaking strength were not affected by supplementing cerium oxide. In particular, supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg cerium oxide to the laying hens feed led to a significant (p < 0. 01) increase in egg shell breaking strength. Calcium and phosphorus concentration of serum increased significantly (p < 0.05) with supplementation of 100 mg/kg cerium oxide to laying hen diets. It was also observed that serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly with supplementation of cerium oxide in diets. Inclusion of cerium oxide resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values in egg yolk in this study. It can be concluded that the addition of cerium oxide had positive effects on egg production, feed conversion ratio and egg shelf life. Based on the results of this study, it could be advised to supplement laying hens feed with cerium oxide as feed additives.

  3. The Different Effects on the Serum Lipids and Fecal Steroids of High Carbohydrate Diets Given Orally or Intravenously

    PubMed Central

    DenBesten, Lawrence; Reyna, Roberto H.; Connor, William E.; Stegink, Lewis D.

    1973-01-01

    The hypothesis that diets high in carbohydrate produce hyperlipidemia in man was tested in new experiments which provided all calories either by the intravenous route or orally. After a base-line general diet, eight healthy men were fed fat-free diets consisting of 80% of the calories from glucose and 20% from an amino acid hydrolysate. The calories were adequate to maintain body weight. The solutions (1 cal/ml) were infused by constant drip over a 24 h period through either a superior vena cava catheter or a nasogastric tube. Each feeding was for 12 days in sequence but assigned in random order. The high CHO diet given orally, as expected, increased the mean base-line serum triglyceride level from 176±29 (SE) to 274±47. The identical diet given intravenously (i.v.) failed to produce hypertriglyceridemia; triglyceride levels were not significantly changed, 154±37, nor were blood glucose levels. Serum insulin levels were higher during the intravenous feeding. In contrast, both i.v. and oral feedings greatly lowered mean serum cholesterol concentration from the base-line value of 220±13 mg/100 ml to 135±11 and 151±13, respectively. However, the serum cholesterol level was significantly lower (P < 0.01) with the intravenous feeding than with the oral feeding. In addition, the fecal excretion of both neutral sterols and bile acids diminished greatly during the period of intravenous feeding. The fecal mass was likewise decreased. The bacterial conversion of cholesterol to conprostanol did not occur with either intravenous or oral feeding, but with both regimens secondary bile acids predominated, as usual, in the bile acid fraction of the stool. These results emphasize the key role of the intestinal mucosa in the etiology of carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia and as a direct or indirect contributor to plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the absence of dietary lipids. When the gut mucosa was bypassed, carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia did

  4. Effect of curcumin on kidney histopathological changes, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of serum in sodium arsenite-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Hamid Reza; Eskandari, Najmeh

    2017-02-01

    Sodium arsenite is an environmental pollutant with the ability to generate free radicals and curcumin acts as a potent antioxidant. This study investigates the effect of curcumin on kidney histopathology, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of serum in the mice treated with sodium arsenite. Adult male mice were divided into four groups: control, sodium arsenite, curcumin and curcumin+sodium arsenite. The treatments were delivered for 5 weeks. After the treatment period, blood samples were collected and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity of serum were determined. Left kidney was dissected, weighed and used for histopathological and histomorphometrical studies. Sodium arsenite-treated mice showed a significant decrease in the diameter of glomerulus and proximal tubule, glomerular area, total antioxidant capacity of serum as well as a significant increase in serum concentration of MDA compared to the control group. However, no significant difference was found in kidney weight, area and diameter of Bowman's capsule as well as the diameter of distal tubule in mice treated with sodium arsenite compared to the control. In curcumin+sodium arsenite group, curcumin significantly reversed the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the diameter of glomerulus and proximal tubule, glomerular area, total antioxidant capacity of serum and serum concentration of MDA compared to the sodium arsenite group. The application of curcumin alone significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity of serum compared to the control. Curcumin compensated the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on kidney tissue, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity of serum.

  5. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections.

  6. Human serum albumin supported lipid patterns for the targeted recognition of microspheres coated by membrane based on ss-DNA hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaoming; He Qiang; Duan Li; Li Junbai . E-mail: jbli@iccas.ac.cn

    2006-10-27

    Human serum albumin (HSA) patterns have been successfully fabricated for the deposition of lipid bilayer, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sglycerophosphate (DMPA), by making use of the micro-contact printing ({mu}CP) technique and liposome fusion. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) results indicate that lipid bilayer has been assembled in HSA patterns with a good stability. Such well-defined lipid patterns formed on HSA surface create possibility to incorporate specific components like channels or receptors for specific recognition. In view of this, microspheres coated with lipid membranes were immobilized in HSA-supported lipid patterns via the hybridization of complementary ss-DNAs. This procedure enables to transfer solid materials to a soft surface through a specific recognition.

  7. The effects of atorvastatin therapy on rheological characteristics of erythrocyte membrane, serum lipid profile and oxidative status in patients with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Uydu, Hüseyin Avni; Yıldırmış, Sermet; Orem, Cihan; Calapoglu, Mustafa; Alver, Ahmet; Kural, Birgül; Orem, Asım

    2012-11-01

    The statins, most commonly used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, have certain beneficial effects including improved endothelial function, plaque stability and decreased oxidative stress and inflammation, beyond their lipid-lowering effect in plasma. We evaluated the pleiotropic impact of atorvastatin on erythrocyte structural/mechanical properties and lipid peroxidation in dyslipidemics. The study group included 44 patients with dyslipidemia and was divided into subgroups according to triglyceride and cholesterol levels as hypercholesterolemic (n = 29) and mixed-type hyperlipidemic (n = 15). Subjects were given 10 mg atorvastatin per day for 12 weeks. Changes in serum lipid composition, lipid contents, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and osmotic fragility in erythrocytes and oxidative stress parameters of erythrocytes and plasma were studied. Atorvastatin therapy improved the serum lipid profile of both subgroups. This alteration was accompanied by a decreased level of cholesterol in erythrocyte membranes. Moreover, enhanced activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in erythrocytes reflected the improvements in membrane lipids of both subgroups. However, a significant change was observed in osmotic fragility values of the mixed-typed dyslipidemic group. This treatment lowered the lipid peroxidation in plasma and erythrocytes and increased plasma total antioxidant capacity in all groups. The present study shows that the use of atorvastatin reversed the structural and functional features of erythrocyte membranes in dyslipidemic subjects. Also, hypolipidemic therapy had a beneficial impact on a balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems.

  8. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting lipid affects on the crystallization and structure of a transmembrane peptide.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Lyons, Joseph A; Caffrey, Martin

    2011-04-06

    Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating D-and L-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesised lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation.

  9. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting lipid affects on the crystallization and structure of a transmembrane peptide

    PubMed Central

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Lyons, Joseph A.; Caffrey, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating D-and L-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesised lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation. PMID:22933857

  10. Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Ficus Glumosa on Fasting blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Umar, Z U; Moh'd, A; Tanko, Y

    2013-06-30

    Ficus glumosa, commonly known as the fig tree or "African rock fig" is a plant with immense medicinal value used for the management of diabetes for over 2000 years. The aim of the present study is to determine the hypoglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties of the ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult male Wister rats weighing (120 - 220) grams of about 18 to 22 weeks of age were used in the study. The animals were assigned into six groups (1-6) of five rats (n=5) each. Group VI served as the positive control group receiving 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone via intra-peritoneal route (i.p.), Groups I (negative control), II, III, IV and V were treated with alloxan and after the induction of hyperglycaemia, received in addition via i.p. for 7 days: 0.9% normal saline (5ml/kg) alone, 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa respectively while Group V received 6lU/kg of short-acting insulin. The determinations of blood glucose levels were carried out at intervals of one day for 7 days. Serum lipid profile, were done on the 7th day.Premininary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids,saponin,tannins,cardiac glycosides,triterpenes,ceramides and reducing sugars.The LD50 of the extract of Ficus glumosa was found to be 2,154mg/kg.The results of the study showed that,100mg/kg and 400mg/kg of ethanolic leaves extract of Ficus glumosa significantly lowered blood glucose levels and 200mg/kg significantly lowered serum lipid profile compared with negative control group.In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Ficus glumosa possesses anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-lipidemic effect.

  11. Serum lipid alterations identified in chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus-associated cirrhosis and carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Aihua; Li, Meng; Chen, Tianlu; Panee, Jun; Jia, Wei; Ji, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The incidences of chronic hepatitis B (CHB), Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cirrhosis and HBV-associated carcinoma are high and increasing. This study was designed to evaluate serum lipid metabolite changes that are associated with the progression from CHB to HBV-associated cirrhosis and ultimately to HBV-associated HCC. A targeted metabolomic assay was performed in fasting sera from 136 CHB patients, 104 HBV-associated cirrhosis, and 95 HBV-associated HCC using ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A total of 140 metabolites were identified. Clear separations between each two groups were obtained using the partial least squares discriminate analysis of 9 lipid metabolites. Progressively lower levels of long-chain lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C18:2, lysoPC a C20:3, lysoPC a C20:4) were observed from CHB to cirrhosis to carcinoma; lower levels of lysoPC a C20:4 were found in patients with higher model for end-stage liver disease in the same disease group; and lysoPC a C20:3 levels were lower in Child-Pugh Class C than in Class A and Class B in HBV-associated cirrhosis and HBV-associated HCC groups. The octadecadienyl carnitine level was higher in HBV-associated cirrhosis group than in other two groups. Serum levels of selected long-chain lysoPCs are promising markers for the progression of HBV-associated liver diseases. PMID:28198443

  12. Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stones: A Population-based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chang, Shih-Chen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Danforth, Kim N.; Althuis, Michelle D.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are rare, but highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the predominant risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. As part of a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we examined the associations of serum lipid levels with biliary stones and cancers. We included 460 biliary cancer cases (264 gallbladder, 141 extrahepatic bile duct, and 55 ampulla of Vater), 981 biliary stone cases, and 858 healthy individuals randomly selected from the population. Participants completed an in-person interview and gave overnight fasting blood samples. Participants in the highest quintile of triglycerides (≥ 160 mg/dl) had a 1.4-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=1.1-1.9), a 1.9-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=1.3-2.8), and a 4.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=2.8-8.1), compared to the reference group (third quintile: 90-124 mg/dl). Participants in the lowest quintile of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 30 mg/dl) had a 4.2-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=3.0-6.0), an 11.6-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=7.3-18.5), and a 16.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=9.1-30.9), relative to the reference group (third quintile: 40-49 mg/dl). In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein A (apo A) were inversely associated with biliary stones; whereas low levels as well as high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, apo A, and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were associated with excess risks of biliary tract cancers. Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis. PMID:18076041

  13. Time course of changes in serum glucose, insulin, lipids and tissue lipase activities in macrosomic offspring of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Merzouk, H; Madani, S; Chabane Sari, D; Prost, J; Bouchenak, M; Belleville, J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the time course of changes in serum glucose, insulin and lipid levels, as well as lipid and protein content and lipolytic activities in insulin target organs (liver, adipose tissue and muscle), in macrosomic offspring of streptozotocin-induced mildly hyperglycaemic rats. Food intake and nutritional efficiency were also evaluated. Mild hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight) on day 5 of gestation. Control pregnant rats were injected with citrate buffer. At birth, macrosomic pups (birth weight >1.7 S.D. greater than the mean value for the control pups) had higher serum insulin, glucose and lipid levels than control pups. These macrosomic rats maintained accelerated postnatal growth combined with high adipose tissue weight up to 12 weeks of age. These rats were not hyperphagic; however, they had higher food efficiency and fat storage capacity with higher adipocyte lipoprotein lipase activity, which contributed to persisting obesity. Hepatic lipase activity was increased in macrosomic rats at all ages. Moreover, macrosomia was associated with metabolic disturbances that varied according to age and sex. After 1 month, several alterations observed at birth had disappeared. Serum glucose, insulin and lipid levels in male and female macrosomic rats became similar to those of their respective controls. At 2 months of age, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol levels were higher in macrosomic females than in controls. By 3 months, macrosomic rats (both males and females) had developed insulin resistance with hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia, and higher serum and hepatic lipids. In conclusion, macrosomia was associated with alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism through to adulthood. It should be considered as an important potential risk factor for obesity and its metabolic complications.

  14. Lipid-mediated Wnt protein stabilization enables serum-free culture of human organ stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tüysüz, Nesrin; van Bloois, Louis; van den Brink, Stieneke; Begthel, Harry; Verstegen, Monique M. A.; Cruz, Luis J.; Hui, Lijian; van der Laan, Luc J. W.; de Jonge, Jeroen; Vries, Robert; Braakman, Eric; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Clevers, Hans; ten Berge, Derk

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signalling proteins are essential for culture of human organ stem cells in organoids, but most Wnt protein formulations are poorly active in serum-free media. Here we show that purified Wnt3a protein is ineffective because it rapidly loses activity in culture media due to its hydrophobic nature, and its solubilization requires a detergent, CHAPS (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate), that interferes with stem cell self-renewal. By stabilizing the Wnt3a protein using phospholipids and cholesterol as carriers, we address both problems: Wnt activity remains stable in serum-free media, while non-toxic carriers allow the use of high Wnt concentrations. Stabilized Wnt3a supports strongly increased self-renewal of organ and embryonic stem cells and the serum-free establishment of human organoids from healthy and diseased intestine and liver. Moreover, the lipophilicity of Wnt3a protein greatly facilitates its purification. Our findings remove a major obstacle impeding clinical applications of adult stem cells and offer advantages for all cell culture uses of Wnt3a protein. PMID:28262686

  15. Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan-Zhen; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:25120796

  16. Effects of green tea supplementation on elements, total antioxidants, lipids, and glucose values in the serum of obese patients.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawel; Szulinska, Monika; Stepien, Marta; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Jablecka, Anna

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of green tea has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. There have been some studies on the influence of green tea on the mineral status of obese subjects, but they have not yielded conclusive results. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of green tea extract on the mineral, body mass, lipid profile, glucose, and antioxidant status of obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Forty-six obese patients were randomly assigned to receive either 379 mg of green tea extract, or a placebo, daily for 3 months. At baseline, and after 3 months of treatment, the anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and total antioxidant status were assessed, as were the levels of plasma lipids, glucose, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper. We found that 3 months of green tea extract supplementation resulted in decreases in body mass index, waist circumference, and levels of total cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, and triglyceride. Increases in total antioxidant level and in zinc concentration in serum were also observed. Glucose and iron levels were lower in the green tea extract group than in the control, although HDL-cholesterol and magnesium were higher in the green tea extract group than in the placebo group. At baseline, a positive correlation was found between calcium and body mass index, as was a negative correlation between copper and triglycerides. After 3 months, a positive correlation between iron and body mass index and between magnesium and HDL-cholesterol, as well as a negative correlation between magnesium and glucose, were observed. The present findings demonstrate that green tea influences the body's mineral status. Moreover, the results of this study confirm the beneficial effects of green tea extract supplementation on body mass index, lipid profile, and total antioxidant status in patients with obesity.

  17. Serum selenium and lipid levels: Associations observed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Krista; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen

    2015-07-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient, and due to its antioxidant activity, is hypothesized to be beneficial to cardiovascular health. However, the evidence for an association between selenium and health markers such as lipid levels has been mixed. This may be due to substantial variability in the level of selenium intake between populations and potential non-linearity of selenium-health outcome associations. We used the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between serum selenium and lipid levels among participants aged 12 years and older. Associations were evaluated using both linear regression models, as well as ordinal logistic regression and quantile regression models to allow for potential non-linear relationships. In all models, potential confounders of sex, age group, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and cotinine were included. Overall, 40% of participants had total cholesterol levels classified as borderline or elevated, and total cholesterol increased with increasing selenium (p=0.01). A similar pattern was seen for triglycerides (p=0.02). LDL cholesterol was also associated with selenium but not in a linear fashion; HDL cholesterol did not vary with selenium. Multivariate quantile regression showed significant associations between selenium and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. The effect of selenium was stronger with increasing quantile for total cholesterol and for triglycerides. In contrast, for LDL cholesterol the association was positive in the 10th and 50th percentiles, but (non-significant and) negative in the 90th percentile. These results show that while selenium may impact cardiovascular health via effects on lipid levels, the associations may not be linear.

  18. Salmon Protamine Decreases Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Inhibiting Lipid Absorption in an In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Model and in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Miyauchi, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Daiki; Arai, Hirofumi; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    Protamine has been used as an antiheparin drug and a natural preservative in various food products. However, limited studies have evaluated the physicochemical and functional properties of protamine. Hence, we assessed the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of lipid absorption following salmon protamine intake in in vitro and in vivo studies. In initial experiments, a salmon protamine hydrolyzate (PH) was prepared using in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion suppressed pancreatic lipase activity and micellar cholesterol solubility. This PH had higher bile acid-binding capacity and emulsion breakdown activity than casein hydrolyzate and l-arginine. However, the hypolipidemic functions of protamine were dramatically reduced by pancreatin digestion. In further experiments, groups of male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 5% (wt/wt) salmon protamine or a protamine amino acid mixture. After 4 wk of feeding with experimental diets, reductions in serum and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol contents were observed in the presence of protamine, reflecting inhibition of TAG, cholesterol, and bile acid absorption. These data suggest that the formation of insoluble PH-bile acid complexes is critical before the bile acid-binding capacity is reduced. Therefore, dietary salmon protamine may ameliorate lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  19. Mg deficiency results in modulation of serum lipids, glutathione, and NO synthase isozyme activation in cardiovascular tissues: relevance to de novo synthesis of ceramide, serum Mg and atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilank C; Liu, Jian-Ping; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Yan; Zheng, Tao; Li, Wenyan; Sica, Anthony C; Perez-Albela, Jose Luis; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2011-01-01

    The present work tested the hypothesis that short-term (S-T) dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would: 1) result in reduction in serum(s) sphingomyelin (SM) and changes in several blood lipids, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) concomitant with elevations in s cholesterol (chol), s LDL+VLDL and trigycerides (TG), as well as reduction in the PC/cholesterol ratio; 2) lead to oxidative stress, characterized by reductions in glutathione (glut) content in the various chambers of the heart and activation of e-NOS and n-NOS in the atria, ventricles and aortic smooth muscle (ASM); 3) produce early cardiac damage characterized by leakage of creatine kinase (CK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH); and 4) demonstrate that these pathophysiological changes are a result of profound reductions in s ionized Mg (Mg(2+)) and activation of the SM-ceramide pathway. In addition, we hypothesized that: 1) exposure of primary cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to low extracellular Mg(2+) would lead to de novo synthesis of ceramide and activation of NO synthase with reduction in glut, both of which would be attenuated by inhibition of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and serine palmitoyl CoA transferase (SPT); and 2) low levels of Mg(2+)added to the drinking water would either prevent or ameliorate these manifestations. Our data indicate that S-T Mg deficiency resulted in reductions in s Mg(2+), SM, PC, HDL-C and the PC/chol ratio concomitant with decreases in tissue levels of glut, leakage of cardiac CK and LDH, as well as activation of e-NOS and n-NOS in all chambers of the heart and ASM. The greater the reduction in s Mg(2+), the greater the effects on all parameters analyzed; very significant correlations to levels of s SM and Mg(2+) were found with all of the serum and tissue biochemical -molecular analytes measured. Our experiments also showed that VSMCs exposed to low Mg(2+)resulted in activation of NO synthase, loss of glut and de novo

  20. Untargeted serum metabolomics reveals Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet and its optimal combination improve an impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Chen, Xi; Cai, Hao; Li, Weidong; Cai, Baochang; Chai, Chuan; Di, Liuqing; Shi, Liyun; Hu, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet, a six-herb preparation, was proved to show beneficial effects on type II diabetes patients in clinical. This study aims to optimize the component proportion of the six-herb preparation and explore the serum metabolic signatures of type II diabetes rats after treatment with Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet and its optimal combination. The component proportion of the preparation was optimized using uniform experimental design and machine learning techniques. Untargeted GC-MS metabolomic experiments were carried out with serum samples from model group and treatment groups. Data were normalized, multivariate and univariate statistical analysis performed and metabolites of interest putatively identified. 23 metabolites were significantly changed by Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet treatment and the majority of these were decreased, including various carbohydrates (glucose, mannose, fructose, allose and gluconic acid), unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid), alanine, valine, propanoic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrate, along with pyrimidine and cholesterol. Increased concentrations of oxalic acid, leucine, glycine, serine, threonine, proline, lysine and citrate were observed. In the optimal combination-fed group, 21 metabolites were significantly affected and strikingly, the magnitudes of changes here were generally much greater than that of Fu-Zhu-Jiang-Tang tablet treated rats. 18 metabolites affected in both groups included various carbohydrates (mannose, glucose, allose, fructose and gluconic acid), unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, oleic acid and arachidonic acid), short-chain fatty acids (oxalic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrate), and amino acids (alanine, valine, leucine, glycine, proline and lysine), as well as pyrimidine. Metabolites exclusively affected in optimal combination treated rat included succinic acid, cysteine and phenylalanine, whilst four metabolites (propanoic acid, citrate

  1. Serum lipids, lipoprotein composition and liver cholesterol in genetically obese Zucker rats fed semipurified diets containing either casein or soy protein.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, A H; van Tintelen, G; West, C E

    1983-01-01

    The effect of semipurified diets containing either casein or soy protein on serum lipids, lipoprotein composition and liver cholesterol was studied in genetically obese Zucker rats. The ingestion of a cholesterol-enriched semipurified diet containing casein resulted in elevated levels of serum cholesterol and phospholipids compared to the feeding of a soy protein diet. No differences in serum triglycerides were observed. Differences in serum cholesterol and phospholipids were mainly reflected in the very low density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins and to a minor extent in the high density lipoproteins. Liver cholesterol paralleled the levels of cholesterol in the serum, the rats fed casein exhibited markedly higher levels of liver cholesterol than those fed soy protein. Furthermore, the rats fed casein also had enlarged livers. Thus, this study clearly shows the differential cholesterolemic effect of dietary casein and soy protein in genetically obese Zucker rats.

