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Sample records for affect serum lipids

  1. Supplemental barley protein and casein similarly affect serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic women and men.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David J A; Srichaikul, Korbua; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Bashyam, Balachandran; Vidgen, Edward; Lamarche, Benoicirct; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Jones, Peter J H; Josse, Robert G; Jackson, Chung-Ja C; Ng, Vivian; Leong, Tracy; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2010-09-01

    High-protein diets have been advocated for weight loss and the treatment of diabetes. Yet animal protein sources are often high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Vegetable protein sources, by contrast, are low in saturated fat and without associated cholesterol. We have therefore assessed the effect on serum lipids of raising the protein intake by 5% using a cereal protein, barley protein, as part of a standard therapeutic diet. Twenty-three hypercholesterolemic men and postmenopausal women completed a randomized crossover study comparing a bread enriched with either barley protein or calcium caseinate [30 g protein, 8374 kJ (2000 kcal)] taken separately as two 1-mo treatment phases with a minimum 2-wk washout. Body weight and diet history were collected weekly during each treatment. Fasting blood samples were obtained at wk 0, 2, and 4. Palatability, satiety, and compliance were similar for both the barley protein- and casein-enriched breads, with no differences between the treatments in effects on serum LDL cholesterol or C-reactive protein, measures of oxidative stress, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, because no adverse effects were observed on cardiovascular risk factors, barley protein remains an additional option for raising the protein content of the diet.

  2. Removal of the uropygial gland does not affect serum lipids, cholesterol and calcium levels in the rock pigeon Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Montalti, D; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, G R; Salibián, A

    2006-09-01

    The uropygial gland is an organ typical of birds, over which no agreement regarding its function has been attained yet. Authors attribute to the gland an hydrophobic action. The function of the gland is herein explored in rock pigeon, Columba livia, was used as experimental model for trials. The study was focused on the physiological role of the gland in relation to biochemical parameters. Pigeons were separated in groups of six birds each: a) intact control, b) surgical control, c) ablationed. Comparing control specimens with gland-removed specimens, recorded serum levels after 32 days were the following (mean+/-SD): cholesterol (g/l), 3.7+/-0.6 vs. 4.1+/-0.6; total lipids (g/l), 15.7+/-2.0 vs. 13.7+/-2.7; calcium (mg/l), 100.5 +/- 24.3 vs. 99.1 +/- 9.2. None of the differences were statistically significant. Thus, no alterations of basic biochemical parameters associated with metabolism of lipids were registered. In one group of birds the calcium and cholesterol levels were determined 122 days after surgery; in this case values remained unchanged related to the beginning of the trials. Results suggest that the uropygial gland is not physiologically related to either the homeostasis of total lipids, cholesterol or the regulation of calcium metabolism.

  3. [Serum insulin levels affect body constitution, blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiac dimensions. Observations in clinically healthy offspring from hypertensive families].

    PubMed

    Válek, J; Válková, L; Frídl, P; Musilová, B; Vlasáková, Z

    1995-02-15

    According to some work hypertension is in a pathogenetic relationship with hyperinsulinaemia or is considered to be the consequence of insulin resistance. It is, however, also known that there exists a familial predisposition for hypertension; according to genetic investigations half the family relatives can suffer from hypertension. In conjunction with these views on the pathogenesis of hypertension and its familial character the authors outlined the following objectives of their investigation: to test clinically and metabolically the condition of the offspring of probands with essential hypertension requiring systematic treatment. The authors investigated in particular indicators of body composition, insulin concentration and its relationship to serum levels and some indicators of lean body mass. METHODS AND RESULTS. There were 48 offspring (25 men and 23 women) from families of 30 probands suffering from hypertension. The mean age of the offspring was 38.4 +/- 7.8 years. They were compared with a group of 72 controls, mean age 35.8 +/- 8.2 years (36 men and 36 women) without a family history of hypertension and diabetes (t-test). The basal insulin concentration (IRI O' = 20.5 +/- 12.8 microU/ml, and 14.3 +/- 7.3 microU/ml resp., p < 0.01) and basal C peptide (O' = 0.59 +/- 0.31 pmol/ml and 0.50 +/- 0.20 pmol/ml resp., p < 0.05) were elevated. The offspring of probands with hypertension had a higher body weight (BMI = 25.3 +/- 3.5 kg/m2 and 23.3 +/- 2.5 kg/m2 resp., p < 0.001) a higher ratio of waist hip circumferences (0.94 +/- 0.1 and 0.87 +/- 0.1 resp., p < 0.001) similarly as blood pressure (131.5 mmHg +/- 11.8 mmHg and 116 mmHg +/- 13.3 mmHg resp., p < 0.001) and blood sugar level (5.29 +/- 0.61 mmol/l and 4.93 +/- 0.39 mmol/resp., p < 0.01). The authors also found differences in the serum cholesterol levels (5.9 +/- 1.3 mmol/l and 5.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/l resp., p < 0.01), HDL cholesterol (1.45 +/- 0.50 mmol/l and 1.65 +/- 0.60 mmol/l resp., p < 0.01) and

  4. Dietary fiber-rich colloids from apple pomace extraction juices do not affect food intake and blood serum lipid levels, but enhance fecal excretion of steroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymatic liquefaction on food intake, levels of blood serum lipids, and fecal excretion of bile acids (BA) and neutral sterols (NS) in vivo. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets containing either no apple dietary fiber (DF) (control), a 5% supplementation with juice colloids, or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Apple DF in diets led to lower weight gain in rats fed with B-juice colloids (P< 0.05). For these rats, food intake was not affected but was highest with feeding AIS (10% more than control) to cover energy requirements. The supplementation of diet with apple DF from extraction juices or AIS had minor effects on blood serum lipids. In rats fed either juice colloids or AIS, up to 30% (5.31 micromol/g dry weight) and 88% (7.69 micromol/g dry weight) more primary BA were excreted in feces, respectively, as compared to that in the control group (4.10 micromol/g dry weight) (P < 0.05). In cecal contents, a 15% (juice colloids) to 37% (AIS) increase in primary BA was found. In contrast, concentrations of secondary BA were lower in feces of test groups (P < 0.05). Excretion of total BA and NS was higher in rats fed apple DF (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to prove that there are beneficial physiologic effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymatic liquefaction. These results may help to develop such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin for diminishing the lack of DF intake.

  5. Perioperative Serum Lipid Status and Statin Use Affect the Revision Surgery Rate After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Cancienne, Jourdan M; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Rodeo, Scott A; Werner, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    Recent animal studies have demonstrated that hyperlipidemia is associated with poor tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair; however, these findings have not been substantiated in human studies. To examine any association between hyperlipidemia and the failure of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair requiring revision surgery and to investigate whether the use of statin lipid-lowering agents had any influence on observed associations. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. From a national insurance database, patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with perioperative lipid levels (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides) recorded were reviewed. For each lipid test, patients were stratified into normal, moderate, and high groups based on published standards. For the total cholesterol and LDL cohorts, a subgroup analysis of patients stratified by statin use was performed. The primary outcome measure was ipsilateral revision rotator cuff surgery, including revision repair or debridement. A logistic regression analysis controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities was utilized for comparison. There were 30,638 patients included in the study. The rate of revision rotator cuff surgery was significantly increased in patients with moderate (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40; P = .022) and high total cholesterol levels (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.10-1.55; P = .006) compared with patients with normal total cholesterol levels perioperatively. Within each of these groups, patients without statin use had significantly higher rates of revision surgery, while those with statin prescriptions did not. The absolute risk reduction for statin use ranged from 0.24% to 1.87% when stratified by the total cholesterol level, yielding a number needed to treat from 54 to 408 patients. The rate of revision surgery was significantly increased in patients with moderate (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10-1.41; P = .001) and high LDL levels (OR, 1.46; 95

  6. Serum lipid physiology and the influence of glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W C; Osterman, J

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the effect of serum lipid levels on risk factors for coronary heart disease and how they are influenced by medical therapy may lead to overall better care of the glaucoma patient. Elevated low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels are major risk factors for heart disease. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is protective for heart disease. beta-adrenergic blockers, a class of medicines used to treat glaucoma, may influence serum lipid levels. Oral nonselective beta-adrenergic blockers reduce HDL cholesterol by 19% and increase triglycerides by 20-40%. Furthermore, topical nonselective beta-adrenergic blockers also decrease serum HDL and worsen the total cholesterol/HDL ratio. However, beta-blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity appear to be lipid neutral. At present, there is no clear clinical evidence to indicate that changes in serum lipids with use of topical beta-adrenergic blockers significantly affect the clinical course of the patient. Little information is available for other classes of medicines used topically to treat glaucoma. However, oral preparations of prostaglandins, alpha-adrenergic agonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers do not adversely affect serum lipid levels. Further study is required on newer glaucoma preparations to determine their specific actions on lipid levels. Additionally, further work is required to understand the significance of not only the adverse effect of beta-adrenergic blockers on lipid levels, but their overall effect on long-term cardiac morbidity and mortality.

  7. Lipid Removal from Human Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Arnold R.; Morrill, William E.; Pope, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of lipid removal from human serum samples obtained by using Cleanascite HC, a commercially available product, was compared to that obtained by the standard chloroform method. Separate samples of 21 frozen, banked human serum samples used in the preparation of samples for proficiency testing were treated with either Cleanascite HC or chloroform. The lipid content was measured before and after treatment. The total percentages of lipid removed ranged from 61 to 70% with Cleanascite HC and from 60 to 62% with chloroform. The advantage of Cleanascite HC over chloroform is based on the simplicity of the procedure with Cleanascite HC without the environmental concerns inherent in the use of chloroform. In 15 serum samples known to contain antibodies to treponemal and nontreponemal syphilis antigens, Cleanascite HC bound some immunoglobulin, but with only minimal loss of reactivity in the serologic tests for syphilis. Cleanascite HC is therefore an acceptable alternative to chloroform for lipid reduction in human serum samples. PMID:10702492

  8. Positive Correlation of Serum Adiponectin with Lipid Profile in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is Affected by Metabolic Syndrome Status.

    PubMed

    Eslamian, Mohammad; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Aryan, Zahra; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and Metabolic syndrome (MetS) are both associated with dyslipidemia which may lead to development of vascular complications. Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory protein synthesized by the adipose tissue. There is controversy regarding the association of adiponectin with lipid profile. To evaluate the correlation between serum adiponectin concentration and metabolic profile in patients with type-2 DM. A single center cross-sectional study was conducted on 173 patients with type-2 DM (82 males and 91 females). Plasma adiponectin concentration, lipid profile, glucose profile, and anthropometric features were investigated. Insulin resistance was determined using Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Correlation of serum adiponectin with lipid profile of patients with type-2 DM was assessed. Adiponectin was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r = -0.16, P = 0.06) and positively with HbA1c (r = 0.19, P = 0.032), total cholesterol (r = 0.23, P = 0.017), LDL (r = 0.30, P = 0.001), SD-LDL (r = 0.41, P < 0.001), and SD-LDL/LDL (r = 0.22, P = 0.023). We found a positive correlation between adiponectin and total cholesterol (r = 0.27, P = 0.055), LDL (r = 0.34, P = 0.026) and SD-LDL (r = 0.41, P = 0.006) in patients with at least 3 components of MetS criteria. Correlation of adiponectin with LDL and SD-LDL remained positively significant with increasing the number of MetS components. In patients with 5 components of MetS, serum adiponectin was significantly correlated with serum triglyceride (r = 0.89). Significant interaction was observed between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in relation to serum lipid profile. The results of the present study suggest that in patients with type-2 DM and MetS, lipid profile is strongly correlated with blood concentration of adiponectin. The strongest association was observed between serum adiponectin and LDL.

  9. Multiple same day cryolipolysis treatments for the reduction of subcutaneous fat are safe and do not affect serum lipid levels or liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kenneth B; Bachelor, Eric P; Becker, Edward V; Bowes, Leyda E

    2017-09-01

    Cryolipolysis is a safe and effective non-surgical procedure for reducing subcutaneous fat. It spares adjacent structures, is associated with few adverse events, and is well-tolerated by patients. Previous studies involving one or two simultaneous treatment sites have shown no effect on serum lipid levels or liver tests. The purpose of this study was to determine whether multiple same day treatments (abdomen plus both flanks) result in changes in these blood tests, and is safe. Thirty-five adult males and females underwent same-day cryolipolysis (CoolSculpting System, ZELTIQ Aesthetics) of the lower abdomen and flanks for reduction of subcutaneous fat. Serum lipids and liver tests were measured prior to treatment and at 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-treatment. Expected treatment side-effects were assessed immediately post-treatment and at the 12-week follow-up visit. Adverse events were also monitored. Treatment consisted of one cycle to the lower abdomen using a large vacuum applicator and simultaneous treatment of both flanks, one cycle each, with medium vacuum applicators .Time between the abdomen and flanks procedures was not to exceed 30 minutes. The procedures were well-tolerated by patients; expected treatment effects were in general mild or moderate, and resolved without intervention. There were no clinically meaningful changes from baseline to any subsequent time point in any serum lipid test. This was also true for all liver tests. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Multiple cycle, same day cryolipolysis treatment of the lower abdomen and both flanks is well-tolerated and safe. It does not lead to changes in serum lipids or liver tests at any of the measured time points following the procedure. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:640-644, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  10. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, T.K.; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; Srivastava, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule patients. The significance of these findings has been discussed. PMID:21965991

  11. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  12. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  13. Lipid composition of human serum lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Skipski, V. P.; Barclay, Marion; Barclay, R. K.; Fetzer, Valentina A.; Good, J. J.; Archibald, F. M.

    1967-01-01

    1. The lipid compositions of the low-density lipoproteins, the high-density lipoproteins and the ultracentrifugal residue of human serum are presented, with emphasis on certain lipoprotein classes and lipid components not previously described. 2. Except for the lipoproteins with the lowest and highest densities, there is a trend for stepwise successive increase or, respectively, decrease in the relative amounts of the main constituents of lipoproteins. 3. High-density lipoprotein-2 and high-density lipoprotein-3 have different amounts of certain lipids; high-density lipoprotein-2 has relatively more free cholesterol and sphingomyelin; high-density lipoprotein-3 has more free fatty acids, diglycerides and ceramide monohexosides. 4. All the lipoproteins contain hydrocarbons of the alkane series. The greatest amount, which averages 4·4% of total lipid extracted, is in the ultracentrifugal residue; n-alkanes comprise 18–50% of the hydrocarbons. 5. All the lipoproteins contain ceramide monohexosides. The highest relative contents of these glycolipids are in high-density lipoprotein-3 and in the ultracentrifugal residue. 6. The ultracentrifugal residue contains 55% of the total quantity of free fatty acids present in serum. The remaining free fatty acids are distributed among the other lipoprotein classes. 7. The choline-containing phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) comprise about 90% of the phospholipids in all the lipoprotein classes except the low-density lipoprotein-2, which contains about 80% of these phospholipids. 8. The presence of a large amount of lysophosphatidylcholine in the ultracentrifugal residue and the successive decrease of sphingomyelin from the low-density lipoprotein-1 to the ultracentrifugal residue was confirmed. 9. The low-density lipoprotein-2 and the ultracentrifugal residue are characterized by relatively high contents of the lower glycerides. PMID:6048776

  14. Effects of Ferulago angulata Extract on Serum Lipids and Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjat; Gharipour, Mojgan; Darvishzadeh-Boroujeni, Pariya

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nowadays, herbs they are considered to be the main source of effective drugs for lowering serum lipids and lipid peroxidation. The present experimental animal study aimed to assess the impact of Ferulago angulata on serum lipid profiles, and on levels of lipid peroxidation. Methods. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 250–300 g, were randomly divided into five equal groups (ten rats in each). The rat groups received different diets as follows: Group I: fat-rich diet; Group II: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 400 mg/kg; Group III: fat-rich diet plus hydroalcoholic extracts of Ferulago angulata at a dose of 600 mg/kg; Group IV: fat-rich diet plus atorvastatin; Group V: common stock diet. The levels of serum glucose and lipids and the atherogenic index were measured. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA), thiol oxidation, carbonyl concentrations, C-reactive proteins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in each group of rats. Results. Interestingly, by adding a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata to the high-fat diet, the levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in the high-fat diet rats were both significantly reduced. This result was considerably greater compared to when atorvastatin was added as an antilipid drug. The beneficial effects of the Ferulago angulata extract on lowering the level of triglycerides was observed only when a high dosage of this plant extraction was added to a high fat diet. Furthermore, the level of malondialdehyde, was significantly affected by the use of the plant extract in a high-fat diet, compared with a normal regimen or high-fat diet alone. Conclusion. Administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ferulago angulata can reduce serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL. It can also inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:24707310

  15. Influence of bovine serum albumin and fetal bovine serum supplementation during in vitro maturation on lipid and mitochondrial behaviour in oocytes and lipid accumulation in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Del Collado, Maite; Saraiva, Naiara Z; Lopes, Flavia L; Gaspar, Roberta C; Padilha, Luciana C; Costa, Roberta R; Rossi, Guilherme F; Vantini, Roberta; Garcia, Joaquim M

    2015-05-19

    Proper oocyte maturation is crucial for subsequent embryo development; however, oocyte mitochondrial and lipid-droplet behaviour are still poorly understood. Although excessive lipid accumulation during in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has been linked with impaired cryotolerance, lipid oxidation is essential for adequate energy supply. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) are supplements used during IVP, containing high and low lipid content, respectively. This study aimed to understand how these supplements influence oocyte mitochondrial and lipid behaviour during in vitro maturation (IVM) in comparison to in vivo maturation, as well as their influence on development rates and embryo lipid accumulation during IVP. We demonstrate that only in vivo-matured oocytes maintained correlation between lipid content and active mitochondria. IVM media containing FBS increased total lipid content 18-fold and resulted in higher lipid accumulation in oocytes when compared with media with BSA. IVM using a lower FBS concentration combined with BSA resulted in satisfactory maturation and embryo development and also reduced lipid accumulation in blastocysts. In conclusion, IVM causes changes in mitochondrial and lipid dynamics, which may have negative effects on oocyte development rates and embryo lipid accumulation. Moreover, decreasing FBS concentrations during IVM may reduce embryo lipid accumulation without affecting production rates.

  16. Nutrition in early life: somatic growth and serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Boulton, T John; Garnett, Sarah P; Cowell, Chris T; Baur, Louise A; Magarey, Anthea M; Landers, Margot C G

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions of whether early nutritional experience affects later somatic growth, the growth of the adipose tissue, or the levels of scrum lipids among well-nourished children. The analyses are based on data from three prospective studies. Postnatal nutrition and growth: there were differences in growth between breast-fed and formula-fed children. There was no association between linear growth and differences in food energy or macronutrient intake. Birth size and postnatal growth: there was no association between ponderal index (PI) at birth and body mass index (BMI) in the second year. For boys, the PI at 3 and 6 months of age was significantly positively correlated with BMI at the ages of 8 and 15 years, but not for girls. Childhood growth and lipids: there was no association between lipids at the age of 8 years and either birth weight or length, but children who had had a low PI at birth had higher lipid levels at the age 8 years. A positive association was found between serum lipids and abdominal fat and BMI. We conclude that, although early diet may influence growth rate beyond infancy, the evidence for fat patterning resulting from differences in fetal or early postnatal nutrition is still open to question.

  17. Analysis of polar lipids in the serum from rats fed shiitake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shanggong; Peng, Min; Ronis, Martin; Badger, Thomas; Fang, Nianbai

    2010-12-22

    Consumption of a shiitake mushroom diet has been reported to have effects on serum phospholipids. However, much less is known about the effect on serum polar lipids including lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. In the present study, the effects of a shiitake diet were evaluated on the basis of identification and quantification of individual polar lipid components in rat serum using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. By comparison with standards and published data, 50 lysophospholipids and 32 free fatty acids were identified, and the concentrations of 27 polar lipids in rat serum were determined. Shiitake diets decreased the levels of all individual polar lipid components in the serum of male rat. The total level of serum polar lipids in males fed 4% shiitake diets (1365.71 mol/L) was significantly lower than that of the control (2270.26 mol/L). However, shiitake diets did not significantly affect the levels of serum polar lipids in female rats.

  18. Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Liang, Keng S; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential application in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for application is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of a high serum content on TE, even though this may provide design guidelines for application in vivo. We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol], the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, particularly at a high serum content. Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We propose guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Optimizing Cationic and Neutral Lipids for Efficient Gene Delivery at High Serum Content

    PubMed Central

    Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Hwu, Yeu-kuang; Liang, Keng S.; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential applications in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for applications is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of high serum contents on TE even though this may provide design guidelines for applications in vivo. Methods We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid (DOPC, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol), the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). Results In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, in particular at high serum content. Conclusions Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We suggest guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. PMID:24753287

  20. Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Does Not Affect Nonfasting Serum Lipid and Glucose Concentrations of Offspring at 4 Years of Age in a Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Gomez, Yareni; Stein, Aryeh D; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Romieu, Isabelle; Rivera, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has regulatory effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Differences in DHA availability during specific developmental windows may program metabolic changes. We investigated the effects of maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy on the nonfasting serum lipid and glucose concentrations of offspring at 4 y of age. We used data from the Prenatal Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation, Growth, and Development trial, a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Mexico. Pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from 18-22 wk of gestation to delivery. The primary outcomes of the trial were offspring growth and neurological development. Nonfasting blood samples were obtained from the offspring at 4 y of age. We analyzed serum total, HDL, non-HDL, and LDL cholesterol; the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio; apolipoprotein B (apoB); triglycerides; glucose; and insulin as secondary outcomes and compared their concentrations between treatment groups. Data from 524 offspring were available. The women were compliant with the intervention based on pill counts and changes in cord blood and breast milk DHA concentrations. None of the between-group differences (DHA compared with placebo), adjusted for maternal height and time since last food intake, were significant (P range 0.27-0.83). Means (95% CIs) were as follows: total cholesterol (TC), 1.73 mg/dL (-2.63, 6.09 mg/dL); HDL cholesterol, 0.66 mg/dL (-1.07, 2.39 mg/dL); non-HDL cholesterol, 1.77 mg/dL (-1.83, 5.37 mg/dL); LDL cholesterol, 1.62 mg/dL (-2.21, 5.45 mg/dL); TC:HDL ratio, 0.01 (-0.09, 0.11); apoB, -0.15 mg/dL (-2.78, 2.48 mg/dL); triglycerides, 0.21 mg/dL (-10.93, 10.52 mg/dL); glucose, -0.67 mg/dL (-2.46, 1.11 mg/dL); and insulin, 0.62 μU/mL (-0.88, 2.11 μU/mL). Prenatal DHA supplementation does not affect nonfasting serum lipid and glucose concentrations of offspring at 4 y of age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00646360. © 2017

  1. Linking Positive Affect to Blood Lipids: A Cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jiah; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rigotti, Attilio; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-10-01

    Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese. Further analyses showed that this cultural moderation was mediated by body mass index. This study highlights the role of culture in the link between positive emotions and key biological risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, dietary intake, and drug use of older rural Iowa women.

    PubMed

    Witte-Foster, S R; Garcia, P A; Dove, C R

    1991-06-01

    Serum lipid profiles, serum immunoglobulins, and serum proteins were investigated in 65 noninstitutionalized older women living in a rural community. All women were mentally and physically able to participate in the study. They did not have any overt disease nor were they taking any prescription or nonprescription drugs that would interfere with the study. Personal interview elicited medical history, drug usage, dietary information, height, and weight from 25 reference women (50 through 64 years old), 28 young-old women (65 through 84 years old), and 12 old-old women (85 through 92 years old). Blood samples were obtained from fasting participants and analyzed for total serum cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM), serum albumin, and total serum protein. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by age, drug use, or age-by-drug use interaction. Effects of age were observed for IgA and serum albumin. Mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulins, serum albumin, and total serum proteins were within normal limits for all participants. Based on this small sample of rural older women, our results indicate that the normal levels of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and the healthy life-styles of these women may help offset any possible negative effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentrations.

  3. Effects of serum, its protein and lipid extracts, and commercial serum proteins and lipid on the isolated frog heart.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Hutton, T; Hussain, M; Waring, J J

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the inotropic effects of serum, its protein and lipid extracts, and commercial serum proteins and lipid on the isolated, spontaneously-beating heart and superfused, hypodynamic ventricle of the frog. Serum taken from either man, horse, calf, frog, or rabbit evoked marked positive inotropic responses which were unaffected by cholinergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptor antagonists. Dialysed serum (dialisand) and void volume fractions from Sephadex G200-120 columns corresponding to large molecular weight constituents evoked marked positive inotropic responses. When serum was separated into fractions containing either proteins or lipids/lipoproteins by high-density ultracentrifugation or activated charcoal, both extracts evoked marked positive inotropic responses. Commercial serum globulins and serum containing a high proportion of immunoglobulins elicited large increases in contractile force, whereas serum albumin evoked a negative inotropic effect. Serum which was either boiled and/or treated with chymotrypsin to denature proteins also caused a marked increase in isometric twitch tension in the frog heart. Similar inotropic response was obtained with fractions of boiled serum eluted on columns of Sephadex G200-120. These fractions corresponded to molecular weight in the region of 60-70 kDa. However, the inotropic effect of boiled serum was abolished following pretreatment with lipase. Superfusion of frog hearts with commercial cardiolipin resulted in marked dose-dependent increases in contractile force. The results demonstrate the presence of at least two large molecular weight cardioactive principles in serum. These substances are comparable in size to constituents of serum proteins (e.g., globulins and immunoglobulins) and serum lipids/lipoproteins (e.g., cardiolipin) and may serve as physiological regulators of cardiac function.

  4. Combined effects of saturated fat and cholesterol intakes on serum lipids: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Ramezankhani, Azra; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the combined effect of saturated fat and cholesterol intake on serum lipids among Tehranian adults. In 443 subjects >or=18 y, dietary intake was assessed. Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were calculated. Cholesterol intakes >or=300 mg/d and saturated fat intakes >or=7% of total energy were defined as high intakes. Individuals were categorized into four groups based on cholesterol and saturated fat intakes. Subjects' mean age was 40.1 +/- 14.6 y; those in whom cholesterol and saturated fat intake was normal had significantly less energy and fat intake than those with high cholesterol and saturated fat intakes (P < 0.01). Saturated fat intake had a significant effect on serum total and HDL-C levels. Subjects with a normal saturated fat intake had significantly less serum total and HDL-C than those who had high saturated fat intake (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, the main effect of cholesterol intake on HDL-C was significant (P = 0.05). Mean serum HDL-C was lower in subjects who had normal cholesterol intake than in those with high cholesterol intake. These results show that cholesterol and saturated fat intakes have no combined effect on serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, whereas cholesterol intake per se affects serum HDL-C level.

  5. Retroviral vector production under serum deprivation: The role of lipids.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A F; Carmo, M; Alves, P M; Coroadinha, A S

    2009-12-15

    The use of retroviral vectors for gene therapy applications demands high titer preparations and stringent quality standards. However, the manufacturing of these vectors still represents a highly challenging task due to the low productivity of the cell lines and reduced stability of the vector infectivity, particularly under serum-free conditions. With the objective of understanding the major limitations of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation, a thorough study of viral production kinetics, vector characterization and cell growth and metabolic behavior was conducted, for 293 FLEX 18 and Te Fly Ga 18 producer cell lines using different serum concentrations. The reduction of serum supplementation in the culture medium resulted in pronounced decreases in cell productivity of infectious vector, up to ninefold in 293 FLEX 18 cells and sevenfold in Te Fly Ga 18 cells. Total particles productivity was maintained, as assessed by measuring viral RNA; therefore, the decrease in infectious vector production could be attributed to higher defective particles output. The absence of the serum lipid fraction was found to be the major cause for this decrease in cell viral productivity. The use of delipidated serum confirmed the requirement of serum lipids, particularly cholesterol, as its supplementation not only allowed the total recovery of viral titers as well as additional production increments in both cell lines when comparing with the standard 10% (v/v) FBS supplementation. This work identified lower production ratios of infectious particles/total particles as the main restraint of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation; this is of the utmost importance concerning the clinical efficacy of the viral preparations. Lipids were confirmed as the key serum component correlated with the production of infective retroviral vectors and this knowledge can be used to efficiently design medium supplementation strategies for serum-free production. Biotechnol

  6. Association of polyfluoroalkyl chemical exposure with serum lipids in children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin; Emo, Brett; Vaughn, Michael; Bao, Jia; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Li, Jie; Lee, Yungling Leo; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-04-15

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), as well as polymers of PFASs, have been widely used in commercial applications and have been detected in humans and the environment. Previous epidemiological studies have shown associations between particular PFAS chemicals and serum lipid concentrations in adults, particularly perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). There exists, however, limited information concerning the effect of PFASs have on serum lipids among children. In the present cross-sectional study, 225 Taiwanese children (12-15 years of age) were recruited to determine the relationship between serum level PFASs and lipid concentration. Results showed that eight out of ten particular PFASs were detected in the serum of >94% of the participants. Serum PFOS and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) levels were at an order of magnitude higher than the other PFASs, with arithmetical means of 32.4 and 30.7 ng/ml in boys and 34.2 and 27.4 ng/ml in girls, respectively. However, the variation in serum PFTA concentration was quite large. Following covariate adjustment, linear regression models revealed that PFOS, PFOA, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were positively associated with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG), particularly for PFOS and PFTA. Quartile analysis, with the lowest exposure quartile as a reference, yielded associations between serum PFTA and elevations in TC (p=0.002) and LDL (p=0.004). Though not statistically significant, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) appeared to decrease linearly across quartiles for PFOS and PFOA exposure. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between serum PFASs and lipid level in Taiwanese children. These findings for PFTA are novel, and emphasize the need to investigate the exposure route and toxicological evidence of PFASs beyond PFOS and PFOA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum lipid profile of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Owiredu, W K B A; Donkor, S; Addai, B Wiafe; Amidu, N

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a comparative study to investigate the effect of lipid profile, oestradiol and obesity on the risk of a woman developing breast cancer. This study was carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Peace and Love Hospital, Oduom, Kumasi and Redeemed Clinic, Nima, Accra between May 2002 and March 2003. In this study, 200 consented women comprising 100 breast cancer patients (43 pre- and 57 post-menopausal) and 100 controls (45 pre- and 55 post-menopausal) with similar age range (25 to 80 years) were assessed for lipid profile, oestradiol and BMI. There was a significant increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) (p = 0.011), Total Cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.026) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) (p = 0.001) of the breast cancer patients compared to the controls. With the exception of oestradiol (EST) that decreased, the lipid profile generally increased with age in both subjects and controls with the subjects having a much higher value than the corresponding control. There was also a significant positive correlation between BMI and TC (r2 = 0.022; p = 0.002) and also between BMI and LDL-cholesterol (r2 = 0.031; p = 0.0003). Apart from EST and LDL-cholesterol that were increased significantly only in the postmenopausal phase in comparison to the controls, BMI, TC and TG were increased in both pre-menopausal and post menopausal phases with HDL-cholesterol remaining unchanged. This study confirms the association between dyslipidaemia, BMI and increased breast cancer risk.

  8. The Associations of Serum Lipids with Vitamin D Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Junli; Wang, Zongye; Jia, Haiying; Feng, Kai; Sun, Lili; Song, Shu Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults. The study was carried out using 1475 participants from the Center for Physical Examination, 306 Hospital of PLA in Beijing, China. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured. AIP was calculated based on the formula: log [TG/HDL-C]. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between serum 25(OH)D and lipids. The association between the occurrences of dyslipidemias and vitamin D levels was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Confounding factors, age and BMI, were used for the adjustment. The median of serum 25(OH)D concentration was 47 (27-92.25) nmol/L in all subjects. The overall percentage of 25(OH)D ≦ 50 nmol/L was 58.5% (males 54.4%, females 63.7%). The serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with TG (β coefficient = -0.24, p < 0.001) and LDL-C (β coefficient = -0.34, p < 0.001) and positively associated with TC (β coefficient = 0.35, p < 0.002) in men. The associations between serum 25(OH)D and LDL-C (β coefficient = -0.25, p = 0.01) and TC (β coefficient = 0.39, p = 0.001) also existed in women. The serum 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated with AIP in men (r = -0.111, p < 0.01) but not in women. In addition, vitamin D deficient men had higher AIP values than vitamin D sufficient men. Furthermore, the

  9. Effects of progestational agents on serum lipids and lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-08-01

    Though progestins with relatively strong androgenic or antiestrogenic effects (e.g., levonorgestrel and norethindrone acetate) tend to have the greatest capacity to offset the major estrogen effects (e.g., on serum triglyceride and, to a greater extent, HDL-cholesterol), this association is not sufficiently strong to allow prediction of the effects of other progestins on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

  10. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion

  11. [Serum lipid spectrum in patients with obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V K; Mokhov, E M; Mosiagin, A V

    2007-11-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the serum lipid profile in patients with obstructive jaundice (OJ) of various genesis versus those with chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB). The serum lipid profile was studied in 50 patients with OJ whose cause was cancer diseases and calculous cholecystitis in 20 and 30 patients, respectively. Thirty patients with CVHB were examined as a control group. In patients with OJ, the relative serum content of phospholipids was found to be twice less than that in patients with CVHB. In patients with OJ, hyperlipemia was mainly caused by free cholesterol or cholesterol esters. As compared with the patients with calculous cholecystitis and CVHB, the patients with cancer diseases had low sphingomyelin levels; this fact may be used as an additional measure in detecting OJ of cancer genesis.

  12. Impact of Phytoestrogens on Serum Lipids in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Terzic, M.; Micic, J.; Dotlic, J.; Maricic, S.; Mihailovic, T.; Knezevic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of soy- and red clover-derived isoflavones on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women and to compare the effects to the lipid levels of healthy postmenopausal women without phytoestrogen supplementation. Materials and Methods: Blood levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were assessed. Measurements were performed before treatment and at 6-month intervals over a period of 18 months. The investigation included 74 healthy postmenopausal women randomized into three groups according to treatment. The first group of 23 patients received soy-derived isoflavones, the second group (26 patients) was given red clover-derived phytoestrogens, while the third control group (25 patients) received no supplements. Results: Mean triglyceride, cholesterol and LDL levels of patients in the control group were significantly higher than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001) at all three time points, while mean values did not differ significantly between the soy and the red clover groups. The mean HDL levels of patients in the control group was significantly lower than in both the soy and the red clover groups (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Phytoestrogen supplementation had a positive metabolic effect on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women. The impact on serum lipids levels was similar for soy and red clover. PMID:25284841

  13. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Taheri Sarvtin, Mehdi; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Shokohi, Tahereh; HajHeydari, Zohreh

    2014-05-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disorder characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and infiltration of T cells, monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils into dermal and epidermal layers of the skin. The prevalence of cardiovascular disorders in these patients is remarkably higher compared to normal individuals, which seems to be associated with the hyperlipidemia. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the serum lipid profile in psoriatic patients and its association with the severity of disease. This case-control study was performed on 50 plaque-type psoriasis patients and 50 healthy individuals as control, matched for age and sex. Blood samples were collected after 14 h fasting. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol and lipoproteins were assayed using the standard kit (made by Pars Azmon Co. Iran). Certain parameters, including serum triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), were significantly higher in the case group compared to the controls (P < 0.001), while high density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly lower in the former (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant relationship between severity of psoriasis and serum lipid profile. The results have revealed the higher plasma level of lipids in psoriatic patients. This may elevate the risk of atherosclerosis, particularly cardiovascular disorders. Therefore, from the epidemiological point of view, screening psoriatic patients, particularly those with severe psoriasis, is recommended.

  14. Association between coffee consumption and serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    KARABUDAK, EFSUN; TÜRKÖZÜ, DUYGU; KÖKSAL, EDA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and serum lipid levels in a study population of 122 Turkish subjects (mean age, 41.4±12.69 years), including 48 males and 74 females. A questionnaire was compiled to determine baseline characteristics, and food and coffee consumption. Subjects were divided into three groups, which included non-drinkers, Turkish coffee and instant coffee drinkers, and anthropometric measurements were acquired, including weight, height and body mass index. Serum lipid levels were analyzed, including the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels. Of the population studied, 76.2% had consumed at least one cup of coffee per week over the previous year. Daily consumption values were 62.3±40.60 ml (0.7±0.50 cup) for Turkish coffee and 116.3±121.96 ml (0.7±0.81 cup) for instant coffee. No statistically significant differences were observed in the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C or VLDL-C among the three groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serum lipid levels when comparing individuals who consumed coffee with sugar/cream or who smoked and those who did not (P>0.05). Therefore, the present observations indicated no significant association between the consumption of Turkish or instant coffee and serum lipid levels. PMID:26136902

  15. The role of developing breast cancer in alteration of serum lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Kamal Eldin A.; Hassan, Ikhlas K.; Sadig, Isam A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The major aim of this study is to examine the role of alterations in lipid profile in women developing breast cancer. This study was carried out between May 2009 and December 2010. Background: The relationship between lipids and breast cancer is undistinguished. Until now, conflicting results have been reported on the association between lipids and risk of breast cancer development in women. Materials and Methods: Plasma lipids (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and triglycerides [TG] were analyzed from 60 controls and 120 untreated breast cancer patients with clinical and histopathological evidence, under aseptic conditions. Venous blood was drawn from the cases and controls and estimations of lipid profile were done utilizing the standard procedures. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent sample t-test to compare the mean serum levels of lipid profile and TC/HDL ratio between patients and controls. Results: A significant rise in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ratio of total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol values, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol were not affected significantly by the breast cancer. Conclusions: The developing breast cancer might be considered as one of the factors in alterations in lipid profile levels. PMID:23626635

  16. [The microanalysis of serum lipoprotein lipids (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leiss, O; Murawski, U; Egge, H

    1979-10-01

    A method is described which allows the determination of phospholipids, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids in lipoprotein fractions starting from 50 microliter of serum. Lipoproteins were separated by successive precipitation: VLDL with Heparin/Mg++, LDL with Dextran sulfate/Mg++ and finally HDL with Dextran sulfate/Mn++. Lipids extracted from the precipitated lipoproteins were determined gravimetrically and by densitometry after thin layer chromatography and charring (van Gent, C.M. (1968), Z. Anal. Chem. 236, 344--350; Egge, H. et al. (1970) Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 8, 488--491). The results obtained from the serum of 12 adult healthy persons were compared with those from lipoprotein fractions separated by preparative ultracentrifugation (Havel, R. J. et al. (1955) J. Clin. Invest. 34, 1345--1353). The distribution of lipids in beta-lipoproteins (d less than 1.063 g/ml) and HDL (1.063 less than d less than 1.21 g/ml) prepared by both methods showed good agreement. Some differences were observed between VLDL (d less than 1.006 g/ml) and VHDL (d greater than 1.21 g/ml) prepared either by precipitation or ultracentrifugation. Compared to the total lipid of the sera, recovery rates were 95--105%. Variation coefficients were in the range of 15--20% for VLDL lipids, 5--10% for LDL and HDL lipids and 10--15% for VHDL lipids. Gravimetrically determined total lipids had a variation coefficient of 4 and 6% for LDL and HDL respectively.

  17. LC/MS lipid profiling from human serum: a new method for global lipid extraction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Di Veroli, Alessandra; Valeri, Aurora; Goracci, Laura; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, technological advances have improved the sensitivity and selectivity of LC/MS analyzers, providing very efficient tools for lipidomics research. In particular, the nine lipid classes that constitute 99 % of the human serum lipidome (sterols, cholesteryl esters, phosphocholines, phosphoethanolamines, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerols, fatty acids, lysophosphocholines, and diacylglycerols) can be easily detected. However, until today there has not been a unique technique for sample preparation that provides a satisfactory recovery for all of these nine classes together. In this work, we have developed and validated a new one-phase extraction (OPE) method that overcomes this limitation. This method was also compared with the gold standard lipid extraction methods such as Folch, Bligh & Dyer, and recently developed methods with methanol and methyl-tert-butyl ether. Results demonstrate that the mixture of methanol/chloroform/MTBE (MMC) provides a recovery very close to 100 % for all nine lipid classes of the human serum investigated. For this extraction method, 100 μL of human serum is incubated with 2 mL of the solvents mixture, then vortexed and centrifuged. For its simplicity of execution, rapidity, reproducibility, and the reduced volume of sample required, this method opens the door to the use of human serum lipid profiling for large-scale applications in scientific research and clinical trials.

  18. Effects of porcine hemoglobin on serum lipid content and fecal lipid excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary hemoglobin on serum and liver lipid contents in rats, and the ability of hemoglobin hydrolysates to disrupt lipid absorption. After rats had been fed on casein- or porcine hemoglobin-containing diets for 4 weeks, their serum and liver lipid contents and fecal cholesterol, bile acid, and nitrogen excretion were measured. To elucidate the mechanism of lipid absorption by dietary hemoglobin, we also examined lipase activity, micellar solubility of cholesterol, and bile acid binding activity in the presence of hemoglobin hydrolysates. Dietary hemoglobin decreased serum and liver triglyceride and cholesterol contents and increased fecal fatty acid, cholesterol, and bile acid excretion. In addition, hemoglobin hydrolysates inhibited lipase activity compared with casein hydrolysates in an in vitro study. These results suggested that the hypolipidemic effect of hemoglobin is mediated by increased fecal lipid excretion, and that decreased lipase activity by hemoglobin is at least partially responsible for this result. The observed effects were documented with an 8 g/kg hemoglobin diet, which is lower than in other studies; therefore. hemoglobin may be useful in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases.

  19. Analysis of the Serum Lipid Profile in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miaoling; Zhang, Xiongze; Liao, Nanying; Ye, Baikang; Peng, Yuting; Ji, Yuying; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the predominant subtype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the Asian population, is associated with genetic polymorphism of lipid metabolism. In this study, we performed the untargeted lipidomics approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to reveal the potential discriminating lipid profile of PCV patients in serum (21 PCV patients and 19 age-matched controls). Unsupervised principal component, supervised orthogonal partial least squares analysis, correlation analysis, and heatmap analysis were performed with the data obtained by UPLC-MS. Forty–one discriminating metabolites were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, pathway analysis and functional analysis were performed subsequently, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) was further selected as the key indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. Finally, the serum level of PAF was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which is significantly higher in PCV patients compared to controls (65 PCV patients and 63 age-matched controls, p < 0.0001), consistent with the UPLC-MS analysis. Our results suggested that PAF is considered as the major indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. PMID:27910906

  20. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  1. Non-traditional Serum Lipid Variables and Recurrent Stroke Risk

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Ho; Lee, Juneyoung; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Expert consensus guidelines recommend low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the primary serum lipid target for recurrent stroke risk reduction. However, mounting evidence suggests that other lipid parameters might be additional therapeutic targets or at least also predict cardiovascular risk. Little is known about the effects of non-traditional lipid variables on recurrent stroke risk. Methods We analyzed the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention study database comprising 3680 recent (<120 days) ischemic stroke patients followed up for 2 years. Independent associations of baseline serum lipid variables with recurrent ischemic stroke (primary outcome) and the composite endpoint of ischemic stroke/coronary heart disease (CHD)/vascular death (secondary outcomes) were assessed. Results Of all variables evaluated, only triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio was consistently and independently related to both outcomes: compared with the lowest quintile, the highest TG/HDL-C ratio quintile was associated with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.05−2.32) and stroke/CHD/vascular death (1.39; 1.05−1.83), including adjustment for lipid modifier use. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio quintile was associated with stroke/CHD/vascular death (1.45; 1.03−2.03). LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, non-HDL-C, elevated TG alone, and low HDL-C alone were not independently linked to either outcome. Conclusions Of various non-traditional lipid variables, elevated baseline TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios predict future vascular risk after a stroke, but only elevated TG/HDL-C ratio is related to risk of recurrent stroke. Future studies should assess the role of TG/HDL as a potential therapeutic target for global vascular risk reduction after stroke. PMID:25236873

  2. Effect of dietary alternative lipid sources on haematological parameters and serum constituents of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Babalola, T O O; Adebayo, M A; Apata, D F; Omotosho, J S

    2009-03-01

    The worldwide increase in aquaculture production and the decrease of wild fish stocks has made the replacement of fish oil (FO) in aquafeed industry a priority. Therefore, the use of terrestrial animal fats and vegetable oils, which has lower cost and larger supplies, may be good as substitute for FO. This study investigate the effects of total replacement of FO by two terrestrial animal fats (pork lard and poultry fat) and three vegetable oils (palm kernel oil, sheabutter oil and sunflower oil) on haematological and serum biochemical profile of Heterobranchus longifilis over 70 days. FO-diet was used as the control. The haematological parameters were significantly affected by dietary lipid sources. Serum total protein was not influenced by the dietary lipids. However, serum cholesterol was significantly higher in fish fed diet containing sunflower oil. Glucose and activities of liver enzymes in blood serum were significantly reduced in fish fed alternative lipids when compared with the control. These results indicate that FO can be replaced completely with alternative lipids without any serious negative health impacts.

  3. Serum and bile lipids in young women with radiolucent gallstones.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, A; Messa, C; Mangini, V; Argese, V; Misciagna, G; Giorgio, I

    1987-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood and bile lipids, serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were correlated with cholesterol saturation index of bile in 21 women-10 with radiolucent gallstones and 11 without stones. All of the women had regular menstrual cycles, were normolipidemic, and on a hospital diet. On the same morning, blood and the darkest duodenal bile were taken after cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation. Standard laboratory procedures were used to analyze serum and bile lipids. We found: 1) statistically significant (t test, p less than 0.05) but only slight hypercholesterolemia (+ 12%) in patients with gallstones; 2) a negative correlation of serum cholesterol with cholesterol saturation index of bile, both in the control group (r = -0.654, p less than 0.05) and in gallstone patients (r = -0.665, p less than 0.05); 3) a correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with cholesterol saturation index only in normal women (r = -0.619, p less than 0.05); 4) conversely, a correlation of triglycerides with the same index in only gallstone patients (r = 0.641, p less than 0.05). With the stepwise multiple regression analysis (independent variables: diagnosis of gallstones, serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides; dependent variable: biliary cholesterol saturation index), only gallstone diagnosis and serum cholesterol influenced significantly (F test, p less than 0.05) the biliary cholesterol saturation index. These findings suggest that young women with radiolucent gallstones are slightly hypercholesterolemic, that in women both with and without gallstones there is a negative correlation between serum cholesterol and biliary cholesterol saturation, but women with gallstones have a higher cholesterol saturation index of the bile than women without gallstones with the same level of cholesterol in the blood.

  4. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J M; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C H; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  5. Quercetin Induces Hepatic Lipid Omega-Oxidation and Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F.; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J. M.; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C. H.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9–15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD. PMID:23359794

  6. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  7. Effect of injectable and oral contraceptives on serum lipids

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Wilkinson, Gregg

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effects of using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel on serum lipid levels. Methods Serum lipids were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 3 years on 703 white, black, and Hispanic women using DMPA, OC, or nonhormonal (NH) birth control. DMPA discontinuers were followed for up to 2 additional years. Participants completed questionnaires containing demographic and behavioral measures every 6 months and underwent 24 hour dietary recalls annually. Mixed model regression analyses and general estimating equations procedures were used to estimate changes over time in lipids by method, along with their predictors. Results OC users experienced significantly greater increases in levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than NH users (P<.001). However, no difference was noted in the LDL-C to HDL-C ratio between OC and NH users. Among DMPA users, HDL-C levels initially decreased for 6 months, but then returned to baseline. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio rose during the first 6 months of DMPA use, but then dropped back to baseline over the next 24 months. After DMPA was discontinued, women who used OC increased their TG, TC, VLDL-C, and HDL-C levels significantly more than those who chose NH (P< .05). Conclusion Use of very low dose OC containing desogestrel can elevate lipid levels. DMPA users were at increased risk of developing an abnormally low HDL-C level as well as an abnormally high LDL level and an increase in the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio, although these effects appeared to be temporary. PMID:19888036

  8. Reductions in Serum Lipids with a 4-year Decline in Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Fletcher, Tony; Luster, Michael I.; Steenland, Kyle; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Armstrong, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. Methods We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 2005–2006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Results Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.5–5.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.5–7.4%). Conclusions Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol. PMID:23685825

  9. Reductions in serum lipids with a 4-year decline in serum perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Fletcher, Tony; Luster, Michael I; Steenland, Kyle; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Armstrong, Ben

    2013-07-01

    Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 2005-2006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.5-5.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.5-7.4%). Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol.

  10. Moderate dietary salt restriction does not alter insulin resistance or serum lipids in normal men.

    PubMed

    Grey, A; Braatvedt, G; Holdaway, I

    1996-04-01

    Dietary salt restriction lowers blood pressure and has been advocated as a population-based strategy to reduce the cardiovascular morbidity associated with hypertension. However, the effect of lowering salt intake on metabolic vascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and levels of atherogenic lipids and fasting insulin is uncertain. We have studied the short-term effect of moderate dietary salt restriction on insulin resistance and serum lipids in 34 nonobese (body mass index [mean +/- SD] 23.4 +/- 1.8 kg/m2), normotensive young white men. Subjects were maintained on a low salt diet ( < 80 mmol/day) for the 2-week study period. In a randomized, cross-over, double-blind fashion, each subject also received 120 mmol of sodium chloride per day during one of the study weeks, and a matching placebo during the other. Insulin resistance, serum insulin, lipids, and blood pressure were measured in the fasting state at the end of each study week. Urinary sodium excretion (185 +/- 46 v 52 +/- 25 mmol/day, P < .001), serum sodium (141.2 +/- 1.2 v 140.1 +/- 1.3 mmol/L, P < .001) and body weight (75.4 +/- 9.1 v 75.0 +/- 9.3 kg, P < .05) were higher during the high salt than the low salt period. Serum creatinine was higher during the low salt period (100 +/- 8 v 90 +/- 9 mumols/L, P < .01). There was no difference in blood pressure, insulin resistance, serum insulin, C-peptide, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol or its subfractions, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, or apolipoprotein B between the high salt and low salt periods. We conclude that short-term, moderate dietary salt restriction does not adversely affect insulin sensitivity or levels of atherogenic lipids in normotensive nonobese men.

  11. Evaluation of serum lipids and lipoproteins as prognosticators in leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Ganavi, B S; Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S

    2014-05-01

    Oral cancer is the 8th most common cancer worldwide. Squamous cell carcinomas constitute 94% of all oral malignancies and are often preceded by leukoplakia. Despite many adjunctive techniques to monitor transformation of leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the mortality rate is on the rise. Incidentally, patients diagnosed with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and oral cancers manifest with low choles-terol levels. Given a thought, hypolipidemia may be a useful adjunctive tool as it reflects the initial changes within the neo-plastic cells, thus giving a red alert in malignant transformation of leukoplakia at the earlier stage. To evaluate the feasibility of serum lipid profile as an adjunct early marker for malignant transformation of leukoplakia to OSCC. To estimate the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein (HDL, LDL, VLDL) levels in patients with leukoplakia, OSCC and age matched healthy control group. To compare the serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels between patients of leukoplakia, OSCC and age matched healthy control group. The study group comprised of selected 30 individuals which included 10 each of histopathologically confirmed OSCC, leukoplakia and healthy controls. A written consent was taken from all of them, and a thorough case history was recorded and then venous blood was collected 12 hours post fasting and centrifuged. The serum cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL were estimated by enzymatic and colorimetric methods using commercially available kits--Roche/ Hitachi cobas systems. Chemistry assay QC procured from Bio-Rad was used as control. VLDL and LDL were derived from these values. Results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey Test. Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients demonstrated significantly lower mean serum cholesterol level (151.60 mg/dl) than the control group (183.70 mg/dl). The mean cholesterol level in leukoplakia patients (173.90 mg/dl) was lower than that

  12. [Analysis of serum lipids levels and the establishment of reference intervals for serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ying, Chunmei; Yue, Chaoyan; Zhang, Chunyi; Li, Xiaotian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the serum lipids levels in healthy pregnant women, and to establish the reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-lipoprotein-A(APO-A) and apo-lipoprotein-B (APO-B) were measured in 3 200 pregnant women and 3 200 healthy women of childbearing age(the control group) from January 2014 to Febuary 2015 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University. In the healthy pregnant women, serum lipids were measured at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks, respectively. All the parameters were detected by Hitachi 7180 automatic biochemical analyzer. The test results were calculated and determined by the C28-A3 standard of the National Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. And the normal reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy were defined as 2.5%-97.5%. (1) The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in the control group were 0.8, 4.2, 1.0, 2.7 mmol/L and 1.1, 0.8 g/L, respectively. The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in middle and late pregnancy were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). (2) The serum lipids levels at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks in healthy pregnant women were compared with the control group as following. The TG levels were 1.9, 3.8 and 4.4 folds of the control group; the TCH levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the HDL levels were 1.2, 1.6 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the LDL levels were 1.1, 1.4 and 1.4 folds of the control group; the APO-A levels were 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 folds of the control group; and the APO-B levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 fold of the control group respectively. The TG level was the most increased, and it increased gradually with gestational age (P<0.01). (3) The median of LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio in the healthy pregnancy group at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational

  13. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Kamrun Nahar; Mainuddin, AKM; Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, accounting for the highest morbidity and mortality among the Bangladeshi population. The objective of this study was to determine the association between serum lipid profiles in hypertensive patients with normotensive control subjects in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 234 participants including 159 hypertensive patients and 75 normotensive controls from January to December 2012 in the National Centre for Control of Rheumatic Fever and Heart Disease in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Results The mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the participants were 137.94±9.58 and 94.42±8.81, respectively, which were higher in the hypertensive patients (P<0.001). The serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL were higher while HDL levels were lower in hypertensive subjects compared to normotensives, which was statistically significant (P<0.001). Age, waist circumference, and body mass index showed significant association with hypertensive patients (P<0.001) but not with normotensives. The logistic regression analysis showed that hypertensive patients had 1.1 times higher TC and TG, 1.2 times higher LDL, and 1.1 times lower HDL than normotensives, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Hypertensive patients in Bangladesh have a close association with dyslipidemia and need measurement of blood pressure and lipid profile at regular intervals to prevent cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other comorbidities. PMID:25061312

  14. Maternal serum lipids during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of prepregnancy BMI.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vinod K; Trudeau, Sheri; Perni, Uma

    2011-07-01

    Maternal obesity may be associated with metabolic factors that affect the intrauterine environment, fetal growth, and the offspring's long-term risk for chronic disease. Among these factors, maternal serum lipids play a particularly important role. Our objective was to estimate the influence of variation in maternal serum lipid levels on variation in infant birth weight (BW) in overweight/obese and normal weight women. In a prospective cohort of 143 gravidas, we measured maternal serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks gestation. Effects of maternal serum lipid levels on infant BW adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using linear regression models. In analyses stratified by maternal prepregnancy BMI categorized as normal (≤25.0 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (>25.0 kg/m(2)), we found a significant (P < 0.05) inverse association between aBW and HDL-C at all time points starting at 10 weeks gestation in overweight/obese women. No significant effect was found in normal weight women. In contrast, increased maternal serum TG was significantly associated with increased aBW only for normal weight women at 10-14 and 22-26 weeks gestation. Variation in aBW is not associated with variation in maternal serum TC or LDL-C for either stratum at any time point. We postulate that such differences may be involved in the "physiological programming" that influences later risk of chronic disease in the infants of overweight/obese mothers.