  2. Chemical properties of lipids strongly affect the kinetics of the membrane-induced aggregation of α-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, James W. P.; Ouberai, Myriam M.; Flagmeier, Patrick; Vendruscolo, Michele; Buell, Alexander K.; Sparr, Emma; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular α-synuclein deposits, known as Lewy bodies, have been linked to a range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease. α-Synuclein binds to synthetic and biological lipids, and this interaction has been shown to play a crucial role for both α-synuclein’s native function, including synaptic plasticity, and the initiation of its aggregation. Here, we describe the interplay between the lipid properties and the lipid binding and aggregation propensity of α-synuclein. In particular, we have observed that the binding of α-synuclein to model membranes is much stronger when the latter is in the fluid rather than the gel phase, and that this binding induces a segregation of the lipids into protein-poor and protein-rich populations. In addition, α-synuclein was found to aggregate at detectable rates only when interacting with membranes composed of the most soluble lipids investigated here. Overall, our results show that the chemical properties of lipids determine whether or not the lipids can trigger the aggregation of α-synuclein, thus affecting the balance between functional and aberrant behavior of the protein. PMID:27298346

  3. Evaluation of Serum Magnesium, Lipid Profile and Various Biochemical Parameters as Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramavataram, DVSS; Patel, Payal A.; Rupani, Mihir P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic inflammatory disease, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than the general population. Chronic inflammatory conditions are likely to alter magnesium level and various biochemical parameters. Objectives To study the probable changes in serum magnesium, lipid profile and various biochemical parameters and to assess risk factors of CVD in newly diagnosed RA patients compared to controls. Materials and Methods We studied 50 newly diagnosed RA adult patients and 50 healthy individuals as controls. Serum magnesium, calcium, lipid profile, uric acid and other biochemical parameters were measured in study subjects. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD and compared between RA subjects and controls by Independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation. Results We found decreased serum magnesium and calcium in RA subjects compared to the controls (p < 0.001). RA subjects had atherogenic lipid profile characterized by elevated total cholesterol (p = 0.054), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.008) and decreased HDL cholesterol (p <0.001). Serum uric acid was higher in RA cases compared to controls (p = 0.025). Serum magnesium was negatively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol in RA cases. Conclusion Decreased magnesium level, dyslipidemia and increased uric acid observed in our study together may be more potent risk factors for CVD in newly diagnosed RA subjects. We recommend that serum magnesium should be investigated as a part of cardiovascular risk management in RA. We suggest that decreased serum magnesium and increased serum uric acid may be considered as nontraditional risk factors of CVD in RA. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the impact of inflammation on various biochemical parameters and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with RA. PMID:26023546

  4. Serum lipid-bound sialic acid as a marker in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dnistrian, A M; Schwartz, M K; Katopodis, N; Fracchia, A A; Stock, C C

    1982-11-01

    The reliability of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a marker in breast cancer was evaluated in 78 normal subjects, 106 patients with benign breast disease, 64 patients with primary operable breast cancer, and 61 patients with recurrent metastatic breast cancer. LSA levels were determined before and after mastectomy and during chemotherapy in selected patients to determine the value of LSA in monitoring therapy and predicting response. LSA levels greater than 20 mg/dl were not seen in normal subjects but were present in patients with benign breast disease (13%), primary breast cancer (47%) and recurrent metastatic breast cancer (62%). LSA levels decreased after initiation of chemotherapy and remained low in patients clinically disease-free. Recurrences were associated with elevated LSA in patients failing chemotherapy or endocrine ablative surgery. LSA measurements appeared to be of limited value in the detection of breast cancer but serial measurements may be useful in assessing disease progression and identifying patients resistant to therapy.

  5. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures. PMID:27340620

  6. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα) values showed overexpression (198%). Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism. PMID:17725831

  7. Dietary freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract suppresses accumulation of hepatic lipids and increases in serum cholesterol and aminotransferase activities induced by dietary chloretone in rats.

    PubMed

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Umeki, Miki; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yutaro; Yamada, Koji; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone.

  8. Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Suh, Jung Yul; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was 2.2±0.6 years. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonoscopy increased linearly with the increasing quartiles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides measured at the initial colonoscopy. These associations persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted hazard ratios for adenoma occurrence comparing the fourth with the first quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26–1.77; ptrend<0.001], 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04–1.43; ptrend=0.024), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02–1.46; ptrend=0.046), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14–1.63; ptrend=0.004), and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99–1.42; ptrend=0.041), respectively. In addition, increasing quartiles of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were associated with an increasing occurrence of adenomas. Conclusion The levels of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly associated with the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Improving the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism through lifestyle changes or medications may be helpful in preventing metachronous adenomas. PMID:28120565

  9. Metabolically active extracellular vesicles released from hepatocytes under drug-induced liver-damaging conditions modify serum metabolome and might affect different pathophysiological processes.

    PubMed

    Royo, Felix; Palomo, Laura; Mleczko, Justyna; Gonzalez, Esperanza; Alonso, Cristina; Martínez, Ibon; Pérez-Cormenzana, Miriam; Castro, Azucena; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2017-02-15

    Hepatocytes are involved in the endogenous and drug metabolism; many of the enzymes involved in those processes are incorporated into extracellular vesicles and secreted into the bloodstream. Liver-damaging conditions modify the molecular cargo of those vesicles significantly. However, no information about the effect of these hepatic vesicles on the extracellular environment is available. Drug-induced liver damage increases the number of circulating extracellular vesicles and affects the release and content of hepatocyte-derived vesicles. In this work, we evaluated the metabolic effect of these vesicles on the composition of the serum. We performed a targeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) metabolomics analysis of serum samples. The samples had been first incubated with hepatic extracellular vesicles from hepatocytes challenged with acetaminophen or diclofenac. The incubation affected the serum levels of 67 metabolites, such as amino acids and different species of lipids. The metabolites included various species of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. These compounds are the components of biological membranes; our observations suggest that the vesicles might take part in remodelling and maintenance of the membranes. Alterations in the levels of some other serum metabolites might have deleterious consequences, for example, the tetracosanoic acid with its cardiovascular effects. However, some of the metabolites whose levels were increased, including alpha-linoleic and tauroursodeoxycholic acids, have been reported to have a protective effect. Our targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that the hepatic extracellular vesicles act as nano-metabolic machines supplying the extracellular environment with the means to integrate diverse tissue responses. In conclusion, we show that the hepatic extracellular vesicles are metabolically active and might play a role in the physiopathological response to hepatic insults

  10. Serum proteomic analysis identifies sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism and inflammation profiles in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The higher prevalence of Asperger Syndrome (AS) and other autism spectrum conditions in males has been known for many years. However, recent multiplex immunoassay profiling studies have shown that males and females with AS have distinct proteomic changes in serum. Methods Here, we analysed sera from adults diagnosed with AS (males = 14, females = 16) and controls (males = 13, females = 16) not on medication at the time of sample collection, using a combination of multiplex immunoassay and shotgun label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MSE). The main objective was to identify sex-specific serum protein changes associated with AS. Results Multiplex immunoassay profiling led to identification of 16 proteins that were significantly altered in AS individuals in a sex-specific manner. Three of these proteins were altered in females (ADIPO, IgA, APOA1), seven were changed in males (BMP6, CTGF, ICAM1, IL-12p70, IL-16, TF, TNF-alpha) and six were changed in both sexes but in opposite directions (CHGA, EPO, IL-3, TENA, PAP, SHBG). Shotgun LC-MSE profiling led to identification of 13 serum proteins which had significant sex-specific changes in the AS group and, of these, 12 were altered in females (APOC2, APOE, ARMC3, CLC4K, FETUB, GLCE, MRRP1, PTPA, RN149, TLE1, TRIPB, ZC3HE) and one protein was altered in males (RGPD4). The free androgen index in females with AS showed an increased ratio of 1.63 compared to controls. Conclusion Taken together, the serum multiplex immunoassay and shotgun LC-MSE profiling results indicate that adult females with AS had alterations in proteins involved mostly in lipid transport and metabolism pathways, while adult males with AS showed changes predominantly in inflammation signalling. These results provide further evidence that the search for biomarkers or novel drug targets in AS may require stratification into male and female subgroups, and could lead to the development of novel targeted treatment

  11. The effect of bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of the liquid stored rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Sarıözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu; Eken, Ayşe; Akçay, Aytaç

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of liquid stored rabbit semen stored up to 72 h at 5 °C. Ejaculates were collected from five New Zealand male rabbits by artificial vagina and pooled at 37 °C following evaluation. Each pooled ejaculate was split into three equal experimental groups and diluted to a final concentration of approximately 40 × 10(6)sperm/ml (single step dilution), in an Eppendorf tube, with the Tris based extender containing BSA (5mg/ml), FCS (10%) or no additive (control) at 37 °C, cooled to 5 °C and stored for up to 72 h. The extender supplemented with BSA and FCS did not improve the percentages of motility and acrosomal abnormality during 48 h compared to the control. The additives BSA and FCS had a significant effect in the maintaining of plasma membrane integrity between 48 and 72 h storage period, compared to the control (P<0.01). The supplementation of BSA and FCS had a protective effect on motility (P<0.05), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.01) and acrosomal integrity (P<0.01) at 72 h compared to the control. The supplementations with BSA and FCS led to a reduction in DNA damage of rabbit sperm at 48 and 72 h during storage period, compared to the control (P<0.001). Although supplementation of BSA and FCS caused significant (P<0.01) decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level at 48 h and 72 h, they significantly (P<0.01) increased the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant activity up to 72 h when compared to the control group. In conclusion, BSA and FCS supplementation to liquid stored rabbit semen provide a protection for spermatozoa against cool storage-induced DNA damage and plasma membrane integrity by their antioxidative properties.

  12. Effect of VULM 1457, an ACAT inhibitor, on serum lipid levels and on real time red blood cell flow in diabetic and non-diabetic hamsters fed high cholesterol-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Vojtassáková, E; Syneková, M; Tazká, D; Mátyás, S; Hózová, R; Sadlonová, I; Svec, P

    2007-12-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the formation of cholesterol/fatty acyl-coenzyme A esters. Accumulation of cholesterol esters leads to pathological changes connected with atherosclerosis. We have evaluated effects of a newly synthesized ACAT inhibitor, 1-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)-3-[4-(4'-nitrophenylthio)phenyl] urea (VULM 1457), on serum lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels and velocity of red blood cells (RBC) in non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on high cholesterol-lipid (HCHL) diet during 3 months. The VULM 1457 effects on the paw microcirculation were assessed using capillary microscopy by measuring (RBC) velocity in vivo. Hamsters fed on HCHL diet became hypercholesterolemic with a dramatic increase in serum lipids accompanied with significantly decreased RBC velocity. Diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet had further increased serum lipids with reduction of RBC velocity. The VULM 1457 inhibitor lowered cholesterol levels in both non-diabetic and diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet. The greater VULM 1457 effect was shown in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet where VULM 1457 expressed hypotriglycerides effects, too. An improved RBC velocity-pronounced effect was observed in diabetic hamsters fed on HCHL diet treated with VULM 1457. These results suggest that the ACAT inhibitor, VULM 1457, is a prospective hypolipidemic and anti-atherogenic drug which treats diabetes.

  13. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  14. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  15. Impact of daily Chlorella consumption on serum lipid and carotenoid profiles in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High level of serum cholesterol is considered to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to test the hypothesis that a daily intake of Chlorella may improve serum lipid profile through enhancement of serum carotenoid concentration in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. Methods Eligible subjects (n = 63) were randomized to either Chlorella (5 g/day) or placebo for a double-blinded trial with a 2-week lead-in period and a 4-week intervention period. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and carotenoids were assessed at the beginning and the end of the trial. Results Compared with the control group, the Chlorella group exhibited remarkable changes in total cholesterol (Chlorella −1.6%; placebo 0.03%; P = 0.036), triglycerides (Chlorella −10.3%; placebo 11.9%; P = 0.002), lutein/zeaxanthin (Chlorella 89.6%; placebo −1.7%; P < 0.0001), and α-carotene (Chlorella 163.6%; placebo 15%; P < 0.0001). Improvement of serum lipids was supported by significant reductions of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Chlorella −11%; placebo 11.8%; P = 0.006), apolipoprotein B (Chlorella −1.5%; placebo 1.7%; P = 0.044), non high-density lipoprotein (Chlorella −2.6%; placebo −0.5%; P = 0.032), and high-density lipoprotein/triglycerides (Chlorella 4.0%; placebo −9.5%; P = 0.023), suggesting an inhibitory effect of Chlorella on the intestinal absorption of dietary and endogenous lipids. Further, the changes of serum lipids appeared to be associated with the changes of serum carotenoids. Conclusion Daily consumption of Chlorella supplements provided the potential of health benefits reducing serum lipid risk factors, mainly triglycerides and total cholesterol, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. The effect was related to carotenoid consumption. Trial registration WHO International Clinical Trials

  16. Effect of the periparturient period on serum lipid and cholesterol lipoprotein concentrations in goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Skotnicka, Ewa; Muszczyński, Zbigniew; Suska, Maria

    2011-12-01

    Blood samples were taken from 12 goats during the periparturient period (4 and 1 weeks before and 2, 10 and 30 days after delivery), and from 10 nonpregnant goats. The following variables were determined: total lipids (TL), triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol fractions. One week before delivery TL (2.32 ± 0.12 g/l, P ≤ 0.05), TG (0.32 ± 0.16 mmol/l, P ≤ 0.001) and TCH concentrations (1.65 ± 0.42 mmol/l, P ≤ 0.05) were significantly increased as compared to non-pregnant goats (2.08 ± 0.28 g/l, 0.15 ± 0.05 mmol/l, 1.38 ± 0.19 mmol/l, respectively). After delivery, the concentrations of TL, TG, TCH and HDL decreased significantly. The lowest TG concentration was observed 2 days after delivery (0.18 ± 0.02 mmol/l), while TL (1.73 ± 0.21 g/l), TCH (0.95 ± 0.21 mmol/l) and HDL (0.74 ± 0.16 mmol/l) reached the lowest level 10 days after delivery. Two days after delivery a significant increase of LDL concentration was observed (0.38 ± 0.04 mmol/l); however, ten days after delivery a threefold decrease was shown in the LDL concentration (0.12 ± 0.04 mmol/l). A month after delivery all the variables studied reached levels similar to those measured in non-pregnant goats.

  17. Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lambeth, Susan P; Hau, Jann; Perlman, Jaine E; Martino, Michele; Schapiro, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. However, few published empirical studies have provided physiological data to support this position. To address this issue, PRT techniques were used to train chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to voluntarily present a leg for an intramuscular (IM) injection of anesthetic. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were collected from healthy chimpanzees (n=128) of both sexes and various ages during their routine annual physical examinations over a 7-year period. Specific variables potentially indicative of acute stress (i.e., total white blood cell (WBC) counts, absolute segmented neutrophils (SEG), glucose (GLU) levels, and hematocrit (HCT) levels) were analyzed to determine whether the method used to administer the anesthetic (voluntary present for injection vs. involuntary injection) affected the physiological parameters. Subjects that voluntarily presented for an anesthetic injection had significantly lower mean total WBC counts, SEG, and GLU levels than subjects that were involuntarily anesthetized by more traditional means. Within-subjects analyses revealed the same pattern of results. This is one of the first data sets to objectively demonstrate that PRT for voluntary presentation of IM injections of anesthetic can significantly affect some of the physiological measures correlated with stress responses to chemical restraint in captive chimpanzees.

  18. Dose-response impact of various tocotrienols on serum lipid parameters in 5-week-old female chickens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Suzanne G; Thomas, Ann M; Gapor, Abdul; Tan, Barrie; Qureshi, Nilofer; Qureshi, Asaf A

    2006-05-01

    The cholesterol-suppressive action of the tocotrienol-rich-fraction (TRF) of palm oil may be due to the effect of its constituent tocotrienols on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. The tocotrienols, modulate HMG-CoA reductase activity via a post-transcriptional mechanism. As a consequence small doses (5-200 ppm) of TRF-supplemented diets fed to experimental animals lower serum cholesterol levels. These findings led us to evaluate the safety and efficacy of large supplements of TRF and its constituents. Diets supplemented with 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 ppm of TRF, alpha-tocopherol, alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, or 6-tocotrienol were fed to chickens for 4 wk. There were no differences between groups or within groups in weight gain, or in feed consumption at the termination of the feeding period. Supplemental TRF produced a dose-response (50-2000 ppm) lowering of serum total and LDL cholesterol levels of 22% and 52% (P < 0.05), respectively, compared with the control group. alpha-Tocopherol did not affect total or LDL-cholesterol levels. Supplemental alpha-tocotrienol within the 50-500 ppm range produced a dose-response lowering of total (17%) and LDL (33%) cholesterol levels. The more potent gamma and delta isomers yielded dose-response (50-2,000 ppm) reductions of serum total (32%) and LDL (66%) cholesterol levels. HDL cholesterol levels were minimally impacted by the tocotrienols; as a result, the HDL/LDL cholesterol ratios were markedly improved (123-150%) by the supplements. Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in sera of pullets receiving the higher supplements. The safe dose of various tocotrienols for human consumption might be 200-1000 mg/d based on this study.

  19. Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism.

  20. Culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages with mouse serum induces lipid bodies that associate with the parasitophorous vacuole and decrease their microbicidal capacity against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Laura Azeredo Miranda; Roberto, João; Monteiro, Verônica Gomes; Lobato, Caroliny Samary Silva; de Oliveira, Marco Antonio; da Cunha, Maura; D’Ávila, Heloisa; Seabra, Sérgio Henrique; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Lipid bodies [lipid droplets (LBs)] are lipid-rich organelles involved in lipid metabolism, signalling and inflammation. Recent findings suggest a role for LBs in host response to infection; however, the potential functions of this organelle in Toxoplasma gondii infection and how it alters macrophage microbicidal capacity during infection are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of host LBs in T. gondii infection in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Macrophages cultured with mouse serum (MS) had higher numbers of LBs than those cultured in foetal bovine serum and can function as a model to study the role of LBs during intracellular pathogen infection. LBs were found in association with the parasitophorous vacuole, suggesting that T. gondii may benefit from this lipid source. Moreover, increased numbers of macrophage LBs correlated with high prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and decreased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Accordingly, LB-enriched macrophages cultured with MS were less efficient at controlling T. gondii growth. Treatment of macrophages cultured with MS with indomethacin, an inhibitor of PGE2 production, increased the microbicidal capacity against T. gondii. Collectively, these results suggest that culture with MS caused a decrease in microbicidal activity of macrophages against T. gondii by increasing PGE2 while lowering NO production. PMID:25317704

  1. How lipid hydration and temperature affect the structure of DC-Chol DOPE/DNA lipoplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Amenitsch, Heinz; Caminiti, Ruggero; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2006-05-01

    Effect of lipid hydration on the structure of lamellar lipoplexes made of the cationic lipid 3-[ N-( N, N-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]cholesterol (DC-Chol), the neutral 'helper' lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and calf-thymus DNA was investigated by synchrotron small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD). Here, we show that lipid hydration is the key factor regulating the equilibrium structure of lipoplexes. Thermotropic behavior was also investigated between 5 and 65 °C. Both the membrane thickness and the water layer thickness were found to decrease linearly as a function of temperature while the one dimensional DNA rod lattice between lipid bilayers was found to enlarge. Structural results were interpreted in terms of recently proposed theoretical models.

  2. Evaluation of TNF-α serum level in patients with recalcitrant multiple common warts, treated by lipid garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, Soha; Mohammed, Ghada Farouk; Younes, Soha; Elakhras, Atef Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    No universal consensus about optimal modality for treating the recalcitrant multiple common warts (RMCW). The objective of the study was to evaluate the immunological mechanisms and clinical therapeutic effect of using lipid garlic extract (LGE) in the treatment of RMCW. The study included 50 patients with RMCW. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the first group (25 patients) received LGE, and the second group (25 patients) received saline as a control group. In both groups, treatments were made to single lesions, or largest wart in case of multiple lesions, until complete clearance of lesions or for a maximum of 4 weeks. Blood serum was taken at pre-study and at the fourth week to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. A significant difference was found between the therapeutic responses of RMCW to LGE antigen and saline control group (p < 0.001). In the LGE group, complete response was achieved in 96% of patients presenting with RMCW. There was a statistically nonsignificant increase in TNF-α of LGE group versus saline group. No recurrence was observed in the LGE group. LGE as an immunotherapy is an inexpensive, effective, and safe modality with good cure rates for treatment of RMCWs, when other topical or physical therapies have failed.

  3. Active and water-soluble form of lipidated Wnt protein is maintained by a serum glycoprotein afamin/α-albumin

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Emiko; Hirai, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Hideki; Tamura-Kawakami, Keiko; Matano, Mami; Kikuchi, Akira; Sato, Toshiro; Takagi, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Wnt plays important role during development and in various diseases. Because Wnts are lipidated and highly hydrophobic, they can only be purified in the presence of detergents, limiting their use in various in vitro and in vivo assays. We purified N-terminally tagged recombinant Wnt3a secreted from cells and accidentally discovered that Wnt3a co-purified with a glycoprotein afamin derived from the bovine serum included in the media. Wnt3a forms a 1:1 complex with afamin, which remains soluble in aqueous buffer after isolation, and can induce signaling in various cellular systems including the intestical stem cell growth assay. By co-expressing with afamin, biologically active afamin-Wnt complex can be easily obtained in large quantity. As afamin can also solubilize Wnt5a, Wnt3, and many more Wnt subtypes, afamin complexation will open a way to put various Wnt ligands and their signaling mechanisms under a thorough biochemical scrutiny that had been difficult for years. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11621.001 PMID:26902720

  4. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and intestinal microflora in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Oh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether orally administered Korean grain larvae ethanol extract (GLE) had a bifidogenic effect in normal rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a negative control group (CO) and GLE orally administered (5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mg/100 g body weight) groups. Thymus and spleen weights dosedependently increased by 128.58 percent and 128.58 percent, respectively, but abdominal fat decreased by 19.18 percent after GLE administration compared with that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose decreased by 30.26 percent, 7.33 percent, 27.20 percent, and 6.96 percent, respectively, whereas highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 129.93 percent in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). IgG, IgM, IgA in the GLE groups increased 203.68 percent, 181.41 percent, and 238.25 percent, respectively, compared to that in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus increased by 115.74 percent and 144.28 percent, whereas Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia, and Streptococcus decreased by 17.37 percent, 17.46 percent, 21.25 percent, and 19.16 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). Total organic acids, acetic acid, and propionic acid increased by 151.40 percent, 188.09 percent, and 150.17 percent, whereas butyric acid and valeric acid decreased by 40.65 percent and 49.24 percent, respectively, in the GLE groups as compared with those in the CO group (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that Korean GLE improves the bifidogenic effect by increasing cecal organic acids and modulating gut microflora via a selective increase in Bifidobacterium in normal rats.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  6. Lipid utilization in radish seedlings as affected by weak horizontal extremely low frequency magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Novitskii, Yurii I; Novitskaya, Galina V; Serdyukov, Yurii A

    2014-02-01

    Composition and content of lipids were studied in 5-day-old radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus L. var. radicula DC.) grown in lowlight and darkness in an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field characterized by 50 Hz frequency and ∼500 µT flux density. The control seedlings were grown under the same conditions, but without exposure to the magnetic field. The products of lipid metabolism were compared with lipid composition in seeds. In control seedlings, reserve neutral lipids, mostly triacylglycerides, were utilized for the formation of polar lipids (PL). As a result, the amount of the latter doubled, particularly due to glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PhL) compared to their content in seeds. At 20-22 °C in light, magnetic field exposure increased the production of PL by threefold specifically, GL content increased fourfold and PhL content rose 2.5 times, compared to seeds. In darkness, the effect of magnetic field on lipids was weaker. At the lower temperature of 13-16 °C in light, the effect of the magnetic field was weak, but in the darkness, no magnetic field action was recorded. It is concluded that ELF magnetic field stimulated lipid synthesis in chloroplast, mitochondrial, and other cell membranes in radish seedlings grown in light at 20-22 °C and 13-16 °C.

  7. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  8. High-fat diet from perilla oil induces insulin resistance despite lower serum lipids and increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet from perilla oil on serum lipids, hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were fed either a control (CT) diet or a diet high in perilla oil (HP). After 16 weeks of feeding, the serum lipids were measured, and the gene expressions involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were determined. In addition, hepatic fat deposition was detected, and insulin sensitivity was evaluated by means of euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results Compared with the rats in the CT group, the HP-feeding significantly decreased the levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c). HP-feeding did not change the levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), free fatty acid (FFA), intrahepatic lipids or body weight. Moreover, the HP-feeding dramatically increased the mRNA expressions of fatty acid oxidation markers (PPAR-alpha, CPT1A) and fatty acid synthesis markers (SREBP-1, FASN and ACC) in the liver. The HP-feeding induced increased protein levels of CPT1A, while reducing the protein levels of FASN and ACC in the liver. However, the glucose infusion rate significantly increased in the HP group compared with the CT group. Conclusions Our data show that, in rats, excessive perilla oil intake may significantly lower serum lipids, strengthen hepatic fatty acid oxidation, and inhibit hepatic fatty acid synthesis, but at the same time may also lead to insulin resistance. PMID:24422660

  9. Evaluation of liver function impairment and lipid peroxidation induced by lantana camara leaf powder administration in adult rat serum and liver.

    PubMed

    Saini, N; Singh, J; Sehgal, R; Ojha, S

    2007-05-30

    Lantana camara is a common weed and certain medicinal properties have been attributed to this plant, but most varieties of this plant are reported to be highly toxic to animals. The plant is a native of America but a few varieties are indigenous to tropical Asia and Africa. The present investigation was done to study the hepatotoxic and lipid peroxidative effects of this noxious weed on female Wistar rats. Eighty four percent (84%) increase was observed in the activity of AST in group B and 120% increase was noted in group C in serum. In, liver tissue this increase was 66% and 258%. In the case of ALT, 165% increase was observed in group B and 219% increase was observed in group C in serum. In, liver there was 46% increase in group B and 216% increase in group C in the ALT activity. Similarly, 30% and 50% increase in group B and 120% and 300% increase in group C in the activity of ALP was observed with respect to control group. The overall protein concentration was increased in serum and decreased in liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation in liver tissue was inhibited by 22% in group B and 55% in group C. Thus Lantana camara is a toxic plant which produces severe hepatotoxicity in rats, but it also prevented lipid peroxidation that may suggest that Lantana camara may be acting as antioxidant but, exactly which of its component is responsible for this activity is not known and needs future investigations.

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Cucumis sativus Seed Extract on Serum Lipids in Adult Hyperlipidemic Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Rasool; Hashemi, Mohammad; Farazmand, Alimohammad; Asghari, Gholamreza; Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Kiyan; Kharazmkia, Ali; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis; therefore, control of this risk factor is very important in preventing atherosclerosis. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed is used traditionally as a lipid-lowering nutritional supplement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cucumber seed extract on serum lipid profile in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, hyperlipidemic patients with inclusion criteria were randomly and equally assigned to either Cucumis or placebo groups and used one medicinal or placebo capsule, respectively, once daily with food for 6 wk. Body mass index (BMI) as well as fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) were measured for all patients pre- and post-intervention and finally the changes were compared between the groups. Twenty-four patients in Cucumis group and 23 patients in placebo group completed the study. Cucumis seed extract resulted in significant reduction of total cholesterol (P = 0.016), LDL-C (P < 0.001), TG (P < 0.001), and BMI (P < 0.001) as well as significant increase of HDL-C (P = 0.012) compared to placebo. In conclusion, the consumption of C. sativus seed extract with daily dose of 500 mg results in desirable effects on serum lipid profile in adult hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, cucumber seed could be considered as a food supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia.

  11. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg-1 phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg-1 feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level. PMID:25610580

  12. Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on performance, ovarian morphology, serum lipid parameters and egg sensory quality in laying hen.

    PubMed

    Saki, Ali Asghar; Aliarabi, Hassan; Hosseini Siyar, Sayed Ali; Salari, Jalal; Hashemi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of 4, 8 and 12 g kg(-1) phytogenic feed additives mixture on performance, egg quality, ovary parameters, serum biochemical parameters and yolk trimethylamine level in laying hens. The results of experiment have shown that egg weight was increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive whereas egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly affected. There were no significant differences in egg quality parameters by supplementation of phytogenic feed additive, whereas yolk trimethylamine level was decreased as the feed additive level increased. The sensory evaluation parameters did not differ significantly. No significant differences were found in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between the treatments but low- and high-density lipoprotein were significantly increased. Number of small follicles and ovary weight were significantly increased by supplementation of 12 g kg(-1) feed additive. Overall, dietary supplementation of polyherbal additive increased egg weigh, improved ovary characteristics and declined yolk trimethylamine level.

  13. Exposure to Palladium Nanoparticles Affects Serum Levels of Cytokines in Female Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Corbi, Maddalena; Leso, Veruscka; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Leopold, Kerstin; Schindl, Roland; Sgambato, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Information currently available on the impact of palladium on the immune system mainly derives from studies assessing the biological effects of palladium salts. However, in the last years, there has been a notable increase in occupational and environmental levels of fine and ultrafine palladium particles released from automobile catalytic converters, which may play a role in palladium sensitization. In this context, the evaluation of the possible effects exerted by palladium nanoparticles (Pd-NPs) on the immune system is essential to comprehensively assess palladium immunotoxic potential. Aim Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Pd-NPs on the immune system of female Wistar rats exposed to this xenobiotic for 14 days, by assessing possible quantitative changes in a number of cytokines: IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, INF-γ and TNF-α. Methods Twenty rats were randomly divided into four exposure groups and one of control. Animals were given a single tail vein injection of vehicle (control group) and different concentrations of Pd-NPs (0.012, 0.12, 1.2 and 12 μg/kg). A multiplex biometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate cytokine serum levels. Results The mean serum concentrations of all cytokines decreased after the administration of 0.012 μg/kg of Pd-NPs, whereas exceeded the control levels at higher exposure doses. The highest concentration of Pd-NPs (12 μg/kg) induced a significant increase of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF and INF-γ compared to controls. Discussion and Conclusions These results demonstrated that Pd-NP exposure can affect the immune response of rats inducing a stimulatory action that becomes significant at the highest administered dose. Our findings did not show an imbalance between cytokines produced by CD4+ T helper (Th) cells 1 and 2, thus suggesting a generalized stimulation of the immune system with a simultaneous activation and polarization of the

  14. A monounsaturated fatty acid-rich pecan-enriched diet favorably alters the serum lipid profile of healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, S; Burke, K; Connell, B; Myint, T; Sabaté, J

    2001-09-01

    Frequent consumption of nuts is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effect of pecans rich in monounsaturated fat as an alternative to the Step 1 diet in modifying serum lipids and lipoproteins in men and women with normal to moderately high serum cholesterol. In a single-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover feeding study, we assigned 23 subjects (mean age: 38 y; 9 women, 14 men) to follow two diets, each for 4 wk: a Step I diet and a pecan-enriched diet (accomplished by proportionately reducing all food items in a Step I diet by one fifth for a 20% isoenergetic replacement with pecans). The percentage of energy from fat in the two diets was 28.3 and 39.6%, respectively. Both diets improved the lipid profile; however, the pecan-enriched diet decreased both serum total and LDL cholesterol by 0.32 mmol/L (6.7 and 10.4%, respectively) and triglyceride by 0.14 mmol/L (11.1%) beyond the Step I diet, while increasing HDL cholesterol by 0.06 mmol/L (2.5 mg/dL). Serum apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) decreased by 11.6 and 11.1%, respectively, and apolipoprotein A1 increased by 2.2% when subjects consumed the pecan compared with the Step I diet. These differences were all significant (P < 0.05). A 20% isoenergetic replacement of a Step I diet with pecans favorably altered the serum lipid profile beyond the Step I diet, without increasing body weight. Nuts such as pecans that are rich in monounsaturated fat may therefore be recommended as part of prescribed cholesterol-lowering diet of patients or habitual diet of healthy individuals.

  15. Association of serum caffeine concentrations with blood lipids in caffeine-drug users and nonusers - results of German National Health Surveys from 1984 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Melchert, Hans-Ulrich; Knopf, Hildtraud; Braemer-Hauth, Marianne; Gerding, Barbara; Pabel, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies regarding effects of caffeine on lipids focused mainly on coffee consumption, the real association of serum caffeine concentrations with blood lipids is unclear. 814 caffeine-drug users who had taken any caffeine/caffeine-containing pharmaceutical products and 623 nonusers without any drug use in the last seven days before the medical interview were identified from German National Health Surveys from 1984 to 1999. Serum caffeine concentrations were measured by using EIA for caffeine-drug users and nonusers in the same laboratory. Blood lipids were measured routinely for all survey participants. The association of caffeine concentrations with blood lipids was established by means of partial correlation analysis and regression analysis. After controlling for influence factors, caffeine concentrations were closely positively related to triglycerides in caffeine-drug users (male: r = 0.245, p < 0.001; female: r = 0.117, p = 0.018) and related to HDL-C in female nonusers (r = 0.245, p < 0.001). No associations were found between caffeine concentrations and total cholesterol and LDL-C levels in any groups of our study. Acute intake of caffeine might increase triglycerides levels especially in men while chronic intake of caffeine might be weakly but positively associated with HDL-C concentrations in women. The effects of caffeine on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases should be further confirmed through epidemiological studies.

  16. The effects of clozapine on levels of total cholesterol and related lipids in serum of patients with schizophrenia: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, S M; Szemis, A; Andrews, H; Reveley, M A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 12 weeks of clozapine treatment on levels of cholesterol and related lipids in patients with schizophrenia. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University department associated with a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients (6 women and 2 men) with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia consistent with DSM-IV criteria. The patients were classified as treatment-resistant and had not responded to treatment with at least 2 conventional antipsychotics. INTERVENTIONS: Current antipsychotic medications were tapered and treatment with clozapine was initiated. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cholesterol and serum lipid levels, as well as Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores were measured before and after 12 weeks of treatment with clozapine. RESULTS: Clozapine treatment significantly improved the BPRS scores but did not significantly alter serum lipid levels, except triglyceride levels, which increased. CONCLUSION: The previously reported lower levels of cholesterol in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia cannot be attributed to the effects of clozapine administration. Further research is required to support and clarify the effects of antipsychotic drugs on lipid levels. Images Fig. 1 PMID:10586536

  17. Ellagic acid improves hepatic steatosis and serum lipid composition through reduction of serum resistin levels and transcriptional activation of hepatic ppara in obese, diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Nishii, Saori; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio

    2013-05-10

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in a wide variety of plant foods that not only exhibits free radical-scavenging activity, but also confers protective effects against liver injury. Previously, we reported that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) had an inhibitory effect on resistin secretion from differentiated murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes and identified EA contained in PFE as a potent suppressor of resistin secretion. Resistin, an adipocytokine, is considered the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we explored whether EA supplementation reduces serum resistin and improves hepatic steatosis and serum lipid profile by using KK-A(y) mice fed high-fat diet as a model for obese type 2 diabetes. We found that EA supplementation improved serum lipid profile and hepatic steatosis, and reduced serum resistin levels without altering mRNA expression levels in adipose tissue. Moreover, EA supplementation upregulated mRNA expression of apoa1, ldlr, cpt1a, and ppara genes in the liver. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EA is a potent suppressor of resistin secretion in vivo and a transcriptional activator of ppara in the liver, suggesting a possibility for improving obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in KK-A(y) mice.

  18. Trace element status (Se, Cu, Zn) and serum lipid profile in Portuguese subjects of San Miguel Island from Azores'archipelago.

    PubMed

    Viegas-Crespo, A M; Pavão, M L; Paulo, O; Santos, V; Santos, M C; Nève, J

    2000-04-01

    Data on selenium, copper and zinc in serum of Portuguese inhabitants of the city of Ponta Delgada-Azores Archipelago are reported for the first time. The subjects are of both sexes, aged 20 to 60 years, and non-abusers of alcohol, tobacco or drugs. Serum concentrations of these elements are in the same range than those found for populations of Lisbon and of some other European countries. Differences between sexes are observed, with serum selenium and zinc levels being higher in males than in females, and the copper levels being higher in females as compared to males. These results can be explained by the hormonal status and/or oral contraceptive steroids intake, particularly for copper. Concerning lipid profile, the majority of individuals have serum lipid parameters within the normal range. In addition, no difference in trace element levels between normo and hyperlipidemic individuals is observed and no conclusive results about the relationship of all evaluated parameters to alcohol, tobacco and drug consumption are observed, in agreement with data obtained in the population of Lisbon.

  19. Effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Awaisheh, S S; Khalifeh, M S; Al-Ruwaili, M A; Khalil, O M; Al-Ameri, O H; Al-Groom, R

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria and phytosterols are natural hypocholesterolemic agents with potential cardiovascular benefits. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of probiotics and phytosterols alone or in combination on serum and hepatic lipid profiles and thyroid hormones of hypercholesterolemic rats. Mixed probiotics treatment consisted of 8 probiotic strains: 2 strains of each of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus reuteri. The rats were fed for 8 wk with the given treatments in addition to a high-fat-high-cholesterol basal diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. Results showed that supplementation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides compared with the controls. The symbiotic treatment was more effective in lowering LDL-C, whereas mixed probiotics treatment more effectively lowered serum total cholesterol and LDL-C than the phytosterol-containing treatment. The phytosterol-containing treatments induced the increased activity of thyroid glands, as evident by elevated levels of serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, and free triiodothyronine. In conclusion, the lipid profile can effectively be reduced to lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease using combinations of Lactobacillus-based probiotics and phytosterols in functional foods.

  20. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Gürsel, Feraye Esen; Ateş, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ayşen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in

  1. Effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on levels of serum lipids and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M B; Barnard, R J; Rose, D P; Inkeles, S; Hall, J; Pritikin, N

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated elevated levels of serum estradiol in males as the major predisposing factor for myocardial infarction, with serum cholesterol playing a secondary role. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of a high-complex-carbohydrate, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet and daily exercise on levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, and lipids in males. Twenty-one males participating in the Pritikin Longevity Center 26-day residential program volunteered for the study. During the program, serum estradiol levels were significantly reduced from 47.2 +/- 4.6 to 23.8 +/- 2.5 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) whereas serum testosterone levels were unchanged (5.1 +/- 0.3 versus 5.1 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). Total serum cholesterol levels were reduced from 229 +/- 9 to 181 +/- 7 mg/dl whereas triglyceride levels were reduced from 301 +/- 66 to 151 +/- 13 mg/dl. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels fell from 41 +/- 3 to 35 +/- 1 mg/dl whereas the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was unchanged (5.5 +/- 0.4 versus 5.1 +/- 0.3).

  2. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Matczuk, Jan; Zalewska, Anna; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Knaś, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Garbowska, Marta; Ziembicka, Dominika M.; Waszkiel, Danuta; Chabowski, Adrian; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In today's world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver) insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27471733

  3. Blueberry Consumption Affects Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Older Adults in a Sex-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Carol L.; Vazquez-Vidal, Itzel; Medlin, Amanda; Voruganti, V. Saroja

    2016-01-01

    Blueberries are rich in antioxidants and may protect against disease. Uric acid accounts for about 50% of the antioxidant properties in humans. Elevated levels of serum uric acid (SUA) or hyperuricemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim was to determine the effect of blueberries on SUA in older adults. Participants (n = 133, 65–80 years) experiencing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomized in a double-blind 6-month clinical trial to either blueberry or placebo. A reference group with no MCI received no treatment. The mean (SD) SUA at baseline were 5.45 (0.9), 6.4 (1.3) and 5.8 (1.4) mg/dL in reference, placebo, and treatment groups, respectively. Baseline SUA was different in men and women (6.25 (1.1) vs. 5.35 (1.1), p = 0.001). During the first three months, SUA decreased in the blueberry group and was significantly different from the placebo group in both men and women (p < 0.0003). Sex-specific differences became apparent after 3 months, when only men showed an increase in SUA in the blueberry group and not in the placebo (p = 0.0006) between 3 and 6 months. At 6 months SUA had rebounded in both men and women and returned to baseline levels. Baseline SUA was correlated with CVD risk factors, waist circumference and triglycerides (p < 0.05), but differed by sex. Overall, 6 m SUA changes were negatively associated with triglycerides in men, but not in women. Group-wise association between 6 m SUA changes and CVD risk factors showed associations with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in women of the Blueberry group but not in men or any sex in the placebo group. In summary, blueberries may affect SUA and its relationship with CVD risk in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27916816

  4. Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (⅓× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components.

  5. Melatonin affects the order, dynamics and hydration of brain membrane lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkas, Sara B.; Inci, Servet; Zorlu, Faruk; Severcan, Feride

    2007-05-01

    The brain is especially susceptible to free radical attack since it is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and consumes very high amounts of oxygen. Melatonin is a non-enzymatic amphiphilic antioxidant hormone that is widely used in medicine for protective and treatment purposes in cases of oxidative stress. In the present work, the effects of the clinically used dose of melatonin (a single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg) on rat brain homogenate were investigated as a function of temperature using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the lipid to protein ratio decreases in the melatonin treated brain samples. Moreover, it is revealed that melatonin disorders and decreases the dynamics of lipids and induces a strengthening in the hydrogen bonding between the functional groups of both melatonin and the polar parts of lipids and/or water at physiological temperatures.

  6. Lipid and protein oxidation of chicken breast rolls as affected by dietary oxidation levels and packaging.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shan; Zhang, Wan Gang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ma, Chang Wei; Ahn, Dong U

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary treatment and packaging on the oxidative stability of breast rolls. A total of 120 4-wk-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to control, oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil, PV = 100), or antioxidants-added diet (500 IU vitamin E + 200 ppm BHA) and fed for 2 wk. Breast muscles were separated from the carcasses and breast rolls were prepared. The rolls were cooked in a smoke house (85 °C) to an internal temperature of 74 °C, cooled, sliced to 2-cm thick pieces, individually packaged in oxygen permeable bags or vacuum-packaged in oxygen impermeable bags, and stored in a 4 °C cold room for 7 d. Lipid, protein oxidation and volatiles were determined at 1, 4, and 7 d of storage. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants significantly reduced lipid oxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation (carbonyls) in breast rolls, and the effect of dietary antioxidants on lipid oxidation was more pronounced than protein oxidation. Chicken breast rolls from antioxidants treatment group produced significantly lower amounts of hexanal and pentanal than those from control and oxidized oil treatments (P < 0.05). However, dietary oxidized oil did not increase lipid and protein oxidation in breast rolls. Vacuum-packaging significantly delayed the onset of lipid oxidation and protein oxidation in chicken rolls during 7-day refrigerated storage (P < 0.05). Therefore, it is suggested that appropriate use of dietary supplementation of antioxidants in combination with packaging could minimize lipid oxidation in chicken breast rolls.

  7. Intercalation of bovine serum albumin coated gold clusters between phospholipid bilayers: temperature-dependent behavior of lipid-AuQC@BSA assemblies with red emission and superlattice structure.

    PubMed

    Söptei, Balázs; Mihály, Judith; Visy, Júlia; Wacha, András; Bóta, Attila

    2014-04-10

    A method has been developed to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated gold quantum clusters (AuQC@BSA) in a multilamellar system of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Results have shown that intercalation of AuQC@BSA particles into lipid bilayers occurs in the presence of CaCl2. Intense red photoluminescence emission was observed after encapsulation of the clusters. A well-defined structure was found with periodic distances drastically larger than that in the pure DPPC/water system. Although Ca(2+) ions can change the dipole characteristics of the lipid bilayer surface, leading to unbinding between the bilayers of multilamellar DPPC/water system, the repulsion is shielded in the presence of AuQC@BSA particles. A coherent superlattice structure evolves due to mixed Ca(2+)-DPPC and Ca(2+)-AuQC@BSA interactions. Studies at different temperatures have suggested a correlation between the luminescence properties of the clusters and phase transition of the lipid layers. The temperature-dependent behavior assumes the connection between the coating and the lipid bilayer surface. Temperature-dependent features of lipid intercalated Au clusters provide new opportunities in their application.

  8. Integrative variants, haplotypes and diplotypes of the CAPN3 and FRMD5 genes and several environmental exposures associate with serum lipid variables

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tao; Yin, Rui-Xing; Pan, Ling; Yang, Shuo; Miao, Liu; Huang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the integrative variants, haplotypes and diplotypes of the calpain 3 (CAPN3) and the FERM domain containing 5 genes (FRMD5) and several environmental exposures are associated with an implication in lipid homeostasis, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. Genotyping of the CAPN3 rs4344713 and FRMD5 rs524908 was performed by Sanger sequencing in 1,640 subjects (Jing, 819 and Han, 821). Multivariate analyses of covariance models that adjusted by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and lifestyle (smoking and drinking), were constructed using variants, haplotypes and diplotypes of the CAPN3 rs4344713 and FRMD5 rs524908 as predictors and changes in lipid variables. Significant associations with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein (Apo) B were found. Linkage disequilibrium with each other showed the haplotype-phenotype associations with triglyceride and ApoA1. This study also suggested pleiotropic associations of the CAPN3-FRMD5 diplotypes with lipid variables. As potential confounders, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and BMI were significantly associated with lipid variables. We conclude that integrative variants, haplotypes and diplotypes of the CAPN3 rs4344713 and FRMD5 rs524908, as well as DBP and BMI are associated with serum lipid variables in the Jing and Han populations. PMID:28332615

  9. Sugar does not affect the bending and tilt moduli of simple lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Nagle, John F; Jablin, Michael S; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The diffuse X-ray scattering method has been applied to samples composed of SOPC, DOPC, DMPC, and POPC with added sugar, either sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, or trehalose. Several sugar concentrations in the range 200-500 mM were investigated for each of the lipid/sugar samples. We observed no systematic change in the bending modulus KC or in the tilt modulus Kθ with increasing sugar concentration. The average values of both these moduli were the same as those of the respective pure lipid controls within statistical uncertainty of 2%. These results are inconsistent with previous reports of sugar concentration dependent values of KC.