  15. Influence of smoking on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels among family medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Beganlic, Azijada; Salihefendic, Nizama; Pranjic, Nurka; Kusljugic, Zumreta

    2008-01-01

    Smoking causes decrease of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and increase of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Low HDL-C levels and high cholesterol and LDL-C levels are associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of smoking status on serum lipid and lipoproteins levels among patients in family medicine practice. This trial was designed to detect differences in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels between smokers and non-smokers. We had placed a limit of 300 patients for data collection. We excluded 195 patients who met excluding criteria (diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, renal and hepatic failure, hypothyroidism; using beta blockers, thiazide diuretics, hormonal replacement therapy and corticosteroids; more than light physical activity; alcohol consumption and obesity), so the sample size included 105 randomly selected patients from Family Medicine Teaching Center Tuzla, mean age 52.05 +/- 11.61 years. Main outcomes were smoking status in all participants and serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C levels in smokers and non-smokers. Our results showed that smoking prevalence was 49.52%. Smokers had significantly higher serum total cholesterol (P=0.01), triglyceride (P=0.002) and LDL-C level (P=0.03) and significantly lower HDL-C level (P=0.003) comparing with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels between ex-smokers and never smokers. These results suggest that cigarette smoking adversely affects serum lipid and lipoprotein levels which further increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  16. Serum Lipid Profile in Subjects with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Laclaustra, Martin; Van Den Berg, Elizabeth Louise Maayken; Hurtado-Roca, Yamilée; Castellote, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Few large studies have examined the relationship between spinal cord injury (SCI) and lipid profile. We studied serum lipid concentrations in subjects with traumatic SCI in relation to the degree of neurological involvement and time since injury, and compared them with values from a reference sample for the Spanish population (DRECE study). Materials and Methods A retrospective cohort was built from 177 consecutive cases with traumatic SCI admitted to the SCI unit of the Miguel Servet Hospital in Aragon (Spain). Outcome measures (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-c and LDL-c levels) were analyzed according to the ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS), neurological level of injury (involvement of all limbs vs. only lower limbs), and time since injury. All analyses were adjusted for age and sex. Results Cases without preserved motor function (AIS A or B) had lower total and HDL cholesterol than the others (-11.4 [-21.5, -1.4] mg/dL total cholesterol and -5.1 [-8.8, -1.4] mg/dL HDL-c), and cases with all-limb involvement had lower total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol than those with only lower-limb involvement (-14.0 [-24.6, -3.4] mg/dL total cholesterol, -4.1 [-8.0, -0.2] mg/dL HDL-c, and -10.0 [-19.7, -0.3] mg/dL LDL-c) (all p<0.05). No association was found between lipid concentrations and time since injury. Concentrations of lipid subfractions and triglycerides in SCI subjects were lower than in sex- and age-stratified values from the reference sample. Conclusion A high degree of neurological involvement in SCI (anatomically higher lesions and AIS A or B) is associated with lower total cholesterol and HDL-c. PMID:25706982

  17. Effects of dietary oleuropein supplementation on growth performance, serum lipid concentrations and lipid oxidation of Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Sarica, S; Toptas, S

    2014-12-01

    An in vivo experiment was conducted to compare the effects of dietary supplementation with oleuropein and/or α-tocopheryl acetate on growth performance, serum lipid concentrations and lipid oxidation of Japanese quail meat during refrigerated storage. Performance and slaughtering parameters were not affected by dietary treatments. The diets supplemented with oleuropein at the levels of 150 or 200 mg/kg were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation in breast and thigh meats compared with the control diet. The dietary inclusion of neither vitamin E nor oleuropein at different levels did not significantly affect the fatty acid compositions of the breast meat compared with the control diet. The diets supplemented with oleuropein at the levels of 150 or 200 mg/kg had significantly the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-3 fatty acid contents in thigh meat compared with the vitamin E diet. The ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 FAs in thigh meat of quails fed diet supplemented with vitamin E at the level of 200 mg/kg was equivalent to those of quails fed the diets supplemented with oleuropein at the levels of 100 and 150 mg/kg. The results showed that the dietary oleuropein supplementation at 150 mg/kg level may be used in quail diets enriched with the polyunsaturated fatty acids of vitamin E as a natural antioxidant. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  19. Effect of mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus and isolated fungal polysaccharide on serum and liver lipids in Syrian hamsters with hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Ginter, E; Kuniak, L; Babala, J; Jurcovicova, M; Ozdín, L; Cerven, J

    1991-01-01

    In Syrian hamsters, a diet with 44% of the calories being fat and containing 52 mg cholesterol (C)/100 g induced an accumulation of blood plasma and liver C and triacylglycerol (TG). In these animals, we studied the effect of dried whole mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus, 2% in the diet, 6-mo experiment) and ethanol-insoluble residue and structurally defined fungal polysaccharide, both isolated from the mushroom (in both cases, 4% in the diet, 2-mo experiments) on C and TG concentration in serum and liver. Whole mushroom effectively retarded the increase in C and TG in both serum and liver throughout the experiment. The mushroom also reduced the content of all lipids in lipoproteins with densities of less than 1.006 to less than 1.063 g/ml. Very-low-density lipoproteins played a substantial role in the decrease (65-80%) in serum lipids. As a result, the lipoprotein concentration of the specified density classes was reduced by 45-60%, and the concentration of the serum lipoprotein pool was reduced by 40%. Neither the chemical composition of high-density lipoproteins nor their serum concentration was affected by the mushroom. Ethanol-insoluble mushroom residue did not significantly affect serum lipid levels, but it reduced liver TG content. Fungal polysaccharide lowered the C content in serum and liver.

  20. Design and characterization of a novel lipid-DNA complex that resists serum-induced destabilization.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tianshun; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2003-12-01

    Ineffectiveness of cationic lipids to enhance DNA transfection has been attributed to serum-mediated dissociation and perhaps complement activation of lipid-DNA complexes. To overcome these problems, we have developed a novel lipid-DNA complex that greatly reduces serum-mediated dissociation. The complexes were prepared by mixing cationic liposomes containing 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine and DNA in ethanolic (20% v/v ethanol) solution containing 5% sucrose followed by dehydration via rotating evaporation. Upon hydration in H(2)O, the lipid-DNA complexes [ethanol-dried lipid-DNA (EDL) complexes] were formed. The complexes exhibit a low positive zeta potential and enhanced transfection efficiency in contrast to the suppressed efficiency detected with admixed lipid-DNA complexes in the presence of serum across several cell lines. This result may be attributed to the inability of serum to dissociate DNA from lipids in EDL complexes. Using displacement of ethidium bromide intercalation analysis, we found that in serum, only 50% of DNA was exposed in the EDL complexes, compared with 100% in the admixed lipid-DNA complexes. The EDL complexes also showed increased resistance to DNase digestion in the presence of negatively charged lipid, while reducing complement activation in serum. The EDL complexes may improve the transfection activity of lipid-DNA complexes in serum and, perhaps, in vivo.

  1. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-01-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  2. Genetics of serum and muscle lipids in pigs.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Vidal, O; Pena, R N; Gallardo, D; Manunza, A; Quintanilla, R; Amills, M

    2013-12-01

    Pork meat is one of the most important sources of animal protein in the human diet. Its nutritional properties are partly determined by intramuscular fat content and composition, with existing general consensus about the detrimental effects of cholesterol and saturated fat on cardiovascular health in humans. Because of their physiological resemblance, pigs can be also used as a valuable animal model to study the genetics of human diseases such as atherosclerosis, obesity and dyslipidaemias. Heritability estimates and QTL maps of porcine muscle and serum lipid traits evidence that a considerable amount of genetic variance determining these phenotypes exists, but its molecular basis remains mostly unknown. The recent advent of high-throughput genotyping and sequencing technologies has revolutionised the field of animal genomics. With these powerful tools, finding needles in the genomic haystack has become increasingly feasible. However, these methodological advances should not be deemed as magic bullets. The goal of identifying the many polymorphisms that shape the variability of lipid phenotypes is so challenging that success can be achieved only under the scope of large international consortia.

  3. Prognostic Implications of Serum Lipid Metabolism over Time during Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Park, Moo Suk; Park, Byung Hoon; Jung, Won Jai; Lee, In Seon; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Chung, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite extensive research and an improved standard of care, sepsis remains a disorder with a high mortality rate. Sepsis is accompanied by severe metabolic alterations. Methods. We evaluated 117 patients with sepsis (severe sepsis [n = 19] and septic shock [n = 98]) who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), free fatty acid (FFA), and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I levels were measured on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. Results. Nonsurvivors had low levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, and Apo A-I on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. In a linear mixed model analysis, the variations in TG, LDL, FFA, and Apo A-I levels over time differed significantly between the groups (p = 0.043, p = 0.020, p = 0.005, and p = 0.015, resp.). According to multivariate analysis, TG levels and SOFA scores were associated with mortality on days 0 and 1 (p = 0.018 and p = 0.008, resp.). Conclusions. Our study illustrated that TG levels are associated with mortality in patients with sepsis. This may be attributable to alterations in serum lipid metabolism during sepsis, thus modulating the host response to inflammation in critically ill patients. PMID:26351639

  4. Serum lipid profiles and dyslipidaemia are associated with retinal microvascular changes in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Guo, Xinxing; Ding, Xiaohu; He, Mingguang

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the relationship between serum lipid parameters and retinal microvascular calibres in children and adolescents. A total of 950 participants aged 7 to 19 years were recruited. Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) were measured from digital retinal images. Serological testing was performed to obtain lipid profiles. Dyslipidaemia was defined according to the US national expert panel guideline. After adjusted for age, sex, mean arterial blood pressure, axial length, body mass index and the fellow retinal vascular calibre, no significant association was found between retinal vascular diameters and any lipid parameters (all P > 0.05) in children younger than 12 years. Among the adolescents 12 years and older, increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoB were associated with decrease in CRAE (β = −1.33, −1.83, −1.92 and −7.18, P = 0.031, 0.003, 0.006, and 0.009, respectively). Compared with normolipidemic counterparts, adolescents with dyslipidaemia had significantly narrower retinal arteriolar diameters. No significant relationship between lipid subclass levels and CRVE was revealed in adolescents. The present findings suggest that the elevation of atherogenic lipids in adolescents is closely related to the adverse changes of retinal arterioles. Dyslipidaemia may affect systemic microvasculature from childhood on. PMID:28317946

  5. Apolipoprotein A1/C3/A5 haplotypes and serum lipid levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein (Apo) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association between the ApoA1/C3/A5 gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with serum lipid levels ...

  6. Effect of O-ethylrutoside on serum and hepatic lipids in acute ethanal-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, J

    1977-01-01

    The serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations, as well as hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, were increased in acutely ethanol-treated rats. Treatment of ethanol-given animals with o-ethylrutoside resulted in a significant reduction in all examined fractions of serum lipids and in the hepatic total cholesterol level.

  7. Relationships between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population.

    PubMed

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Almeida González, Delia; González Hernández, Ana; Domínguez Coello, Santiago; Marrugat, Jaume; Juan Alemán Sánchez, José; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Pérez, María del Cristo Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    The serum resistin level is associated with the incidence of ischemic heart disease in the general population. We analyzed the associations between serum resistin and fat intake, serum lipid concentrations and adiposity in the general population. A cross-sectional study of 6,637 randomly recruited adults was conducted. The resistin levels were measured in thawed aliquots of serum using an enzyme immunoanalysis technique. The resistin level exhibited a positive nonparametric correlation with saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and an inverse correlation with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p < 0.001), monounsaturated fat intake(p < 0.05), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001), non-HDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol(p < 0.001), body mass index(p < 0.001), waist circumference(p < 0.001) and the waist/height ratio(p < 0.001). An elevated resistin concentration(fifth quintile) was associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.71-0.93), saturated fat intake(OR=1.34 CI95%=1.16-1.56), monounsaturated fat intake(OR=0.88 CI95%=0.78-0.99), a total cholesterol level of ≥200 mg/dL(OR=0.81 CI95%=0.72-0.91), a low HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%= 0.76-0.93), a high non-HDL cholesterol level(OR=0.84 CI95%=0.72-0.99), a high LDL cholesterol level(OR=0.82 CI95%=0.70-0.97) and a waist/height ratio of ≥0.55(OR=0.76 CI95%=0.67-0.85). The multivariate models corroborated the positive associations between the resistin level and saturated fat intake(p < 0.001) and serum triglycerides(p=0.004) and the inverse associations between the resistin level and adherence to the Mediterranean diet(p=0.002), total serum cholesterol(p < 0.001) and cholesterol fractions and the waist/height ratio(p=0.02). In the general population, the serum resistin level is associated with fat intake: positively with saturated fat intake and inversely with monounsaturated fat intake. As a consequence, the resistin level is also inversely associated with adherence to the

  8. Prenatal hyperandrogenism induces alterations that affect liver lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Heber, Maria Florencia; Ferreira, Silvana Rocio; Velez, Leandro Martin; Reynoso, Roxana; Pignataro, Omar Pedro; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal hyperandrogenism is hypothesized as one of the main factors contributing to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS patients have high risk of developing fatty liver and steatosis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of prenatal hyperandrogenism in liver lipid metabolism and fatty liver development. Pregnant rats were hyperandrogenized with testosterone. At pubertal age, the prenatally hyperandrogenized (PH) female offspring displayed both ovulatory (PHov) and anovulatory (PHanov) phenotypes that mimic human PCOS features. We evaluated hepatic transferases, liver lipid content, the balance between lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathway, oxidant/antioxidant balance and proinflammatory status. We also evaluated the general metabolic status through growth rate curve, basal glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance test, HOMA-IR index and serum lipid profile. Although neither PH group showed signs of liver lipid content, the lipogenesis and fatty oxidation pathways were altered. The PH groups also showed impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance, a decrease in the proinflammatory pathway (measured by prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels), decreased glucose tolerance, imbalance of circulating lipids and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that prenatal hyperandrogenism generates both PHov and PHanov phenotypes with signs of liver alterations, imbalance in lipid metabolism and increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The anovulatory phenotype showed more alterations in liver lipogenesis and a more impaired balance of insulin and glucose metabolism, being more susceptible to the development of steatosis. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber: differences between pre- and post-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kuo, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women and men. Psyllium, a soluble fiber has been known to reduce serum lipids. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether menopausal status would affect the serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber in women. Methods Eleven post-menopausal and eight pre-menopausal women with serum total cholesterol >200 mg/dL were included in the study. Subjects consumed their habitual diet and 15 g psyllium/d for 6 weeks. Psyllium was incorporated into cookies. Each cookie contained ≈5 g of psyllium fiber. Subjects ate one cookie in each meal. Results With psyllium fiber, total cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (≈5.2%, P < 0.05) in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women (≈1.3%). Also, there was a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol in post-menopausal women (≈10.2%, P < 0.05). There were no significant changes observed in concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B in both pre- and post-menopausal women with psyllium. Conclusion In this pilot study, post- and pre-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women responded differently to psyllium fiber supplementation. Post-menopausal women would benefit from addition of psyllium to their diets in reducing the risk for heart diseases. The results of this study should be used with caution because the study was based on a small sample size. PMID:18727833

  10. The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Raghuram, T C; Rao, U Brahmoji; Moffatt, Robert J; Krishnaswamy, Kamla

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking/alcoholic consumption) and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum protein as effective measures of lowering blood pressure among hypertensives in both males and females. Hypertensive patients on betablocker and/or thiazide therapy were compared in cross-section study with their age, blood pressure, fat intake, serum lipid profile, BMI, and serum albumin in males and females. Dietary fat intake and serum lipid profile were income related. Betablocker and diuretics therapy in combination with dietary fat intervention was beneficial for prolonged dyslipidemia control. Serum cholesterol level was main contributing factor dependent on BMI, duration of drug, and socio-economic factors. Fat intake contributed in hypertension and serum cholesterol levels. A cross-sectional data analysis showed beneficial effects of "low fat-salt-smoking-alcohol consumption and combined polyunsaturated fatty acid with antihypertensive therapy approach" to keep normal dyslipidemia and hypertension. Low fat intake, low salt, smoking, alcohol consumption, and combination of dietary oil supplements with lipid betablockers and diuretic modulators were associated with low hypertension and controlled dyslipidemia in Asian sedentary population.

  11. Fast Transmethylation of Serum Lipids using Microwave Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu Hong; Loewke, James D.; Hyun, Duk Y.; Leazer, Jay; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave irradiation as the energy source for one–step direct transesterification of fatty acids in human serum lipids was examined in solvent system of methanol: hexane: acetyl chloride based on Lepage & Roy assay. Innovative and explosion proof single–mode or multimode microwave accelerate reaction system was employed. Recoveries were calculated as the percentage of fatty acid concentrations measured by microwave assay to those by reference method Lepage & Roy assay that utilized conductive heating at 100 °C for 60 min. At conditions of 100 °C for 1 min in Single–mode (S4–100×1), or 125 °C for 5 min in Multimode (M5–125×5), the recoveries were 100–103% for the total fatty acids and 96–106% for each categorized fatty acid, including saturates, monounsaturates, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA. For individual PUFA, the mean recoveries were 102–105% for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3; 99, 109, and 95% for 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, respectively. Thus, fatty acid concentrations determined by microwave fatty acid assay were accurate to those results by the reference method, when the microwave conditions were optimal. In summary, the microwave irradiation could replace conductive heating in one–step direct transesterification, and reduce duration from 60 min to 5 min or less. This methodology may be applied in both the absolute and relative quantification of serum total fatty acids. PMID:23015312

  12. Fast transmethylation of serum lipids using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Hong; Loewke, James D; Hyun, Duk Y; Leazer, Jay; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2012-11-01

    Microwave irradiation as the energy source for one-step direct transesterification of fatty acids in human serum lipids was examined in a solvent system of methanol: hexane: acetyl chloride based on a Lepage & Roy assay. Innovative and explosion proof single-mode or multimode microwave accelerated reaction system was employed. Recoveries were calculated as the percentage of fatty acid concentrations measured by microwave assay to those by the reference method of the Lepage & Roy assay that utilized conductive heating at 100 °C for 60 min. Under conditions of 100 °C for 1 min in Single-mode (S4-100 × 1), or 125 °C for 5 min in Multimode (M5-125 × 5), the recoveries were 100-103 % for the total fatty acids and 96-106 % for each categorized fatty acid, including saturates, monounsaturates, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA. For individual PUFA, the mean recoveries were 102-105 % for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3; 99, 109, and 95 % for 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, respectively. Thus, fatty acid concentrations determined by microwave fatty acid assay were accurate to those results by the reference method, when the microwave conditions were optimal. In summary, the microwave irradiation could replace conductive heating in one-step direct transesterification, and reduce the duration from 60 min to 5 min or less. This methodology may be applied in both the absolute and relative quantification of serum total fatty acids.

  13. Effect of dietary sphingomyelin on absorption and fractional synthetic rate of cholesterol and serum lipid profile in humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diets enriched with sphingolipids may improve blood lipid profiles. Studies in animals have shown reductions in cholesterol absorption and alterations in blood lipids after treatment with sphingomyelin (SM). However, minimal information exists on effect of SM on cholesterol absorption and metabolism in humans. The objective was to assess the effect of SM consumption on serum lipid concentrations and cholesterol metabolism in healthy humans. Methods Ten healthy adult males and females completed a randomized crossover study. Subjects consumed controlled diets with or without 1 g/day SM for 14 days separated by at least 4 week washout period. Serum lipid profile and markers of cholesterol metabolism including cholesterol absorption and synthesis were analyzed. Results Serum triglycerides, total, LDL- and VLDL- cholesterol were not affected while HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased (p = 0.043) by SM diet consumption. No change in cholesterol absorption and cholesterol fractional synthesis rate was observed with supplementation of SM compared to control. Intraluminal cholesterol solubilization was also not affected by consumption of SM enriched diet. Conclusions In humans, 1 g/day of dietary SM does not alter the blood lipid profile except for an increased HDL-cholesterol concentration and has no effect on cholesterol absorption, synthesis and intraluminal solubilization compared to control. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00328211 PMID:23958473

  14. Association of lipid profile with serum PON1 concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Samouilidou, Elisabeth; Kostopoulos, Vassilis; Liaouri, Augustina; Kioussi, Eva; Vassiliou, Kyriaki; Bountou, Eirini; Grapsa, Eirini

    2016-11-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of atherosclerotic events; dyslipoproteinemia and the decrease of the HDL-linked enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1), might have a major role. This study intends to compare the association between lipid profile and serum PON1 levels in renal failure (RF) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. Serum lipids, HDL-subclasses and PON1 concentration were evaluated in 90 patients with CKD, divided into groups: RF (n = 46) and HD (n = 44), and in 30 normal individuals (control group). The results showed that PON1 was significantly lower in HD patients than in RF and controls (p < 0.001). In RF patients under statin therapy, PON1 did not differ from that of patients without statins. In HD patients without statins, PON1 was considerably low, whereas in HD with statins (30.42 ± 12.62 μg/mL) was lower than RF with statins (49.31 ± 14.94, p < 0.001). PON1 concentration was significantly and positively associated with HDL-C, HDL3-C and Apo A1 in all groups. Additionally, in HD patients PON1 was negatively associated with LDL-C. Multiple regression analysis revealed that LDL-C and statin treatment were independently related to PON1 concentration in HD patients (β =  -0.331, p = 0.026 and β = 0.344, p = 0.020, respectively). In RF patients, HDL3-C and Apo A1 are strong determinants of PON1 levels. It is concluded that different parameters of lipid profile seem to affect serum PON1 concentration of RF and HD patients and probably contribute to the delay of atherosclerosis.

  15. Adaptation of retrovirus producer cells to serum deprivation: Implications in lipid biosynthesis and vector production.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A F; Amaral, A I; Veríssimo, V; Alves, P M; Coroadinha, A S

    2012-05-01

    The manufacture of enveloped virus, particularly retroviral (RV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors, faces the challenge of low titers that are aggravated under serum deprivation culture conditions. Also, the scarce knowledge on the biochemical pathways related with virus production is still limiting the design of rational strategies for improved production yields. This work describes the adaptation to serum deprivation of two human RV packaging cell lines, 293 FLEX and Te Fly and its effects on lipid biosynthetic pathways and infectious vector production. Total lipid content as well as cellular cholesterol were quantified and lipid biosynthesis was assessed by (13)C-NMR spectroscopy; changes in gene expression of lipid biosynthetic enzymes were also evaluated. The effects of adaptation to serum deprivation in lipid biosynthesis were cell line specific and directly correlated with infectious virus titers: 293 FLEX cells faced severe lipid starvation-up to 50% reduction in total lipid content-along with a 68-fold reduction in infectious vector titers; contrarily, Te Fly cells were able to maintain identical levels of total lipid content by rising de novo lipid biosynthesis, particularly for cholesterol-50-fold increase-with the consequent recovery of infectious vector productivities. Gene expression analysis of lipid biosynthetic enzymes further confirmed cholesterol production pathway to be prominently up-regulated under serum deprivation conditions for Te Fly cells, providing a genotype-phenotype validation for enhanced cholesterol synthesis. These results highlight lipid metabolism dynamics and the ability to activate lipid biosynthesis under serum deprivation as an important feature for high retroviral titers. Mechanisms underlying virus production and its relationship with lipid biosynthesis, with special focus on cholesterol, are discussed as potential targets for cellular metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linlin; Cao, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is one of the most important candidate genes for influencing the development of hemodialysis (HD). This study aims to detect the potential association between serum ApoE genetic polymorphism and serum lipid level in HD. A total of 485 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. The created restriction site polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing methods were used to investigate ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism. Our data suggested that there were significant differences in the distribution of allelic and genotypic frequencies between HD patients and healthy controls. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, ApoB, ApoE, and lipoprotein (a) for genotype AA were different from genotype GG in HD patients and healthy controls. Our findings support that the ApoE c.109G>A genetic polymorphism might influence the development of HD and could be a risk factor for assessing HD.

  17. Prolonged duration of breastfeeding does not affect lipid profile in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayosh, Ofri; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Lahat, Sharon; Marom, Ronella; Lubetzky, Ronit

    2015-05-01

    The Hertfordshire study suggested that age of weaning and methods of infant feeding may influence adult serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and mortality from ischemic heart disease in men. Although breastfeeding <1 year appeared to be protective compared with formula, prolonged breastfeeding (>1 year) was associated with increased LDL-C and mortality. This study tested the effect of breastfeeding duration on lipid profile in young adults. Adult volunteers whose mothers could recall the age at which their child was weaned were recruited. We excluded patients with known dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia in a first-degree relative, obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m(2)), pregnant or within 3 months of a previous pregnancy, subjects taking medications that may affect lipid profile, or subjects with a chronic medical condition. Nutritional questionnaires and number of weekly hours of exercise were recorded. Lipid profiles were obtained after a night fast. The three groups (no breastfeeding, breastfeeding 0-6 months, or breastfeeding >9 months) did not differ in terms of age, gender, BMI, level of education, amount of exercise, and dietary style. By stepwise background multiple regression analysis taking into account exercise, nutritional habitus, age, BMI, gender, and socioeconomic status, blood lipids were not affected by duration of breastfeeding. Duration of breastfeeding does not affect lipid profiles in young adults. These findings do not support negative messages on the long-term effect of prolonged lactation generated by the Hertfordshire study.

  18. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Effects of Oxidized Tallow on the Rabbit Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Activity of the In-vitro Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Waheed ur

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of thermally oxidized tallow on the serum lipids profile and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the lipids extracted from the different tissues of the rabbits. Tallow was thermally oxidized at 130℃ for 9, 18, 27, 36 and 45 h respectively. Thermally oxidized tallow was fed to the local strain of Himalayan rabbits for one week. Results show that oxidation increases the formation of hydroperoxides and decrease the level of radical scavenging activity of the tallow. The rabbit serum lipids profile showed a dose dependent increase in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. However, no statistically significant increase was observed in the HDL-cholesterol with an increase of oxidation time. Serum glucose and rabbits body weight decrease significantly (p < 0.05) and was highly correlated with the serum lipids profile. The percent RSA of the lipids extracted from the liver, brain and muscles tissues showed a significant decrease with respect to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/body weight as well as oxidation time. Data suggests that thermal oxidation and use of thermally oxidized beef tallow is harmful and therefore an alternative way of cooking should be used. PMID:24278604

  20. Effects of Oxidized Tallow on the Rabbit Serum Lipids and Antioxidant Activity of the In-vitro Lipids.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Waheed Ur

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the effects of thermally oxidized tallow on the serum lipids profile and radical scavenging activity (RSA) of the lipids extracted from the different tissues of the rabbits. Tallow was thermally oxidized at 130℃ for 9, 18, 27, 36 and 45 h respectively. Thermally oxidized tallow was fed to the local strain of Himalayan rabbits for one week. Results show that oxidation increases the formation of hydroperoxides and decrease the level of radical scavenging activity of the tallow. The rabbit serum lipids profile showed a dose dependent increase in triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. However, no statistically significant increase was observed in the HDL-cholesterol with an increase of oxidation time. Serum glucose and rabbits body weight decrease significantly (p < 0.05) and was highly correlated with the serum lipids profile. The percent RSA of the lipids extracted from the liver, brain and muscles tissues showed a significant decrease with respect to 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/body weight as well as oxidation time. Data suggests that thermal oxidation and use of thermally oxidized beef tallow is harmful and therefore an alternative way of cooking should be used.

  1. Association of serum lipids and coronary artery disease with polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Rai, Himanshu; Sinha, Nakul; Finn, James; Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2016-12-31

    Genetic variants are considered as one of the main determinants of the concentration of serum lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster has been known to affect the concentrations of various lipid sub-fractions and the risk of CAD. The present study assessed associations between polymorphisms of the Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, [ApoA-I,-75G > A, (rs1799837); ApoC-III 3238C > G, (SstI), (rs5128) and ApoA-IV, Thr347Ser(347A > T), (rs675)] with serum lipids and their contributions to CAD in North Indian population. We recruited age, sex matched, 200 CAD patients and 200 healthy controls and tested them for fasting levels of serum lipids. We genotyped selected polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There were no statistically significant association of selected polymorphisms (or their combinations) with CAD even after employing additive, dominant and recessive models. However there was significant association of selected polymorphisms with various lipid traits amongst the control cohort (p < 0.05). Mean levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly higher among controls carrying at least one mutant allele at ApoA1-75G > A (p = 0.019) and ApoCIII SstI (p < 0.001) polymorphism respectively. Our study observed that the selected polymorphisms in the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster although significantly affect various lipid traits but this affect does not seem to translate into association with CAD, at least among North Indian population.

  2. Association of serum lipids and coronary artery disease with polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Himanshu; Sinha, Nakul; Finn, James; Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Genetic variants are considered as one of the main determinants of the concentration of serum lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). Polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster has been known to affect the concentrations of various lipid sub-fractions and the risk of CAD. The present study assessed associations between polymorphisms of the Apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster, [ApoA-I,-75G > A, (rs1799837); ApoC-III 3238C > G, (SstI), (rs5128) and ApoA-IV, Thr347Ser(347A > T), (rs675)] with serum lipids and their contributions to CAD in North Indian population. We recruited age, sex matched, 200 CAD patients and 200 healthy controls and tested them for fasting levels of serum lipids. We genotyped selected polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There were no statistically significant association of selected polymorphisms (or their combinations) with CAD even after employing additive, dominant and recessive models. However there was significant association of selected polymorphisms with various lipid traits amongst the control cohort (p < 0.05). Mean levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly higher among controls carrying at least one mutant allele at ApoA1-75G > A (p = 0.019) and ApoCIII SstI (p < 0.001) polymorphism respectively. Our study observed that the selected polymorphisms in the ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene cluster although significantly affect various lipid traits but this affect does not seem to translate into association with CAD, at least among North Indian population. PMID:28261635

  3. Prolongation of the lag time preceding peroxidation of serum lipids: a measure of antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants inhibit oxidation processes and by this affect many biological processes. This, in turn, promotes continuing efforts to synthesize new efficient antioxidants and discover compounds of natural origin capable of preventing peroxidation. Although many assays have been developed to evaluate antioxidants, the search for improved protocols is still actual. The presented protocol is based on the effect of antioxidant on the kinetics of peroxidation of lipids in human blood serum. Specifically, we evaluate the capacity of antioxidant by the relative prolongation of lag phase (delay) of copper-induced peroxidation of lipids in unfractionated serum. The main advantage of the assay is that it implements inhibition of peroxidation in physiologically relevant system. We propose expressing the results of the assay either in terms of the relative prolongation of the lag per 1 μM of antioxidant or as the concentration of antioxidant required to double the lag. To allow for comparing the results with those of other assays, these results may be normalized and expressed in terms of the unitless "TROLOX equivalents."