  10. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Jensen, Søren K; Astrup, Arne

    2014-04-28

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid profile. We present data from two studies. Study I had a randomised, blinded, parallel design (n 24 pigs) with a 10 d adaptation period during which a high-fat diet was fed to the pigs and a 14 d intervention period during which the same diet either enriched with milk minerals (MM group) or placebo (control group) was fed to the pigs. Study II had a randomised cross-over design (n 9 men) where the subjects were fed either a high-fat diet enriched with milk minerals (MM period) or a regular diet (control period). In both the studies, blood variables were measured before and after the intervention and faecal and urine samples were collected at the end of the dietary periods. The increase in plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but not in HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly lowered by milk minerals in both the studies. In the animal study, baseline adjusted total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the MM group were 11% (P = 0.004) and 13% (P = 0.03) lower compared with those in the control group after the intervention. Similarly in the human study, baseline adjusted total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were 6% (P = 0.002) and 9% (P = 0.03) lower after the MM period compared with those in the control period. HDL-cholesterol concentration was not lowered by milk minerals. These short-term studies indicate that the addition of milk minerals to a high-fat diet to some extent attenuates the increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL-cholesterol concentration.

  11. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  12. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  13. Plant sterol consumption frequency affects plasma lipid levels and cholesterol kinetics in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of single versus multiple doses of plant sterols on circulating lipid level and cholesterol trafficking. Subjects/Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, three-phase (6 days/phase) crossover, supervised feeding trial was conducted in 19 subjects. Sub...

  14. [Emoxipin correction of disorders of lipid peroxidation as affected by a slight excess of oxygen pressure].

    PubMed

    Lukash, A I; Vnukov, V V; Prokof'ev, V N; Khodakova, A A; Mogil'nitskaia, L V; Kostenko, E V

    1994-01-01

    The role of the emoxipin (Em.) (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxipyridine) in the correction of the free radical oxidation and allied processes in lung tissues and blood plasma under high-pressure oxygen-prolonged action has been investigated. The studied oxygen exposure (0.3 MPa, 5h) causes the lung stage of oxygen intoxication. It is confirmed by exterior morphological assessment of the lung. The lipid peroxidation increase in lung tissue and blood plasma as well as erythrocyte membranes destabilization result from oxygen exposure. Lipid peroxidation intensity was estimated by determining of content of lipid peroxidation molecular products such as diene conjugates and Shiffs' bases. Erythrocyte membranes stability was evaluated with hemoglobin yield, total iron level and total peroxidase activity in blood plasma. Emoxipin was injected intraperitoneally in a dose 150 mg per 1 kg rats' weight just before the oxygen exposure. Emoxipin is found to improve physiological state of animals and to increase their survival; it normalizes morphology of the lungs and their state; stabilizes erythrocyte membranes injured under oxygen exposure; decreases intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in the lungs and in blood plasma which was previously increased under hyperoxia.

  15. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups.

  16. SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer and affects genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; True, Kirsten; Hamilton, Mark P; Nielsen, Morten M; Damas, Nkerorema D; Damgaard, Christian K; Ongen, Halit; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Bramsen, Jesper B; Pedersen, Jakob S; Lund, Anders H; Vang, Søren; Stribolt, Katrine; Madsen, Mogens R; Laurberg, Søren; McGuire, Sean E; Ørntoft, Torben F; Andersen, Claus L

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that lncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancer where they have been shown to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. RNA profiling of 314 colorectal adenomas/adenocarcinomas and 292 adjacent normal colon mucosa samples using RNA-sequencing demonstrated that the snoRNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) is significantly up-regulated in adenomas and all stages of CRC. SNHG16 expression was positively correlated to the expression of Wnt-regulated transcription factors, including ASCL2, ETS2, and c-Myc. In vitro abrogation of Wnt signaling in CRC cells reduced the expression of SNHG16 indicating that SNHG16 is regulated by the Wnt pathway. Silencing of SNHG16 resulted in reduced viability, increased apoptotic cell death and impaired cell migration. The SNHG16 silencing particularly affected expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. A connection between SNHG16 and genes involved in lipid metabolism was also observed in clinical tumors. Argonaute CrossLinking and ImmunoPrecipitation (AGO-CLIP) demonstrated that SNHG16 heavily binds AGO and has 27 AGO/miRNA target sites along its length, indicating that SNHG16 may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) "sponging" miRNAs off their cognate targets. Most interestingly, half of the miRNA families with high confidence targets on SNHG16 also target the 3'UTR of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase (SCD). SCD is involved in lipid metabolism and is down-regulated upon SNHG16 silencing. In conclusion, up-regulation of SNHG16 is a frequent event in CRC, likely caused by deregulated Wnt signaling. In vitro analyses demonstrate that SNHG16 may play an oncogenic role in CRC and that it affects genes involved in lipid metabolism, possible through ceRNA related mechanisms.

  17. Serum alkaline phosphatase negatively affects endothelium-dependent vasodilation in naïve hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Perticone, Francesco; Perticone, Maria; Maio, Raffaele; Sciacqua, Angela; Andreucci, Michele; Tripepi, Giovanni; Corrao, Salvatore; Mallamaci, Francesca; Sesti, Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2015-10-01

    Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, promoting arterial calcification in experimental models, is a powerful predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality in general population and in patients with renal or cardiovascular diseases. For this study, to evaluate a possible correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase levels and endothelial function, assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, we enrolled 500 naïve hypertensives divided into increasing tertiles of alkaline phosphatase. The maximal response to acetylcholine was inversely related to alkaline phosphatase (r=−0.55; P<0.001), and this association was independent (r=−0.61; P<0.001) of demographic and classical risk factors, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum phosphorus and calcium, C-reactive protein, and albuminuria. At multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of endothelial dysfunction was ≈3-fold higher in patients in the third tertile than that of patients in the first tertile. We also tested the combined role of alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus on endothelial function. The steepness of the alkaline phosphatase/vasodilating response to acetylcholine relationship was substantially attenuated (P<0.001) in patients with serum phosphorus above the median value when compared with patients with serum phosphorus below the median (−5.0% versus −10.2% per alkaline phosphatase unit, respectively), and this interaction remained highly significant (P<0.001) after adjustment of all the previously mentioned risk factors. Our data support a strong and significant inverse relationship between alkaline phosphatase and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which was attenuated by relatively higher serum phosphorus levels.

  18. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    PubMed Central

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring. PMID:27731423

  19. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-10-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring.

  20. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) rs662 Polymorphism and Its Association with Serum Lipid Levels and Longevity in the Bama Zhuang Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Liang, Guiyun; Shi, Liwei; Liang, Xue; Long, Bingshuang; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study was performed to identify the association of PON1 rs662 polymorphism with serum lipid levels and human longevity in the Bama Zhuang population. Material/Methods PON1 genotypes were determined by Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays in 110 long-lived inhabitants (longevity group, aged 90–110 years), 110 healthy inhabitants in Bama County (control 1 group, aged 43–82 years) and 110 healthy inhabitants in Nandan County (control 2 group, aged 28–82 years) without family history of longevity. Results BMI (body mass index) and TG (serum total triglyceride) level were lower in the longevity group than in the two control groups, while the contents of serum LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and the levels of SBP (systolic blood pressure) and DBP (diastolic blood pressure) in the longevity group were higher than in the two control groups (p<0.01). Significant differences in the frequencies of three genotypes (GG, AG, and AA) were observed between the longevity group and control 2 group (χ2=15.190, p=0.001). The minor allele frequency (MAF) of rs662 was significantly higher in the longevity group than in the two control groups. The levels of HDL-c in the longevity group were different among the three genotypes (p<0.05). The levels of TG for GG and GG+AG genotypes were significantly different, while the levels of TC (total cholesterol) and HDL-c for AG and GG+AG genotypes were significantly different among the three groups (p<0.05). Serum lipid parameters were correlated with several environmental factors, including age, gender, DBP, SBP, and BMI. The association of PON1 rs662 polymorphism and serum lipid levels was different among the three groups. Conclusions PON1 polymorphism might be one of the genetic factors of longevity in the Bama Zhuang population. The PON1 rs662 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) was associated with serum HDL-c levels in the longevity group. PMID:28027289

  1. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  2. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  3. Disease severity in K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis is not affected by IL-33 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin (IL)-33 is a cytokine of the IL-1 family, which signals through the ST2 receptor. Previous work suggested implication of the IL-33/ST2 axis in the pathogenesis of human and mouse arthritis. Here, we directly investigated the role of endogenous IL-33 in K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis by using IL-33 knockout (KO) mice. Methods Arthritis was induced by injection of complete K/BxN serum or purified IgG. Disease severity was monitored by clinical and histological scoring. Results K/BxN serum transfer induced pronounced arthritis with similar incidence and severity in IL-33 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, disease development was significantly reduced in ST2 KO mice. IL-33 expression in synovial tissue was comparable in arthritic WT and ST2 KO mice, and absent in IL-33 KO mice. Transfer of purified arthritogenic IgG instead of complete K/BxN serum also resulted in similar arthritis severity in IL-33 KO and WT mice, excluding a contribution of IL-33 contained in the serum of donor mice to explain this result. We investigated additional potential confounding factors, including purity of genetic background, but the mechanisms underlying reduced arthritis in ST2 KO mice remained unclear. Conclusions The data obtained with IL-33 KO mice indicate that endogenous IL-33 is not required for the development of joint inflammation in K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis. On the contrary, arthritis severity was reduced in ST2 KO mice. This observation might relate to IL-33 independent effects of ST2, and/or reveal the existence of confounding variables affecting the severity of joint inflammation in these KO strains. PMID:23324173

  4. Water-soluble compounds of lettuce inhibit DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by glucose/serum deprivation in N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid R

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, increase of lipid peroxidation and resultant DNA damage are associated with pathophysiology of many human diseases such as acute and chronic CNS injuries and diseases, cancer, and also aging. This work was done to investigate whether water fraction from the hydroalcoholic extract of green leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) can protect N2a cells against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD)-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. The cells were cultivated for 12 h in GSD condition in the absence or presence of the lettuce fraction. The total antioxidant ability of the lettuce water fraction was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The intracellular lipid peroxidation was evaluated by malondialdehyde (MDA) level. DNA damage was determined using single cell gel electrophoresis. Using FRAP assay, the antioxidant activity of lettuce water fraction was found to be 574 micromol/g, which is equivalent to 64.1 mg of pure ascorbic acid. Exposure of the cells to GSD condition led to a significant increase of MDA level and DNA fragmentation. Lettuce extract at 400 microg/mL could decrease the elevated intracellular lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The present study demonstrates that lettuce exerts genoprotective effect through inhibition of oxidative stress.

  5. A herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito, improves serum testosterone levels and affects sexual behavior in old male mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Ji, Su Yun; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zhang, Er Hong; Bin, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical syndrome characterized with aging and declined serum testosterone levels. Sexual symptoms are also essential for the diagnosis of LOH. Testosterone replacement therapy is used widely to treat LOH. However, the side effects of it should not be ignored, such as fluid retention, hypertension and spermatogenic suppression. Therefore, alternate treatment modalities have been pursued. Herbal medicines used widely in China have achieved satisfying results with little side effects. Nonetheless, there are few pharmacological researches on them. In this study, 24-month-old mice were used as LOH animal models to explore the pharmacological effects of a herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), on serum testosterone levels and sexual functions. Furthermore, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a kind of rate-limiting enzyme of testosterone synthesis, was also examined. As a result, SKRBT improved the serum testosterone levels of these mice at a dose of 300 and 450 mg/kg. Multiple measures of sexual behavior were enhanced. The expression of StAR was also increased. Therefore, this study suggested that SKRBT can improve the serum testosterone levels by activating the expression of StAR and might be a viable option to treat sexual symptoms caused by LOH.

  6. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on lipid peroxidation status, serum hormone, metabolite, and mineral concentrations of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Sari, Mustafa

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate) on lipid peroxidation status measured as MDA and serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), as well as some other serum metabolite and mineral concentrations of Japanese quails reared under heat stress (34 degrees C). One hundred-eighty 10-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned to six treatment groups, three replicates of 10 birds each. Using a 2 x 3 factorial design, the birds received two levels of vitamin C (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet) or three levels of vitamin E (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg of diet). Greater dietary vitamin E and vitamin C resulted in a greater serum T3, T4, and TSH (p = 0.001), but lower ACTH (p = 0.001) concentrations. Serum concentrations of T4 and TSH increased to a greater extent by increasing dietary vitamin C when greater vitamin E levels were fed (interaction, p = 0.001). Serum glucose, urea, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.001), while protein and albumin concentrations increased (p = 0.001) when both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E were increased. Serum activities of SGOT and SGPT were not influenced by dietary vitamin C and vitamin E (p > 0.43). However, serum activity of AP increased (p = 0.001) by increasing both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E. Increasing both dietary vitamin C and vitamin E caused an increase in serum concentrations of Ca, P, K (p = 0.001), Fe, and Zn (p = 0.01) but a decrease in serum concentrations of Na (p = 0.001) and Cu (p = 0.01). Interactions between vitamin C and vitamin E were detected for Ca, P, Na, and K (p = 0.001). Greater dietary vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in a greater serum and liver vitamin E, C, and A (p < or = 0.05), but lower MDA (p = 0.001) concentrations. Results of the present study conclude that supplementing a combination of dietary vitamin C (200 mg

  7. Genetic determinants of serum lipid levels in Chinese subjects: A population-based study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Menashe, Idan; Chen, Jinbo; Chang, Shih-Chen; Rashid, Asif; Gao, Yu-Tang; Han, Tian-Quan; Sakoda, Lori C.; Chanock, Stephen; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We examined the associations between 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of eight lipid metabolism genes and lipid levels in a Chinese population. Methods This study was conducted as part of a population-based study in China with 799 randomly selected healthy residents who provided fasting blood and an in-person interview. Associations between variants and mean lipid levels were examined using a test of trend and least squares mean test in a general linear model. Results Four SNPs were associated with lipid levels: LDLR rs1003723 was associated with total cholesterol (p-trend=0.002) and LDL (p-trend=0.01), LDLR rs6413503 was associated with total cholesterol (p-trend=0.05), APOB rs1367117 was associated with apoB (p-trend=0.02), and ABCB11 rs49550 was associated with total cholesterol (p-trend=0.01), triglycerides (p-trend=0.01), and apoA (p-trend=0.01). We found statistically significant effects on lipid levels for LDLR rs6413503 among those with high dairy intake, LPL rs263 among those with high allium vegetable intake, and APOE rs440446 among those with high red meat intake. Conclusion We identified new associations between SNPs and lipid levels in Chinese previously found in Caucasians. These findings provide insight into the role of lipid metabolism genes, as well as the mechanisms by which these genes may be linked with disease. PMID:19888660

  8. Effect of prebiotic fibre supplementation on hepatic gene expression and serum lipids: a dose-response study in JCR:LA-cp rats.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2010-06-01

    Prebiotic fibres have been proposed to promote weight loss and lower serum cholesterol; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present research was to identify possible mechanisms through which prebiotic fibres improve serum lipids. Lean and obese JCR:La-cp rats aged 8 weeks consumed one of three diets supplemented with 0, 10 or 20 % prebiotic fibre for 10 weeks. Rats were anaesthetised and a fasting blood sample was taken for lipid analysis. Real-time PCR was used to determine gene expression for cholesterol and fatty acid regulatory genes in liver tissue. Liver and caecal digesta cholesterol and TAG content were quantified. Both doses of prebiotic fibre lowered serum cholesterol levels by 24 % in the obese hyperlipidaemic rats (P < 0.05). This change was associated with an increase in caecal digesta as well as an up-regulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and bile production. Additionally, there was a 42 % reduction in TAG accumulation in the liver of the obese rats with 10 % prebiotic diet (P < 0.05); however, no change in liver fatty acid synthase (FAS). Prebiotic fibres appear to lower cholesterol levels through increased cholesterol excretion in the form of bile and inhibit the accumulation of TAG in the liver through a mechanism unrelated to FAS. These effects appear to be limited to the obese model and particularly the 10 % dose. The present work is significant as it provides insight into the mechanisms of action for prebiotic fibres on lipid metabolism and furthers the development of dietary treatments for hypercholesterolaemia.

  9. Effect of prebiotic fibre supplementation on hepatic gene expression and serum lipids: a dose–response study in JCR:LA-cp rats

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Jill A.; Reimer, Raylene A.

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotic fibres have been proposed to promote weight loss and lower serum cholesterol; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present research was to identify possible mechanisms through which prebiotic fibres improve serum lipids. Lean and obese JCR:La-cp rats aged 8 weeks consumed one of three diets supplemented with 0, 10 or 20 % prebiotic fibre for 10 weeks. Rats were anaesthetised and a fasting blood sample was taken for lipid analysis. Real-time PCR was used to determine gene expression for cholesterol and fatty acid regulatory genes in liver tissue. Liver and caecal digesta cholesterol and TAG content were quantified. Both doses of prebiotic fibre lowered serum cholesterol levels by 24 % in the obese hyperlipidaemic rats (P<0·05). This change was associated with an increase in caecal digesta as well as an up-regulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and bile production. Additionally, there was a 42 % reduction in TAG accumulation in the liver of the obese rats with 10 % prebiotic diet (P<0·05); however, no change in liver fatty acid synthase (FAS). Prebiotic fibres appear to lower cholesterol levels through increased cholesterol excretion in the form of bile and inhibit the accumulation of TAG in the liver through a mechanism unrelated to FAS. These effects appear to be limited to the obese model and particularly the 10 % dose. The present work is significant as it provides insight into the mechanisms of action for prebiotic fibres on lipid metabolism and furthers the development of dietary treatments for hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:20021705

  10. Effect of Whole Grain Qingke (Tibetan Hordeum vulgare L. Zangqing 320) on the Serum Lipid Levels and Intestinal Microbiota of Rats under High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xuejuan; Li, Guannan; Ding, Yongbo; Ren, Tingyuan; Zheng, Jiong; Kan, Jianquan

    2017-04-05

    This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect of whole grain Qingke (WGQ) and its influence on intestinal microbiota. Changes in the serum lipid, intestinal environment, and microbiota of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diets supplemented with different doses of WGQ were determined. Results showed that high doses of WGQ significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the Lee's index, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels whereas they increased the body weight of the rats. Cecal weight and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration increased with increasing WGQ dose. An Illumina-based sequencing approach showed that the relative abundance of putative SCFA-producing bacteria Prevotella and Anaerovibrio increased in the rats fed the WGQ diet. Principal component analysis revealed a significant difference in intestinal microbiota composition after the administration of the WGQ diet. These findings provide insights into the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to the hypolipidemic effect of WGQ.

  11. Serum lipid effects of a monounsaturated (palmitoleic) fatty acid-rich diet based on macadamia nuts in healthy, young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka-Yamamoto, Junko; Ikeda, Katsumi; Negishi, Hiroko; Mori, Mari; Hirose, Akiko; Sawada, Sayuri; Onobayashi, Yuko; Kitamori, Kazuya; Kitano, Satoko; Tashiro, Misao; Miki, Tomohiro; Yamori, Yukio

    2004-12-01

    1. Recent studies have identified potential beneficial effects of eating nuts, most of which have substantial amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Macadamia nuts consist of 75% fat by weight, 80% of which is MUFA (palmitoleic acid). 2. To examine variations in serum lipid levels in response to a high-MUFA diet based on macadamia nuts, 3 week interventions of macadamia nuts, coconuts and butter were determined in young, healthy Japanese female students. 3. After 3 weeks intervention, serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased in the macadamia nut and coconut diets and bodyweight and body mass index were decreased in the group fed macadamia nuts, although there were no statistically significant changes in the group fed butter.

  12. Extract of okra lowers blood glucose and serum lipids in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengjie; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qinhu; Yu, Lijing; Li, Mingxia; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Ximin; Yang, Baican; Li, Yiming; Huang, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Okra is an important tropical vegetable and source of dietary medicine. Here, we assayed the effects of an ethanol extract of okra (EO) and its major flavonoids isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside on metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mouse. We found that treatment with EO, isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice. Meanwhile, serum triglyceride levels and liver morphology in the mice were significantly ameliorated by EO and isoquercitrin treatment. Total cholesterol levels in isoquercitrin and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside treated mice were also reduced. We also found that EO inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor transcription factor PPARγ, which is an important regulator of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, we determined that EO and quercetin 3-O-gentiobioside have antioxidant activity in vitro. Our results indicate that okra may serve as a dietary therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  13. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (-53.8 and -74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs.

  14. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  15. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (−53.8 and −74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs. PMID:25833688

  16. Xenobiotic-contaminated diets affect hepatic lipid metabolism: Implications for liver steatosis in Sparus aurata juveniles.

    PubMed

    Maradonna, F; Nozzi, V; Santangeli, S; Traversi, I; Gallo, P; Fattore, E; Mita, D G; Mandich, A; Carnevali, O

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic effects induced by feed contaminated with a lower or a higher concentration of -nonylpnenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (t-OP) or bisphenol A (BPA), three environmental endocrine disruptors, were assessed in juvenile sea bream liver. Histological analysis demonstrated that all these three xenobiotics induced hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. These findings prompted analysis of the expression of the major molecules involved in lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (which is encoded by ppars), fatty acid synthase (encoded by fas), lipoprotein lipase (encoded by lpl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (encoded by hsl). The enzymes encoded by ppars and fas are in fact responsible for lipid accumulation, whereas lpl- and hsl- encoded proteins play a pivotal role in fat mobilization. The three xenobiotics modulated ppar mRNA expression: pparα mRNA expression was induced by the higher dose of each contaminant; pparβ mRNA expression was upregulated by the lower doses and in BPA2 fish ppary mRNA overexpression was induced by all pollutants. These data agreed with the lipid accumulation profiles documented by histology. Fas mRNA levels were modulated by the two NP doses and the higher BPA concentration. Lpl mRNA was significantly upregulated in all experimental groups except for BPA1 fish while hsl mRNA was significantly downregulated in all groups except for t-OP2 and BPA1 fish. The plasma concentrations of cortisol, the primary stress biomarker, were correlated with the levels of pepck mRNA level. This gene encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase which is one of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Pepck mRNA was significantly overexpressed in fish exposed to NP2 and both t-OP doses. Finally, the genes encoding cyclooxygenase 2 (cox2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5 lox), the products of which are involved in the inflammatory response, transcriptions were significantly upregulated in NP and BPA fish, whereas they were unchanged in t

  17. Effect of Probiotic Soy Milk on Serum Levels of Adiponectin, Inflammatory Mediators, Lipid Profile, and Fasting Blood Glucose Among Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feizollahzadeh, Sadegh; Ghiasvand, Reza; Rezaei, Abbas; Khanahmad, Hossein; Sadeghi, Akram; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-03-01

    Probiotic therapies are going to be an effective alternative therapeutic strategy in the treatment and management of diabetes. The mechanism behind the essential effects of probiotic therapies in diabetic patients was not fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarum A7 on inflammation, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, and serum adiponectin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty patients with type 2 diabetes, at the age of 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing L. planetarum A7 and those in control group consumed 200 ml/day of pure soy milk for 8 weeks. Serum TNF-α, C reactive protein, adiponectin, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose were determined before and after intervention. In intervention group, serum adiponectin in pre- and post-treatment did not show any significant changes (2.52 ± 0.74 vs 2.84 ± 0.61, P = 0.658), as well as changes in serum TNF-α and C reactive protein (172.44 ± 5.7 vs 172.83 ± 7.6, P = 0.278, 4.2 ± 1.4 vs 4.5 ± 1.9, P = 0.765, respectively). Low-density cholesterol and high-density cholesterol changed significantly (P = 0.023, P = 0.017, respectively), but fasting blood glucose did not show any significant changes. The results of this study showed that consumption of probiotic soy milk and soy milk has no effect on serum adiponectin and inflammation, but it can change lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients.

  18. Origin of Serum Affects Quality of Engineered Tissues Produced by the Self-Assembly Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Stéphane; Simard, Melissa; Gendreau, Isabelle; Pouliot, Roxane; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emergence of serum-free media for cell culture, the use of serum to supplement the culture media is still essential in order to produce engineered urologic tissues using the self-assembly approach, not only for the stromal compartment but also for the uroepithelium. Effects of sera on thickness of these two compartments were measured and quality of the epithelial differentiation was evaluated. For bladder mucosa substitute reconstruction, the use of postnatal sera failed to produce an adequate uroepithelium whereas the fetal sera supplementation did. Postnatal sera also provided thinner stromal compartments than the one obtained using fetal sera, no matter if the fibroblasts from healthy or psoriatic donors were used to reconstruct human skin substitutes. PMID:27293972

  19. Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles with Serum Proteins Affects Their Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Ben Thomas, Midhun; Thomas, Rony; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global threat for human society. There exist recorded data that silver was used as an antimicrobial agent by the ancient Greeks and Romans during the 8th century. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of potential interest because of their effective antibacterial and antiviral activities, with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, very few reports have shown the usage of AgNPs for antibacterial therapy in vivo. In this study, we deciphered the importance of the chosen methods for synthesis and capping of AgNPs for their improved activity in vivo. The interaction of AgNPs with serum albumin has a significant effect on their antibacterial activity. It was observed that uncapped AgNPs exhibited no antibacterial activity in the presence of serum proteins, due to the interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, capped AgNPs [with citrate or poly(vinylpyrrolidone)] exhibited antibacterial properties due to minimized interactions with serum proteins. The damage in the bacterial membrane was assessed by flow cytometry, which also showed that only capped AgNPs exhibited antibacterial properties, even in the presence of BSA. In order to understand the in vivo relevance of the antibacterial activities of different AgNPs, a murine salmonellosis model was used. It was conclusively proved that AgNPs capped with citrate or PVP exhibited significant antibacterial activities in vivo against Salmonella infection compared to uncapped AgNPs. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of capping agents and the synthesis method for AgNPs in their use as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23877702

  20. High-throughput screening of Australian marine organism extracts for bioactive molecules affecting the cellular storage of neutral lipids.

    PubMed

    Rae, James; Fontaine, Frank; Salim, Angela A; Lo, Harriet P; Capon, Robert J; Parton, Robert G; Martin, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells store excess fatty acids as neutral lipids in specialised organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). Using a simple cell-based assay and open-source software we established a high throughput screen for LD formation in A431 cells in order to identify small bioactive molecules affecting lipid storage. Screening an n-butanol extract library from Australian marine organisms we identified 114 extracts that produced either an increase or a decrease in LD formation in fatty acid-treated A431 cells with varying degrees of cytotoxicity. We selected for further analysis a non-cytotoxic extract derived from the genus Spongia (Heterofibria). Solvent partitioning, HPLC fractionation and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS) identified a family of related molecules within this extract with unique structural features, a subset of which reduced LD formation. We selected one of these molecules, heterofibrin A1, for more detailed cellular analysis. Inhibition of LD biogenesis by heterofibrin A1 was observed in both A431 cells and AML12 hepatocytes. The activity of heterofibrin A1 was dose dependent with 20 µM inhibiting LD formation and triglyceride accumulation by ∼50% in the presence of 50 µM oleic acid. Using a fluorescent fatty acid analogue we found that heterofibrin A1 significantly reduces the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids and results in the formation of distinct fatty acid metabolites in both cultured cells and in embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio. In summary we have shown using readily accessible software and a relatively simple assay system that we can identify and isolate bioactive molecules from marine extracts, which affect the formation of LDs and the metabolism of fatty acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Serum Lipid Levels in Selected Air Force Officers during the First Four Years after Graduation from the USAF Academy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    cardiovascular disease . Since an earlier study of West Point cadets found that serum levels of cholesterol and lipoproteins rose to peak levels 2 years after graduation from the United States Military Academy, this study also followed the subjects in the study through their years at the USAF Academy and for almost 4 years thereafter. During the years at the USAF Academy, only transient elevations in serum cholesterol and uric acid levels were found, but these were apparently related to short-term stress. During the 3 1/2 to 4 years after graduation, serum cholesterol

  2. [Factors affecting the control of blood pressure and lipid levels in patients with cardiovascular disease: the PREseAP Study].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Brotons, Carlos; Moral, Irene; Soriano, Nuria; Del Valle, María A; Rodríguez, Ana I; Pepió, Josep M; Pastor, Ana

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to identify factors influencing the control of blood pressure (i.e., <140/90 mmHg, or <130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (<100 mg/dL) in 1223 patients with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 70.2% of patients were men, and their mean age was 66.4 years. Blood pressure was poorly controlled in 50.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 46.9%-54.8%) and the LDL cholesterol level was poorly controlled in 60.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-63.9%). Determinants of poor blood pressure control were diabetes, hypertension, no previous diagnosis of heart failure, previous diagnosis of peripheral artery disease or stroke, obesity, and no lipid-lowering treatment. Determinants of poor LDL cholesterol control were no lipid-lowering treatment, no previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, no antihypertensive treatment, and dyslipidemia. The factors affecting blood pressure control were different from those affecting LDL cholesterol control, an observation that should be taken into account when implementing treatment recommendations for achieving therapeutic objectives in secondary prevention.

  3. A soy protein diet alters hepatic lipid metabolism gene expression and reduces serum lipids and renal fibrogenic cytokines in rats with chronic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Armando R; Murguía, Fernanda; Cruz, Cristino; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Torres, Nimbe

    2002-09-01

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by the presence of proteinuria and hyperlipidemia. However, ingestion of soy protein has a hypolipidemic effect. The present study was designed to determine whether the ingestion of a 20% soy protein diet regulates the expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1, fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (r) and synthase (s), and LDL receptor (r), and to assess whether soy protein improves lipid and renal abnormalities in rats with chronic NS. Male Wistar rats were injected with vehicle or with puromycin aminonucleoside to induce NS and were fed either 20% casein or soy protein diets for 64 d. NS rats fed 20% soy protein had improved creatinine clearance and reduced proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, as well as VLDL-triglycerides and LDL cholesterol compared with NS rats fed the 20% casein diet. In addition, the soy protein diet decreased the incidence of glomerular sclerosis, and proinflammatory cytokines in kidney. Ingestion of the soy protein diet by control rats reduced the gene expression of SREBP-1, malic enzyme, FAS and increased HMG-CoAr, HMG-CoAs and LDLr. However, NS rats fed either casein or soy protein diets had low insulin concentrations with reductions in SREBP-1, FAS and malic enzyme expression compared with control rats fed the casein diet. NS rats fed the soy diet also had lower HMG-CoAr and LDLr mRNA levels than NS rats fed casein. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of soy protein on lipid metabolism are modulated in part by SREBP-1. However, in NS rats, the benefit may be through a direct effect of this protein on kidney rather than mediated by changes in expression of hepatic lipid metabolism genes.

  4. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat.

  5. Alterations in the blood glucose, serum lipids and renal oxidative stress in diabetic rats by supplementation of onion (Allium cepa. Linn).

    PubMed

    Bang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hyeon-A; Cho, Young-Ja

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the anti-diabetic effect of onion (Allium cepa. Linn) in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder (7% w/w) and diabetic rats fed control diet or supplemented with onion powder. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) in citrate buffer. The animals were fed each of the experimental diet for 5 weeks. Blood glucose levels of rats supplemented with onion were lower than those of rats fed control diet in the diabetic rats. Onion also decreased the total serum lipid, triglyceride, and atherogenic index and increased HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio in the diabetic rats. Glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were high in the diabetic rats compared to normal rats and reverted to near-control values by onion. These results indicate that onion decreased blood glucose, serum lipid levels and reduced renal oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats and this effect might exert the anti-diabetic effect of onion.

  6. Serum lipids, plant sterols, and cholesterol kinetic responses to plant sterol supplementation in phytosterolemia heterozygotes and control individuals123

    PubMed Central

    Myrie, Semone B; Mymin, David; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Jones, Peter JH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plant sterol (PS) supplementation is increasingly accepted as a dietary strategy to lower plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, information is scarce about the effect of increased PS intake in potentially vulnerable groups, such as phytosterolemia heterozygotes (HET). Objective: This study assessed the responsiveness of circulating PS and lipid concentrations and cholesterol kinetics (absorption and synthesis) to daily PS supplementation in HET (ABCG8 S107X mutation) compared with a healthy control cohort. Design: A double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 10 HET and 15 control subjects. The participants had a mean (±SEM) age of 34 ± 2 y and a BMI (in kg/m2) of 29.9 ± 1.1 and consumed ∼1.6 g PS or placebo capsules daily with supper for 4 wk. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were assessed by using [13C]cholesterol and deuterium oxide, respectively. Results: Plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased (P = 0.006) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 2.73 ± 0.19 mmol/L; control: 3.11± 0.19 mmol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 3.12 ± 0.20 mmol/L; control: 3.50 ± 0.21 mmol/L), whereas PS concentrations (campesterol+β-sitosterol) increased (P = 0.03) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 39.72 ± 6.05 μmol/L; control: 24.03 ± 1.65 μmol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 27.32 ± 3.80 μmol/L; control: 21.12 ± 2.05 μmol/L). Cholesterol absorption efficiency decreased (P = 0.010) by ∼22% and ∼17% and synthesis rates increased (P = 0.040) by ∼20% and ∼24% in the HET and control groups, respectively, in response to PS consumption compared with placebo. Conclusion: These data suggest that heterozygosity for the ABCG8 S107X mutation does not influence the action of dietary PS on circulating cholesterol concentrations but may affect sterol absorption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01102647. PMID:22378727

  7. Correlation of serum toll like receptor 9 and trace elements with lipid peroxidation in the patients of breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Karki, Kanchan; Pande, Deepti; Negi, Reena; Khanna, Seema; Khanna, Ranjana S; Khanna, Hari D

    2015-04-01

    Toll-like receptors are recognized as redox sensitive receptor proteins and have been implicated in cellular response to oxidative stress. Altered pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance leads to an increased oxidative damage and consequently play an important role in breast diseases. The study was designed to access the oxidative stress status by quantification of byproducts generated during lipid peroxidation and inadequate trace elements during oxidative damage and its effects on the toll like receptor (TLR) activity in patients of breast diseases. Decreased levels of selenium, copper, zinc, magnesium and iron with elevated levels of malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation) were accompanied by decreased TLR activity in patients of benign breast diseases as well as breast carcinoma. A similar pattern was observed with the advancement of disease and its subsequent progression in breast carcinoma patients. Results of multinomial regression analysis suggest benign breast disease patients are at higher risk of developing breast cancer with high odds ratio of lipid damage.

  8. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC), a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jian; MacGibbon, Alastair; Fong, Bertram; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Karen; Rowan, Angela; McJarrow, Paul

    2015-06-05

    We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC) on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16) or blank gels (n = 16) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark-light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  9. Thermal transitions in serum amyloid A in solution and on the lipid: implications for structure and stability of acute-phase HDL.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Shobini; Haupt, Christian; Gursky, Olga

    2015-08-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute-phase protein that circulates mainly on plasma HDL. SAA interactions with its functional ligands and its pathogenic deposition in reactive amyloidosis depend, in part, on the structural disorder of this protein and its propensity to oligomerize. In vivo, SAA can displace a substantial fraction of the major HDL protein, apoA-I, and thereby influence the structural remodeling and functions of acute-phase HDL in ways that are incompletely understood. We use murine SAA1.1 to report the first structural stability study of human plasma HDL that has been enriched with SAA. Calorimetric and spectroscopic analyses of these and other SAA-lipid systems reveal two surprising findings. First, progressive displacement of the exchangeable fraction of apoA-I by SAA has little effect on the structural stability of HDL and its fusion and release of core lipids. Consequently, the major determinant for HDL stability is the nonexchangeable apoA-I. A structural model explaining this observation is proposed, which is consistent with functional studies in acute-phase HDL. Second, we report an α-helix folding/unfolding transition in SAA in the presence of lipid at near-physiological temperatures. This new transition may have potentially important implications for normal functions of SAA and its pathogenic misfolding.

  10. Evaluation of erythrocyte antioxidant mechanisms: antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and serum trace elements associated with progressive anemia in ovine malignant theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kianiamin, P; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2011-08-01

    Ovine malignant theileriosis is a fatal disease that is characterized by severe progressive anemia. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in anemia, this study was designed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative injuries in Iranian fat-tailed sheep that suffered from malignant theileriosis. The infected animals (infected group), composed of 50 Iranian sheep about 1-2 years old, naturally infected with Theileria sp., were divided into three subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-3%, 3-5%), and ten non-infected animals were also selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase, erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and serum concentrations of some trace elements (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium), were measured. As an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also determined. According to the results, a significant decrease in red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume, the activities of SOD, GPX, and catalase (P <0.001), and also serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se (P < 0.05) were evident in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (P < 0.001) as well as serum concentration of iron (P < 0.05) were recorded in the infected animals. The significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte osmotic fragility associated with the increase in parasitemia indicate increased exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage. Also, it appears that disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms can promote the development of anemia in ovine theileriosis.

  11. Effect of chromium-enriched yeast on fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin.

    PubMed

    Racek, Jaroslav; Sindberg, C D; Moesgaard, S; Mainz, Josef; Fabry, Jaroslav; Müller, Luděk; Rácová, Katarína

    2013-10-01

    Chromium is required for a normal insulin function, and low levels have been linked with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to follow the effect of chromium supplementation on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) on insulin therapy. Eleven randomly selected patients with DM2 on insulin therapy were supplemented with a daily dose of 100 μg chromium yeast for the first supplementation period of 2 weeks. In the second supplementation period, the chromium dose was doubled and continued for the next 6 weeks. The third phase was a 6-week washout period. After each period, the levels of FPG and HbA1c were compared with the corresponding values at the end of the previous period. Serum triglycerides, total HDL and LDL cholesterol values after supplementation were compared with the baseline values. FPG decreased significantly after the first period of chromium supplementation (p < 0.001), and a tendency to a further reduction was observed after the second supplementation period. Similarly, HbA1c decreased significantly in both periods (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Eight weeks after withdrawal of chromium supplementation, both FPG and HbA1c levels returned to their pre-intervention values. The serum lipid concentrations were not significantly influenced by chromium supplementation. Chromium supplementation could be beneficial in patients with DM2 treated with insulin, most likely due to lowered insulin resistance leading to improved glucose tolerance. This finding needs to be confirmed in a larger study.

  12. Embryo transfer day does not affect the initial maternal serum β-hCG levels: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Mona; Rupani, Karishma; Yu, Su Ling; Fook-Chong, Stephanie M C; Siew Fui, Diana Chia; Rajesh, Hemashree

    2017-03-18

    The aim of this study is to compare the serum β-hCG values post transfer of a cleavage stage embryo versus a blastocyst stage embryo at equal time intervals post oocyte retrieval (OR) in clinically pregnant patients, and to ascertain a β-hCG value to predict pregnancy outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort study of 560 women with clinical pregnancy who underwent an embryo transfer performed at either the cleavage stage or the blastocyst stage of embryo development between January 2003 and June 2014 at the Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARE), Singapore General Hospital. The serum β-hCG level was measured on day 17 post OR. The β-hCG values were not significantly different in the cleavage stage versus the blastocyst stage embryos (mean±SD: 387±486IU/L D3 vs. 352±268IU/L D5, p=0.96, median value 297 in both groups). Our study suggests that the initial maternal serum β-hCG values were not affected by the day of transfer of the embryos since assessing the β-hCG at equivalent points after transfer should not lead to a significant difference assuming the progress and development of the embryos occurred as expected.

  13. Association of the LIPG 584C > T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphism and serum HDL-C levels is scarce and conflicting in diverse populations. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPG 584C > T (rs2000813) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 645 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 638 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPG 584C > T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 73.5% and 26.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 67.9% and 32.1% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 50.4%, 46.2% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 41.4%, 53.1% and 5.5% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. Serum HDL-C levels in both ethnic groups were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum TC levels in both ethnic groups were also different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The T allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and TC levels than the T allele noncarriers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of HDL-C and ApoB were correlated with genotypes in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the levels of TC and HDL-C were associated with genotypes in Han Chinese (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the both ethnic

  14. Maternal selenium (Se) nutrition affects both milk Se and lipid patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, K.D.; Picciano, M.F.; Perrel, J.P.; Perkins, E.G. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana )

    1991-03-15

    In this study relationships between patterns of Se and lipid secretion in milk of women on self-selected diets were assessed. Milk samples were collected from 10 women at 4, 6 and 8 wks postpartum and blood samples at 4 to 8 wks. Milk samples were extracted and analyzed for tiacylglycerols and fatty acids. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and contents of Se in milk, plasma and erythrocytes were also measured. Two groups were found: one displaying an increase in plasma Se and the other, a decrease from 4 to 8 wks. Milk Se significantly decreased only in women whose plasma Se also decreased. Milk Se was negatively correlated with myristic and stearic acids in women whose plasma Se increased and with arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in women whose plasma Se decreased. Results of this study show that maternal Se nutrition relates not only to the quantity of Se secreted in milk but also to the quantities of individual fatty acids.

  15. The effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein, lipid profile and glycaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Gao, Hong-Kai; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of ginger supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, and glycaemia. Method PubMed-MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until July 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of ginger supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects model meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016035973. Results From a total of 265 entries identified via searches, 9 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in serum CRP concentrations following ginger supplementation [weighted mean difference (WMD)−0.84 mg/L (95% CI −1.38 to −0.31, I2 56.3%)]. The WMD for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c was −1.35 mg/dl (95% CI −2.04 to −0.58, I2 12.1%) and −1.01 (95% CI −1.28 to −0.72, I2 9.4%), respectively. Moreover, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride significantly improved after ginger administration [1.16 mg/dl (95% CI 0.52 to 1.08, I2 12.3%) and −1.63 mg/dl (95% CI −3.10 to −0.17, I2 8.1%), respectively]. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of ginger supplementation (slope −0.20; 95% CI −0.95 to 0.55; p=0.60). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that ginger supplementation significantly reduces serum CRP and improves glycaemia indexes and lipid profile. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and with a longer-term follow-up period should be considered for future investigations. PMID:27806832

  16. Effects of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride on serum lipid and insulin levels in man.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Grant, D B; Fosbrooke, A S; Segall, M M; Lloyd, J K

    1968-09-01

    Analysis of serum free fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography showed high proportions (27-57%) of octanoic acid for up to 4 hr after the ingestion of a single oral load of medium-chain triglyceride (approximately 1 g/kg body weight) in four volunteers. The effects of a medium-chain triglyceride load on the concentrations of plasma free long-chain fatty acids, plasma glucose, serum insulin, and serum triglyceride were observed and compared with the effects of a glucose load. A rapid fall in the free long-chain fatty acids followed both loads but only a small rise in serum insulin was observed after medium-chain triglyceride. The fall in free long-chain fatty acids following ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride cannot therefore be caused mainly by the release of insulin and may be due to a direct action on adipose tissue. No medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the serum triglyceride after ingestion of medium-chain triglyceride, but there was a small but significant increase in the percentage of hexadecenoic acid in this fraction.

  17. The effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds and L-arginine supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in atherogenic rats.

    PubMed

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O; Al-showayman, Showayman I A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in drinking water and the other supplemented with pumpkin seeds in diet at a concentration equivalent to 2% arginine. Supplementation continued for 37 days. Atherogenic rats supplemented with pumpkin seeds showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in their serum concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL - C as they dropped from 4.89 mmol / L to 2.55 mmol /L and from 3.33 mmol / L to 0.70 mmol / L respectively. Serum concentrations of HDL-C were also significantly elevated in the same group. Although, atherogenic rats supplemented with 2% arginine showed significant increase in serum concentration of HDL-C, no significant changes were observed in their serum concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL-C. Our results showed that treatment of atherogenic rats with pumpkin seeds significantly decreased serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that pumpkin seeds supplementation has a protective effect against atherogenic rats and this protective effect was not attributed to the high arginine concentrations in pumpkin seeds.