  4. Serum lipid profile in oral cancer and leukoplakia: correlation with tobacco abuse and histological grading.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Priya; Augustine, J; Urs, Aadithya B; Arora, Shelly; Gupta, Shalini; Mohanty, Vikrant R

    2012-01-01

    Role of alterations in serum lipid profile in oral cancer remains controversial. The present study aimed to evaluate the implications of altered serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer (OC), oral leukoplakia (OLP), and tobacco habits. Thirty patients with OC, 30 with OLP, 30 tobacco abusers (TAs), and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides (Tg) were evaluated using a fully automatic Biochemistry analyzer. Difference in lipid profile in various types of TA, that is, smokeless tobacco (SLT), smoking tobacco (ST), and a combination (Comb) usage of both forms were also analyzed. TC, HDL, and LDL were much lower in the OC group compared with control. Although these parameters were low in the OPC group compared with controls, the difference was not significant. On histological analysis, TC and HDL were found to decrease marginally with loss of tumor differentiation in OC. No correlation was found between the mean serum lipid profiles and degree of dysplasia in OLP. TC and HDL were significantly lesser in all forms of TA when compared with control. There may be an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile and OC. No significant reduction in lipid profile was observed in the OLP group. This may indicate that hypolipidemia is a late change occurring during carcinogenesis or is an effect rather than the cause of cancer.

  5. Determination of lipid hydroperoxides in serum iodometry and high performance liquid chromatography compared.

    PubMed

    Wieland, E; Schettler, V; Diedrich, F; Schuff-Werner, P; Oellerich, M

    1992-06-01

    It is postulated that lipid peroxidation plays a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Efforts have therefore been made to develop reliable and practicable procedures for quantifying lipid peroxidation products such as lipid hydroperoxides in biological specimens. An iodometric cholesterol colour reagent (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) can be used to measure lipid hydroperoxides in isolated low density lipoproteins without lipid extraction. This method has been validated with respect to its analytical performance and suitability for serum samples by comparing it with a high performance liquid chromatography technique. The method was found to have acceptable performance characteristics with aqueous fatty acid hydroperoxide solutions (linoleic acid) and isolated low density lipoproteins, but it cannot be applied to native serum samples without extraction of lipids.

  6. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  7. Effect of soya protein on serum lipid profile and lipoprotein concentrations in patients undergoing hypercholesterolaemic haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Tzu; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Yang, Chwei-Shiun; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Ferng, Shyang-Hwa

    2006-02-01

    Clinical trials have shown that soya protein reduces the concentrations of some atherogenic lipids in subjects with normal renal function. The present study examined the effects of soya protein on serum lipid concentrations and lipoprotein metabolism in patients on hypercholesterolaemic haemodialysis. Twenty-six hypercholesterolaemic (total cholesterol > or =6.21 mmol/l) patients on haemodialysis were studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. After a 4-week run-in phase, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. Isolated soya protein or milk protein 30 g was consumed daily as a beverage at breakfast or post-dialysis for 12 weeks. Soya protein substitution resulted in significant reductions in total cholesterol (17.2 (sd 8.9 )%), LDL-cholesterol (15.3 (sd 12.5 )%), apo B (14.6 (sd 12.1 )%) and insulin (23.8 (sd 18.7) %) concentrations. There were no significant changes in HDL-cholesterol or apo A-I. These results indicate that replacing part of the daily protein intake with soya protein has a beneficial effect on atherogenic lipids and favourably affects lipoprotein metabolism in hypercholesterolaemic patients undergoing haemodialysis.

  8. Resistin gene polymorphisms are associated with acne and serum lipid levels, providing a potential nexus between lipid metabolism and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Younis, Sidra; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Javed, Qamar

    2016-05-01

    Acne vu lgaris is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease causing social stigma and psychological effect on patients. We hypothesized that the genes that can affect both lipid metabolism and inflammation may be central for acne formation and present targets for treatment. Pro-inflammatory adipokine resistin, one such likely target, activates NFkB and JNK pathways inducing TLR-2, IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα genes. The polymorphisms in promoter and intron region of the resistin gene affect its expression levels. Therefore, we explored the association of resistin polymorphisms (RETN +299G > A and -420C > G) with pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. We used PCR-RFLP method to genotype at the two single nucleotide polymorphisms at RETN promoter in 530 acne patients vs. 550 age- and sex-matched control subjects. We also measured serum lipid levels in acne patients and associated these with RETN genotypes. We found that the RETN gene polymorphisms are strongly associated with acne vulgaris and the severity of acne symptoms. In females the variant allele frequencies of both SNPs are statistically higher in patients than in controls; in males frequency distribution does not reach significance. The haplotype containing both variant alleles is significantly more common in patients than in controls. We find no association of RETN SNPs with the acne types. Importantly, we found that the levels of HDL-C were significantly decreased in variant genotype of RETN. Our results show that the RETN polymorphisms expected to boost resistin expression increase the risk of developing acne. We suggest that resistin may provide an attractive target for treatment.

  9. Buffers affect the bending rigidity of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bouvrais, Hélène; Duelund, Lars; Ipsen, John H

    2014-01-14

    In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules.

  10. Effect of honey on serum cholesterol and lipid values.

    PubMed

    Münstedt, Karsten; Hoffmann, Sven; Hauenschild, Annette; Bülte, Michael; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P < .001) as were BMI and a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P < .001), meaning that subjects with a high BMI had a lower HDL cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation.

  11. Prevalence of the Equol-Producer Phenotype and Its Relationship with Dietary Isoflavone and Serum Lipids in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Qin, Liqiang; Liu, Aiping; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Ueno, Tomomi; Li, Xuetuo; Wang, Peiyu

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes have beneficial effects on a range of health outcomes. We investigated the prevalence of equol producers and the relationship of equol phenotype with habitual isoflavone consumption and serum lipid concentrations in 200 Chinese adults in Beijing. Methods After the baseline survey and dietary records, 200 healthy adults in Beijing were challenged with a soy-isoflavone supplement for 3 days; 24-hour urine samples were collected before and after the challenge. Isoflavones and their metabolites in urine were measured to determine equol phenotype. Serum lipids, uric acid, and other biochemical markers were also measured. Results Only 26.8% of the participants excreted equol when on a regular diet, as compared with 60.4% after the challenge. After the challenge, urinary isoflavonoid excretion increased in all participants, while equol excretion increased only in equol producers. Isoflavone intake was correlated with urinary isoflavone (range r = 0.49–0.58, P < 0.01). As compared with nonproducers, equol producers were less likely to consume cereals (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids and isoflavone intake. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by equol phenotype. Conclusions Urinary equol excretion was detected in about 25% of participants under their usual dietary conditions. Their potential to produce equol was increased after the challenge. Urinary isoflavone levels may serve as a useful biomarker for isoflavone intake in populations. We observed an association between equol phenotype and cereal intake. Our findings also suggest that dietary isoflavone intake has no significant effect on serum lipids in healthy participants, regardless of equol phenotype. PMID:20671375

  12. Rat serum electrolytes, lipid profile and cardiovascular activity onNauclea latifolia leaf extract administration.

    PubMed

    Akpanabiatu, M I; Umoh, I B; Udosen, E O; Udoh, A E; Edet, E E

    2005-07-01

    Aqueous extract of the leaf and root ofNauclea latifolia Sm. (Rubiaceae) is used in Nigerian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. This work is carried out to investigate the effect ofNauclea latifolia leaf extract on lipid profile and cardiovascular activity of rats. Normal and 10% coconut oil fed rats were treated with the water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract ofNauclea latifolia leaf for 2 weeks. Forty-eight mature male albino rats of the Wistar strain were divided into two experiments of four groups, each group having 6 animals. Experiment I animals were treated with the water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract whilst experiment II animals were fed 10% coconut oil meal before treatment with the water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract. A single oral dose ofNauclea latifolia was 170, 340 and 510 mg/kg body wt/day of the extracts respectively for 2 wks. There was no significant change in the lipid profile of the experimental animals as compared with the controls. There was about 40% relaxation on contracted thoracic aorta that was pre-contracted with 2 μM phenylephrine. The viability of the tissue was tested against 10 μM of acetylcholine. There was no significant (P>0.05) change in Na(+) concentration in the serum. However, the K(+) concentration in the serum of the experimental animals showed a significant increase. The study shows that ethanol extract ofNauclea latifolia has vasodilator action on the aorta and that lipid profiles of experimental rats were not affected. Furthermore, the increase in the K(+) may be contributing to the vasodilator effect ofNauclea latifolia.

  13. Effects of hempseed and flaxseed oils on the profile of serum lipids, serum total and lipoprotein lipid concentrations and haemostatic factors.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Ursula S; Callaway, James C; Erkkilä, Arja T; Gynther, Jukka; Uusitupa, Matti I J; Järvinen, Tomi

    2006-12-01

    Both hempseed oil (HO) and flaxseed oil (FO) contain high amounts of essential fatty acids (FAs); i.e. linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), but almost in opposite ratios. An excessive intake of one essential FA over the other may interfere with the metabolism of the other while the metabolisms of LA and ALA compete for the same enzymes. It is not known whether there is a difference between n-3 and n-6 FA of plant origin in the effects on serum lipid profile. To compare the effects of HO and FO on the profile of serum lipids and fasting concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids, plasma glucose and insulin, and haemostatic factors in healthy humans. Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in the study. A randomised, double-blind crossover design was used. The volunteers consumed HO and FO (30 ml/day) for 4 weeks each. The periods were separated by a 4-week washout period. The HO period resulted in higher proportions of both LA and gamma-linolenic acid in serum cholesteryl esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG) as compared with the FO period (P < 0.001), whereas the FO period resulted in a higher proportion of ALA in both serum CE and TG as compared with the HO period (P < 0.001). The proportion of arachidonic acid in CE was lower after the FO period than after the HO period (P < 0.05). The HO period resulted in a lower total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with the FO period (P = 0.065). No significant differences were found between the periods in measured values of fasting serum total or lipoprotein lipids, plasma glucose, insulin or hemostatic factors. The effects of HO and FO on the profile of serum lipids differed significantly, with only minor effects on concentrations of fasting serum total or lipoprotein lipids, and no significant changes in concentrations of plasma glucose or insulin or in haemostatic factors.

  14. Serum lipids in young patients with ischaemic stroke: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Albucher, J; Ferrieres, J; Ruidavets, J; Guiraud-Chaumeil, B; Perret, B; Chollet, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The relation betweem serum lipids and ischaemic stroke remains controversial. Studies of lipid related risk factors in cerebrovascular disease have varied greatly in their findings and also in their definition of the cerebrovascular end points. Serum lipids are thought to interact with the pathogenesis of stroke through an atherosclerosis mechanism. Stroke in young patients have been shown to be related to non-atherosclerotic causes most of the time. The aim was to determine the serum lipid profile and the vascular risk factors for ischaemic stroke in a series of patients under 45 with an ischaemic stroke and to compare them with a series of controls of the same age.
METHODS—Ninety four consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke were compared with 111 controls of the same age recruited from a regional electoral list. Vascular risk factors were recorded and serum lipid profile was determined in all of them.
RESULTS—Multivariate analyses showed that low HDL cholesterol, male sex, smoking, hypertension, and oral contraceptives were risk factors for intracerebral arterial occlusion.
CONCLUSION—Low HDL cholesterol was the only serum lipid index to be associated to an increased risk of stroke in this population. Low HDL cholesterol must be considered in the care management of young patients regardless of the detectable presence of atherosclerosis.

 PMID:10864600

  15. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Shabestari, Mahmoud M.; Azad, Farahzad Jabbari; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Bafandeh, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control). The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation. PMID:27486375

  16. Relationship between the serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids and aggression in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cakiroğlu, D; Meral, Y; Sancak, A A; Cifti, G

    2007-07-14

    The serum concentrations of serotonin and lipids--triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein--were determined in 18 normal dogs and 23 dogs diagnosed as aggressive on the basis of interviews with their owners and an assessment of their behaviour with reference to a canine overt aggression chart. The serum serotonin levels in the aggressive dogs were significantly lower than in the normal dogs (P<0.01), but the differences in serum lipids between the two groups were not statistically significant.

  17. An increase in lipoprotein oxidation and endogenous lipid peroxides in serum of obese women.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Türkoğlu, U; Oztezcan, S; Telci, A; Orhan, Y; Aykaç-Toker, G; Sivas, A; Uysal, M

    2003-02-01

    Endogenous malondialdehyde and diene conjugate levels, the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to copper-induced lipid peroxidation, and antibody titer against oxidized low-density lipoproteins were increased, but serum antioxidant activity was unchanged in obese women. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoproteincholesterol, and trigliceride levels were also elevated, but high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels remained unchanged in obese women. In vitro, oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and levels of antibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlated with body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol levels in obese women. These results indicate that obesity is associated with increases in endogenous lipid peroxides, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and lipids in serum.

  18. The association between HIV (treatment), pregnancy serum lipid concentrations and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Marissa J; Browne, Joyce L; Venter, Francois; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Rijken, Marcus J

    2017-07-11

    Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between HIV, ART and serum lipids during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases to obtain articles that measured serum lipid concentrations or the incidence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women. Included articles were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The extracted data was analysed through descriptive analysis. Of the 1264 articles screened, 17 articles were included in this review; eleven reported the incidence of dyslipidaemia, and twelve on maternal serum lipid concentrations under the influence of HIV-infection and ART. No articles reported pregnancy outcomes in relation to serum lipids. Articles were of acceptable quality, but heterogenic in methods and study design. Lipid levels in HIV-infected women increased 1.5-3 fold over the trimesters of pregnancy, and remained within the physiological reference range. The percentage of women with dyslipidaemia was variable between the studies [0-88.9%] and highest in the groups on first generation protease inhibitors and for women on ART at conception. This systematic review observed physiologic concentrations of serum lipids for HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy. Serum lipids were increased in users of first generation protease inhibitors and for those on treatment at conception. There was no information available about pregnancy outcomes. Future studies are needed which include HIV-uninfected control groups, control for potential confounders, and overcome limitations associated with included studies.

  19. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  20. Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns of Iranian horses.

    PubMed

    Asadi, F; Asadian, P; Shahriari, A; Pourkabir, M; Kazemi, A

    2011-12-01

    Patterns of serum biochemical parameters vary among horse breeds. The objective of the present study was to compare serum lipoproteins of Iranian Caspian ponies with those of other horses (Arabs and Thoroughbreds) in the Iranian region. Serum lipoprotein values were determined by agar-agarose gel electrophoresis and measured by scan densitometry. Moreover, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were determined and the results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol values were 1.13 +/- 0.23 and 2.38 +/- 0.18 mmol/l in Caspian ponies, 1.96 +/- 0.49 and 1.92 +/- 0.25 mmol/l in Arab horses and 1.38 +/- 0.26 and 2.17 +/- 0.53 mmol/l in Thoroughbred horses. The relative percentages of alpha- (72.63 +/- 17.76%) and beta-lipoproteins (29.10 +/- 5.49%) in serum electrophoretic tracings from Caspian ponies were not significantly different from those of other horses (p > 0.05). The lipoprotein phenotype in Caspian ponies may be useful for evaluating metabolic diseases.

  1. Racial differences in levels of serum lipids and effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants on lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Olson, James R; Pavuk, Marian; Carpenter, David O

    2014-12-01

    Serum lipid levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition to diet, exercise, genetics, age and race, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) influence concentrations of serum lipids. We investigated associations between fasting concentrations of 35 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and nine organochlorine pesticides in relation to total serum lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in 525 Caucasian and African American residents of Anniston, Alabama, who were not on any lipid-lowering medication. In Model 1, data were adjusted for age, age quadratic, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercise, while in Model 2, additional adjustment was done for other POPs. As compared to Caucasians, African Americans had lower levels of total lipids and triglycerides with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, but higher concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Total pesticides were more strongly associated with elevations in serum lipids than were total PCBs, and the associations were stronger in African Americans. Total DDTs were not associated with serum lipids after adjustment for other POPs in either racial group, while the strongest positive associations were seen for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in both racial groups. Racial differences in lipid profiles, concentrations of POPs and associations between POP concentrations and serum lipids are relevant to racial differences in rates of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels during antipsychotics treatment in Parkinson's disease and related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rustembegovic, Avdo; Sofic, Emin; Wichart, Ildiko

    2006-01-01

    Weight gain is a common adverse effect associated with the use of most typical and atypical antipsychotic. Aim of this study was to investigate serum prolactin, leptin, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoproteins, such high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related psychosis during long-term medication with atypical antipsychotic. The study population comprised 40 patients, who were divided into 4 groups: olanzapine (n=10), risperidone (n=10), seroquel (n=10) monotherapy, a group of 10 patients receiving only antiparkinson drugs and a control group of 8 healthy persons. The patients were evaluated at baseline and at the sixth and twelfth week according to the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), body mass index (BMI), and fasting serum prolactin, leptin, lipids and lipoproteins levels. Treatment of patients with olanzapine caused marked increase of serum LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin levels (p<0,02). No changes in HDL concentrations. There was positive relationship between serum leptin, lipid levels and BMI. However, treatment of patients with seroquel did not cause changes in serum prolactin, leptin, lipids, and lipoproteins levels. Our results suggest that treatment of patients with PD-related psychosis with seroquel appears to have minimal influence on serum leptin, prolactin, lipids, lipoproteins and BMI compared with olanzapine and risperidone.

  3. Interrelationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration and lipid profiles in premenopausal Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal A.; Patel, Prerna P.; Mughal, Zulf; Padidela, Raja; Patel, Ashish D.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, and observational studies have associated it with an atherogenic lipid profile. Aim: To determine the interrelationship between Vitamin D and lipid profile in apparently healthy premenopausal Indian women, considering confounding factors such as lifestyle that independently influence lipids. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty healthy premenopausal women (20–45 year) were recruited from Gujarat, India. Data were collected on anthropometry, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and diet. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone, and lipid profile. Statistical Analysis: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive correlation between serum 25[OH]D concentrations and serum lipids. Results: Ninety-three percent women showed Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D < 20 ng/ml). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed significant inverse correlation with total cholesterol (TC) (r = −0.202, P = 0.027), triglycerides (TG) (r = −0.284, P = 0.002), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (r = −0.184, P = 0.044) and positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.250, P = 0.006). On dichotomizing the population according to median 25(OH)D concentration (11.1 ng/dl), no significant differences were observed between the groups for anthropometry, sunlight exposure, and lifestyle. Serum lipid profiles were significantly different, above median serum 25(OH)D concentration group showed favorable serum lipids (TC: 179.3 ± 30 vs. 191.8 ± 31.7 mg/dl; TG: 140 ± 39.1 vs. 165.5 ± 53.4 mg/dl; LDL-C: 100 ± 30.2 vs. 112 ± 32 mg/dl; HDL-C: 53 ± 14 vs. 47.6 ± 9.3 mg/dl)(P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that association of 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile even after considering lifestyle factors which independently influence lipids

  4. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  5. Alteration of serum lipid profile and its prognostic value in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Da, Mingjie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Heming; Ye, Jinhai; Chen, Jie; Ma, Lu; Gu, Ning; Wu, Yunong; Song, Xiaomeng

    2016-03-01

    Several serum lipid components have been implicated in the development of cancer. However, the prognostic significance of serum lipid components in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is unknown. Here, we investigated the predictive value of serum lipid profile at diagnosis and in the overall survival of the patients. The study population consists of 136 pathologically confirmed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases diagnosed between years 2009 and 2014 at a tertiary medical center. Levels of preoperative serum lipid component's total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a) were compared between patients and normal controls matched for age and gender. Serum lipid profiles and their association with clinical parameters were analyzed. The effects of the serum lipid components on survival were examined using the proportional hazards regression model to estimate hazard ratio. Significant lower levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B were found in patients with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). However, a significantly higher level of lipoprotein (a) was found in the cancer group (P < 0.0001). Patients with higher lipoprotein (a) had significantly shorter overall survival than those with lower lipoprotein (a) (P = 0.0042). Multivariate analysis showed that both higher lipoprotein (a) and lymph node metastasis are independent prognostic factors in the patient population (P < 0.01). A higher lipoprotein (a) was associated with poorer prognosis and might be a novel marker in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tokede, O A; Gaziano, J M; Djoussé, L

    2011-08-01

    Cocoa products, which are rich sources of flavonoids, have been shown to reduce blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Dark chocolate contains saturated fat and is a source of dietary calories; consequently, it is important to determine whether consumption of dark chocolate adversely affects the blood lipid profile. The objective was to examine the effects of dark chocolate/cocoa product consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 1966 to May 2010), CENTRAL and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomized controlled clinical trials assessing the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa products or dark chocolate on lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, 10 clinical trials consisting of 320 participants were included in the analysis. Treatment duration ranged from 2 to 12 weeks. Intervention with dark chocolate/cocoa products significantly reduced serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (differences in means (95% CI) were -5.90 mg/dl (-10.47, -1.32 mg/dl) and -6.23 mg/dl (-11.60, -0.85 mg/dl), respectively). No statistically significant effects were observed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference in means (95% CI): -0.76 mg/dl (-3.02 to 1.51 mg/dl)) and triglyceride (TG) (-5.06 mg/dl (-13.45 to 3.32 mg/dl)). These data are consistent with beneficial effects of dark chocolate/cocoa products on total and LDL cholesterol and no major effects on HDL and TG in short-term intervention trials.

  7. Gut microbiota affects lens and retinal lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Oresic, Matej; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yetukuri, Laxman; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Hänninen, Virve

    2009-11-01

    The gut microbiota affects host lipid metabolism and is considered an environmental factor that contributes to development of obesity. To investigate whether the gut microbiota affects the eye lipidome, we performed comprehensive lipidomic profiling of lens and retina from conventionally raised and germ-free mice. Conventionally raised mice had diminished phosphatidylcholines in the lens and elevated ethanolamine plasmalogens in the retina. Diminishment of lens phosphatidylcholines in the presence of gut microbiota suggests that the conventionally raised mice are exposed over time to more oxidative stress than germ-free mice. Consistent with this, their lifespan is also shorter. Our findings may open a new area of investigation how modulation of gut microbiota affects the eye health.

  8. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284–0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202–0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  9. THE EFFECT OF CORTISONE ON THE SERUM LIPIDS AND ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL CHOLESTEROL ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN THE RABBIT

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Dina; Kobernick, Sidney D.; McMillan, Gardner C.; Duff, G. Lyman

    1954-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the effect of cortisone on the serum lipids and on the development of experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Litter mate rabbits of the same sex were employed; both sexes were represented in the experiment. The report is based upon four experimental groups comprising (1) 12 rabbits fed cholesterol and treated with cortisone vehicle; (2) 12 rabbits fed cholesterol and treated daily with cortisone; (3) 11 rabbits treated with cortisone; and (4) 7 rabbits that received cortisone vehicle. It was observed that: (1) There was less aortic atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed cortisone-treated rabbits as judged by both morphological and chemical means than in the rabbits fed cholesterol without cortisone treatment. (2) Cortisone depressed appreciably the hypercholesterolemia resulting from the feeding of cholesterol to rabbits. (3) Cortisone treatment caused a moderate hypercholesterolemia in normal rabbits. (4) Cortisone caused a moderate increase in serum lipid phosphorus equal to that produced by cholesterol feeding alone. (5) The combination of cholesterol feeding and cortisone did not result in a higher phospholipidemia than either one of these agents alone. (6) Cortisone caused a great increase in serum-neutral fat; it was not apparent whether cholesterol feeding affected the neutral fat lipemia due to cortisone treatment alone. (7) The total cholesterol to lipid phosphorus ratio was about normal in the rabbits that received cortisone only. It was doubled in the animals receiving both cholesterol and cortisone, and it was increased about four times in those that received only cholesterol. The significance of the alterations in the serum lipids induced by cortisone is discussed in relation to the inhibition of the development of aortic atherosclerosis that occurred in the cholesterol-fed rabbits treated with cortisone. PMID:13152282

  10. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Santosh K.; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)n- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex) formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE) showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50%) greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. Conclusions/Significance -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies. PMID:23861884

  11. [Effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Huang, Lianzhen; Hu, Jianping; Li, Tao

    2002-08-01

    To observe the effects of silkworm pupa oil on serum lipids level and platelet function in rats, according to serum TG, TC level, 40 male Wistar rats are divided into four groups (normal control group, high fat control group, silkworm pupa oil group and silkworm pupa oil + VE group). The rats are fed different diets and six weeks later, serum lipids level and platelet function are measured. The results show that (1) Compared with high fat control group, serum TC, TG, LDL-C level, AI value, Platelet aggregability, plasma TXB2 level and T/P ratio decrease significantly while HDL-C level and 6-k-PGF1 level increase in silkworm pupa oil group; (2) Serum TC, LDL-C level, T/P ratio and platelet aggregability are significantly lower in silkworm pupa oil + VE group than in silkworm pupa oil group. It is suggested that silkworm pupa oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid can reduce serum lipids level and inhibit platelet aggregation, which is more effective with the supplementation with VE.

  12. Antibodies to diverse lipids in the serum of patients with clinically cured leprosy and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Arenas, R; Arce-Parades, P; Miranda-Contreras, G

    2003-01-01

    In this study we looked for the presence of antibodies to cardiolipin, cerebrosides, and whole lipids extracted from M. leprae, M. tuberculosis and M. habana, in the serum of patients with clinically cured lepromatous leprosy (sixteen) or tuberculosis (sixteen), 8 to 12 months after arresting the corresponding multi-drug therapy (MDT). Compared to healthy controls (sixteen), both leprosy and tuberculosis ex-patients had still significant levels of antibodies to the three mycobacterial lipids but no detectable levels of antibodies to cardiolipin or cerebroside lipids. Although leprosy and tuberculosis sera recognized the homologous mycobacterial lipids in a preferential fashion, all of them, on the average, reacted more strongly with the lipids of M. habana. This observation backs up, in a certain way, the proposition of using M. habana as a prospective vaccine for leprosy and tuberculosis.