  18. Blueberry, blackberry, and blackcurrant differentially affect plasma lipids and pro-inflammatory markers in diet-induced obesity mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bohkyung; Lee, Sang Gil; Park, Young-Ki; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X.; Wegner, Casey J.; Yang, Yue; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Evidence indicates that berry anthocyanins are anti-atherogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. However, berries differ vastly in their anthocyanin composition and thus potentially in their biological and metabolic effects. The present study compared hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberry (BB), blackberry (BK), and blackcurrant (BC) in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat (HF; 35% fat, w/w) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with freeze-dried 5% BB, 6.3% BK or 5.7% BC for 12 weeks (10 mice/group) to achieve the same total anthocyanin content in each diet. Plasma lipids, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, and lipid metabolism was determined in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, proximal intestine, and skeletal muscle. Histological analysis was performed to identify crown-like structure (CLS) in epididymal fat pads to determine macrophage infiltration. RESULTS No differences were noted between the control and any berry-fed groups in plasma levels of liver enzymes, insulin, glucose, ferric reducing antioxidant power, superoxide dismutase, and tumor necrosis factor α. However, BK significantly lowered plasma triglyceride compared with the HF control and other berries, whereas BC significantly reduced F4/80 mRNA and the number of CLS in the epididymal fat pad, indicative of less macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSIONS The present study provides evidence that BB, BK and BC with varying anthocyanin composition differentially affect plasma lipids and adipose macrophage infiltration in DIO mice, but with no differences in their antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:27698956

  19. Ozone-derived Oxysterols Affect Liver X Receptor (LXR) Signaling: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR LIPID-PROTEIN ADDUCTS.

    PubMed

    Speen, Adam M; Kim, Hye-Young H; Bauer, Rebecca N; Meyer, Megan; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Fessler, Michael B; Duncan, Kelly E; Liu, Wei; Porter, Ned A; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-11-25

    When inhaled, ozone (O3) interacts with cholesterols of airway epithelial cell membranes or the lung-lining fluid, generating chemically reactive oxysterols. The mechanism by which O3-derived oxysterols affect molecular function is unknown. Our data show that in vitro exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to O3 results in the formation of oxysterols, epoxycholesterol-α and -β and secosterol A and B (Seco A and Seco B), in cell lysates and apical washes. Similarly, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from human volunteers exposed to O3 contained elevated levels of these oxysterol species. As expected, O3-derived oxysterols have a pro-inflammatory effect and increase NF-κB activity. Interestingly, expression of the cholesterol efflux pump ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), which is regulated by activation of the liver X receptor (LXR), was suppressed in epithelial cells exposed to O3 Additionally, exposure of LXR knock-out mice to O3 enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in the lung, suggesting LXR inhibits O3-induced inflammation. Using alkynyl surrogates of O3-derived oxysterols, our data demonstrate adduction of LXR with Seco A. Similarly, supplementation of epithelial cells with alkynyl-tagged cholesterol followed by O3 exposure causes observable lipid-LXR adduct formation. Experiments using Seco A and the LXR agonist T0901317 (T09) showed reduced expression of ABCA1 as compared with stimulation with T0901317 alone, indicating that Seco A-LXR protein adduct formation inhibits LXR activation by traditional agonists. Overall, these data demonstrate that O3-derived oxysterols have pro-inflammatory functions and form lipid-protein adducts with LXR, thus leading to suppressed cholesterol regulatory gene expression and providing a biochemical mechanism mediating O3-derived formation of oxidized lipids in the airways and subsequent adverse health effects.

  20. Serum lipid levels and M/L55 allele distribution of HDL paraoxonase gene in Saami and Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Malin, R; Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    2001-01-01

    Paraoxonase (PON) is an antioxidative enzyme, which eliminates lipid peroxides. The mutation in codon 55 of PON1 gene causes a change of methionine (M-allele) to leucine (L-allele) and influences PON activity. The Saami are a population living in the northern part of Fennoscandia. In previous studies their death rate from coronary artery disease (CAD) was found to be low. We compared PON M/L55 allele frequencies of 68 Saami and 68 Finnish men and related the PON genotypes to plasma lipid levels and to the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL. The M/L55 genotypes were determined by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion. ELISA was used to measure antibodies against oxidized LDL. The L- and M-allele frequencies were 64% and 36% in Saami population and 64% and 36% in Finnish men, respectively (p = NS, Fisher's exact test). There were also no significant differences in plasma lipid levels or in antibody levels against oxidized LDL between PON genotypes or between Saami and Finnish men. Our results indicate that the PON M/L55 genotype is not associated with plasma lipid levels or the levels of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL in these populations. The Saami men have the same PON M/L55 allele distribution as the Finnish men and the PON genotype might thus not be one factor protecting Saami against CAD.

  1. FADS gene polymorphisms in Koreans: association with _6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids, lipid peroxides, and coronary artery disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular diseases are multifactorial and blood lipids are one of their best characterized risk factors. In addition to blood cholesterol levels, triglycerides (TG) are also important risk factors and their levels are determined by genetic and environmental factors such as diet. Regarding the g...

  2. Are serum eosinophilic cationic protein levels of toll collectors affected by diesel exhaust exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Cahit; Arbak, Peri; Yavuz, Ozlem; Balbay, Ege Gulec; Balbay, Oner; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There are few studies on the diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) / eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) level relationship. This study aimed to detect ECP levels in a highly DE exposed group, named as toll collectors. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, levels of serum ECP, rates of respiratory symptoms, mean levels of respiratory functions, smoking status, and variations in peak expiratory flow (PEF) during weekends and working days were compared for 68 toll collectors (TC) (range of age, 24-48 years) and 28 controls (range of age, 25-61 years). All subjects in the study group were men. Results: No significant difference was observed in terms of symptoms and smoking rates between the toll collectors and control group. The number of toll collectors [12/68 (17.7%) vs 1/28 (3.5%)] with diurnal PEF variability in the working period was higher than that of controls (p=0.058). Mean ECP level of toll collectors was higher than that of controls (32.8 vs 21.4 ng/L), but the difference was not significant. Mean ECP levels were higher in subjects experiencing diurnal PEF variability during work and off-work periods (34.9 vs 28.3 ng/L, p=0.410). Conclusions: Serial PEF measurements combined with serum ECP measurements did not add a new tool to detect the sensitivity of workers dealing with DE. Much more diesel exhaust exposed workers should be included to search for cheap and available methods when evaluating airway. PMID:27882015

  3. Evaluation of Physicochemical Deterioration and Lipid Oxidation of Beef Muscle Affected by Freeze-thaw Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. H.; Hossain, M. M.; Rahman, S. M. E.; Amin, M. R.; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore the deterioration of physicochemical quality of beef hind limb during frozen storage at −20℃, affected by repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef hind limb were investigated comparing with unfrozen beef muscle for 80 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to select the best one on the basis of deterioration of physicochemical properties of beef. As the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased, drip loss decreased and water holding capacity (WHC) increased (p<0.05) till two cycles and then decreased. Cooking loss increased in cycle one and three but decreased in cycle two. Moreover, drip loss, WHC and cooking loss affected (p<0.05) by thawing methods within the cycles. However, pH value decreased (p<0.05), but peroxide value (p<0.05), free fatty acids value (p<0.05) and TBARS value increased (p<0.05) significantly as the number of repeated freeze-thaw cycles increased. Moreover, significant (p<0.05) interactive effects were found among the thawing methods and repeated cycles. As a result, freeze-thaw cycles affected the physicochemical quality of beef muscle, causing the degradation of its quality. PMID:26877637

  4. A High Phosphorus Diet Affects Lipid Metabolism in Rat Liver: A DNA Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sunwoo; Bamba, Takeshi; Suyama, Tatsuya; Ishijima, Tomoko; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakai, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A high phosphorus (HP) diet causes disorders of renal function, bone metabolism, and vascular function. We previously demonstrated that DNA microarray analysis is an appropriate method to comprehensively evaluate the effects of a HP diet on kidney dysfunction such as calcification, fibrillization, and inflammation. We reported that type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate transporter is significantly up-regulated in this context. In the present study, we performed DNA microarray analysis to investigate the effects of a HP diet on the liver, which plays a pivotal role in energy metabolism. DNA microarray analysis was performed with total RNA isolated from the livers of rats fed a control diet (containing 0.3% phosphorus) or a HP diet (containing 1.2% phosphorus). Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that the HP diet induced down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic amino acid catabolism and lipogenesis, while genes related to fatty acid β-oxidation process were up-regulated. Although genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis were down-regulated in HP diet-fed rats, genes important for the elongation and desaturation reactions of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids were up-regulated. Concentrations of hepatic arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were increased in HP diet-fed rats. These essential fatty acids activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a transcription factor for fatty acid β-oxidation. Evaluation of the upstream regulators of DEGs using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that PPARα was activated in the livers of HP diet-fed rats. Furthermore, the serum concentration of fibroblast growth factor 21, a hormone secreted from the liver that promotes fatty acid utilization in adipose tissue as a PPARα target gene, was higher (p = 0.054) in HP diet-fed rats than in control diet-fed rats. These data suggest that a HP diet enhances energy expenditure through the utilization of free fatty acids

  5. Peripheral vagus nerve stimulation significantly affects lipid composition and protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain regions in rats.

    PubMed

    Surowka, Artur Dawid; Krygowska-Wajs, Anna; Ziomber, Agata; Thor, Piotr; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Recent immunohistochemical studies point to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve as the point of departure of initial changes which are related to the gradual pathological developments in the dopaminergic system. In the light of current investigations, it is likely that biochemical changes within the peripheral nervous system may influence the physiology of the dopaminergic system, suggesting a putative role for it in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. By using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, coupled with statistical analysis, we examined the effect of chronic, unilateral electrical vagus nerve stimulation on changes in lipid composition and in protein secondary structure within dopamine-related brain structures in rats. It was found that the chronic vagal nerve stimulation strongly affects the chain length of fatty acids within the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, striatum, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and the motor cortex. In particular, the level of lipid unsaturation was found significantly increasing in the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and motor cortex as a result of vagal nerve stimulation. When it comes to changes in protein secondary structure, we could see that the mesolimbic, mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways are particularly affected by vagus nerve stimulation. This is due to the co-occurrence of statistically significant changes in the content of non-ordered structure components, alpha helices, beta sheets, and the total area of Amide I. Macromolecular changes caused by peripheral vagus nerve stimulation may highlight a potential connection between the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system in rat during the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  7. Structural characteristics of activated carbons and ibuprofen adsorption affected by bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Melillo, M; Gun'ko, V M; Tennison, S R; Mikhalovska, L I; Phillips, G J; Davies, J G; Lloyd, A W; Kozynchenko, O P; Malik, D J; Streat, M; Mikhalovsky, S V

    2004-03-30

    Structural characteristics of a series of MAST carbons were studied using scanning electron microscopy images and the nitrogen adsorption isotherms analyzed with several models of pores and different adsorption equations. A developed model of pores as a mixture of gaps between spherical nanoparticles and slitlike pores was found appropriate for MAST carbons. Adsorption of ibuprofen [2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid] on activated carbons possessing different pore size distributions in protein-free and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-containing aqueous solutions reveals the importance of the contribution of mesopores to the total porosity of adsorbents. The influence of the mesoporosity increases when considering the removal of the drug from the protein-containing solution. Cellulose-coated microporous carbon Norit RBX adsorbs significantly smaller amounts of ibuprofen than uncoated micro/mesoporous MAST carbons whose adsorption capability increases with increasing mesoporosity and specific surface area, burnoff dependent variable. A similar effect of broad pores is observed on adsorption of fibrinogen on the same carbons. Analysis of the ibuprofen adsorption data using Langmuir and D'Arcy-Watt equations as the kernel of the Fredholm integral equation shows that the nonuniformity of ibuprofen adsorption complexes diminishes with the presence of BSA. This effect may be explained by a partial adsorption of ibuprofen onto protein molecules immobilized on carbon particles and blocking of a portion of narrow pores.

  8. [Features of serum lipid spectrum in female newcomers of Far Northern city, relation of nutritional characteristics to that spectrum].

    PubMed

    Ionova, I E; Buganov, A A; Agbalian, E V

    2003-01-01

    Nutrition of non-natives in the Far North is of European character but also has the features of native population national cuisine. Because of these factors, there are some peculiarities in formation of blood lipid spectrum in non-natives. In particular, in population of non-native women of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the fat component of 24-hour diet influenced most, carbohydrate component had less importance.

  9. Weight change affects serum leptin and corticosterone in the collared lemming.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maria S; Onorato, David P; Gower, Barbara A; Nagy, Tim R

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether photoperiod-induced changes in body and fat mass are accompanied by changes in leptin and corticosterone concentrations in collared lemmings. At weaning, eighty male lemmings were maintained in either long photoperiod (LD, n = 40 ) or short photoperiod (SD, n = 40 ). Ten weeks post-weaning lemmings were weighed and assigned to a secondary photoperiod that consisted of either remaining in the same photoperiod or being transferred to the alternate photoperiod (LD-LD, LD-SD, SD-SD, and SD-LD; n = 20 per group). Ten days post-switch, half the animals from each group were sacrificed. The remaining animals were sacrificed on day 21 post-switch. Blood was collected for determination of serum leptin and corticosterone, and carcasses were analyzed for body composition. LD-SD lemmings gained the most weight, whilst SD-LD lemmings lost weight. SD-LD lemmings had significantly lower leptin levels relative to fat mass than SD-SD lemmings. Corticosterone levels were higher in the SD-LD than SD-SD lemmings on both days 10 and 21. Levels were not significantly different between LD-LD and LD-SD lemmings; however by day 21 the levels were slightly lower in the LD-SD lemmings. Discussion. Lemmings showed seasonally appropriate body weight changes in response to the changing photoperiod. Weight loss was associated with higher corticosterone, and lower leptin levels adjusted for fat mass. Neither relative leptin levels, nor corticosterone levels changed significantly with weight gain. Our results indicate that corticosterone and leptin are associated more with seasonal weight loss than weight gain in lemmings.

  10. Effect of cell phone exposure on physiologic and hematologic parameters of male medical students of Bijapur (Karnataka) with reference to serum lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Parkar, Matin A; Ahmed, Rishad; Abdullah, Bilal Bin; Patil, B S; Das, Kusal K

    2010-01-01

    The public awareness about cell phone safety increased greatly in the last few years as various reports of potential adverse health effects on humans exposed to radiations emitted from cellular phones were published. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long term cell phone exposure on physiological and hematological parameters along with its impact on serum lipid profiles and a single call effect on heart rate, blood pressure and SpO2(%) of healthy male medical students. The students were divided into two groups, group I (n=22, age 20.63 +/- 1.17 yrs) comprising first year medical students who were never exposed to cell phones at the time of this study and group II (n=35, age 22.00 +/- 1.56 yrs) consists of final year (fourth year) male medical students who were using cell phone for more than four years before this study. The results showed no significant differences the groups in basal heart rate, systolic blood pressure, SpO2(%), or various hematologic parameters. Acute exposure (single call of cell phone with 900 MHz for 1 minute) in both groups showed a significant increase in peak heart rate in group II as compared with group I and a significant decrease in peak SpO2 (%) in group I as compared with group II. Serum total cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides concentration were significantly higher in group II (long term cell phone exposed) than in group I, suggesting a mild alteration of lipid profile among group II subjects.

  11. Association of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1)-565 C/T Gene Polymorphism with Hypoalphalipoproteinemia and Serum Lipids, IL-6 and CRP Levels

    PubMed Central

    Babashamsi, Mohammad Mahdi; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Moradi Firouzjah, Hamid; Parsian, Hadi; Jalali, Seyed Farzad; Babashamsi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a membrane integral protein which plays a vital role in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and exerts a protective effect against Hypoalphalipoproteinemia (HA) by mediation of rate-limiting step in HDL biogenesis. In addition, this protein possesses anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of some inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. This study investigated the association of ABCA1-565 C/T gene polymorphism with HA and serum lipids, IL-6 and CRP levels. Methods: A population which consisted of 101 HA and 95 normal subjects were genotyped for ABCA1-565C/T polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The serum concentrations of lipids, IL-6 and high sensitive-CRP (hs-CRP) were measured by the relevant methods. Results: The frequency of T allele was significantly higher in the HA group than the controls (31.7 vs. 19.5%, p=0.002). Thus, carriers of the T allele (CT and TT genotypes) had a higher risk for HA (p=0.016, OR=2.04, 95% CI=1.14–3.63). T allele carriers demonstrated decreased HDL-C and increased triglyceride, IL-6 and CRP levels than those with the CC genotype. Conclusion: This study suggests that the-565 C/T polymorphism of ABCA1 gene is associated with an increased risk of HA, decreased HDL-C and increased TG, IL-6 and CRP. PMID:28090279

  12. Genome scan linkage analysis identifies quantitative trait loci affecting serum clinical-chemical traits in Korean native chicken.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Won; Park, Hee-Bok; Jin, Shil; Cahyadi, Muhammad; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in robustness- and health-related traits lead to physiological changes, such as changes in the serum clinical chemical parameters in individuals. Therefore, clinical-chemical traits can be used as biomarkers to examine the health status of chickens. The aim of the present study was to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) influencing eight clinical-chemical traits (glucose, total protein, creatinine, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and α-amylase) in an F1 nuclear families comprising 83 F0 founders and 585 F1 progeny of Korean native chickens. Genotypic data on 135 DNA markers representing 26 autosomes have been generated for this resource pedigree. The total length of the map was 2729.4 cM. We used a multipoint variance component linkage approach to identify QTLs for the traits. A significant QTL affecting serum α-amylase levels was identified on chicken chromosome (GGA) 7 [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 3.02, P value = 1.92 × 10(-4)]. Additionally, we detected several suggestive linkage signals for the levels of total cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and creatinine on GGA 4, 12, 13, and 15. In this study, serum α-amylase levels related significant QTL was mapped on GGA7 and cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and creatinine traits related suggestive QTLs were detected on GGA4, 12, 13 and 15, respectively. Further verification and fine mapping of these identified QTLs can provide valuable information for understanding the variations of clinical chemical trait in chickens.

  13. Effect of supplementation with corn oil on postpartum ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, and serum concentration of progesterone and lipid metabolites in F1 (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cows.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Avila, I; Herrera-Camacho, J; Aké-López, J R; Delgado-León, R A; Ku-Vera, J C

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of corn oil supplementation during postpartum anoestrus on ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, progesterone (P(4)), and lipid metabolites (cholesterol, CHO; low and high density lipoproteins; LDL and HDL, respectively) concentrations in blood of F(1) (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) grazing cows. Cows were randomly assigned to an experimental group, fed with a supplement containing 4% corn oil on dry matter basis (OG, n = 11), and a control group with the same supplement without corn oil (CG, n = 12). Both supplements contained equivalent amounts of crude protein and metabolizable energy and were fed for 34 days continuously. All cows were induced to estrous 12 days after beginning of supplementation by using a synthetic progestagen and artificially inseminated 56 h after retiring the implants. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal palpation 45 days after insemination, evaluating simultaneously ovarian activity. P(4) and lipid metabolites (CHO, HDL, LDL) concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 3-day intervals, from the beginning of corn oil supplementation and up to 10 days after artificial insemination. Ovarian activity was affected by treatment (p < 0.05), finding ovarian structures in 72.7% of OG cows and in 50% of CG cows. Concentration of P(4) and CHO was higher for OG with respect to CG (2.52 +/- 0.65 vs 1.88 +/- 0.62 ng/ml and 117.79 +/- 11.57 vs 85.71 +/- 12.11 mg/dl, respectively), whereas pregnancy rate and blood concentrations of HDL and LDL were not affected by treatment (p > 0.05). Addition of corn oil to the supplement stimulated ovarian activity and increased serum concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol in grazing B. taurus x B. indicus cows with low body condition score showing postpartum anoestrus.

  14. Frequencies of apolipoprotein A4 gene polymorphisms and association with serum lipid concentrations in two healthy Spanish populations.

    PubMed

    Gañán, A; Corella, D; Guillén, M; Ordovás, J M; Pocoví, M

    2004-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A4 (apoA4) plays a role in intestinal lipid absorption. Several experimental interventions have shown that common variations at residues 347 (Thr --> Ser) and 360 (Gln --> His) on apoA4 are associated with differences in plasma lipid response to dietary fat; however, association studies between these variants and plasma lipid concentrations in populations reveal mixed results. We examined the effects of these polymorphisms in 758 randomly selected subjects (mean age 36.7+/-9.5 years) from 2 Spanish regions differing in latitude and fat intake: Aragón and Comunidad Valenciana. Subjects were matched one to one by sex and age. Frequencies for the less common alleles were similar in both regions: 0.096 (95% CI: 0.111-0.081) for codon 360 and 0.196 (95% CI: 0.216-0.176) for codon 347. In men and women there was no association between the codon 360 polymorphism and total cholesterol or triglyceride levels. However, subjects carrying the 360His allele had low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations statistically lower than homozygotes for the 360Gln allele, even after further adjustment for sex, age, region, body mass index, and APOE polymorphism (p = 0.043). The less common allele at codon 347 (the 347Ser allele) was associated with increased LDL-cholesterol concentrations with a clear gene-dosage effect after multivariate adjustment (p = 0.029). Although these polymorphisms showed no heterogeneity by geographic region, the magnitude of the effect was higher in subjects from Aragón compared with the Comunidad Valenciana, suggesting a possible influence of the higher fat intake in Aragón. In the combined association analysis subjects with the 360Gln/347Ser pseudohaplotype had the highest LDL-cholesterol concentrations, supporting the antagonistic effect between the 360His and the 347Ser alleles on this trait.

  15. Phospholipid-protein balance in affective disorders: Analysis of human blood serum using Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Depciuch, Joanna; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Siwek, Marcin; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Parlińska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2016-11-30

    Raman and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopies provide information on the chemical structure of compounds through identification and analysis of functional groups. In the present study, both spectroscopic techniques were used for investigating the phospholipid - protein balance in blood serum of depressed subjects (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder type I or II) taking also into account their age and gender. The obtained results were compared with those of healthy subjects. The Raman and FTIR (using ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) technique), spectra show that a correlation between the level of phospholipids and proteins exists. Indeed, in depressed subjects the quantity of phospholipids and proteins is lower, compared to healthy ones. The second derivative of FTIR spectra shows that phospholipids directly affect the structure of proteins and their functions. In all male depressed subjects a higher amount of phospholipids and proteins compared to female depressed subjects was measured, offering them faster recovery perspectives. Spectroscopy results show that the phospholipids' and proteins' levels are lower in depressed subjects from 41 to 65 compared to the age group between 20 and 40, independently from the gender. Consequently, this study shows that Raman and infrared spectroscopies might be applied as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the balance between phospholipids and proteins in blood serum as a potential biomarker in depressive disorders.