  13. Efficacious gene silencing in serum and significant apoptotic activity induction by survivin downregulation mediated by new cationic gemini tocopheryl lipids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Maiti, Bappa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2015-02-02

    Nonviral gene delivery offers cationic liposomes as promising instruments for the delivery of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) molecules for successful sequence-specific gene silencing (RNA interference). The efficient delivery of siRNA (small interfering RNA) to cells while avoiding unexpected side effects is an important prerequisite for the exploitation of the power of this excellent tool. We present here six new tocopherol based cationic gemini lipids, which induce substantial gene knockdown without any obvious cytotoxicity. All the efficient coliposomal formulations derived from each of these geminis and a helper lipid, dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), were well characterized using physical methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential measurements were conducted to estimate the surface charge of these formulations. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the optimized coliposomal formulations could transfect anti-GFP siRNA efficiently in three different GFP expressing cell lines, viz., HEK 293T, HeLa, and Caco-2, significantly better than a potent commercial standard Lipofectamine 2000 (L2K) both in the absence and in the presence of serum (FBS). Notably, the knockdown activity of coliposomes of gemini lipids was not affected even in the presence of serum (10% and 50% FBS) while it dropped down for L2K significantly. Observations under a fluorescence microscope, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis substantiated the flow cytometry results. The efficient cellular entry of labeled siRNA in GFP expressing cells as evidenced from confocal microscopy put forward these gemini lipids among the potent lipidic carriers for siRNA. The efficient transfection capabilities were also profiled in a more relevant fashion while performing siRNA transfections against survivin (an anti-apoptotic protein) which induced substantial apoptosis. Furthermore, the survivin downregulation improved the therapeutic efficacy levels of an

  14. Detection and confirmation of serum lipid biomarkers for preeclampsia using direct infusion mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Swati; Young, SydneyA.; Esplin, M. Sean; Peaden, Benjamin; Tolley, H. Dennis; Porter, T. Flint; Varner, Michael W.; D’Alton, Mary E.; Jackson, Bruce J.; Graves, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial research, the early diagnosis of preeclampsia remains elusive. Lipids are now recognized to be involved in regulation and pathophysiology of some disease. Shotgun lipidomic studies were undertaken to determine whether serum lipid biomarkers exist that predict preeclampsia later in the same in pregnancy. A discovery study was performed using sera collected at 12–14 weeks pregnancy from 27 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies and 29 cases that later developed preeclampsia. Lipids were extracted and analyzed by direct infusion into a TOF mass spectrometer. MS signals, demonstrating apparent differences were selected, their abundances determined, and statistical differences tested. Statistically significant lipid markers were reevaluated in a second confirmatory study having 43 controls and 37 preeclampsia cases. Multi-marker combinations were developed using those lipid biomarkers confirmed in the second study. The initial study detected 45 potential preeclampsia markers. Of these, 23 markers continued to be statistically significant in the second confirmatory set. Most of these markers, representing several lipid classes, were chemically characterized, typically providing lipid class and potential molecular components using MS2. Several multi-marker panels with areas under the curve >0.85 and high predictive values were developed. Developed panels of serum lipidomic biomarkers appear to be able to identify most women at risk for preeclampsia in a given pregnancy at 12–14 weeks gestation. PMID:26891737

  15. Serum lipid changes and insulin resistance in familial Mediterranean fever

    PubMed Central

    Candan, Zehra; Akdoğan, Ali; Karadağ, Ömer; Kalyoncu, Umut; Şahin, Abdurrahman; Bilgen, Şule; Çalgüneri, Meral; Kiraz, Sedat; Ertenli, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is known to alter lipid profiles and to induce insulin resistance. This study was planned to test the hypothesis that familial Mediterranean ferver (FMF) patients and their first-degree asymptomatic relatives may have lipid profile changes and/or insulin resistance, similar to other inflammatory diseases. Material and Methods We studied 72 FMF patients, 30 asymptomatic first-degree relatives, and 75 healthy controls. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, Apo B, acute phase reactants, and lipid profiles of all subjects were studied. Insulin resistance was determined by the HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) index. Results There was no difference between the groups with regard to sex, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, fasting and postprandial 2-hour glucose, insulin, acute phase reactants, and HOMA index levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were similar between FMF patients and FMF relatives (48.9±12.4 mg/dL vs 49.3±13.8 mg/dL; p=NS), and both were lower than controls (48.9±12.4 mg/dL vs 59.6±15.1 mg/dL; p<0.001 and 49.3±13.8 mg/dL vs 59.8±15.1 mg/dL; p=0.001, respectively). Apo A1 levels in FMF patients and asymptomatic first-degree FMF relatives were both lower than in controls, similar to the HDL-C levels (126.1±25.7 mg/dL vs 151.2±31.4 mg/dL; p<0.001 and 129.5±29.0 mg/dL vs 151.2±31.4 mg/dL; p=0.002, respectively). TG levels were significantly higher in FMF relatives as compared to controls (113.4±53.6 mg/dL vs 97.1± 54.9 mg/dL; p=0.025). Conclusion Low HDL-C and low Apo A1 levels are found in FMF patients and their first-degree asymptomatic relatives. Low-grade inflammation caused by MEFV mutations may be responsible for these lipid profile changes. PMID:27708899

  16. Serum lipid changes and insulin resistance in familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Candan, Zehra; Akdoğan, Ali; Karadağ, Ömer; Kalyoncu, Umut; Şahin, Abdurrahman; Bilgen, Şule; Çalgüneri, Meral; Kiraz, Sedat; Ertenli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation is known to alter lipid profiles and to induce insulin resistance. This study was planned to test the hypothesis that familial Mediterranean ferver (FMF) patients and their first-degree asymptomatic relatives may have lipid profile changes and/or insulin resistance, similar to other inflammatory diseases. We studied 72 FMF patients, 30 asymptomatic first-degree relatives, and 75 healthy controls. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial glucose, insulin, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, Apo B, acute phase reactants, and lipid profiles of all subjects were studied. Insulin resistance was determined by the HOMA (Homeostasis Model Assessment) index. There was no difference between the groups with regard to sex, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, fasting and postprandial 2-hour glucose, insulin, acute phase reactants, and HOMA index levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were similar between FMF patients and FMF relatives (48.9±12.4 mg/dL vs 49.3±13.8 mg/dL; p=NS), and both were lower than controls (48.9±12.4 mg/dL vs 59.6±15.1 mg/dL; p<0.001 and 49.3±13.8 mg/dL vs 59.8±15.1 mg/dL; p=0.001, respectively). Apo A1 levels in FMF patients and asymptomatic first-degree FMF relatives were both lower than in controls, similar to the HDL-C levels (126.1±25.7 mg/dL vs 151.2±31.4 mg/dL; p<0.001 and 129.5±29.0 mg/dL vs 151.2±31.4 mg/dL; p=0.002, respectively). TG levels were significantly higher in FMF relatives as compared to controls (113.4±53.6 mg/dL vs 97.1± 54.9 mg/dL; p=0.025). Low HDL-C and low Apo A1 levels are found in FMF patients and their first-degree asymptomatic relatives. Low-grade inflammation caused by MEFV mutations may be responsible for these lipid profile changes.

  17. The Choice of Euthanasia Method Affects Metabolic Serum Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Paula, Pierozan; Fredrik, Jernerén; Yusuf, Ransome; Oskar, Karlsson

    2017-02-28

    The impact of euthanasia methods on endocrine and metabolic parameters in rodent tissues and biological fluids is highly relevant for the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. However, few studies concerning this issue are found in the literature. We compared the effects of three euthanasia methods currently used in animal experimentation (i.e. decapitation, CO2 inhalation, and pentobarbital injection) on the serum levels of corticosterone, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and a range of free fatty acids in rats. The corticosterone and insulin levels were not significantly affected by the euthanasia protocol used. However, euthanasia by an overdose of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) increased the serum levels of glucose, and decreased cholesterol, stearic and arachidonic acids levels compared with euthanasia by CO2 inhalation and decapitation. CO2 inhalation appears to increase the serum levels of triglycerides, while euthanasia by decapitation induced no individual discrepant biomarker level. We conclude that choice of the euthanasia methods are critical for the reliability of serum biomarkers and indicate the importance of selecting adequate euthanasia methods for metabolic analysis in rodents. Decapitation without anaesthesia may be the most adequate method of euthanasia when taking both animal welfare and data quality in consideration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Milk Polar Lipids Affect In Vitro Digestive Lipolysis and Postprandial Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Manon; Bourlieu, Claire; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Penhoat, Armelle; Cheillan, David; Pineau, Gaëlle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Trauchessec, Michèle; Claude, Mathilde; Ménard, Olivia; Géloën, Alain; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2015-08-01

    Polar lipid (PL) emulsifiers such as milk PLs (MPLs) may affect digestion and subsequent lipid metabolism, but focused studies on postprandial lipemia are lacking. We evaluated the impact of MPLs on postprandial lipemia in mice and on lipid digestion in vitro. Female Swiss mice were gavaged with 150 μL of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with 5.7 mg of either MPLs or soybean PLs (SPLs) and killed after 1, 2, or 4 h. Plasma lipids were quantified and in the small intestine, gene expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Emulsions were lipolyzed in vitro using a static human digestion model; triglyceride (TG) disappearance was followed by thin-layer chromatography. In mice, after 1 h, plasma TGs tended to be higher in the MPL group than in the SPL group (141 μg/mL vs. 90 μg/mL; P = 0.07) and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were significantly higher (64 μg/mL vs. 44 μg/mL; P < 0.05). The opposite was observed after 4 h with lower TGs (21 μg/mL vs. 35 μg/mL; P < 0.01) and NEFAs (20 μg/mL vs. 32 μg/mL; P < 0.01) in the MPL group compared with the SPL group. This was associated at 4 h with a lower gene expression of apolipoprotein B (Apob) and Secretion Associated, Ras related GTPase 1 gene homolog B (Sar1b), in the duodenum of MPL mice compared with SPL mice (P < 0.05). In vitro, during the intestinal phase, TGs were hydrolyzed more in the MPL emulsion than in the SPL emulsion (decremental AUCs were 1750%/min vs. 180%/min; P < 0.01). MPLs enhance lipid intestinal hydrolysis and promote more rapid intestinal lipid absorption and sharper kinetics of lipemia. Postprandial lipemia in mice can be modulated by emulsifying with MPLs compared with SPLs, partly through differences in chylomicron assembly, and TG hydrolysis rate as observed in vitro. MPLs may thereby contribute to the long-term regulation of lipid metabolism. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Absence of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation affects lipid metabolism in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Sylvain; Uzbekov, Rustem; Elis, Sébastien; Sanchez, Laura; Kireev, Igor; Lardic, Lionel; Dalbies-Tran, Rozenn; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2013-03-15

    Cumulus cells (CC) surround the oocyte and are coupled metabolically through regulation of nutrient intake. CC removal before in vitro maturation (IVM) decreases bovine oocyte developmental competence without affecting nuclear meiotic maturation. The objective was to investigate the influence of CC on oocyte cytoplasmic maturation in relation to energy metabolism. IVM with either cumulus-enclosed (CEO) or -denuded (DO) oocytes was performed in serum-free metabolically optimized medium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different distribution of membrane-bound vesicles and lipid droplets between metaphase II DO and CEO. By Nile Red staining, a significant reduction in total lipid level was evidenced in DO. Global transcriptomic analysis revealed differential expression of genes regulating energy metabolism, transcription, and translation between CEO and DO. By Western blot, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive phospholipase (HSL) proteins were detected in oocytes and in CC, indicating a local lipogenesis and lypolysis. FAS protein was significantly less abundant in DO that in CEO and more highly expressed in CC than in the oocytes. On the contrary, HSL protein was more abundant in oocytes than in CC. In addition, active Ser⁵⁶³-phosphorylated HSL was detected in the oocytes only after IVM, and its level was similar in CEO and DO. In conclusion, absence of CC during IVM affected lipid metabolism in the oocyte and led to suboptimal cytoplasmic maturation. Thus, CC may influence the oocyte by orienting the consumption of nutritive storage via regulation of local fatty acid synthesis and lipolysis to provide energy for maturation.

  20. Phosphoethanolamine substitution of lipid A and resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cationic antimicrobial peptides and complement-mediated killing by normal human serum.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lisa A; Choudhury, Biswa; Balthazar, Jacqueline T; Martin, Larry E; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A; Stephens, David S; Carlson, Russell; Shafer, William M

    2009-03-01

    The capacity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cause disseminated gonococcal infection requires that such strains resist the bactericidal action of normal human serum. The bactericidal action of normal human serum against N. gonorrhoeae is mediated by the classical complement pathway through an antibody-dependent mechanism. The mechanism(s) by which certain strains of gonococci resist normal human serum is not fully understood, but alterations in lipooligosaccharide structure can affect such resistance. During an investigation of the biological significance of phosphoethanolamine extensions from lipooligosaccharide, we found that phosphoethanolamine substitutions from the heptose II group of the lipooligosaccharide beta-chain did not impact levels of gonococcal (strain FA19) resistance to normal human serum or polymyxin B. However, loss of phosphoethanolamine substitution from the lipid A component of lipooligosaccharide, due to insertional inactivation of lptA, resulted in increased gonococcal susceptibility to polymyxin B, as reported previously for Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast to previous reports with N. meningitidis, loss of phosphoethanolamine attached to lipid A rendered strain FA19 susceptible to complement killing. Serum killing of the lptA mutant occurred through the classical complement pathway. Both serum and polymyxin B resistance as well as phosphoethanolamine decoration of lipid A were restored in the lptA-null mutant by complementation with wild-type lptA. Our results support a role for lipid A phosphoethanolamine substitutions in resistance of this strict human pathogen to innate host defenses.

  1. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wai Yen Alfred; Chia, Yoke Yin; Liong, Shih Yeen; Ton, So Ha; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Syed Husain, Sharifah Noor Akmal

    2009-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities comprising visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR). With the onset of IR, the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism, is reduced. Increased activation of glucocorticoid receptors results in MetS symptoms and is thus speculated to have a role in the pathophysiology of the MetS. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the bioactive constituent of licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza glabra) inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 that catalyzes the activation of glucocorticoids. Thus, oral administration of GA is postulated to ameliorate the MetS. Results In this study, daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg of GA for one week led to significant increase in LPL expression in the quadriceps femoris (p < 0.05) but non-significant increase in the abdominal muscle, kidney, liver, heart and the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (p > 0.05) of the GA-treated rats compared to the control. Decrease in adipocyte size (p > 0.05) in both the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots accompanies such selective induction of LPL expression. Consistent improvement in serum lipid parameters was also observed, with decrease in serum free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol but elevated HDL-cholesterol (p > 0.05). Histological analysis using tissue lipid staining with Oil Red O showed significant decrease in lipid deposition in the abdominal muscle and quadriceps femoris (p < 0.05) but non-significant decrease in the heart, kidney and liver (p > 0.05). Conclusion Results from this study may imply that GA could counteract the development of visceral obesity and improve dyslipidaemia via selective induction of tissue LPL expression and a positive shift in serum lipid parameters respectively, and retard the development of IR associated with tissue steatosis. PMID:19638239

  2. Effects of Supplemental Exogenous Emulsifier on Performance, Nutrient Metabolism, and Serum Lipid Profile in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amitava; Haldar, Sudipto; Mondal, Souvik; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control), 1 (E1) and 2 (E2) % of added fat (saturated palm oil). Live weight gain (P < .07) and feed conversion ratio (P < .05) in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (P < .05). Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (P < .05) and liver fat content decreased (P < .05) linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (P < .001) leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (P < .06) in the E1 group (quadratic response). Metabolizable intake of N (P < .1) and fat (P < .05) increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance. PMID:20671938

  3. Clinical Profile and Changes of Serum Lipid Levels in Epileptic Patients after Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ken; Sawada, Masahiro; Morioka, Harumi; Kyuzen, Maya; Ebina, Junya; Nagasawa, Junpei; Yanagihashi, Masaru; Miura, Ken; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Hirayama, Takehisa; Takazawa, Takanori; Kano, Osamu; Kawabe, Kiyokazu; Iwasaki, Yasuo

    2017-03-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may increase development of dyslipidemia and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We examined the clinical profile and changes of serum lipid levels after AED monotherapy in patients with poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after cerebral infarction (CI). Medical records were reviewed in consecutive 2144 CI patients. Monotherapy of valproate, carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), zonisamide, levetiracetam, or lamotrigine was performed in PSE patients. Serum lipid levels were measured before and at 3 months after AED treatment. The prevalence of PSE was 7.0% in CI patients. The TOAST etiology disclosed large-artery atherosclerosis in 68 patients (45%), cardioembolism in 63 patients (42%), and undetermined cause in 19 patients (13%). CVD risk profile showed obesity of 18 patients (12%), current smoker of 30 patients (20%), hypertension of 75 patients (50%), diabetes mellitus of 32 patients (21%), dyslipidemia of 15 patients (10%), and atrial fibrillation of 63 patients (42%). CBZ or PHT administration increased serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels significantly compared to baseline and AED-untreated controls. Those levels were not increased significantly in other AED and control groups. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically in all groups. The prevalence of post-CI epilepsy was 7.0%. The pathogenesis contributed to atherothrombosis and cardioembolism. CBZ or PHT administration increased serum TC and LDL-C significantly. Thus, we should pay more attention to serum lipid levels in patients receiving cytochrome P450 (CYP)-induced AEDs, and might considerer switching to non-CYP-induced AEDs in patients with unfavorable serum lipid changes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. INFLUENCE OF UNREFINED SORGHUM OR MAIZE ON SERUM LIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Suhasini, G. E.; Krishna, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    The rural population in many parts of India consumes sorghum (Jowar) and maize as staple food. The flour made out of these cereals is consumed after cooking or baking on a pan with or without oil. The present study was undertaken in two groups of healthy human volunteers. Each subject of first group consumed ground unrefined sorghum (100g) daily as supper for three weeks in the form of pancake. The subjects of second group consumed ground unrefined Maize (50g) daily as supper for three weeks also as pancake. Both the diets showed significant reduction in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels with simultaneous increase in HDL cholesterol value. PMID:22556554

  5. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  6. Human Ozone (O3) Exposure Alters Serum Profile of Lipid Metabolites

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN OZONE (O3) EXPOSURE ALTERS SERUM PROFILE OF LIPID METABOLITES Miller, D B.1; Kodavanti, U P.2 Karoly, E D.3; Cascio W.E2, Ghio, A J. 21. UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, N.C., United States. 2. NHEERL, U.S. EPA, RTP, N.C., United States. 3. METABOLON INC., Durham, N.C., United...

  7. Cartap and carbofuran induced alterations in serum lipid profile of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, Devendra K; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Aradhna; Watal, Geeta; Sharma, Bechan

    2009-04-01

    Wistar rats of 6-8 weeks in age weighing between 120-150 g were exposed to the fixed doses of each of the carbamate pesticides such as cartap (50% LD(50)) and carbofuran (50% LD(50)) as well as a combination of these two with 25% LD(50) of each for one week. The effect of treatments was studied in terms of serum lipid parameters such as high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Treatment with individual doses of carbofuran (50% LD(50)) and cartap (50 % LD(50)) caused significant alterations in the levels of serum lipid parameters. The pesticides treatment resulted in marked decrease in the level of serum high-density lipoprotein where as that of other lipids got significantly elevated. Further, the rats exhibited relatively higher impact of pesticides when treated with the compounds in combination (25 % LD(50) of each). The results indicated that these compounds when used together may exert enhanced effect on the levels of serum lipids in rat.

  8. Effects of Indoor Cycling Associated with Diet on Body Composition and Serum Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Valle, Valeria S.; de Mello, Danielli B.; Fortes, Marcos de Sa R.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women. Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at…

  9. Effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) Mushroom on serum lipid levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Furuichi, Yukio; Kokean, Yasushi; Nishii, Takafumi; Hisamatsu, Makoto

    2002-02-01

    The effect of Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.) mushroom on serum lipid levels was investigated in rats. When the mushroom (fruit body) powder or its hotwater extract was added at a level of 10% to a cholesterol-containing diet, the serum total cholesterol levels of rats fed the fruit body or the hot-water extract were markedly lower than that of controls, though there was no significant difference in serum HDL-cholesterol among the three groups. On a cholesterol-free diet, the addition of fruit body powder at a level of 5% significantly decreased serum total cholesterol. Serum triglycerides and phospholipids were significantly decreased in both the fruit body and hot-water extract groups. Furthermore, Hatakeshimeji in the diet significantly increased the activity of cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase, which converts cellular cholesterol to bile acids, as well as the fecal excretion of bile acids.

  10. Comparison of serum lipid compositions, lipid peroxide, alpha-tocopherol and lipoproteins in captive marine mammals (bottlenose dolphins, spotted seals and West Indian manatees) and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Kasamatsu, Masahiko; Kawauchi, Rieko; Tsunokawa, Masatoshi; Ueda, Keiichi; Uchida, Eiji; Oikawa, Shin; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kawajiri, Takaaki; Uchida, Senzo; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-04-01

    Concentrations of serum lipid components, lipid peroxide (LPO) and alpha-tocopherol and electrophoretic patterns of lipoproteins in serum samples obtained from captive marine mammals and terrestrial mammals were compared. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, free fatty acid, and phospholipid in fish-eating animals were significantly higher than those in manatees and cows. Serum LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in the fish-eating animals were also significantly higher than those in manatees, cows and dogs. Different patterns of densitometric scans of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and a significantly lower percentage of LDL were demonstrated in the dolphins compared with the seals, cow and dogs. The concentration of LPO was significantly correlated with triglyceride and phospholipid concentrations in serum from the dolphins. These results suggest that triglyceride and phospholipid are susceptible to oxidative reaction in fish-eating animals. Evaluation of serum lipids, LPO and alpha-tocopherol concentrations is needed for nutritional husbandry for fish-eating animals.

  11. Serum lipid levels in neighboring communities with chlorinated and nonchlorinated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Zeighami, E.A.; Watson, A.P.; Craun, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program was designed to ascertain levels of serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of a total of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. The purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroid hormones differed according to the chlorination of the water supply, or to the calcium and magnesium content (hardness) of the drinking water supply. This report examines the relationship of chlorination and water calcium to estimated community mean serum lipid levels. The estimated community means are adjusted for potential confounders, including age, education level, alcohol intake, smoking, dietary fat and dietary calcium. Serum cholesterol levels proved to be significantly higher in chlorinated communities for females. Levels of serum cholesterol were also higher in chlorinated communities for males, but differences were considerably smaller and not statistically significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were also higher in chlorinated communities for females (p = .06). Levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were higher in hard water communities than in soft water communities, although the p-value for the hardness term did not quite reach significance at p < .05 in either model. The regression of community mean HDL levels on both drinking water calcium and magnesium levels was positive, indicating increasing mean HDL levels with increasing calcium and/or magnesium content in the drinking water.

  12. Enzymatically Modified Starch Ameliorates Postprandial Serum Triglycerides and Lipid Metabolome in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Eberspächer, Eva; Grüll, Dietmar; Kowalczyk, Lidia; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Developing host digestion-resistant starches to promote human health is of great research interest. Chemically modified starches (CMS) are widely used in processed foods and although the modification of the starch molecule allows specific reduction in digestibility, the metabolic effects of CMS have been less well described. This short-term study evaluated the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on fasting and postprandial profiles of blood glucose, insulin and lipids, and serum metabolome in growing pigs. Eight jugular-vein catheterized pigs (initial body weight, 37.4 kg; 4 months of age) were fed 2 diets containing 72% purified starch (EMS or waxy corn starch (control)) in a cross-over design for 7 days. On day 8, an 8-hour meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed with serial blood samplings. Besides biochemical analysis, serum was analysed for 201 metabolites through targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approaches. Pigs fed the EMS diet showed increased (P<0.05) immediate serum insulin and plasma glucose response compared to pigs fed the control diet; however, area-under-the-curves for insulin and glucose were not different among diets. Results from MTT indicated reduced postprandial serum triglycerides with EMS versus control diet (P<0.05). Likewise, serum metabolome profiling identified characteristic changes in glycerophospholipid, lysophospholipids, sphingomyelins and amino acid metabolome profiles with EMS diet compared to control diet. Results showed rapid adaptations of blood metabolites to dietary starch shifts within 7 days. In conclusion, EMS ingestion showed potential to attenuate postprandial raise in serum lipids and suggested constant alteration in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids which might be a health benefit of EMS consumption. Because serum insulin was not lowered, more research is warranted to reveal possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed changes in the profile of serum lipid

  13. Effects of maternal treatment of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in embryonic chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Xue; Zhang, Yuanshu; Ma, Haitian; Zou, Sixiang

    2010-04-01

    Over the last decade, much evidence emerged to suggest that alterations in maternal diets during pregnancy may irreversibly affect aspects of physiological and biochemical functions in the fetus. To explore the effects of maternal dietary treatments with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on lipid metabolism in the embryo, we investigated serum lipid profile and hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the maternal and embryonic chicken. Sixteen-week-old pullets were allocated into 3 groups (n=30), and after laying, they were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with DHEA at 0, 20 or 100mg/kg diet. Eggs were collected after DHEA treatment and incubated at 37.5 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. Blood and liver samples were collected from hens and embryonic chickens. DHEA treatment resulted in decreased body weight and increased relative liver weight in both maternal and embryonic chickens, while the concentrations of blood triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly lower in the 20mg DHEA/kg group as compared to the control group during embryonic development. The expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPTI) gene was also reduced following treatment with 20mg DHEA/kg at hatching. However, blood TC, and hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hydroxy methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) gene expression were significantly up-regulated in the 100mg DHEA/kg group during embryonic development and hatching. Overall, the results of this study indicate that maternal dietary treatment with DHEA regulates serum lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between serum lipid profile and carotid intima-media thickness in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sarama; Sarkar, Chandan; Biswas, Subhash Chandra; Karim, R

    2008-07-01

    Abnormal lipid profile is often found in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. To assess the impact of abnormal lipid profile on atherosclerosis in young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women, carotid intima-media thickness as judged by B-mode ultrasonography were done in 30 young (18-35 yrs) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women and in similarly age-matched 30 apparently healthy controls. Compared to controls, young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women had significantly elevated serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C levels and carotid intima-media thickness. HDL-C level did not differ significantly between two groups of women. In Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women carotid intima-media thickness was positively correlated with serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C and negatively correlated with serum HDL-C. Our study suggests that even young Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women are prone to atherosclerosis from early age.

  15. Lipid cross-linking of nanolipoprotein particles substantially enhances serum stability and cellular uptake [Lipid crosslinking enhances the stability of nanolipoprotein particles in serum by multiple orders of magnitude

    DOE PAGES

    Gilmore, Sean F.; Blanchette, Craig D.; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; ...

    2016-07-13

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) consist of a discoidal phospholipid lipid bilayer confined by an apolipoprotein belt. NLPs are a promising platform for a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, size, definable composition, and amphipathic characteristics. However, poor serum stability hampers the use of NLPs for in vivo applications such as drug formulation. In this study, NLP stability was enhanced upon the incorporation and subsequent UV-mediated intermolecular cross-linking of photoactive DiynePC phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, forming cross-linked nanoparticles (X-NLPs). Both the concentration of DiynePC in the bilayer and UV exposure time significantly affected the resulting X-NLP stability in 100%more » serum, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of fluorescently labeled particles. Cross-linking did not significantly impact the size of X-NLPs as determined by dynamic light scattering and SEC. X-NLPs had essentially no degradation over 48 h in 100% serum, which is a drastic improvement compared to non-cross-linked NLPs (50% degradation by ~10 min). X-NLPs had greater uptake into the human ATCC 5637 bladder cancer cell line compared to non-cross-linked particles, indicating their potential utility for targeted drug delivery. X-NLPs also exhibited enhanced stability following intravenous administration in mice. Lastly, these results collectively support the potential utility of X-NLPs for a variety of in vivo applications.« less

  16. Lipid cross-linking of nanolipoprotein particles substantially enhances serum stability and cellular uptake [Lipid crosslinking enhances the stability of nanolipoprotein particles in serum by multiple orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Sean F.; Blanchette, Craig D.; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Hura, Greg L.; Rasley, Amy; Corzett, Michele; Pan, Chong-xian; Fischer, Nicholas O.; Henderson, Paul T.

    2016-07-13

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) consist of a discoidal phospholipid lipid bilayer confined by an apolipoprotein belt. NLPs are a promising platform for a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, size, definable composition, and amphipathic characteristics. However, poor serum stability hampers the use of NLPs for in vivo applications such as drug formulation. In this study, NLP stability was enhanced upon the incorporation and subsequent UV-mediated intermolecular cross-linking of photoactive DiynePC phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, forming cross-linked nanoparticles (X-NLPs). Both the concentration of DiynePC in the bilayer and UV exposure time significantly affected the resulting X-NLP stability in 100% serum, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of fluorescently labeled particles. Cross-linking did not significantly impact the size of X-NLPs as determined by dynamic light scattering and SEC. X-NLPs had essentially no degradation over 48 h in 100% serum, which is a drastic improvement compared to non-cross-linked NLPs (50% degradation by ~10 min). X-NLPs had greater uptake into the human ATCC 5637 bladder cancer cell line compared to non-cross-linked particles, indicating their potential utility for targeted drug delivery. X-NLPs also exhibited enhanced stability following intravenous administration in mice. Lastly, these results collectively support the potential utility of X-NLPs for a variety of in vivo applications.

  17. Lipid cross-linking of nanolipoprotein particles substantially enhances serum stability and cellular uptake [Lipid crosslinking enhances the stability of nanolipoprotein particles in serum by multiple orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, Sean F.; Blanchette, Craig D.; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Hura, Greg L.; Rasley, Amy; Corzett, Michele; Pan, Chong-xian; Fischer, Nicholas O.; Henderson, Paul T.

    2016-07-13

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) consist of a discoidal phospholipid lipid bilayer confined by an apolipoprotein belt. NLPs are a promising platform for a variety of biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, size, definable composition, and amphipathic characteristics. However, poor serum stability hampers the use of NLPs for in vivo applications such as drug formulation. In this study, NLP stability was enhanced upon the incorporation and subsequent UV-mediated intermolecular cross-linking of photoactive DiynePC phospholipids in the lipid bilayer, forming cross-linked nanoparticles (X-NLPs). Both the concentration of DiynePC in the bilayer and UV exposure time significantly affected the resulting X-NLP stability in 100% serum, as assessed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of fluorescently labeled particles. Cross-linking did not significantly impact the size of X-NLPs as determined by dynamic light scattering and SEC. X-NLPs had essentially no degradation over 48 h in 100% serum, which is a drastic improvement compared to non-cross-linked NLPs (50% degradation by ~10 min). X-NLPs had greater uptake into the human ATCC 5637 bladder cancer cell line compared to non-cross-linked particles, indicating their potential utility for targeted drug delivery. X-NLPs also exhibited enhanced stability following intravenous administration in mice. Lastly, these results collectively support the potential utility of X-NLPs for a variety of in vivo applications.