  16. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-03-07

    In this study fish oil was incorporated into commercial homogenized milk using different homogenization temperatures and pressures. The main aim was to understand the significance of homogenization temperature and pressure on the oxidative stability of the resulting milks. Increasing homogenization temperature from 50 to 72 degrees C decreased droplet size only slightly, whereas a pressure increase from 5 to 22.5 MPa decreased droplet size significantly. Surprisingly, emulsions having small droplets, and therefore large interfacial area, were less oxidized than emulsions having bigger droplets. Emulsions with similar droplet size distributions, but resulting from different homogenization conditions, had significantly different oxidative stabilities, indicating that properties of significance to oxidation other than droplet size itself were affected by the different treatments. In general, homogenization at 72 degrees C appeared to induce protective effects against oxidation as compared to homogenization at 50 degrees C. The results thus indicated that the actual composition of the oil-water interface is more important than total surface area itself.

  17. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  18. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  19. Long-term effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy and serum lipids in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Y; Mizutani, M; Ogawa, M; Sone, H; Asano, M; Asakura, Y; Isaka, M; Suzuki, S; Kawakami, Y; Field, J B; Yamashita, K

    1996-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of a new, highly purified (purity greater than 91%), ethyl esterification product from natural eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA-E, C20:5 omega 3) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Hemodynamic changes were assessed at the level of the dorsalis pedis artery using an ultrasonic color Doppler duplex system before and after oral administration of EPA-E at a dose of 1800 mg/day for 48 weeks. The cross-sectional area of the dorsalis pedis artery increased significantly from 2.5 +/- 0.2 to 3.9 +/- 0.4 mm2 (48 weeks, mean +/- SE, p < 0.05). Moreover, EPA-E improved the clinical symptom (coldness, numbness) as well as the vibration perception threshold sense of the lower extremities [from 32.1 +/- 8.5 to 16.1 +/- 4.8 (48 weeks) microns]. A significant decrease of serum triglycerides was also noted by EPA-E administration. Furthermore, significant decrease of the excretion of albumin in urine [from 24.4 +/- 3.3 to 13.9 +/- 1.8 (48 weeks) mg/g.Cr, p < 0.05]. The results of this study suggest that EPA-E has significant beneficial effects on diabetic neuropathy and serum lipids as well as other diabetic complications such as nephropathy and macroangiopathy.

  20. Longitudinal analysis of hepatic transcriptome and serum metabolome demonstrates altered lipid metabolism following the onset of hyperglycemia in spontaneously diabetic biobreeding rats

    PubMed Central

    Hessner, Martin J.; Jia, Shuang; Åkesson, Lina; Stenlund, Hans; Moritz, Thomas; La Torre, Daria; Lernmark, Åke

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is associated with abberations of fat metabolism before and after the clinical onset of disease. It has been hypothesized that the absence of the effect of insulin in the liver contributes to reduced hepatic fat synthesis. We measured hepatic gene expression and serum metabolites before and after the onset of hyperglycemia in a BioBreeding rat model of type 1 diabetes. Functional pathway annotation identified that lipid metabolism was differentially expressed in hyperglycemic rats and that these pathways significantly overlapped with genes regulated by insulin. 17 serum metabolites significantly changed in concentration. All but 2 of the identified metabolites had previously been reported in type 1 diabetes, and carbohydrates were overall the most upregulated class of metabolites. We conclude that lack of insulin in the liver contributes to the changes in fat metabolism observed in type 1 diabetes. Further studies are needed to understand the clinical consequences of a lack of insulin in the liver in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:28192442

  1. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  2. Are lipid-dependent indicators of cardiovascular risk affected by renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Schena, A; Di Paolo, S; Morrone, L F; Resta, F; Stallone, G; Schena, F P

    2000-04-01

    Hyperlipoproteinemia has been reported to frequently occur in kidney transplanted patients, thus possibly explaining, at least in part, the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in this population. To evaluate the impact of renal transplantation (Tx), and related immunosuppressive therapy, on plasma lipoprotein and Lp(a) profile, we selected a cohort of kidney transplanted patients (36 M/14 F; age 33.8 + 12.0 yr, range 13-62) lacking significant causes of hyperlipidemia. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen and showed a stable renal function after Tx (plasma creatinine: 1.36 +/- 0.35 mg/dL). One year after Tx, we found a significant increase of total cholesterol (TC), LDL, HDL, ApoB and ApoA-I (p < 0.005), while plasma triglyceride levels remained unmodified. Lp(a) plasma levels after Tx were within the normal range and displayed a significant inverse relationship with apo(a) size. Noteworthy, LDL/HDL ratio and ApoB/ ApoA-I ratio in kidney transplanted patients were almost superimposable with those of normal controls. Specifically, LDL/HDL ratio significantly decreased in 64% of patients after Tx, due to a prevalent increase of HDL, and was associated with a moderate amelioration of plasma TG. In a multiple linear regression model, post-Tx HDL level was significantly related to recipient's age, gender, BMI and cyclosporine (CyA) trough levels (Adj-R2 = 0.35, p = 0.0002), with gender and CyA trough levels being the better predictors of HDL. In conclusion, immunosuppressive regimens, in themselves, do not appear to significantly increase the atherogenic risk related to lipoproteins. Rather, other factors can affect the lipoprotein profile and its vascular effects in renal transplant recipients.

  3. Dietary protein source affects lipid metabolism in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Dias, J; Alvarez, M J; Arzel, J; Corraze, G; Diez, A; Bautista, J M; Kaushik, S J

    2005-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources on lipogenesis and fat deposition in a marine teleost, the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Four isonitrogenous (crude protein (CP, Nx6.25), 44% DM) and isoenergetic (22-23 kJ/g DM) diets were formulated to contain one of the following as the major protein source: fish meal (FM), one of two soy protein concentrates (SPC) and corn gluten meal (CGM). Apparent digestibility coefficients of the diets and raw ingredients, as well as soluble nitrogen (ammonia and urea) and phosphorus excretion were measured. Growth rates of seabass fed plant protein-based diets were significantly lower than those fed fish meal based diet. The protein utilisation was strongly correlated to the dietary essential amino acids index. Measurements of N excretion (ammonia and urea nitrogen) confirmed these data. Daily fat gain at the whole body level ranged between 1.1 to 1.7 g/kg BW, with the highest values being recorded in fish fed the fish meal based diet. Levels of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol were lower in fish fed soy protein diets than in those fed the diet solely based on fish meal. Soy protein rich diets decreased the activities of selected hepatic lipogenic enzymes (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, ATP-citrate lysase, acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase). Highest lipogenic enzyme activities where found in fish fed the fish meal diet, except for fatty acid synthetase which was increased in seabass fed the corn-gluten meal based diets. Overall data suggest that dietary protein sources affects fat deposition and the lipogenic potential in European seabass.

  4. Coenzyme Q10, copper, zinc, and lipid peroxidation levels in serum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tanrikulu, Abdullah Cetin; Abakay, Abdurrahman; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Palanci, Yilmaz

    2011-11-01

    Severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation is associated with increased level of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lipid peroxidation (malodialdehyde, MDA). The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of lipid peroxidation, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), Zn, and Cu in the COPD exacerbations. Forty-five patients with COPD acute exacerbation and 45 healthy smokers as control group were used in the study. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were lower in exacerbation group than in control. C- reactive protein levels, white blood cell count, and sedimentation rate were significantly (p<0.001) higher in patients than in control. CoQ10 level and Cu/Zn ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients than in control, although MDA, Cu, and Zn levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in patients than in control. Negative correlations were found among MDA, Cu, Zn, FEV1, and FVC values in exacerbation and control subjects (p<0.05). In conclusion, we observed that oxidative stress in the exacerbation period of COPD patients was increased. The decrease in CoQ10 level and Cu/Zn ratio and elevation in Cu and Zn levels observed in the patients probably result from the defense response of organism and are mediated by inflammatory-like substances.

  5. Methylation on the Circadian Gene BMAL1 Is Associated with the Effects of a Weight Loss Intervention on Serum Lipid Levels.

    PubMed

    Samblas, Mirian; Milagro, Fermin I; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Martínez, J Alfredo; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-06-01

    The circadian clock system has been linked to the onset and development of obesity and some accompanying comorbidities. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, are putatively involved in the regulation of the circadian clock system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a weight loss intervention based on an energy-controlled Mediterranean dietary pattern in the methylation levels of 3 clock genes, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1, and the association between the methylation levels and changes induced in the serum lipid profile with the weight loss treatment. The study sample enrolled 61 women (body mass index = 28.6 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); age: 42.2 ± 11.4 years), who followed a nutritional program based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern. DNA was isolated from whole blood obtained at the beginning and end point. Methylation levels at different CpG sites of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NR1D1 were analyzed by Sequenom's MassArray. The energy-restricted intervention modified the methylation levels of different CpG sites in BMAL1 (CpGs 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 18) and NR1D1 (CpGs 1, 10, 17, 18, 19, and 22). Changes in cytosine methylation in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 with the intervention positively correlated with the eveningness profile (p = 0.019). The baseline methylation of the CpG 5 to 9 region in BMAL1 positively correlated with energy (p = 0.047) and carbohydrate (p = 0.017) intake and negatively correlated with the effect of the weight loss intervention on total cholesterol (p = 0.032) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.005). Similar significant and positive correlations were found between changes in methylation levels in the CpG 5 to 9 region of BMAL1 due to the intervention and changes in serum lipids (p < 0.05). This research describes apparently for the first time an association between changes in the methylation of the BMAL1 gene with the intervention and the effects of a weight loss intervention on blood lipids levels.

  6. Association between the MLX Interacting Protein-Like, BUD13 Homolog and Zinc Finger Protein 259 Gene Polymorphisms and Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Lynn-Htet-Htet; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the association between the MLX interacting protein-like (MLXIPL), BUD13 homolog (BUD13) and zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid levels in the Chinese Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of 9 SNPs was performed in 825 Mulao and 781 Han participants. The genotype and allele frequencies of ZNF259 rs2075290 and rs964184, and BUD13 rs10790162 SNPs were different between the Mulao and Han populations (P < 0.001). The SNPs of ZNF259 rs2075290 and BUD13 rs10790162 were associated with serum total cholesterol levels; ZNF259 rs2075290 and rs964184, BUD13 rs10790162, and MLXIPL rs3812316 and rs13235543 were associated with triglyceride (TG); and MLXIPL rs35332062 was associated with apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 in the Mulaos (P < 0.006–0.001). However, in the Hans, the SNPs of ZNF259 rs2075290 and BUD13 rs10790162 were associated with serum TG levels; ZNF259 rs2075290 was associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio (P < 0.006–0.001). Significant linkage disequilibria were noted among ZNF259 rs2075290 and rs964184 and BUD13 rs10790162, and between MLXIPL rs3812316 and rs13235543 (r2 > 0.05, P < 0.001). The haplotypes of A-C-G-A-C (rs2075290A-rs964184C-rs10790162G-rs17119975A-rs11556024C) and C-C-C-C (rs799161C-rs35332062C-rs3812316C-rs13235543C) accounted for over half of the % haplotype of each ethnic group. PMID:24989072

  7. Effects of bran on serum cholesterol, faecal mass, fat, bile acids and neutral sterols, and biliary lipids in patients with diverticular disease of the colon 1

    PubMed Central

    Tarpila, S.; Miettinen, T. A.; Metsäranta, L.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with symptomatic diverticular disease of the colon were randomly allocated to control and high-fibre groups so that the long-term effect (up to 12 months) of bran on serum, faecal and biliary lipids could be studied. Even in cases of high initial values, faecal mass was increased by bran and the change was positively correlated with the change in dietary fibre. Faecal fat and dry weight were also increased. Faecal bile acids were initially slightly raised and were positively correlated with wet weight both off and on bran. The latter significantly decreased the excretion and concentration of bile acids, in particular the high initial values. The change in bile acids was not correlated with the change in dietary fibre or faecal wet weight. Sterol balance values indicated that the bran-induced decrease in faecal bile acids was associated with a lower cholesterol synthesis. Serum cholesterol decreased significantly in two hypercholesterolaemic individuals only. Correlations between different parameters revealed that the higher the initial level or the greater the drop in cholesterol synthesis, the greater the decrease in serum cholesterol. Bran had no effect on the biliary saturation of cholesterol. The percentage of biliary deoxycholate was negatively correlated with faecal mass (less so with faecal bile acid output) both before and during bran and was significantly decreased by bran. The percentage of cholic acid increased correspondingly and that of chenodeoxycholate remained unchanged. Faecal bile acids also indicated that the synthesis of the two primary bile acids was lowered by bran to the same degree. PMID:344156

  8. Association of structural variants of the gene of apolipoprotein B with coronary heart disease and serum lipid level

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, V.A.; Puzyrev, V.P.; Lemza, S.V.; Karpov, R.S.; Fedorov, A.Yu.

    1995-07-01

    Xba I and EcoR I polymorphism of the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene was studied by PCR. A significant increase in the frequency of allele X{sup +} and haplotype X{sup +}E{sup +} was demonstrated in patients with coronarographically documented coronary heart disease (CHD) over that of the general population. Association of allele E{sup {minus}} with increased levels of serum triglycerides was found. The results provide evidence about the contribution of structural variants of the APOB gene to determining CHD. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Lipid Parameters of Broilers Reared Under Normal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cancai; Huang, Yanling; Xiao, Fang; Lin, Xi; Lloyd, Karen

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr) source and concentration on growth performance, carcass traits, and some serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions for 42 days. A total of 252 1-day-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involved in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate (CrPro), Cr picolinate (CrPic), Cr chloride (CrCl3)) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4 and 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control diet. The results showed that dietary Cr supplementation tended to increase the breast muscle percentage compared with the Cr-unsupplemented control group (P = 0.0784), while Cr from CrPic tended to have higher breast muscle percentage compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0881). Chromium from CrPic also tended to increase the breast intramuscular fat (IMF) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0648). In addition, supplementation of 0.4 mg/kg Cr tended to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.0614). Compared with the control group, broilers fed Cr-supplemented diets had higher triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.0129) regardless of Cr source and Cr concentration. Chromium from CrPro and CrPic had lower total cholesterol (TC) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0220). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Cr has effects on carcass characteristics and serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions, while supplementation of organic Cr can improve carcass characteristics and reduce the cholesterol content in serum.

  10. Effect of combination therapy of benidipine hydrochloride and candesartan cilexetil on serum lipid metabolism and blood pressure in elderly hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hidehisa; Kanai, Saburo; Oyama, Tomokazu; Miyashita, Yoh; Yamamura, Shigeo; Shirai, Kohji

    2006-06-01

    The effects of combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and a calcium antagonist, benidipine hydrochloride, on glucose and lipid metabolism and pulse pressure were studied in elderly hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-five hypertensive diabetic patients aged 65 years or older, who had been receiving candesartan cilexetil, were administered benidipine hydrochloride (4 mg/day) and followed for 4 months. After 4 months, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly from 154/91 mmHg to 139/78 mmHg (p<0.01 versus before benidipine hydrochloride administration). Body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were apparently reduced but the changes were not statistically significant. The serum lipid profile showed no significant changes in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Serum lipoprotein lipase mass levels (preheparin LPL mass) increased significantly from 51 to 59 ng/dl (p<0.01 versus before benidipine hydrochloride administration), and the LDL/HDL motility ratio calculated from PAG disc electrophoresis decreased significantly (p<0.05 versus before benidipine hydrochloride administration). When patients were divided into a systolic hypertension group (systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg) and non-systolic hypertension group (others), preheparin LPL mass was significantly lower in the systolic hypertension group, and the decrease in pulse pressure and increase in preheparin LPL mass were significantly greater in the systolic hypertension group. Stepwise regression analysis showed that low preheparin LPL mass at baseline was associated with a decrease in pulse pressure. Add-on benidipine hydrochloride therapy in elderly hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus significantly decreases the LDL/HDL motility ratio and pulse pressure, and

  11. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Rongtao; Zhou, Lin; Li, Zuohong; Li, Qing; Qi, Zhiming; Zhang, Junyong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), and bone mineral density (BMD), making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis. Materials and methods A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years) were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. Results The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001), and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001). People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that no association was found among total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, postprandial blood glucose and BMD. Conclusion The present study further confirmed that factors such as age, sex, weight, BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes are significant predictors of osteoporosis in the Chinese people

  12. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  13. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells.

  14. Psychosocial maternal stress during pregnancy affects serum corticosterone, blood immune parameters and anxiety behaviour in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Götz, Alexander A; Stefanski, Volker

    2007-01-30

    Exposure to prenatal stress can impair the behavioural and hormonal development in mammals. However, the consequences for the immune system are rarely investigated and there is only limited evidence that naturalistic prenatal stressors do also have the potential to affect the offspring. Thus, by using a social conflict model in female Long-Evans rats, we investigated the effects of prenatal social stress on several behavioural, hormonal and immunological parameters. Offspring from stressed and non-stressed pregnant females were housed in pairs after weaning, and tested at an age of 4-6 months. Prenatally stressed (PS) males were more active in the elevated plus-maze test as indicated by significantly more frequent entries into the open arms compared to prenatal control males (PC). In addition, PS males had significantly lower serum corticosterone concentrations under basal conditions as well as after ACTH-challenge. The basal number of total leukocytes was significantly lower in the PS group due to significantly lower lymphocyte counts. In particular, the CD4+ T-helper cell subset was affected. The lymphocyte proliferation to pokeweed mitogen was lower in PS males. Because some of the present findings do not correspond to previous studies using conventional stressors, we assume that the nature of the stressor plays an important role for pregnancy outcome and behaviour and physiology of the offspring in later life.

  15. Expulsion of bovine serum albumin from the air/water interface by a sparingly soluble lecithin lipid.

    PubMed

    Phang, Tze-Lee; Franses, Elias I

    2004-07-15

    Dynamic surface tensiometry, ellipsometry, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) were used to study the dynamic adsorption and surface tensions of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Results show that the equilibrium adsorbed layers consist mostly of DLPC, which can produce dynamic surface tensions (1 mN/m) as low as the more successful lung surfactant replacement formulations. When the aqueous surface expands and contracts sinusoidally, BSA can coadsorb and lead to slightly higher dynamic surface tensions than when DLPC is alone. Similar results were obtained with BSA and sodium myristate [McClellan and Franses, Colloids Surf. B 30 (2003) 1]. Expulsion of the BSA in the layer by DLPC can take from 5 to 15 min, depending on relative concentrations and history of solute addition. This is shown by tensiometry measurements on mixtures, and also by injecting aqueous DLPC underneath adsorbed BSA layers and probing the surface layer with ellipsometry and IRRAS. Albumin layers from buffer solutions aged up to 30 h can be expelled by DLPC. In pure water, there is an initial enhancement in protein adsorption after the DLPC is injected. This can be explained by the hypothesis that DLPC molecules bind with BSA molecules to form a hydrophobic lipoprotein complex, which is more hydrophobic than the protein itself. Since DLPC produces lower surface energy than BSA and--being slightly soluble--adsorbs to the surface by a molecular mechanism, it fulfills the thermodynamic and dynamic requirements for expelling the BSA from the surface. The results have implications for minimizing lung surfactant inhibition by serum proteins, as it occurs in the cases of adult or acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Retinol Binding Protein4, Insulin Resistance and Blood Lipids in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    TAGHIAN, Farzaneh; ZOLFAGHARI, Maryam; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Retinol binding protein4 (RBP4) is a type of adipokine which transports vitamin A to serum. RBP4 could be a bridge between obesity and insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercises on RBP4 serum’s concentration and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese women. Methods Twenty obese women with body max index 35.81±3.67Kg/m2, fat percentage 43.98±4.02, and waist to hip ratio 1.03±0.05 were included and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received aerobic exercises for a period of 12 weeks each three sessions on treadmill workout. The treadmill speed were based on a 60-65 and 80-85 maximal heart rate percentage and duration of 15-20 and 45-50 minutes, at the beginning and the end of exercise, respectively. Body composition, serum glucose, insulin, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and RBP4, were measured in both groups before and after the treatment by ELISA method. Insulin resistance was measured by HOMA-IR. To compare within group differences and between group comparisons t-correlated and t-independent tests were used, respectively. Results After 12 week aerobic exercises; weight, fat percentage, WHR, and BMI in the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). RBP4, insulin, insulin resistance, TG and HDL-C had significant differences between two groups. The cholesterol level, LDL-C and glucose did not have any significant changes. Conclusion The aerobic exercises can decrease body composition, insulin resistance, TG, and RBP4, so it can be beneficial for obese women’s health, because it. PMID:26060767

  17. Potato tuber expression of Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 increase triacylglycerol and membrane lipids while affecting central carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hofvander, Per; Ischebeck, Till; Turesson, Helle; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Feussner, Ivo; Carlsson, Anders S; Andersson, Mariette

    2016-09-01

    Tuber and root crops virtually exclusively accumulate storage products in the form of carbohydrates. An exception is yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) in which tubers have the capacity to store starch and triacylglycerols (TAG) in roughly equal amounts. This suggests that a tuber crop can efficiently handle accumulation of energy dense oil. From a nutritional as well as economic aspect, it would be of interest to utilize the high yield capacity of tuber or root crops for oil accumulation similar to yellow nutsedge. The transcription factor WRINKLED1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, which in seed embryos induce fatty acid synthesis, has been shown to be a major factor for oil accumulation. WRINKLED1 was expressed in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers to explore whether this factor could impact tuber metabolism. This study shows that a WRINKLED1 transcription factor could induce triacylglycerol accumulation in tubers of transformed potato plants grown in field (up to 12 nmol TAG/mg dry weight, 1% of dry weight) together with a large increase in polar membrane lipids. The changes in metabolism further affected starch accumulation and composition concomitant with massive increases in sugar content.