  18. Factorial experiment to determine influence of fish protein and fish oil on serum and liver lipids in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, N; Deshaies, Y; Jacques, H

    1992-01-01

    Rabbits were fed purified diets consisting of casein (CA), fish protein (FP), and soy protein (SP) combined with MaxEpa oil (ME) or corn oil (CN) to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid sources on serum total, lipoprotein, and hepatic lipid levels. Dietary proteins and lipids exerted significant (p < 0.05) separate effects on serum total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.005), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) (p < 0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p < 0.001), whereas only dietary proteins significantly affected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.001) and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p < 0.05). Hence, FP induced serum TC (233 mg/dl), VLDL-C (22 mg/dl), and LDL-C (151 mg/dl) intermediary to hypercholesterolemic CA (TC, 319 mg/dl; VLDL-C, 57 mg/dl; LDL-C, 204 mg/dl) and cholesterol-lowering SP (TC, 129 mg/dl; VLDL-C 19 mg/dl; LDL-C, 84 mg/dl). The twofold rise in HDL-C on feeding FP (35 mg/dl), compared with CA (20 mg/dl) and SP (16 mg/dl), resulted in a drop in LDL-C/HDL-C to a level similar to that of SP groups. The cholesterol-lowering action of ME (188 mg/dl), in contrast to CN (266 mg/dl), was reflected mainly in VLDL (ME, 15 mg/dl; CN, 50 mg/dl) but also in HDL (ME, 16 mg/dl; CN, 31 mg/dl) fractions. Compared with CN, the significant (p < 0.05) ME-induced rise in serum and VLDL triglycerides was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.001) drop in lipoprotein lipase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effects of supplemental copper on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanling; Wang, Yong; Lin, Xi; Guo, Chunhua

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of copper (Cu) supplementation on the serum lipid profile, meat quality, and carcass composition of goat kids, thirty-five 3-4-month-old Jian Yang big-eared goat kids (BW 20.3±0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary Cu treatments (n=5/treatment). The dietary Cu concentrations were: (1) control (no supplemental Cu), (2) 20 mg, (3) 40 mg, (4) 80 mg, (5) 160 mg, (6) 320 mg, and (7) 640 mg of supplemental Cu/kg dry matter (DM). Copper was supplemented as CuSO4.5H2O (25.2 % Cu). The goats were fed a high-concentrate basal diet with the different concentrations of supplemental Cu/kg DM for 96 days. The serum lipid profile was determined on day 51 and day 96. Meat quality and carcass composition of longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after the goats were slaughtered at 96 days. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were not affected by treatment (P>0.18). No differences were observed in drip loss, cooking loss, a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values (P>0.17); however, the 24-h pH value (linear; P=0.0009) and L* (brightness) value (linear; P=0.0128) decreased, and shear force increased (linear; P=0.0005) as Cu supplementation increased. The intramuscular fat (%) increased (linear; P=0.001) as supplemental Cu increased. No differences (P>0.21) in the moisture, crude protein, and ash (%) were observed. Results of this study indicate that supplemental Cu does not modify the serum lipid profile; however, it can impact intramuscular fat content and the meat quality of goat kids.

  20. Topiramate: effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins levels in children.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, E; Verrotti, A; Sarajlija, J; Garone, C; Matricardi, S; Salerno, G G; Monti, M; Chiarelli, F

    2007-12-01

    The present controlled study aims to evaluate topiramate (TPM) effect on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, apolipoproteins A1, B and lipoprotein (a). Seventy patients in evolving age suffering from various types of epilepsy, treated with TPM, (age range: 6 months-22 years) were evaluated before and after 12 months of treatment and compared with 110 sex- and age-matched subjects. At baseline, no significant difference was present between controls and children treated with TPM. After a year, the BMI did not show significant change in adults and remained into respective growth curve. No significant difference in lipids and lipoproteins neither between first and second evaluation nor between patients and controls was found. Some intra-group variation has been noticed: whilst controls maintained similar levels, the 70 patients on TPM monotherapy showed a slight decrease in TC, triglycerides and HDL. These fluctuations, however, occurred in the normal range so neither dietary nor pharmacological treatment of hyperlipidaemia after a year of TPM was necessary.

  1. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Ragunath; Lyn, Rodney K.; Srinivasan, Prashanth; Delcorde, Julie; Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne; Pezacki, John P.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  2. Serum lipid profile and risk of prostate cancer recurrence: results from the SEARCH database

    PubMed Central

    Allott, Emma H.; Howard, Lauren E.; Cooperberg, Matthew R.; Kane, Christopher J.; Aronson, William J.; Terris, Martha K.; Amling, Christopher L.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between total cholesterol, low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively), triglycerides and prostate cancer (PC) is conflicting. Given that PC and dyslipidemia affect large proportions of Western society, understanding these associations has public health importance. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 843 radical prostatectomy (RP) patients who never used statins before surgery within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to investigate the association between cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides and biochemical recurrence risk. In secondary analysis, we explored these associations in patients with dyslipidemia, defined using National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines. Results Elevated serum triglycerides were associated with increased risk of PC recurrence (HRper 10 mg/dl 1.03; 95%CI 1.01–1.05) but associations between total cholesterol, LDL and HDL and recurrence risk were null. However, among men with dyslipidemia, each 10 mg/dl increase in cholesterol and HDL was associated with 9% increased recurrence risk (HR 1.09; 95%CI 1.01–1.17) and 39% reduced recurrence risk (HR 0.61; 95%CI 0.41–0.91), respectively. Conclusions Elevated serum triglycerides were associated with increased risk of PC recurrence. Cholesterol, LDL or HDL were not associated with recurrence risk among all men. However, among men with dyslipidemia, elevated cholesterol and HDL levels were associated with increased and decreased risk of recurrence, respectively. Impact These findings, coupled with evidence that statin use is associated with reduced recurrence risk, suggest that lipid levels should be explored as a modifiable risk factor for PC recurrence. PMID:25304929

  3. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats.

  4. Freeze-dried powdered yacon: effects of FOS on serum glucose, lipids and intestinal transit in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Scheid, M M A; Genaro, P S; Moreno, Y M F; Pastore, G M

    2014-10-01

    Freeze-dried powdered yacon (FDY) can be considered a prebiotic product due to its fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content. The effect of 9 weeks of daily intake of FDY containing 7.4 g of FOS on glucose, lipid metabolism and intestinal transit in a group of elderly people was investigated. Seventy-two elderly (mean age 67.11 ± 6.11) men and women were studied for 9 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. They were randomly assigned to the supplement group (which received 7.4 g of FOS as FDY) or the control group. At the beginning and end of the study, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling, clinical analyses and dietary intake were assessed. A daily intake of FDY containing 7.4 g of FOS for 9 weeks was associated with a mean decrease in serum glucose (p = 0.013), but supplementation did not reduce serum lipids in the study group. The administered dose did not adversely affect intestinal transit. It did not cause bloating, flatulence or intestinal discomfort. Freeze-dried powdered yacon is a good source of FOS, and daily consumption can have a favourable effect on serum glucose in the elderly. It is also practical, easy and safe to use and store.

  5. Effect of captopril on serum lipid levels and cardiac mitochondrial oxygen consumption in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Z; Gopcevic, K; Marinkovic, D; Tasic, G

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are widely used in therapy of cardiovascular diseases. However, the consensus on effects of these inhibitors in control of myocardial oxygen consumption during the process of experimental hypercholesterolemia and under the condition of endothelial dysfunction has not been reached. Here we examined effects of captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, on serum lipid levels and oxygen consumption rate in mitochondria isolated from heart of rabbits treated by hypercholesterolemic diet. During the twelve-week period, the Chinchilla male rabbits were daily treated by saline (controls); 1 % cholesterol diet; 5 mg/kg/day captopril or 1 % cholesterol + 5 mg/kg/day captopril. Total- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride in serum were measured spectrophotometrically. The left ventricle mitochondrial fraction was isolated and myocardial oxygen consumption was measured by Biological Oxygen Monitor. Mitochondria isolated from hearts of rabbits exposed to hypercholesterolemic diet showed significantly reduced respiration rates (state 3 and state 4) with altering adenosine diphosphate/oxygen ratio, whereas the respiratory control ratio was not affected when compared to controls. Mitochondria from cholesterol/captopril-treated animals showed significantly reduced respiration rates without altering adenosine diphosphate/oxygen ratio index or respiratory control ratio. Although captopril did not exert the favorable effect on serum lipid levels in cholesterol-treated animals, it restored the mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Further studies should be performed to define the underlying physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications.

  6. Lipid Profiles and trans Fatty Acids in Serum Phospholipids of Semi-nomadic Fulani in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Glew, Robert H.; Chuang, Lu-Te; Berry, Tammy; Okolie, Henry; Crossey, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fulani are semi-nomadic pastoralists of West Africa whose diet, culture, and economy are centred on cattle. Previous studies have shown that the Fulani of northern Nigeria derive 50% of their total calories from fat and 30% of their calories from milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter oil that contain significant amounts of trans fatty acids (TFAs), primarily vaccenic acid, which raise total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The study was conducted to know how the consumption of relatively large amounts of dairy products by adult Fulani affected the TFA content of their serum phospholipids. Blood samples were collected from 22 male and 29 female Fulani, aged 35–60 years, who were living in rural areas of Gombe state in northeastern Nigeria. The total serum phospholipid fraction was isolated, and its fatty acid composition was determined. Surprisingly, vaccenic acid was not detected, and three other TFAs—18:1-t6, 18:1-t9, and 18:2-t9, t12—together accounted for only 0.16% of the total fatty acid. The mean serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations of the subjects were within the normal range for populations in developed countries; however, at 32 mg/dL, the mean serum HDL-C concentration of the Fulani males was slightly below the lower limit of the reference range. No correlations were observed between the total TFA percentage or that of the three individual TFAs and any of the parameters of the serum lipid profile. These findings indicate that, with respect to TFAs at least, the fatty acid pattern of the serum phospholipids of Fulani pastoralists does not reflect the high TFA content of their traditional diet. Despite the consumption of rumenic acid-rich dairy products, for unknown reasons, the semi-nomadic Fulani manage to maintain a low level of TFAs in their blood and a relatively healthful serum lipid profile. While the mechanism that accounts for

  7. Lipid profiles and trans fatty acids in serum phospholipids of semi-nomadic Fulani in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Glew, Robert H; Chuang, Lu-Te; Berry, Tammy; Okolie, Henry; Crossey, Michael J; VanderJagt, Dorothy J

    2010-04-01

    The Fulani are semi-nomadic pastoralists of West Africa whose diet, culture, and economy are centred on cattle. Previous studies have shown that the Fulani of northern Nigeria derive 50% of their total calories from fat and 30% of their calories from milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter oil that contain significant amounts of trans fatty acids (TFAs), primarily vaccenic acid, which raise total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C), and lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The study was conducted to know how the consumption of relatively large amounts of dairy products by adult Fulani affected the TFA content of their serum phospholipids. Blood samples were collected from 22 male and 29 female Fulani, aged 35-60 years, who were living in rural areas of Gombe state in northeastern Nigeria. The total serum phospholipid fraction was isolated, and its fatty acid composition was determined. Surprisingly, vaccenic acid was not detected, and three other TFAs--18:1-t6, 18:1-t9, and 18:2-t9,t12--together accounted for only 0.16% of the total fatty acid. The mean serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations of the subjects were within the normal range for populations in developed countries; however, at 32 mg/dL, the mean serum HDL-C concentration of the Fulani males was slightly below the lower limit of the reference range. No correlations were observed between the total TFA percentage or that of the three individual TFAs and any of the parameters of the serum lipid profile. These findings indicate that, with respect to TFAs at least, the fatty acid pattern of the serum phospholipids of Fulani pastoralists does not reflect the high TFA content of their traditional diet. Despite the consumption of rumenic acid-rich dairy products, for unknown reasons, the semi-nomadic Fulani manage to maintain a low level of TFAs in their blood and a relatively healthful serum lipid profile. While the mechanism that accounts for this

  8. Effects of electromagnetic fields on serum lipids in workers of a power plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaopin; Wang, Lijuan; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Ding, Zheyuan; Liu, Hui; Jin, Wen; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Fei, Ying; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping; Yu, Yunxian

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure on levels of serum lipids in workers of an electric power plant. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an electric power plant in Zhejiang province, China, from August to September 2011. All participants were divided into two groups with high occupational EMF exposure and low occupational EMF exposure. The occupational EMF exposure included radiofrequency EMF and extremely low-frequency EMF. Occupational EMF exposure was associated with an increased level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; β = 0.17 mmol/L, P = 0.022). High EMF exposure group with longer employment duration, longer daily EMF exposure duration, and more mobile phone or electric fee per month had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, or triglyceride than the corresponding reference group. However, significantly decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was only observed in high EMF exposure group with more mobile phone fee per month. Similar results were also found in 544 participants with available data of serum lipids in 2010. The findings showed that chronic EMF exposure was associated with the change of serum lipid levels. EMF exposure might modulate the process of lipid metabolism.

  9. Serum lipid antibodies are associated with cerebral tissue damage in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Rohit; Yeste, Ada; Patel, Bonny; Tauhid, Shahamat; Tummala, Subhash; Rahbari, Roya; Chu, Renxin; Regev, Keren; Kivisäkk, Pia; Weiner, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral immune responses as measured by serum antigen arrays are linked to cerebral MRI measures of disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples were obtained from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 21) and assayed using antigen arrays that contained 420 antigens including CNS-related autoantigens, lipids, and heat shock proteins. Normalized compartment-specific global brain volumes were obtained from 3-tesla MRI as surrogates of atrophy, including gray matter fraction (GMF), white matter fraction (WMF), and total brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). Total brain T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV) was quantified from fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Results: We found serum antibody patterns uniquely correlated with BPF, GMF, WMF, and T2LV. Furthermore, we identified immune signatures linked to MRI markers of neurodegeneration (BPF, GMF, WMF) that differentiated those linked to T2LV. Each MRI measure was correlated with a specific set of antibodies. Strikingly, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to lipids were linked to brain MRI measures. Based on the association between IgG antibody reactivity and each unique MRI measure, we developed a lipid index. This comprised the reactivity directed against all of the lipids associated with each specific MRI measure. We validated these findings in an additional independent set of patients with MS (n = 14) and detected a similar trend for the correlations between BPF, GMF, and T2LV vs their respective lipid indexes. Conclusions: We propose serum antibody repertoires that are associated with MRI measures of cerebral MS involvement. Such antibodies may serve as biomarkers for monitoring disease pathology and progression. PMID:26894204

  10. Hepatic and serum lipid signatures specific to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in murine models.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Franck; Desterke, Christophe; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Guettier, Catherine; Le Naour, François

    2016-08-11

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a precursor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Markers for diagnosis of NASH are still lacking. We have investigated lipid markers using mouse models that developed NAFL when fed with high fat diet (HFD) or NASH when fed using methionine choline deficient diet (MCDD). We have performed a comprehensive lipidomic analysis on liver tissues as well as on sera from mice fed HFD (n = 5), MCDD (n = 5) or normal diet as controls (n = 10). Machine learning approach based on prediction analysis of microarrays followed by random forests allowed identifying 21 lipids out of 149 in the liver and 14 lipids out of 155 in the serum discriminating mice fed MCDD from HFD or controls. In conclusion, the global approach implemented allowed characterizing lipid signatures specific to NASH in both liver and serum from animal models. This opens new avenue for investigating early and non-invasive lipid markers for diagnosis of NASH in human.

  11. Serum lipid concentrations in six canid and four ursid species in four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Slifka, Kerri A; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann M

    2004-03-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in healthy captive wild canids and ursids, and the values were compared with previously published data. Serum lipid levels were evaluated in blood samples collected from eight African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), three arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus), nine gray wolves (Canis lupus), four maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), two Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baleiyi), nine red wolves (Canis rufus), two brown bears (Ursus arctos), six polar bears (Ursus maritimus), six spectacled bears (Tremarctos ornatus), and five sun bears (Ursus malayanus). Samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Although the results showed a great variation among species, circulating lipids appeared especially high, sometimes extremely so, in the spectacled bears, polar bears, sun bears, and maned wolves compared with all other species sampled. The study provides a substantial basis for comparing lipid levels in presumed healthy animals and indicates a need for controlled study of the effects of diet on circulating lipid levels.

  12. Hepatic and serum lipid signatures specific to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in murine models

    PubMed Central

    Chiappini, Franck; Desterke, Christophe; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Guettier, Catherine; Le Naour, François

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is a precursor of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a condition that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Markers for diagnosis of NASH are still lacking. We have investigated lipid markers using mouse models that developed NAFL when fed with high fat diet (HFD) or NASH when fed using methionine choline deficient diet (MCDD). We have performed a comprehensive lipidomic analysis on liver tissues as well as on sera from mice fed HFD (n = 5), MCDD (n = 5) or normal diet as controls (n = 10). Machine learning approach based on prediction analysis of microarrays followed by random forests allowed identifying 21 lipids out of 149 in the liver and 14 lipids out of 155 in the serum discriminating mice fed MCDD from HFD or controls. In conclusion, the global approach implemented allowed characterizing lipid signatures specific to NASH in both liver and serum from animal models. This opens new avenue for investigating early and non-invasive lipid markers for diagnosis of NASH in human. PMID:27510159

  13. Serum metabolites of proanthocyanidin-administered rats decrease lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Ligia; Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Quiñones, Mar; Arola, Lluis; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2013-12-01

    The regular consumption of flavonoids has been associated with reduced mortality and a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The proanthocyanidins found in plasma are very different from the original flavonoids in food sources. The use of physiologically appropriate conjugates of proanthocyanidins is essential for the in vitro analysis of flavonoid bioactivity. In this study, the effect of different proanthocyanidin-rich extracts, which were obtained from cocoa (CCX), French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol extract, PYC) and grape seed (GSPE), on lipid homeostasis was evaluated. Hepatic human cells (HepG2 cells) were treated with 25 mg/L of CCX, PYC or GSPE. We also performed in vitro experiments to assess the effect on lipid synthesis that is induced by the bioactive GSPE proanthocyanidins using the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of GSPE-administered rats. For this, Wistar rats were administered 1 g/kg of GSPE, and serum was collected after 2 h. The semipurified serum of GSPE-administered rats was fully characterized by liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS(2)). The lipids studied in the analyses were free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG). All three proanthocyanidin-rich extracts induced a remarkable decrease in the de novo lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, GSPE rat serum metabolites reduced the total percentage of CE, FC and particularly TG; this reduction was significantly higher than that observed in the cells directly treated with GSPE. In conclusion, the bioactivity of the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of rats after their ingestion of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract was demonstrated in Hep G2 cells. © 2013.

  14. The influence of transdermal oestradiol replacement therapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate on serum lipids and lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Bhathena, R K; Anklesaria, B S; Ganatra, A M; Pinto, Rosaline

    1998-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study was to examine the effects of continuous transdermal oestradiol with or without sequential oral medroxyprogesterone acetate on serum lipids and lipoproteins in menopausal women. Methods Sixty-two healthy menopausal women, attending at two menopause clinics in Western India, were recruited for this study over a period of 1 year. Group 1 included 38 hysterectomised women being treated with continuous transdermal oestradiol only (50 μg daily). Group 2 included 24 menopausal women with an intact uterus being treated with transdermal oestradiol (50 μg daily) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (10 mg daily for the first 12 days of each calendar month). Women maintained on 50 μg oestradiol throughout 6 months (group 1: n = 22; group 2: n = 16) were reviewed for changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins at the end of 6 months (group 1), and between days 8 and 12 of the seventh month (combined phase of treatment) (group 2). Results In group 1, there was a small reduction in the concentrations of total cholesterol (−5.5%, P = 0.04) and a small but not significant reduction in LDL-cholesterol (−5.7%, P = 0.16). In group 2, there were no significant changes in total cholesterol (−4.2%, P = 0.43) and LDL-cholesterol (−3.9%, P = 0.57). HDL-cholesterol levels did not change significantly with unopposed transdermal oestradiol (+3.0%, P = 0.53), or with additional sequential medroxyprogesterone acetate (−3.8%, P = 0.32). Serum triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly in both the groups (−13.9%, P = 0.01, and −13.4%, P = 0.008, respectively). Serum lipid changes did not differ between the groups. Conclusions Transdermal oestrogen therapy appears to be of particular benefit for women with hypertriglyceridaemia. There were no significant adverse effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on serum lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:9491833

  15. A Controlled Study of Serum Lipid Profiles in Indian Patients with Depressive Episode

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Khandelwal, Sudhir K.; Chadda, Rakesh K.; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lower levels of circulating lipid fractions and cholesterol are risk factors for impulsivity and depressive disorder. A lower level of serum cholesterol is also associated with patients presenting with history of self-harm. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 depressive patients and 30 healthy matched control subjects were recruited from the department of Psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. We measured serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels of both patient and control group. Results: The serum TC and LDL-cholesterol levels were found to be significantly lower in study group than that of control group. Conclusion: Lower levels of serum cholesterol are associated with depressive disorder. PMID:24860211

  16. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Jäntti, J; Nikkari, T; Solakivi, T; Vapaatalo, H; Isomäki, H

    1989-01-01

    The serum concentration of lipids and composition of fatty acids after overnight fasting were studied in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 12 weeks with either 20 ml of evening primrose oil containing 9% of gamma-linolenic acid or olive oil. The serum concentrations of oleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and apolipoprotein B decreased and those of linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid increased during treatment with evening primrose oil. During olive oil treatment the serum concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid decreased and those of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased slightly. The decrease in serum eicosapentaenoic acid and the increase in arachidonic acid concentrations induced by evening primrose oil may not be favourable effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the light of the roles of these fatty acids as precursors of eicosanoids. PMID:2649022

  17. [Effect of nuts enrich in monounsaturated acid on serum lipid of hyperlipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shaofang; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Junbo; Liang, Xuejun

    2003-03-01

    In order to observe the regulatory effect of monounsaturated acid-enriched almond and macadamia nuts on blood lipid-level (TC, TG, HDL-C), the hyperlipidemia Wistar rats were used as the model and a diet containing almond and macadamia at the doses of between 12.5% and 25.0% was given for six weeks. The results showed that the level of the serum TC and TG in each study group was significantly lower than that of high fat chow control group (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the serum HDL-C level in the high fat chow group with high-dose macadamias compared with that in the high fat chow control group. The findings suggested that nuts enrich in monounsaturated acid could decrease the level of serum TC and TG and macadamias could increased the level of serum HDL-C in the hyperlipidemia rats.

  18. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  19. Interactions between dietary boron and thiamine affect lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Herbel, J.L.; Hunt, C.D. )

    1991-03-15

    An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary boron impacts upon the function of various coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. In a 2 {times} 7 factorially-arranged experiment, weanling, vitamin D{sub 3}-deprived rats were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet supplemented with 0 or 2 mg boron/kg and 50% of the requirement for thiamine (TM), riboflavin (RF), pantothenic acid (PA) or pyridoxine (PX); 0% for folic acid (FA) or nicotinic acid (NA). All vitamins were supplemented in adequate amounts in the control diet. At 8 weeks of age, the TM dietary treatment was the one most affected by supplemental dietary boron (SDB). In rats that were fed 50% TM, SDB increased plasma concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), and the liver to body weight (L/B) ratio. However, in the SDB animals, adequate amounts of TM decreased the means of those variables to near that observed in non-SDB rats fed 50% TM. The findings suggest that an interaction between dietary boron and TM affects lipid metabolism.

  20. Effects of almond dietary supplementation on coronary heart disease lipid risk factors and serum lipid oxidation parameters in men with mild hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Khanabadi, Beman-Ali; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Parsaeyan, Nayereh

    2010-12-01

    Oxidation and level of plasma lipids are closely implicated in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary almond supplementation may participate in beneficial effects on CHD lipid risk factor levels and their susceptibility to oxidative modification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with almond on serum lipid levels and their relation to lipid oxidation parameters in men with mild hyperlipidemia. Thirty (30) healthy volunteer men (age 45.57 ± 7.14 years and body-mass index 24.29 ± 2.15 kg/m(2)) with mild hyperlipidemia received 60 g almond daily for 4 weeks. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained before and after supplementation. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins and copper-induced serum lipid oxidation were determined. Lipid oxidation was followed by monitoring of the change of conjugated dienes in diluted serum after addition of Cu(2+). A number of quantitative parameters including lag-time, maximal rate of oxidation (V-max), and maximal amount of lipid peroxide products (OD-max) were evaluated. After 4 weeks, almond supplementation significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), and apolipoprotein B100 (apo-B100). At baseline, there was little correlation between lipid risk factors and lipid oxidation parameters, but a positive correlation was observed between TC and lag-time (r = 0.6, p = 0.001), negative correlation between TC with V-max and OD-max (r = -0.65, p < 0.001 and r = -0.61, p = 0.001), and also positive correlation between apo-B100 with V-max and OD-max (r = 0.48, p = 0.01 and r = 0.54, p = 0.003) after almond supplementation. These results demonstrated that almond supplementation, in addition to lowering effects on serum levels of CHD lipid risk factors, may contribute to a dramatic change in the relation of lipid risk factors and susceptibility of serum lipids to

  1. Influence of coumarin and some coumarin derivatives on serum lipid profiles in carbontetrachloride-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Ezel; Atmaca, Mukadder; Yıldırım, Yaşar; Bilgin, Hakkı Murat; Demirtaş, Berjan; Obay, Basra Deniz; Kelle, Mustafa; Oflazoğlu, Hüda Diken

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, coumarin and some coumarin derivatives (esculetin, scoparone, and 4-methylumbelliferone) were investigated for their lipid-lowering effect in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) were divided into six groups and each group comprised of five rats. Hepatic injury-dependent hyperlipidemia was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1.25 ml/kg). Coumarin and coumarin derivatives esculetin (35 mg/kg), scoparone (35 mg/kg), 4-methylumbelliferone (35 mg/kg), or coumarin (30 mg/kg) were administered to experimental groups at 12-h intervals. Animals received the derivatives esculetin, scoparone or 4-methylumbelliferone prior to the administration of a single toxic dose of CCl4. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels significantly increased in CCl4-treated group ( p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05, respectively), while levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased ( p < 0.01). 4-Methylumbelliferone had no recovery effects on serum TC levels, however, significantly prevented CCl4-induced hyperlipidemia by reducing TG and VLDL-C levels ( p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, coumarin had no recovery effect on any of the serum lipid parameters against CCl4-induced hyperlipidemia. Among the coumarin derivatives only esculetin and scoparone significantly prevented serum HDL-C in CCl4-induced dyslipidemia. The results from this study indicate that the chemical structure of coumarins plays an important role on the regulation of serum lipid profiles.

  2. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors.

  4. Effects of Ginger on Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tabibi, Hadi; Imani, Hossein; Atabak, Shahnaz; Najafi, Iraj; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rahmani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    ♦ In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease is lipid abnormalities. This study was designed to investigate the effects of ginger supplementation on serum lipids and lipoproteins in PD patients. ♦ In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 36 PD patients were randomly assigned to either the ginger or the placebo group. The patients in the ginger group received 1,000 mg ginger daily for 10 weeks, while the placebo group received corresponding placebos. At baseline and at the end of week 10, 7 mL of blood were obtained from each patient after a 12- to 14-hour fast, and serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] were measured. ♦ Serum triglyceride concentration decreased significantly up to 15% in the ginger group at the end of week 10 compared with baseline (p < 0.01), and the reduction was significant in comparison with the placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in mean changes of serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and Lp (a). ♦ This study indicates that daily administration of 1,000 mg ginger reduces serum triglyceride concentration, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  5. Effects of Cassia tora fiber supplement on serum lipids in Korean diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Nan-Hee; Son, Ho-Sang; Cho, Il-Jin; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2005-01-01

    Cassia tora fiber supplement consisting of 2 g of soluble fiber extracted from Cassia semen (C. tora L.), 200 mg of alpha-tocopherol, 500 mg of ascorbic acid, and 300 mg of maltodextrin was formulated in a pack, and given to 15 type II diabetic subjects (seven men and eight women 57.1 +/- 2.9 years old) with instructions to take two packs per day for 2 months. Placebo contained maltodextrin only with a little brown caramel color. Lifestyle factors and dietary intakes of the subjects were not altered during the 2-month period. Serum total cholesterol was moderately (P < .1) decreased in the C. tora group compared with the age- and gender-matched placebo group, as was the ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 (P < .1). Levels of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol tended to decrease more in the C. tora-supplemented group than in the placebo group. Serum alpha-tocopherol was increased (P < .01) but lipid peroxides were not significantly lower in the C. tora group. Fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were not changed by the fiber supplement. We concluded that C. tora supplements can help improve serum lipid status in type II diabetic subjects without serious adverse effects.