  18. EVALUATION OF SERUM FERRITIN AND SERUM IRON IN FREE-RANGING BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND FACTORS AFFECTING IRON-OVERLOAD DISORDER.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Chavey, Patricia Sue; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Doering, Alyssa; Buss, Peter; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Iron overload disorder (IOD) is a significant health issue for captive black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis ). Measurement of serum ferritin with a validated rhinoceros ferritin ELISA has been used extensively to detect animals in U.S. zoos that are at risk of developing IOD. However, there is limited information on serum ferritin levels in free-ranging black rhinoceros using this same assay. Serum ferritin, iron, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined in 194 black rhinoceros from southern Africa. Mean ferritin in free-ranging black rhinoceros (290.54 ±247.4 ng/ml) was significantly higher than in free-ranging white rhinoceros (64.0 ± 102.4 ng/ml) sampled in this study from Kruger National Park, South Africa. However, there were no significant differences between genders or age groups. Ferritin values varied with geographical location of the black rhinoceros, although this was not clinically significant. Serum iron values were also higher in black rhinoceros (40.4 ± 19.1 μmol/L) compared to white rhinoceros (29.7 ± 10.7 μmol/L). There was no association between ferritin and GGT. This study provides serum ferritin, iron, and GGT values from free-ranging black rhinoceros that can be used for as comparative target values for captive animals.

  19. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Tulio C.; Pires, Alause S.; Paula, Roberta S.; Moraes, Clayton F.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Vianna, Lucy G.; Nobrega, Otávio T.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = −0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women. PMID:23055794

  20. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010–2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  1. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  2. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  3. Health and nutrition education in primary schools in Crete: 10 years follow-up of serum lipids, physical activity and macronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Kafatos, Anthony

    2006-03-01

    The current study is a 4-year follow-up after the 6-year-long health and nutrition intervention programme applied in the primary schools of Crete. The aim of the current work was to identify whether the benefits obtained in certain health indices at the end of the intervention period were also present 4 years later. From a representative population of 441 pupils (250 from the intervention schools and 191 from the control schools), biochemical, dietary and physical activity data were obtained at baseline, at the end of the intervention period and after intervention (academic years 1992- 1993, 1997-1998 and 2001-2002, respectively). The findings of the current study revealed that the favourable changes in serum lipids observed at the end of the intervention period were maintained from baseline to after intervention for total cholesterol (-24-3 (SE 1.65) v. -9.70 (SE 2.03) mg/dl; P = 0-001), LDL-cholesterol(-18.6 (SE 1-41) v. -2.49 (SE 1.75) mg/dl; P < 0-001), HDL-cholesterol (-8-34 (SE 0.75) v. -9-60 (SE 1-10) mg/dl; P = 0-014) and total cholesterol :HDL-cholesterol ratio (0.31 (SE 0.06) v. 0.04 (SE 0.05); P = 0001). Similar favourable changes for the intervention group were observed in leisure-time physical activities (38.3 (SE 11-7) v. -13.2 (SE 10.9) min/week; P = 0.038) and BMI (6-05 (SE 0.18) v. 6.67 (SE 0-21) kg/m(2);P = 0.014), whereas no changes were observed in the fitness and dietary indices examined. The findings of the current study are encouraging, indicating maintenance of the favourable changes observed in serum lipids, BMI and physical activity 4 years after the programme had ended.

  4. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Ramezanlou, P.; Osooli, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3rd day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3rd day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13th and 30th days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257

  5. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Movahedian, A; Ramezanlou, P; Osooli, F S

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3(rd) day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3(rd) day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13(th) and 30(th) days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude.

  6. High-density lipoprotein affects antigen presentation by interfering with lipid raft: a promising anti-atherogenic strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, S-H; Yuan, S-G; Peng, D-Q; Zhao, S-P

    2010-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Immunomodulation of atherosclerosis emerges as a promising approach to prevention and treatment of this widely prevalent disease. The function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to promote reverse cholesterol transport may explain the ability of its protection against atherosclerosis. Findings that HDL and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) inhibited the ability of antigen presenting cells (APCs) to stimulate T cells might be attributed to lipid raft, a cholesterol-rich microdomain exhibiting functional properties depending largely upon its lipid composition. Thus, modulating cholesterol in lipid raft may provide a promising anti-atherogenic strategy.

  7. Solid lipid nanoparticles affect microbial colonization and enzymatic activity throughout the decomposition of alder leaves in freshwater microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, A C; Mendes, R J; Castro, P G; Silva, A M

    2017-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are used as carriers for drug delivery, and are high biocompatible and designed to endure in the host organism. Despite its current industrial production is low, many of these substances are available on the market, and much more are in the production pipeline. As a result, many of them will end in aquatic systems raising the question whether they can pose a risk to aquatic biota and the associated ecological processes. Microbial decomposers of plant litter, play a key role in forested streams being responsible for the energy flow between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here, we investigated the effects of SLNs on alder leaf litter decomposition by aquatic microbes. Alder leaves were immersed in a stream of Northeast Portugal to allow microbial colonization before being exposed in microcosms of two types of SLNs at two concentrations for 42 days. Results showed that rates of leaf decomposition decreased with exposure to SLNs. Bacterial biomass was not inhibited by SLNs, and cultivable fungi densities remained constant (SLN-A) or increased (SLN-C) compared with control microcosms. The type and concentration of SLNs influenced differently the leaf colonization by fungi as well as fungal sporulation rate. These effects were accompanied by changes in the community extraenzymatic profile: the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acidic phosphatase, Naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (P cycle) and lipases increased in the SLNs microcosms. This study provided the first evidence of the adverse effects of the release of SLNs to streams on leaf litter decomposition. Those effects seem to depend on the composition and concentration of SLNs, as well on the microbial target group, or enzyme. Thus, prior to massive industrial production of these nanomaterials, some measures should be taken to avoid environmental impact affecting the microbial communities responsible for detritus decomposition.

  8. Serum replacement with albumin-associated lipids prevents excess aggregation and enhances growth of induced pluripotent stem cells in suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Ikki; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-08

    Suspension culture systems are currently under investigation for the mass production of pluripotent stem (PS) cells for tissue engineering; however, the control of cell aggregation in suspension culture remains challenging. Existing methods to control aggregation such as microwell culture are difficult to scale up. To address this issue, in this study a novel method that incorporates the addition of KnockOut Serum Replacement (KSR) to the PS cell culture medium was described. The method regulated cellular aggregation and significantly improved cell growth (a 2- to 10-fold increase) without any influence on pluripotency. In addition, albumin-associated lipids as the major working ingredient of KSR responsible for this inhibition of aggregation were identified. This is one of the simplest methods described to date to control aggregation and requires only chemically synthesizable reagents. Thus, this method has the potential to simplify the mass production process of PS cells and thus lower their cost. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1009-1016, 2016.

  9. Chronic administration of a combination of six herbs inhibits the progression of hyperglycemia and decreases serum lipids and aspartate amino transferase activity in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Vafaee Bagheri, Farzaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a polyherbal compound, containing six plants (Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis and Teucrium polium) were tested on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin caused an approximately 3-fold increase in fasting blood sugar level after 2 days. The diabetic control rats showed further increase in blood glucose after 30 days (384 ± 25 mg/dl in day 30 versus 280 ± 12 mg/dl in day 2, P < 0.001). Administration of the compound blocked the increase of blood glucose (272 ± 7 and 269 ± 48 mg/dl at day 2 and day 30, respectively). Also, there was significant difference in the level of triglyceride (60 ± 9 versus 158 ± 37 mg/dl, P < 0.01), total cholesterol (55 ± 2 versus 97 ± 11 mg/dl, P < 0.01) and aspartate amino transferase activity (75 ± 12 versus 129 ± 18 U/L, P < 0.05) between treated rats and diabetic control group. In conclusion, the MSEC inhibited the progression of hyperglycemia and decreased serum lipids and hepatic enzyme activity in diabetic rats. Therefore, it has the potential to be used as a natural product for the management of diabetes.

  10. Chronic Administration of a Combination of Six Herbs Inhibits the Progression of Hyperglycemia and Decreases Serum Lipids and Aspartate Amino Transferase Activity in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Nick, Reza; Vafaee Bagheri, Farzaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of a polyherbal compound, containing six plants (Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Nigella sativa, Punica granatum, Salvia officinalis and Teucrium polium) were tested on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin caused an approximately 3-fold increase in fasting blood sugar level after 2 days. The diabetic control rats showed further increase in blood glucose after 30 days (384 ± 25 mg/dl in day 30 versus 280 ± 12 mg/dl in day 2, P < 0.001). Administration of the compound blocked the increase of blood glucose (272 ± 7 and 269 ± 48 mg/dl at day 2 and day 30, respectively). Also, there was significant difference in the level of triglyceride (60 ± 9 versus 158 ± 37 mg/dl, P < 0.01), total cholesterol (55 ± 2 versus 97 ± 11 mg/dl, P < 0.01) and aspartate amino transferase activity (75 ± 12 versus 129 ± 18 U/L, P < 0.05) between treated rats and diabetic control group. In conclusion, the MSEC inhibited the progression of hyperglycemia and decreased serum lipids and hepatic enzyme activity in diabetic rats. Therefore, it has the potential to be used as a natural product for the management of diabetes. PMID:23304131

  11. Very long chain fatty acids (policosanols) and phytosterols affect plasma lipid levels and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ebine, Naoyuki; Jia, Xiaoming; Jones, Peter J H; Fairow, Clint; Jaeger, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) alone at 2 dietary levels, or in combination of VLCFA at the lower level with lecithin (LT) or phytosterols (PS), on lipid profiles and cholesterol biosynthesis in hamsters. Seventy-five male Golden Syrian hamsters, weighing 100 to 120 g, were fed a regular rodent chow for 2 weeks before being randomly assigned into 5 groups of 15 animals each fed semisynthetic diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 was given a control diet that contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% fat with a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio of 0.4. Groups 2 to 5 were fed the control diet and given 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (Licowax) (VLCFA25), 50 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA (VLCFA50), 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of LT (VLCFA25/LT), and 25 mg/kg BW per day of VLCFA+1000 mg/kg BW per day of PS (Cholestatin, VLCFA25/PS), respectively. Results showed that HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were not changed by VLCFA25, although increased by VLCFA50 (P<.05) relative to control. Total cholesterol (T-C) and non-HDL-C levels were not affected by VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 as compared with control. VLCFA25/LT had higher (P<.02) T-C and HDL-C levels than any other treatments and increased (P<.05) liver weight relative to control. In contrast, VLCFA25/PS reduced T-C (P=.0004) and non-HDL-C (P=.007) without effect on HDL-C levels compared with control. Triglyceride levels were not affected by any treatment. Cholesterol biosynthesis rate was higher (P<.05) in animals fed VLCFA25 and VLCFA50 than those fed control or VLCFA25/LT or VLCFA25/PS. Results suggest that PSs can decrease total and non-HDL-C cholesterol, whereas VLCFA may increase HDL-C in hamsters.

  12. Bromocriptine improves glycaemic control and serum lipid profile in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects: a new approach in the treatment of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cincotta; Meier; Cincotta Jr

    1999-10-01

    Bromocriptine, a potent dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, has been shown to reduce insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia in both numerous animal studies and in Phase II studies. Bromocriptine has been used worldwide for over 20 years to treat Parkinson's disease, macroprolactinoma and other disorders; it has been found to be generally safe. We therefore investigated the possible beneficial effects of Ergoset(R) (Ergo Science Corp.), a new quick release formulation of bromocriptine, on glycaemic control and serum lipid profile in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects in two large Phase III studies. A large, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted in which Ergoset was given once daily at 8 am. (4.8 mg maximum dose) for 24 weeks as adjunctive therapy to sulphonylurea (485 subjects) to obese Type 2 diabetics held on a weight- maintaining diet. Treatment efficacy parameters included change from baseline in glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), fasting and post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Baseline glycated haemoglobin, fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels did not differ between treatment groups. and on average were 9.4 +/- 0.05%, 222 +/- 2 mg/dl, 24 +/- 1 µU/ml, 248 +/- 11 mg/dl, and 850 +/- 32 µEq/l, respectively. A similarly designed study of Ergoset as monotherapy in Type 2 diabetics (154 subjects) with similar baseline clinical characteristics was conducted. Addition of Ergoset treatment to sulphonylurea reduced percent glycated HbA(1c) by 0.55 (P < 0.0001) (approximately 1.0 for responders, 65% of population), fasting and post-prandial glucose by 23 and 26 mg/dl (P < 0.0002), fasting and post-prandial triglycerides by 72 and 63 mg/dl (P < 0.005) and fasting and post-prandial free fatty acids by 150 and 165 µEq/l (P < 0.05), relative to placebo. Twelve percent of all Ergoset subjects, compared to 3% of placebo subjects, withdrew from the study due to

  13. Lipids and immune function.

    PubMed

    Vitale, J J; Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    There is in vitro and in vivo evidence to suggest that dietary lipids play a role in modulating immune function. A review of the current literature on the interrelationships among dietary lipids, blood cholesterol levels, immunosuppression, and tumorigenesis makes for a very strong argument that (a) immunosuppression may be causally related to lymphoproliferative disorders, as well as to tumorigenesis and (b) diets high in polyunsaturated fat, relative to diets high in saturated fat, are more immunosuppressive and are better promotors of tumorigenesis. The effects of dietary fat on immune function seem to be mediated though its component parts, the unsaturated fatty acids, specially linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic. It is not clear how these components affect immune function. Several studies suggest that one effect is mediated by altering the lipid component of the cell membrane and thus its fluidity; the more fluid the membrane, the less responsive it is. Thus, fluidity of both immune cells and those to be destroyed or protected may be affected. The effects of saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids may be mediated by modulating serum lipoprotein levels, prostaglandin metabolism, and cholesterol concentrations and metabolism.

  14. Ultrafine particles affect the balance of endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators in the lung: in-vitro and in-vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    increased also one day after UfCP exposure. Immunohistochemistry localized highest concentrations of PGE2 especially in AM one day after UfCP exposure. Conclusion Our results suggest that UfCP exposure affects the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. In allergic mice, where the endogenous balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is already altered, UfCP exposure aggravates the inflammation and the increase in anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving lipid mediators is insufficient to counterbalance the extensive inflammatory response. This may be a contributing mechanism that explains the increased susceptibility of asthmatic patients towards particle exposure. PMID:22809365

  15. Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Coria, Mariela J; Carmona Viglianco, Yamila V; Marra, Carlos A; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C; Anzulovich, Ana C; Gimenez, Maria S

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of lipid metabolism. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential components of innate immune response. Our goal was to determine whether hypothyroidism affects lipid metabolism in PMN cells. Wistar rats were made hypothyroid by administrating 0.1 g/L 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water during 30 days. Triacylglycerides (TG), cholesterol and phospholipids were determined in PMN and serum by conventional methods. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT-2) were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Cellular neutral lipids were identified by Nile red staining. We found hypothyroidism decreases serum TG whereas it increases them in PMN. This result agrees with those observed in Nile red preparations, however DAGT-2 expression was not modified. Cholesterol synthesizing enzyme HMGCoAR mRNA and protein was reduced in PMN of hypothyroid rats. As expected, cholesterol content decreased in the cells although it increased in serum. Hypothyroidism also reduced relative contents of palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, whereas increased the myristic, linoleic acids, and the unsaturation index in PMN. Thus, hypothyroidism modifies PMN lipid composition. These findings would emphasize the importance of new research to elucidate lipid-induced alterations in specific function(s) of PMN.

  16. Dietary Lipid and Carbohydrate Interactions: Implications on Lipid and Glucose Absorption, Transport in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Corraze, Geneviève; Basto, Ana; Larroquet, Laurence; Panserat, Stéphane; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2016-06-01

    A digestibility trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (IBW = 72 g) fed four diets differing in lipid source (fish oil, FO; or a blend of vegetable oil, VO) and starch content (0 %, CH-; or 20 %, CH+) to evaluate the potential interactive effects between carbohydrates and VO on the processes involved in digestion, absorption and transport of lipids and glucose. In fish fed VO diets a decrease in lipid digestibility and in cholesterol (C), High Density Lipoprotein(HDL)-C and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-C (only in CH+ group) were recorded. Contrarily, dietary starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia and time related alterations on serum triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipid (PL) and C concentrations. Fish fed a CH+ diet presented lower serum TAG than CH- group at 6 h post-feeding, and the reverse was observed at 12 h post-feeding for TAG and PL. Lower serum C and PL at 6 h post-feeding were recorded only in VOCH+ group. No differences between groups were observed in hepatic and intestinal transcript levels of proteins involved in lipid transport and hydrolysis (FABP, DGAT, GPAT, MTP, LPL, LCAT). Lower transcript levels of proteins related to lipid transport (ApoB, ApoA1, FABP2) were observed in the intestine of fish fed the CH+ diet, but remained unchanged in the liver. Overall, transcriptional mechanisms involved in lipid transport and absorption were not linked to changes in lipid serum and digestibility. Dietary starch affected lipid absorption and transport, probably due to a delay in lipid absorption. This study suggests that a combination of dietary VO and starch may negatively affect cholesterol absorption and transport.

  17. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  18. Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei-Moghadam, Adel; Mohajeri, Daryoush; Rafiei, Behnam; Dizaji, Rana; Azhdari, Asghar; Yeganehzad, Mahdi; Shahidi, Maryamossadat; Mazani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE) and carrot seed extract (CSE) exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w.) and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w.) by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress. PMID:23678453

  19. JAK and STAT members of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and their roles in leptin affecting lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Tan, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Yi-Huan; Chen, Qi-Liang; Pan, Ya-Xiong

    2016-01-15

    The present study clones and characterizes the full-length cDNA sequences of members in JAK-STAT pathway, explores their mRNA tissue expression and the biological role in leptin influencing lipid metabolism in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Full-length cDNA sequences of five JAKs and seven STAT members, including some splicing variants, were obtained from yellow catfish. Compared to mammals, more members of the JAKs and STATs family were found in yellow catfish, which provided evidence that the JAK and STAT family members had arisen by the whole genome duplications during vertebrate evolution. All of these members were widely expressed across the eleven tissues (liver, white muscle, spleen, brain, gill, mesenteric fat, anterior intestine, heart, mid-kidney, testis and ovary) but at the variable levels. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin changed triglyceride content and mRNA expression of several JAKs and STATs members, and genes involved in lipid metabolism. AG490, a specific inhibitor of JAK2-STAT pathway, partially reversed leptin-induced effects, indicating that the JAK2a/b-STAT3 pathway exerts main regulating actions of leptin on lipid metabolism at transcriptional level. Meanwhile, the different splicing variants were differentially regulated by leptin incubation. Thus, our data suggest that leptin activated the JAK/STAT pathway and increases the expression of target genes, which partially accounts for the leptin-induced changes in lipid metabolism in yellow catfish.

  20. Versatile lipid profiling by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using all ion fragmentation and polarity switching. Preliminary application for serum samples phenotyping related to canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallart-Ayala, H; Courant, F; Severe, S; Antignac, J-P; Morio, F; Abadie, J; Le Bizec, B

    2013-09-24

    Lipids represent an extended class of substances characterized by such high variety and complexity that makes their unified analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to either high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS or LC-MS/MS) a real challenge. In the present study, a new versatile methodology associating ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS) have been developed for a comprehensive analysis of lipids. The use of polarity switching and "all ion fragmentation" (AIF) have been two action levels particularly exploited to finally permit the detection and identification of a multi-class and multi-analyte extended range of lipids in a single run. For identification purposes, both higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) and in-source CID (collision induced dissociation) fragmentation were evaluated in order to obtain information about the precursor and product ions in the same spectra. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid identification. Finally, the developed method was applied for differential phenotyping of serum samples collected from pet dogs developing spontaneous malignant mammary tumors and health controls. A biological signature associated with the presence of cancer was then successfully revealed from this lipidome analysis, which required to be further investigated and confirmed at larger scale.

  1. Tamoxifen affects glucose and lipid metabolism parameters, causes browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue and transient body composition changes in C57BL/6NTac mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hesselbarth, Nico; Pettinelli, Chiara; Gericke, Martin; Berger, Claudia; Kunath, Anne; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Klöting, Nora

    2015-08-28

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator which is widely used to generate inducible conditional transgenic mouse models. Activation of ER signaling plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue (AT) metabolism. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tamoxifen administration causes changes in AT biology in vivo. 12 weeks old male C57BL/6NTac mice were treated with either tamoxifen (n = 18) or vehicle (n = 18) for 5 consecutive days. Tamoxifen treatment effects on body composition, energy homeostasis, parameters of AT biology, glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated up to an age of 18 weeks. We found that tamoxifen treatment causes: I) significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations (p < 0.01), II) browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression, III) increased AT proliferation marker Ki67 mRNA expression, IV) changes in adipocyte size distribution, and V) transient body composition changes. Tamoxifen may induce changes in body composition, whole body glucose and lipid metabolism and has significant effects on AT biology, which need to be considered when using Tamoxifen as a tool to induce conditional transgenic mouse models. Our data further suggest that tamoxifen-treated wildtype mice should be characterized in parallel to experimental transgenic models to control for tamoxifen administration effects. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen treatment causes significantly increased HbA{sub 1c}, triglyceride and free fatty acid serum concentrations. • Tamoxifen induces browning of subcutaneous AT and increased UCP-1 expression. • Tamoxifen changes adipocyte size distribution, and transient body composition.

  2. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic.

  3. Do Abnormal Serum Lipid Levels Increase the Risk of Chronic Low Back Pain? The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest associations between abnormal lipid levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP), but it is not known if there is any causal relationship. Objective The objective was to determine, in a population-based prospective cohort study, whether there is any relation between levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides and the probability of experiencing subsequent chronic (LBP), both among individuals with and without LBP at baseline. Methods Information was collected in the community-based HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008) surveys of an entire Norwegian county. Participants were 10,151 women and 8731 men aged 30–69 years, not affected by chronic LBP at baseline, and 3902 women and 2666 men with LBP at baseline. Eleven years later the participants indicated whether they currently suffered from chronic LBP. Results Among women without LBP at baseline, HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated and triglyceride levels positively associated with the risk of chronic LBP at end of follow-up in analyses adjusted for age only. Adjustment for the baseline factors education, work status, physical activity, smoking, blood pressure and in particular BMI largely removed these associations (RR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85–1.07 per mmol/l of HDL cholesterol; RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.94–1.42 per unit of lg(triglycerides)). Total cholesterol levels showed no associations. In women with LBP at baseline and men without LBP at baseline weaker relationships were observed. In men with LBP at baseline, an inverse association with HDL cholesterol remained after complete adjustment (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.72–0.95 per mmol/l). Conclusion Crude associations between lipid levels and risk of subsequent LBP in individuals without current LBP are mainly caused by confounding with body mass. However, an association with low HDL levels may still remain in men who are already affected and possibly experience a