  6. Evaluation of the Relationship between Serum Lipid Profile andOral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Davoodi, Farnaz; Gholizadeh, Narges; Damghani, Hossein; Helli, Sanaz; Safarnavadeh, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immunologic disorder. A large number of studies have reported that lipid rafts have a key role in receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Here, we explore the potential of lipid rafts as targets for the development of a new class of agents to down-modulate immune responses and treat autoimmune diseases. Materials and methods. The present cross-sectional study evaluated 88 patients referring to the Department of Oral Medicine in 3 groups (Group 1: erosive OLP; Group 2: non-erosive OLP; Group 3: healthy). A total of 3 mL of blood sample was taken from each subject and the serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL were determined. The mean outcomes of each group were compared with each other and analyzed two by two. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed no significant differences in mean HDL and LDL serum levels between the three groups. The results of post hoc LSD test showed that mean serum levels of subjects with erosive and non-erosive lichen planus were higher than those in healthy subjects. In relation to triglyceride serum levels, the mean serum levels of triglycerides were higher in erosive and non-erosive OLP patients compared to healthy subjects. Conclusion. Triglyceride and cholesterol can be considered to have a critical role in the incidence of lichen planus and in its manifestations as predisposing factors. PMID:26889364

  7. Serum C-peptide as a key contributor to lipid-related residual cardiovascular risk in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhao, DuoDuo; Li, Yue; Meng, Lu; Enwer, Gulmire

    2017-11-01

    The serum levels of C-peptide, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), increase with age. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum C-peptide and increased risk for CVD with altered lipid metabolism in the elderly. This was a population-based cross-sectional study that included 3091 elderly participants aged ≥65 years. Serum C-peptide and lipid levels were measured according to standard protocols. Sampling weights were used to estimate the characteristics of study participants. Stratified analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the changes in the serum lipid levels according to quartiles of serum C-peptide levels, and the linear trend was assessed using a linear model. The logistic regression model was carried out to determine the association between the serum C-peptide levels and serum lipid levels. The results of the analysis of covariance stratified by sex and serum insulin level showed that the serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly associated with changes in the serum C-peptide levels, independent of the serum insulin level. The logistic regression analyses indicated that the serum C-peptide levels were positively associated with the serum TG levels, and negatively associated with the serum HDL-C levels. A significant dose-response association was obtained in both men and women. Serum C-peptide levels were strongly associated with increased serum TG and reduced HDL-C levels in the elderly. Our results suggest that serum C-peptide increases the risk of CVD via a pathway that increases TG or decreases HDL-C levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A simple and sensitive method for lipoprotein and lipids profiles analysis of individual micro-liter scale serum samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Fan, Baoyan; Yang, Kangmin; Zhu, Haibo

    2012-02-01

    A simple and sensitive method to determine lipoprotein and lipids profiles in micro-liter scale individual serum sample is not presently available. Traditional lipoprotein separation techniques either by ultra-centrifugation or by liquid chromatography methods have their disadvantages in both lipoprotein separation and lipids component quantification. In this study we used small volume needing size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography to separate different lipoprotein subclasses in 50μL serum. And lipids contents, such as cholesterol, cholesterol ester and triacylglycerol, were measured by using two different fluorescence-based lipid detection methods. With this method, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein could be easily separated, and follow-up lipid detection was completed by simple kinds of reactions. Serum lipoprotein and lipids profiling from C57BL/6 mice (n=5) and human (n=5) were analyzed. The elution profiles of five individuals were highly reproducible, and there were lipoprotein and lipids distribution variations between C57BL/6 mice and human beings. In conclusion, this method which combined small volume needing size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography and fluorescence-based lipids measurement, provided a simple, efficient, integrity and reproducible procedure for determining serum lipoprotein and lipids profiles in micro-liter scale levels. It becomes possible that determination of lipoprotein profiles and gaining information of lipids in different lipoproteins can be accomplished simultaneously. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Apolipoprotein serum amyloid A down-regulates smooth-muscle cell lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, B M; Veverbrants, M; Fine, R E; Blusztajn, J K; Salmona, M; Patel, A; Sipe, J D

    1999-01-01

    The addition of acute-phase apolipoprotein serum amyloid A (SAA) to cultured aortic smooth-muscle cells caused a decrease in the incorporation of [(14)C]acetate into lipids. Optimal inhibition of lipid biosynthesis was achieved with 2 microM SAA, and the effect was maintained for up to 1 week when SAA was included in the culture medium. Lipid extracts were subjected to TLC and it was determined that the SAA-induced decrease in [(14)C]acetate incorporation into lipids was attributable to decreases in cholesterol, phospholipid and triglyceride levels. The accumulated mass of cholesterol and phospholipid in SAA-treated cultures was significantly less than that of controls, with no change in the accumulated protein. Moreover, SAA had no effect on either protein synthesis or DNA synthesis, suggesting that SAA specifically alters lipid synthesis. By using a peptide corresponding to the cholesterol-binding domain of acute-phase SAA (amino acids 1-18), it was shown that this region of the molecule was as effective as the full-length protein in decreasing lipid synthesis and the accumulation of cholesterol and phospholipid. The implications of these findings for atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease are discussed. PMID:10548527

  10. Serum lipids, recent suicide attempt and recent suicide status in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-06-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with suicide. Although several studies have reported its association with low serum lipid, few studies have investigated relationships between current suicidality and lipid profiles, comparing with other blood measures in MDD patients. The study population consisted of 555 subjects with MDD who were ≥ 18 years old, evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) with the suicidality module. At the evaluation visit, we measured serum lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and blood measures such as fasting glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, thyroid hormones, red and white blood cells, platelet count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Recent attempters who had attempted suicide within the past month showed significantly lower TG and higher HDL levels than lifetime and never attempters, using Tukey's post-hoc analysis. Recent attempters exhibited lower TG and higher HDL than those with recent suicide ideation and wish to self-harm and those without previous attempt. Linear regression analysis revealed that TG was negatively associated with current suicidality scores (β = -0.187, p = 0.039), whereas VLDL was positively associated with the recent suicide status (β = 0.198, p = 0.032) after controlling for age and sex. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other serum lipid profiles and blood measures. Low serum TG, high HDL and VLDL levels are associated with recent suicide attempt or recent suicide status in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of defatted cocoa powder on cholesterol-induced changes of serum lipids in rats

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mousa Numan; Amr, Amira Mohammad

    2017-06-05

    Cocoa has been known for many health benefits, but its lipid-lowering activity still remains unresolved. To investigate effects of varying amounts of defatted cocoa on serum lipids in cholesterol-fed rats. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four cholesterol-free (control) and four cholesterol-supplemented (experimental) diets containing 0, 1, 2 or 3% defatted cocoa (DC) and given ad libitumto the rats for ten weeks. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low- and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and VLDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were quantified, atherogenic index (AI) was calculated, and other biological parameters were assessed. Food intake and body weight did not respond to DC. Compared to 0% DC, 3% DC had the most prominent effect on serum lipids inducing significant fall in LDL-C and TG, and rise in TC/TG in cholesterol-deprived rats, and increase in VLDL-C and AI, and decrease in HDL-C in cholesterol-fed rats. Compared to cholesterol-deprived rats, 3% DC caused significant rise in VLDL-C, AI and TC/TG, and fall in TG in cholesterol-fed rats. This lipid-modifying effect was markedly substantiated by corresponding linear trend responses to DC. Differences in lipid variables of rats fed on DC diets were less evident. Results suggest that, in contrast to cholesterol-free situations, defatted cocoa is seemingly incapable of counteracting the atherogenic effect of cholesterol in rats, perhaps in an interaction that is likely to have clinical implications in cardiometabolic conditions.

  12. The relationship between serum lipids and obesity among elementary school in Birjand: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Bijari, Bita; Taheri, Fatemeh; Chahkandi, Tayebeh; Kazemi, Toba; Namakin, Kokab; Zardast, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity could induce some risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) including serum lipid abnormalities, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to comparison the lipid profile in normal children with cases having overweight, obesity and central obesity. In this case control study, which was conducted 2013, serum lipids for three groups of children including cases with overweight (Body mass index (BMI): 85-95th percentiles to age and sex and waist circumference (WC) <90th percentile to age and sex = Case group1), central obesity without general obesity (BMI <85th percentiles and WC ≥ percentile 90 = Case group 2) and central obesity with general obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile and WC ≥ percentile 90 = Case group 3) were compared with control group (BMI < 85th percentiles WC <90th percentile). Data were analyzed using software SPSS-16 by chi-square and ANOVA tests at significance level α=0.05. Each group consisted of 100 individuals. The highest mean of serum lipids and the highest extent of dyslipidemia existed in the children having central obesity along with general obesity. So that 49%, 28%, and 38% students of this group show hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Odd ratio of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and low HDL-c, in children with at least one abnormal index (BMI and /or WC) compared with control group were 3.73 (95% CI: 1.98, 6.99), 1.37 (95% CI: 1.71, 2.65) and 2.98 (95% CI: 1.51, 5.87), respectively. With regard to the relationship between central obesity and adverse changes in lipid profiles, the screening children for central obesity to prevention of cardiovascular disease are recommended.

  13. Adiposity, serum lipid levels, and allergic sensitization in Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Kumar, Rajesh; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Story, Rachel E.; Liu, Xin; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Liu, Xue; Li, Zhiping; Zhang, Wenbin; Fang, Yaping; Zhang, Shanchun; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity and allergic diseases have increased dramatically in recent decades. While adiposity has been associated with asthma, associations with allergic sensitization have been inconsistent. Objective To examine the association of adiposity and lipid profiles with allergic sensitization. Methods This study included 1,187 rural Chinese twins (653 men) aged 18-39 years, with skin prick tests (SPT), anthropometric and DEXA-assessed adiposity measures, and lipid assessments. Allergic sensitization was defined as positive SPT to ≥1 allergen (9 foods and 5 aeroallergens tested). We applied gender-stratified generalized estimating equations to assess the association of adiposity and serum lipids with allergic sensitization, and structural equation models to estimate the genetic/environmental influences on any observed associations. Results Males had lower percent body fat (%BF) (13.9% vs. 28.8%) but higher rates of allergic sensitization (56.2% vs. 36.7%) than females. Males in the highest %BF quartile were 2.1 times more likely sensitized than the lowest quartile (95%CI 1.3-3.5, P-trend=0.003). In males, the risk of allergic sensitization increased with HDL<40 mg/dl (OR=4.0, 95%CI 1.8-9.2) and higher LDL quartiles (P-trend=0.007). This appeared to be partially explained by shared genetic factors between serum lipid levels and allergic sensitization. In females, lower HDL was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization. Conclusions In this relatively lean Chinese population, higher %BF, lower HDL and higher LDL were associated with greater risk of allergic sensitization, most notable in males. The observed associations between adiposity, serum lipids and allergic sensitization in males appear to be partially explained by common genetic influences on these traits. PMID:19135238

  14. Long-term effect of antiepileptic drug switch on serum lipids and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Mintzer, Scott; Miller, Rachael; Shah, Krunal; Chervoneva, Inna; Nei, Maromi; Skidmore, Christopher; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies have shown that switching patients from inducing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to lamotrigine, levetiracetam, or topiramate reduces serum lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP). These studies were all of short duration, and some drugs, such as zonisamide, have not been investigated. We recruited 41 patients taking phenytoin or carbamazepine who were being switched to zonisamide, lamotrigine, or levetiracetam. We measured serum lipids and CRP before the switch, >6weeks after, and >6months after. An untreated control group (n=14) underwent similar measurement. We combined these data with those of our previous investigation (n=34 patients and 16 controls) of a very similar design. There were no differences in outcome measures between the two inducing AEDs nor among the three noninducing AEDs. Total cholesterol (TC), atherogenic lipids, and CRP were higher under inducer treatment than in controls. All measures were elevated under inducer treatment relative to noninducer treatment, including TC (24mg/dL higher, 95% CI: 17.5-29.9, p<0.001) and CRP (72% higher, 95% CI: 41%-111%, p<0.001). The difference between drug treatments was clinically meaningful for atherogenic lipids (16%, 95% CI: 11%-20%, p<0.001) but small for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5%, 95% CI: 1%-9%, p<0.05). All measures were stable between 6weeks and 6months after drug switch. We demonstrate that switching from inducing to noninducing AEDs produces an enduring reduction in serum lipids and CRP. These results provide further evidence that inducing AEDs may be associated with elevated vascular disease risk. These are the first vascular risk marker data in patients taking zonisamide, which shows a profile similar to that of other noninducing AEDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The modification of serum lipids after acute coronary syndrome and importance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Balci, Bahattin

    2011-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a pathology characterized by low-grade vascular inflammation rather than a mere accumulation of lipids. Inflammation is central at all stages of atherosclerosis. Acute coronary syndrome significantly affects the concentration and composition of the lipids and lipoproteins in plasma. Plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein levels increase, while high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels decrease. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. However, post-event changes in lipid and lipoproteins lead to delays in the choice of the treatment. This review focuses on the mechanism and the clinical importance of the relevant changes.

  16. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in malaria - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum lipid profile changes have been observed during malaria infection. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on those serum lipid profile changes, and to discuss possible underlying biological mechanisms and the role of lipids in malaria pathogenesis. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine lipid profile changes during malaria was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines. Without language restrictions, Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, Biosis Previews and the African Index Medicus were searched for studies published up to 11 July, 2013, that measured serum lipid parameters in malaria patients. Also, major trial registries were searched. Mean differences in lipid profile parameters were combined in fixed and random effects meta-analysis, with a separate analysis for different groups of controls (healthy, other febrile illnesses or very low parasitaemia). These parameters were also compared between severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Funnel plots were used to test for publication bias. Results Of 2,518 studies reviewed, 42 met the criteria for inclusion in the qualitative analysis, and of these, 15 reported the necessary data for inclusion in the meta-analysis for cholesterol; nine for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), eight for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and nine for triglycerides, respectively. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL concentrations were lower in malaria and other febrile diseases compared to healthy controls. The decline was more pronounced and statistically significant during malaria compared to other febrile diseases. These results were consistent across included studies. Triglycerides were raised compared to healthy controls, but not statistically significant when compared to symptomatic controls. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the observed lipid profile changes are characteristic

  17. Serum lipids and lipoproteins in malaria--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Visser, Benjamin J; Wieten, Rosanne W; Nagel, Ingeborg M; Grobusch, Martin P

    2013-12-07

    Serum lipid profile changes have been observed during malaria infection. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on those serum lipid profile changes, and to discuss possible underlying biological mechanisms and the role of lipids in malaria pathogenesis. A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine lipid profile changes during malaria was conducted, following PRISMA guidelines. Without language restrictions, Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, Biosis Previews and the African Index Medicus were searched for studies published up to 11 July, 2013, that measured serum lipid parameters in malaria patients. Also, major trial registries were searched. Mean differences in lipid profile parameters were combined in fixed and random effects meta-analysis, with a separate analysis for different groups of controls (healthy, other febrile illnesses or very low parasitaemia). These parameters were also compared between severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria. Funnel plots were used to test for publication bias. Of 2,518 studies reviewed, 42 met the criteria for inclusion in the qualitative analysis, and of these, 15 reported the necessary data for inclusion in the meta-analysis for cholesterol; nine for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), eight for low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and nine for triglycerides, respectively. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL concentrations were lower in malaria and other febrile diseases compared to healthy controls. The decline was more pronounced and statistically significant during malaria compared to other febrile diseases. These results were consistent across included studies. Triglycerides were raised compared to healthy controls, but not statistically significant when compared to symptomatic controls. This meta-analysis suggests that the observed lipid profile changes are characteristic for malaria. Although a definite link

  18. The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

  19. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Zoriah; Wong, Su Yuen; Chong, Nyuk Jet

    2013-11-25

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been promoted for reducing cholesterol levels, but its reported impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent. The study aimed to assess systematically the evidence and quality of current research on the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on blood lipids and its adverse effects. Electronic databases were searched up to June 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Journals and conference proceedings were also searched. The quality of the selected trials was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The efficacy results of similar studies were pooled if they used the same comparator. Outcomes examined were levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Six studies involving 474 subjects met our inclusion criteria. These studies varied in terms of the types of interventions, comparators used, and duration of trials. Overall, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. did not produce any significant effect on any of the outcomes examined, when compared with placebo, black tea or diet. With short-term use it is well tolerated. The available evidence from RCTs does not support the efficacy of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in lowering serum lipids. Further rigorously designed trials with larger sample sizes are warranted to confirm the effects of HS on serum lipids. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cholesterol derived cationic lipids as potential non-viral gene delivery vectors and their serum compatibility.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jia; Huan, Meng-Lei; Wan, Ning; Hou, Yi-Lin; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jia, Yi-Yang; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-05-15

    Cholesterol derivatives M1-M6 as synthetic cationic lipids were designed and the biological evaluation of the cationic liposomes based on them as non-viral gene delivery vectors were described. Plasmid pEGFP-N1, used as model gene, was transferred into 293T cells by cationic liposomes formed with M1-M6 and transfection efficiency and GFP expression were tested. Cationic liposomes prepared with cationic lipids M1-M6 exhibited good transfection activity, and the transfection activity was parallel (M2 and M4) or superior (M1 and M6) to that of DC-Chol derived from the same backbone. Among them, the transfection efficiency of cationic lipid M6 was parallel to that of the commercially available Lipofectamine2000. The optimal formulation of M1 and M6 were found to be at a mol ratio of 1:0.5 for cationic lipid/DOPE, and at a N/P charge mol ratio of 3:1 for liposome/DNA. Under optimized conditions, the efficiency of M1 and M6 is greater than that of all the tested commercial liposomes DC-Chol and Lipofectamine2000, even in the presence of serum. The results indicated that M1 and M6 exhibited low cytotoxicity, good serum compatibility and efficient transfection performance, having the potential of being excellent non-viral vectors for gene delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Anthropometrical measurements as predictor of serum lipid profile in adolescents with Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ordóiez-Munoz, Francisco Javier; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Rosety-Rodríguez, Jesús María; Rosety-Plaza, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Current findings suggest that more attention needs to be given to the increase in body mass being achieved by disabled populations in general and individuals with mental retardation in particular, to minimize long-term negative health consequences. Given that physical activity programs have been reported as one of the most effective ways of improving the health of individuals with Down syndrome, it would be of interest facilitate different tools to contribute to their clinical follow-up. Consequently, this study was designed to assess the correlation between anthropometrical parameters and lipid profile in adolescents with Down syndrome. Anthropometric variables such as body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as well as serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total-cholesterol/high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured in 21 male adolescents (16.3 +/- 1.1 years) with Down syndrome. Anthropometric parameters presented a positive association with serum lipids except for high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol that was negative. It should be emphasized the strongest association of waist-to-hip ratio to total cholesterol/high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (r = 0.48; p < 0.05). It is concluded waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio may be highly recommended in clinical practice as appropriate anthropometric predictors of lipid profile in adolescents with Down syndrome. Further studies are required to assess their behavior during physical activity programs as well as to determine more correlations in these individuals.

  2. Calcium and zinc differentially affect the structure of lipid membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Kučerka, Norbert; Dushanov, Ermuhammad; Kholmurodov, Kholmirzo T.; ...

    2017-03-09

    Interactions of calcium (Ca2+) and zinc (Zn2+) cations with biomimetic membranes made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were studied by small angle neutron diffraction (SAND). Experiments show that the structure of these lipid bilayers is differentially affected by the two divalent cations. Initially, both Ca2+ and Zn2+ cause DPPC bilayers to thicken, while further increases in Ca2+ concentration result in the bilayer thinning, eventually reverting to having the same thickness as pure DPPC. The binding of Zn2+, on the other hand, causes the bilayers to swell to a maximum thickness, and the addition of more Zn2+ does not result in a furthermore » thickening of the membrane. Agreement between our results obtained using oriented planar membranes and those from vesicular samples implies that the effect of cations on bilayer thickness is the result of electrostatic interactions, rather than geometrical constraints due to bilayer curvature. This notion is further reinforced by MD simulations. Lastly, the radial distribution functions reveal a strong interaction between Ca2+ and the phosphate oxygens, while Zn2+ shows a much weaker binding specificity.« less

  3. Ingestion of gelatinized potato starch containing a high level of phosphorus decreases serum and liver lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takumi; Atsumi, Mariko; Mineo, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Michihiro; Nishimura, Naomichi; Noda, Takahiro; Chiji, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    Potato starch is known to have a higher concentration of phosphate than other starches. The presence of phosphate groups in amylopectin results in resistance to digestion by amylase. Therefore, there is a possibility that potato starch is slowly digested, inducing a physiological effect similar to that of resistant starch and indigestible oligosaccharides. The amount of phosphate group in starch differs with potato cultivar. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gelatinized potato starch containing a high level of phosphorus on lipid metabolism in rats. For this purpose, we determined lipid levels in the serum and liver in rats fed two kinds of gelatinized potato starches with different phosphorus contents. Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60% sucrose diet (control) or one of three diets containing cornstarch (CS), Benimaru (BM) potato starch or Hokkaikogane (HK) potato starch. Fat pad weight was slightly decreased in the HK diet group compared with that in the other groups. Free fatty acids in serum were significantly lowered by dietary HK starch compared with control, and serum triglyceride in rats fed the HK diet was also decreased. In the BM and HK diet groups, triglyceride levels in the liver were decreased compared with that in the control and CS groups. As for hepatic total cholesterol level, there were no significant differences among three starch diet groups. Fecal bile acid excretion was greater in the two potato starch groups than in the control group. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in cecal short-chain fatty acid content or pH. Thus, we conclude that dietary gelatinized potato starch reduces free fatty acid and triglyceride in serum and hepatic triglyceride, but does not affect cecal fermentation.

  4. Serum homocysteine is not independently associated with an atherogenic lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDL-21) study.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Joshua R; Quispe, Renato; Kulkarni, Krishnaji; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the mechanism for this risk remains unclear. While reducing serum total homocysteine (tHcy) has been shown to decrease strokes, there is no evidence for an effect on myocardial infarctions in randomized controlled trials. This study aims to examine the relationship between tHcy and several lipid measures. Our analyses included 18,297 U.S. adults from the Very Large Database of Lipids who had an extended lipid panel including direct measurement of triglycerides (TG), and the cholesterol concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), non-HDL-C, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), and remnant-lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C: IDL-C + VLDL3-C). Additional measurements were tHcy, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Subjects were categorized into tHcy quartiles. Linear regression models were performed using lipids and tHcy as dependent and independent variables respectively, and further adjusted with age, sex, HbA1c, insulin, creatinine, and BUN levels in multivariable regression. In unadjusted analysis, levels of LDL-C (p < 0.001), non-HDL-C (p < 0.001) and HDL-C (p < 0.001) were 7-10% lower whereas levels of TG (p < 0.001), VLDL-C (p = 0.016) and RLP-C (p < 0.001) were 2-6% higher in the highest tHcy quartile. These associations between tHcy levels and lipids were eliminated (p-value range: 0.101-0.750) when controlling for age, sex, HbA1c, insulin, creatinine, and BUN. Although high levels of tHcy were associated with 2-6% higher TG-rich lipoproteins in unadjusted analysis, after adjustment for confounders our findings do not support the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal serum lipid profile in Brazilian police officers with post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Marmar, Charles R; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Metzler, Thomas; Nóbrega, Augusta; Peres, Mhara C; Coutinho, Evandro S; Volchan, Eliane; Figueira, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Background To measure the serum lipid composition of a sample of Brazilian police officers with and without PTSD regularly exposed to potentially traumatic situations. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 118 active duty male police officers. Serum concentrations for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides were enzymatically determined. Body mass index (BMI) was obtained for each participant. Results Officers with PTSD exhibited significantly higher serum total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides levels than those without PTSD. Total cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-C, remained associated with PTSD diagnosis after controlling for confounding influences (i.e. socio-demographics, BMI, and tobacco, alcohol and medication use). Limitations The sample size was small. A nutritional interview was employed instead of established scales to assess alimentary habits, tobacco or alcohol consumption. A self-report screening tool was used to assess the prevalence of PTSD. Conclusions The association between PTSD and abnormal serum lipid profile and a tendency to exhibit higher BMI suggests that individuals with PTSD may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, a condition that by itself could account for many of the most serious PTSD-related physical health problems. PMID:17888517

  6. Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Barnard, N D; Scialli, A R; Bertron, P; Hurlock, D; Edmonds, K; Talev, L

    2000-04-15

    Few controlled trials have studied cholesterol-lowering diets in premenopausal women. None has examined the cholesterol-lowering effect of a low-fat vegetarian diet, which, in other population groups, leads to marked reductions in serum cholesterol concentrations and, in combination with other life-style changes, a regression of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that a low-fat, vegetarian diet significantly reduces serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations in premenopausal women. In a crossover design, 35 women, aged 22 to 48, followed a low-fat vegetarian diet deriving approximately 10% of energy from fat for 2 menstrual cycles. For 2 additional cycles, they followed their customary diet while also taking a "supplement" (placebo) pill. Serum lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and during each intervention phase. Mean serum LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and total cholesterol concentrations decreased 16. 9%, 16.5%, and 13.2%, respectively, from baseline to the intervention diet phase (p<0.001), whereas mean serum triacylglycerol concentration increased 18.7% (p<0.01). LDL/HDL ratio remained unchanged. Thus, in healthy premenopausal women, a low-fat vegetarian diet led to rapid and sizable reductions in serum total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol concentrations.

  7. Serum fatty acid, lipid profile and dietary intake of Hong Kong Chinese omnivores and vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y; Woo, J; Chen, Z Y; Leung, S F; Peng, X H

    2000-10-01

    To examine the serum fatty acid and lipid profiles and dietary intake of Hong Kong Chinese omnivores and vegetarians with respect to cardiovascular health. Random population survey stratified by age and sex. One-hundred and ninety-four omnivore subjects (81 men, 113 women) age 25-70 y, and 60 ovo-lacto-vegetarian adults (15 men, 45 women) age 30-55 y. Nutrient quantitation was by a food frequency method. Serum fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography, and serum lipid by standard laboratory methods. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had higher serum concentrations of polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monosaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and lower saturated fatty acids (SFA), long chain omega-3 and trans fatty acids (TFA). They also had lower serum cholesterol and higher apoA-1 concentrations, but the LDL/HDL ratio was not different. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids intake was higher in vegetarians. Compared with results from populations with higher incidences of coronary heart disease, while lower myristic and palmitic acid concentrations and higher eicosapentaneoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) may partly account for the difference in incidence, linoleic acid concentration was higher. Although the Chinese vegetarian diet may be beneficial for heart health in that antioxidant and fibre intakes are higher and saturated fat lower, the low EPA and DHA due to omission from dietary source and suppressed formation by high linoleic acid level, and the presence of TFA in the diet, may exert an opposite effect. There are some favourable features in the serum fatty acid profile in the Hong Kong Chinese population with respect to cardiovascular health, but the consumption of TFA is of concern. The Chinese vegetarian diet also contains some adverse features.

  8. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, W. Y.; Palomaki, G. E.; Haddow, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    To examine the association between cigarette smoking in adults and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations the results of 54 published studies were analysed. Overall, smokers had significantly higher serum concentrations of cholesterol (3.0%), triglycerides (9.1%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (10.4%), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.7%) and lower serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (-5.7%) and apolipoprotein AI (-4.2%) compared with nonsmokers. Among non-smokers and light, moderate, and heavy smokers a significant dose response effect was present for cholesterol (0, 1.8, 4.3, and 4.5% respectively), triglycerides (0, 10.7, 11.5, and 18.0%), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, 7.2, 44.4, and 39.0%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -1.1, 1.4, and 11.0%), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (0, -4.6, -6.3, and -8.9%), and apolipoprotein AI (0, -3.7 and -5.7% in non-smokers and light and heavy smokers). These dose response effects may provide new evidence for a causal relation between exposure to cigarette smoke and changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations whether as a direct result of physiological changes or of dietary changes induced by smoking. Adequate prospective data to estimate the excess risk of coronary artery disease existed only for cholesterol concentration. When that information was combined with data from the present study, and given that smokers as a group face an average overall excess risk of coronary artery disease of 70%, it was estimated that the observed increased serum cholesterol concentration in smokers may account for at least 9% of that excess risk. Furthermore, the dose response effect of smoking on serum cholesterol concentration suggests a gradient of increased absolute risk of coronary artery disease between light and heavy smokers. PMID:2496857

  9. Serum Lipid Fractions and Cerebral Microbleeds in a Healthy Japanese Population.

    PubMed

    Mitaki, Shingo; Nagai, Atsushi; Oguro, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with focal hemosiderin deposits and represent a form of cerebral small vessel disease. To date, indefinite and inconsistent reports are available regarding the association between serum lipid fractions and CMBs. In addition, these previous studies did not include Asian populations, who may have a higher risk of cerebral hemorrhage. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between serum lipid fractions and CMBs in healthy Japanese subjects. We performed a cross-sectional study involving 4,024 neurologically normal Japanese subjects (mean age 61.6 years). All the participants underwent 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan, and CMBs were classified into 3 groups based on their locations. The concentrations of lipid fractions were categorized into quartiles and the association between the lipid fractions and CMBs were investigated using logistic regression analysis. CMBs were observed in 164 (4.1%) of participants. Of these participants with CMBs, 33 (20.1%) had lobar CMBs and 91 (55.5%) had deep CMBs. Subjects with deep CMBs had lower total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. After adjusting for confounding factors, lower TC and HDL-C levels were still associated with the presence of deep CMBs (OR for the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of TC and HDL-C was 2.28 [95% CI 1.05-4.94], and 1.93 [95% CI 1.02-3.65], respectively). The presence of subcortical infarcts and periventricular hyperintensities was more frequently observed in deep CMBs, whereas white matter hyperintensities were more frequently observed in lobar CMBs. Our results suggest that low serum TC and HDL-C levels are closely associated with deep CMBs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Changes in serum lipids, independent of weight, are associated with changes in symptoms during long-term clozapine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Procyshyn, Ric M.; Wasan, Kishor M.; Thornton, Allen E.; Barr, Alasdair M.; Chen, Eric Y.H.; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Stip, Emmanuel; Williams, Richard; MacEwan, G. William; Birmingham, C. Laird; Honer, William G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Investigators have reported that weight gain attributed to clozapine is associated with its clinical response. However, weight gain is a nonspecific physiological variable that, in itself, does not explain the mechanism underlying this relation. Alternatively, other biological variables that are often associated with weight gain, such as serum lipids, may assist in explaining this observation. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in serum lipids is associated with improvement in schizophrenia symptoms during steady state treatment with clozapine. Methods The data for this study represent a subset of data from a randomized, double-blinded trial that evaluated subjects with schizophrenia who demonstrated a poor treatment response to clozapine. While continuing their clozapine therapy, subjects were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone 3 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. This course of treatment was followed by an optional (open-label) 18 weeks of augmentation with risperidone. In the present study, we included all subjects from the previously reported trial who had fasting lipid analyses and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores from days 7 and 63 (n = 55). For the primary analyses, we used multiple regression to examine the association between serum lipid concentrations and PANSS scores, after controlling for weight. Results The analyses showed that the change in serum lipid concentration predicted change in symptoms over that of change in weight. Specifically, an increase in serum triglyceride concentration was associated with a decrease in the total PANSS score (p = 0.037). In addition, an increase in either serum total cholesterol concentration (p = 0.007), serum triglyceride concentration (p = 0.017) or their combined effect (p = 0.010) was associated with a decrease in PANSS negative subscale scores. Conclusion Elevation of serum lipids is associated with an improvement in schizophrenia

  11. StAR overexpression decreases serum and tissue lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Yanxia; Xu, Leyuan; Ren, Shunlin; Pandak, William M.; Chen, Sifeng; Yin, Lianhua

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism as initiated by mitochondrial CYP27A1 is a ubiquitous pathway capable of synthesizing multiple key regulatory oxysterols involved in lipids homeostasis. Previously we have shown that the regulation of its activities within hepatocytes is highly controlled by the rate of mitochondrial cholesterol delivery. In the present study, we hypothesized that increasing expression of the mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, StAR, is able to lower lipids accumulation in liver, aortic wall, as well as in serum in a well-documented animal model, apoE−/− mice. ApoE−/− mice, characterized by increased serum, liver, and endothelial cholesterol and triglyceride levels by 3 months of age, were infected with recombinant CMV-StAR adenovirus to increase StAR protein expression. Six days following infection, serum total cholesterol and triglycerides had decreased 19 % (P<0.01) and 30% (P<0.01), respectively, with a compensatory 40% (P<0.01) increase in serum HDL-cholesterol in increased StAR expressing mice as compared to controls (no or control virus). Histologic and biochemical analysis of the liver demonstrated not only a dramatic decrease in cholesterol (↓25%; P<0.01), but an even more marked decrease in triglyceride (↓56%; P<0.01) content. En bloc Sudan IV staining of the aorta revealed a >80% (P<0.01) decrease in neutral lipid staining. This study demonstrates for the first time a possible therapeutic role of the CYP27A1–initiated pathway in the treatment of dyslipidemias. PMID:19373502

  12. Duration of Fasting, Serum Lipids, and Metabolic Profile in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura N; Maguire, Jonathon L; Lebovic, Gerald; Hanley, Anthony J; Hamilton, Jill; Adeli, Khosrow; McCrindle, Brian W; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between fasting duration and lipid and metabolic test results. A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy children aged 0-6 years from The Applied Research Group for Kids! (TARGet Kids!) primary care practice network, Toronto, Canada, 2008-2013. The associations between duration of fasting at blood collection and serum lipid tests and metabolic tests were evaluated using linear regression. Among 2713 young children with blood tests the fasting time ranged from 0 to 5 hours (1st and 99th percentiles). Fasting duration was not significantly associated with total cholesterol (β = 0.006; P = .629), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (β = 0.002; P = .708), low-density lipoprotein (β = 0.0013; P = .240), non-HDL (β = 0.004; P = .744), or triglycerides (β = -0.016; P = .084) adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, maternal ethnicity, and time of blood draw. Glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly associated with fasting duration, and the average percent change between 0 and 5 hours was -7.2%, -67.1%, and -69.9%, respectively. The effect of fasting on lipid or metabolic test results did not differ by age or sex; HDL and triglycerides may differ by weight status. In this cohort of healthy young children, we found little evidence to support the need for fasting prior to measurement of lipids. The effect of fasting on glucose was small and may not be clinically important. When measuring serum lipid tests in early childhood, fasting makes a very small difference. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0186953. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modifications and oxidation of lipids and proteins in human serum detected by thermochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Shnizer, Sergei; Kagan, Tamara; Lanir, Amos; Maor, Irit; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2003-01-01

    Detection of electronically excited species (EES) in body fluids may constitute an important diagnostic tool in various pathologies. Examples of such products are triplet excited carbonyls (TEC), which can be a source for photon emission in the 400-550 nm range. The aim of the present study was to determine the actual contribution of lipid and protein components (protein carbonyls) to photon emission generated by thermochemiluminescence (TCL) during the heating of biological fluids. In this study, a new TCL Photometer device, designed by Lumitest Ltd, Israel, was used. Samples were heated to a constant temperature of 80 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 280 s and photon emission was measured at several time points. In order to compare the results of TCL measurements to conventional methods of detecting lipid and protein oxidation, each examined sample was also heated in a waterbath at 80 degrees C for 10-280 s. Lipid and protein oxidation were subsequently measured using conventional methods. The TCL of four polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with three to six double bonds was measured. The elevation of the PUFA TCL amplitude correlated with the increase in the number of double bonds of PUFA. A correlation between the increase in TCL intensity and protein carbonyl generation in bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also observed. In the venous blood serum, our study showed that an increase of TCL intensity during heating reflected the cleavage of TEC of lipid origin. Our study suggests that biological molecules such as proteins, lipids and other molecules, which may become unstable during heating, are capable of generating EES. We demonstrated that a TCL curve can be used as a kinetic model for measuring oxidative processes, which reflects modifications of different molecules involved in the oxidative stress phenomena.

  14. Protein restriction during pregnancy affects maternal liver lipid metabolism and fetal brain lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Bautista, Claudia J; Tovar, Armando R; Ordáz, Guillermo; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Ortiz, Victor; Granados, Omar; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

    2010-02-01

    Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong metabolic problems. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of protein restriction in pregnancy on maternal liver lipid metabolism at 19 days of gestation (dG) and its effect on fetal brain development. Control (C) and restricted (R) mothers were fed with isocaloric diets containing 20 and 10% of casein. At 19 dG, maternal blood and livers and fetal livers and brains were collected. Serum insulin and leptin levels were determinate in mothers. Maternal and fetal liver lipid and fetal brain lipid quantification were performed. Maternal liver and fetal brain fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography. In mothers, liver desaturase and elongase mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Maternal body and liver weights were similar in both groups. However, fat body composition, including liver lipids, was lower in R mothers. A higher fasting insulin at 19 dG in the R group was observed (C = 0.2 +/- 0.04 vs. R = 0.9 +/- 0.16 ng/ml, P < 0.01) and was inversely related to early growth retardation. Serum leptin in R mothers was significantly higher than that observed in C rats (C = 5 +/- 0.1 vs. R = 7 +/- 0.7 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In addition, protein restriction significantly reduced gene expression in maternal liver of desaturases and elongases and the concentration of arachidonic (AA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids. In fetus from R mothers, a low body weight (C = 3 +/- 0.3 vs. R = 2 +/- 0.1 g, P < 0.05), as well as liver and brain lipids, including the content of DHA in the brain, was reduced. This study showed that protein restriction during pregnancy may negatively impact normal fetal brain development by changes in maternal lipid metabolism.

  15. The molecular basis for the prolonged blood circulation of lipidated incretin peptides: Peptide oligomerization or binding to serum albumin?

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Kanai, Sonoko; Alex, Rainer; Belli, Sara; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Benedek, George B

    2016-11-10

    Hybrid incretin peptides are a new generation of drugs for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Despite their biological potency, the effectiveness of these peptides as drugs is limited by their short circulation time in blood (typically within minutes). In this work, we show that lipid conjugated forms of a GLP-1/GIP/glucagon hybrid peptides stay in circulation for hours. We studied the oligomerization and albumin-binding of the unconjugated hybrid peptide as well as its lipidated variants. These lipidated peptides differ in the N-terminal mutation, the position of lipidation and the linkage to lipid. We found that these lipidated peptides form stable oligomers at concentrations above 1mg/mL. This concentration range is relevant to formulation and storage of the peptides. We observed no binding between the peptide oligomers and human serum albumin. However, at the expected therapeutic concentration range (~10-100ng/mL), the oligomers dissociate into monomers. The monomers of lipidated peptides bind to albumin. We have determined the dissociation constants of binding between the lipidated peptides and serum albumin. The dissociation constants of albumin-binding of our lipidated peptides are all very close and similar to that of the fatty acid binding of albumin. Our findings suggest that the monomeric lipidated peptides bind to HSA mainly by the fatty acid chain. Therefore, albumin binding is likely to be a universal mechanism of the prolonged circulating duration of lipidated pharmaceutical peptides.

  16. Correlations of serum visfatin and metabolisms of glucose and lipid in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaoxia; Wu, Ying; Xu, Jianyun; Fang, Qin; Chen, Danqing

    2016-03-01

    Visfatin is a newly discovered adipocytokine hormone, which exerts an insulin-like effect by binding to the insulin receptor-1. However, the role of visfatin in human gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains controversial. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum visfatin and metabolism of glucose and lipid in GDM. This was a prospective study. A total of 38 GDM patients and 35 age- and body mass index-matched controls were studied between January 2012 and October 2013. Fasting serum levels of visfatin, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c and lipid profile were measured. Two-tailed t-tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Perinatal visfatin levels were negatively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance index and triglycerides in controls (r = -0.47, -0.51, -0.57, respectively; P < 0.05), and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.32, P < 0.05). A positive correlation with visfatin level only appeared in weight gain and body mass index in women with GDM (r = 0.36, 0.45, respectively; P < 0.05). Visfatin appears to be involved in glucose and lipid metabolism regulation and insulin resistance, suggesting a role in GDM pathogenesis.

  17. Effects of cupric and ferric ions on in vitro lipid peroxidation of human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Peng, Y.; Zdunek, T. )

    1991-03-15

    Transition metal ions especially ferric ions can catalytically generate free radicals by the Haber-Weiss reaction and initiate lipid peroxidation. Such processes may contribute to the mechanism of acute toxicity by transition metals. Serum pools were prepared from normal blood donors and incubated with 1mM cupric or ferric ions at 37C for 24h. Lipid peroxidation products were subsequently measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid assay as described by Yagi and the values were expressed as {mu}mol/L malonaldehyde equivalents. In another experiment, lipoproteins were coprecipitated with other proteins by 10% phosphotungstic acid/sulfuric acid and precipitates in aqueous suspension were incubated with 1 mM cupric or ferric ions. When sera were incubated, the authors observed higher concentrations of lipid peroxidation products with cupric ions compared to samples supplemented with ferric ions. The mean value for peroxidation products in control group was 2.5 {mu}mol/L. However, the effect was reversed when protein precipitates were incubated in presence of such ions. Ferric ions also caused more peroxidation of linoleic acid and phosphatidylcholine isolated from egg yolk when compared to cupric ions. Such differential behavior may be attributed to different degree of chelation of ferric and cupric ions with serum proteins.

  18. Ranking antioxidants based on their effect on human serum lipids peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Ilya; Shoval, Hila; Bor, Ariela; Schnitzer, Edit; Dotan, Yedidya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of antioxidants is commonly based on measurements of the effect of a specific antioxidant on redox reactions conducted in a solution. Given the difference between reactions that occur in homogeneous solutions and those that occur at lipid-water interfaces, as in biological membranes and lipoproteins, the relevance of the commonly-used assays (such as TEAC and ORAC) to the antioxidative activity in biological systems is questionable. The aim of the present investigation is to develop a more relevant assay. Based on our results, we propose an assay based on prolongation of the lag preceding fast peroxidation of serum lipids. The assay employs our previously developed procedure for determination of susceptibility of serum lipids to peroxidation. The effect of antioxidants is expressed in terms of the relative prolongation of the lag preceding peroxidation. It can be considered reliable because it is only marginally dependent on the specific sera used for the assay. The resultant ranking of antioxidants may be expressed either as the relative prolongation of the lag per 1μM of antioxidant or as the concentration of antioxidant required to double the lag. As expected, the observed ranking order is very different from that reported for TEAC or ORAC assays, undermining the relevance of these assays for oxidation that occurs at interfaces.

  19. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients.

  20. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  1. Serum levels of lipids, lipoproteins and paraoxonase activity in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Demir, B; Demir, S; Atamer, Y; Guven, S; Atamer, A; Kocyigit, Y; Hekimoglu, A; Toprak, G

    2011-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and the oxidation of lipoproteins were investigated in 35 women with pre-eclampsia and in 35 healthy control women with normal pregnancies. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]), and PON1 activity were assessed. There were no significant between-group differences in subject age, gestational age at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, BMI, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and ApoB levels. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum Lp(a) were significantly higher in subjects with pre-eclampsia than in controls. Mean serum HDL, ApoA1 and PON1 activity were significantly lower in subjects with pre-eclampsia compared with controls. In conclusion, lipids and oxidized lipoproteins may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.

  2. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  3. Quantifying glucose and lipid components in human serum by Raman spectroscopy and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Landulfo; Borges, Rita de Cássia Fernandes; Navarro, Ricardo Scarparo; Giana, Hector Enrique; Zângaro, Renato Amaro; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2017-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been employed in the quantitative analysis of biochemical components in human serum. This study aimed to develop a spectral model to estimate the concentration of glucose and lipid fractions in human serum, thus evaluating the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy technique for diagnostic purposes. A total of 44 samples of blood serum were collected from volunteers submitted to routine blood biochemical assay analysis. The biochemical concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were obtained by colorimetric method. Serum samples (200 μL) were submitted to Raman spectroscopy (830 nm, 250 mW, 50-s accumulation). The spectra of sera present peaks related to the main constituents, particularly proteins and lipids. A quantitative model based on partial least squares (PLS) regression has been developed to estimate the concentration of these compounds, taking the biochemical concentrations assayed by the colorimetric method as sample's actual concentrations. The PLS model based on leave-one-out cross-validation approach estimated the concentration of triglycerides and cholesterol with r = 0.98 and 0.96, and root mean square error of 35.4 and 15.9 mg/dL, respectively. For the other biochemicals, the r was ranging from 0.75 to 0.86. These results evidenced the possibility of performing biochemical assay in blood serum samples by Raman spectroscopy and PLS regression and may be employed as a means of diagnosis in routine clinical analysis.

  4. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Jennifer E; Casey, Cameron P; Stratton, Kelly G; Zink, Erika M; Kim, Young-Mo; Zheng, Xueyun; Monroe, Matthew E; Weitz, Karl K; Bloodsworth, Kent J; Orton, Daniel J; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Moore, Ronald J; Lee, Christine G; Pedersen, Catherine; Orwoll, Eric; Smith, Richard D; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Baker, Erin S

    2017-03-15

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as the smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability to sample in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed the stability of polar metabolites and lipids in DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature. The identified and statistically significant molecules were then compared to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if the DBS samples could be effectively used in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. A total of 400 polar metabolites and lipids were identified in the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography (LC)/MS, and LC/ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC/IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant metabolite was conserved in a case-control study of older diabetic males with low amounts of high-density lipoproteins and high body mass indices, triacylglycerides and glucose levels when compared to non-diabetic patients with normal levels, indicating that degradation in the DBS samples affects polar metabolite quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, 36 statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types. The difference in the number of statistically significant polar metabolites and lipids indicated that the lipids did not degrade to as great of a degree as the polar metabolites in the DBS samples and lipid quantitation was still possible. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Serum lipid and antioxidant responses in hypercholesterolemic men and women receiving plant sterol esters vary by apolipoprotein E genotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant sterol esters reduce serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but with striking inter-individual variability. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled study, serum lipid, plant sterol, fat-soluble vitamin, and carotenoid responses to plant sterols were studied according to...

  6. Analysis of polar lipids in the serum from rats fed shiitake by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/sass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of a shiitake mushroom diet has been reported to have effects on serum phospholipids. However, much less is known about the effect on serum polar lipids, including lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. In the present study, the effects of a shiitake diet were evaluated on the basis of ...

  7. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  8. Effect of oyster fungus (Pleurotus ostreatus) on serum and liver lipids of Syrian hamsters with a chronic alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Ginter, E; Jurcovicová, M; Ozdín, L; Mekinová, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of oyster fungus (Pleurotus ostreatus) (2% dried fruiting bodies in a standard diet) on the serum and liver lipids of growing male Syrian hamsters with a chronic alcohol intake (a 15% aqueous solution). After eight weeks' alcohol intake there was an increase in their serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG) and phospholipid (PL) concentration, 40 - 60% of which was accounted for by an increase in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration. The proportion of VLDL in the lipoprotein pool rose by almost 15%, whereas the proportion of high density lipoproteins (HDL) fell. The simultaneous administration of the fungus in the diet reduced the cholesterol level below the value in the control animals not given any alcohol. Both the serum TG and the VLDL concentration fell by 30%, but neither the chemical composition and concentration of the HDL nor the cholesterol concentration were affected. The addition of the fungus to the diet completely abolished the increase induced in the liver cholesterol and TG concentration by the chronic intake of alcohol.

  9. Radiotherapy improves serum fatty acids and lipid profile in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Sana; Channa, Naseem Aslam; Talpur, Farha Naz; Younis, Muhammad; Tabassum, Naila

    2017-05-18

    Breast cancer is a disease with diverse clinical symptoms, molecular profiles, and its nature to response its therapeutic treatments. Radiotherapy (RT), along with surgery and chemotherapy is a part of treatment in breast cancer. The aim of present study was to investigate pre and post treatment effects of radiotherapy in serum fatty acids and its lipids profile in patients with breast cancer. In this comparative as well as follow up study, Serum fatty acids were performed by gas chromatography to investigate fatty acids and Microlab for analysis of lipid profile. Among serum free and total fatty acids the major saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in serum lipids of breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) were stearic acid (18:0) and palmitic acid (16:0). These fatty acids contributed about 35-50% of total fatty acids. The decreased concentrations of linoleic acid (C18:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4) with a lower ratio of C18:2/C18:1 was found in pretreated breast cancer patients as compared to controls. The n-3/n-6 ratio of breast cancer patients was decreased before treatment but it was 35% increased after treatment. In addition, plasma activity of D6 desaturase was increased in the breast cancer patients, while the activity of D5 desaturase was decreased. Increased levels of SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in breast cancer patients (pre and post treated) as compared to controls. Serum total cholesterol (TC) (224.4 mg/dL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (142.9 mg/dL) were significantly increased in pretreated breast cancer patients but after the radiotherapy treatment, the TC (150.2 mg/dL) and LDL-C (89.8 mg/dL) were decreased. It seems that RT would have played a potential role in the treatment of BC. After RT the serum levels of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C are improved. Our study reinforces the important role of RT in the management of BC. The level of PUFAs, TC, and LDL-C can be

  10. Maternal Serum Lipid, Estradiol, and Progesterone Levels in Pregnancy, and the Impact of Placental and Hepatic Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pecks, U.; Rath, W.; Kleine-Eggebrecht, N.; Maass, N.; Voigt, F.; Goecke, T. W.; Mohaupt, M. G.; Escher, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lipids and steroid hormones are closely linked. While cholesterol is the substrate for (placental) steroid hormone synthesis, steroid hormones regulate hepatic lipid production. The aim of this study was to quantify circulating steroid hormones and lipid metabolites, and to characterize their interactions in normal and pathological pregnancies with a focus on hepatic and placental pathologies. Methods: A total of 216 serum samples were analyzed. Group A consisted of 32 patients with uncomplicated pregnancies who were analyzed at three different time-points in pregnancy (from the first through the third trimester) and once post partum. Group B consisted of 36 patients (24th to 42nd week of gestation) with pregnancy pathologies (IUGR n = 10, preeclampsia n = 13, HELLP n = 6, intrahepatic cholestasis n = 7) and 31 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies. Steroid profiles including estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured by GC-MS and compared with lipid concentrations. Results: In Group A, cholesterol and triglycerides correlated positively with estradiol (cholesterol ρ = 0.50, triglycerides ρ = 0.57) and progesterone (ρ = 0.49, ρ = 0.53) and negatively with dehydroepiandrosterone (ρ = − 0.47, ρ = − 0.38). Smoking during pregnancy affected estradiol concentrations, leading to lower levels in the third trimester compared to non-smoking patients (p < 0.05). In Group B, cholesterol levels were found to be lower in IUGR pregnancies and in patients with HELLP syndrome compared to controls (p < 0.05). Steroid hormone concentrations of estradiol (p < 0.05) and progesterone (p < 0.01) were lower in pregnancies with IUGR. Discussion: Lipid and steroid levels were affected most in IUGR pregnancies, while only minor changes in concentrations were observed for other pregnancy-related disorders. Each of the analyzed entities displayed specific changes. However, since the

  11. Co-administration of trientine and flaxseed oil on oxidative stress, serum lipids and heart structure in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Ali; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2013-08-01

    The administration of flaxseed oil or flaxseed oil plus trientine in diabetic rats reduced triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. Furthermore, the combined treatment significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity and attenuated serum Cu2+. The results suggest that the administration of flaxseed oil plus trientine is useful in controlling serum lipid abnormalities, oxidative stress, restoring heart structure, and reducing serum Cu2+ in diabetic rats.

  12. Dietary intake and serum and hair concentrations of minerals and their relationship with serum lipids and glucose levels in hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2011-02-01

    Inadequate minerals intake, as well as disruption of some metabolic processes in which microelements are cofactors, are suggested to lead to the development of hypertension. The role of minerals in the pathogenesis of hypertension still remains to be explained. In the present study, we sought to determine associations between serum and hair mineral concentrations and serum lipids and glucose levels. Forty obese hypertensive subjects with insulin resistance and 40 healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. Blood pressure, BMI, and insulin resistance were recorded in all subjects. Levels of lipids, glucose, sodium and potassium, iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in serum. Iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, and calcium were assessed in hair. Dietary intake of the analyzed minerals was estimated. We found distinctly higher concentrations of serum iron and serum and hair calcium as well as markedly lower levels of hair zinc in the hypertensive subjects. The study group manifested also significantly lower daily intake of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We observed a relationship between the concentrations of iron, zinc, and copper in serum and hair and high and low range of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose serum levels in the studied patients. Moreover, this study demonstrated significant correlation between serum and hair concentrations of selected minerals and their dietary intake and levels of serum lipids and glucose and blood pressure in the study and the control groups. The obtained results seem to indicate the association between lipid and glucose metabolism and iron, copper, zinc, and calcium concentrations in blood and hair of hypertensive and obese patients with insulin resistance.

  13. Effects of Vaccinium Berries on Serum Lipids: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yitong; Miao, Ya; Meng, Zheying; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial effects of anthocyanins consumption on cardiovascular risk are supported by mechanistic and epidemiologic evidence. In order to explore the effects of Vaccinium berries rich in anthocyanins on serum lipids, we conducted a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Sixteen studies with 1109 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Significant heterogeneity confirmed differential effects between Vaccinium subclasses. The whortleberry group is significantly superior to placebo in lipids improvement. Besides, bilberry groups show significant differences in reducing LDL-C and increasing HDL-C in comparison with other treatments. For many of the other subgroups and comparison arms, there was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about efficacy. PMID:26345230

  14. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-05-01

    Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  15. Effect of Gymnema montanum Leaves on Serum and Tissue Lipids in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Latha, M.; Ramkumar, K. M.; Pari, L.; Baskar, C.; Bai, V. Narmatha

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Gymnema montanum leaves on alloxaninduced hyperlipidemia was studied in male Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of G. montanum leaves was administered orally and different doses of the extract on blood glucose, serum and tissue lipids, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, and glutathione in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were studied. G. montanum leaf extract (GLEt) at doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks suppressed the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. GLEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be comparable to glibenclamide, a reference drug. These data indicate that G. montanum represents an effective antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic adjunct for the treatment of diabetes and a potential source of discovery of new orally active agent for future therapy. PMID:15061646

  16. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Lalitha, Gurusamy; Shirony, Nicholson Puthanveedu; Baskaran, Rathinasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane. PMID:23569870

  17. Soya products and serum lipids: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi A; Onabanjo, Temilola A; Yansane, Alfa; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-09-28

    Soya proteins and isoflavones have been reported to exert beneficial effects on the serum lipid profile. More recently, this claim is being challenged. The objective of this study was to comprehensively examine the effects of soya consumption on the lipid profile using published trials. A detailed literature search was conducted via MEDLINE (from 2004 through February 2014), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register) and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of soya on the lipid profile. The primary effect measure was the difference in means of the final measurements between the intervention and control groups. In all, thirty-five studies (fifty comparisons) were included in our analyses. Treatment duration ranged from 4 weeks to 1 year. Intake of soya products resulted in a significant reduction in serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, -4.83 (95% CI -7.34, -2.31) mg/dl, TAG, -4.92 (95% CI -7.79, -2.04) mg/dl, and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations, -5.33 (95% CI -8.35, -2.30) mg/dl. There was also a significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol concentration, 1.40 (95% CI 0.58, 2.23) mg/dl. The I² statistic ranged from 92 to 99%, indicating significant heterogeneity. LDL reductions were more marked in hypercholesterolaemic patients, -7.47 (95% CI -11.79, -3.16) mg/dl, than in healthy subjects, -2.96 (95% CI -5.28, -0.65) mg/dl. LDL reduction was stronger when whole soya products (soya milk, soyabeans and nuts) were used as the test regimen, -11.06 (95% CI -15.74, -6.37) mg/dl, as opposed to when 'processed' soya extracts, -3.17 (95% CI -5.75, -0.58) mg/dl, were used. These data are consistent with the beneficial effects of soya proteins on serum LDL, HDL, TAG and TC concentrations. The effect was stronger in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Whole soya foods appeared to be more beneficial than soya supplementation, whereas isoflavone supplementation had no effects on the lipid profile.

  18. Interaction of lipid vesicle with silver nanoparticle-serum albumin protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ran; Choudhary, Poonam; Schurr, Ryan N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Brown, Jared M.; Chun Ke, Pu

    2012-01-01

    The physical interaction between a lipid vesicle and a silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-human serum albumin (HSA) protein "corona" has been examined. Specifically, the binding of AgNPs and HSA was analyzed by spectrophotometry, and the induced conformational changes of the HSA were inferred from circular dichroism spectroscopy. The fluidity of the vesicle, a model system for mimicking cell membrane, was found to increase with the increased exposure to AgNP-HSA corona, though less pronounced compared to that induced by AgNPs alone. This study offers additional information for understanding the role of physical forces in nanoparticle-cell interaction and has implications for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology.

  19. Serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation in pregnant women with preeclampsia in gorgan.

    PubMed

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdol J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assay serum copper, zinc and lipid peroxidation levels in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. There were significant differences between systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde among two groups. There were significant differences in weight, pre-pregnancy body mass index, systolic, diastolic blood pressures and copper, Cu/Zn ratio and malondialdehyde levels when compared to healthy pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia patients. A positive correlation was observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and copper, malondialdehyde and Cu/Zn ratio. Copper and malondialdehyde may play a role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  20. Quantitative assessment of the effects of beta-glucan consumption on serum lipid profile and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Sun, X; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Cao, Y; Mo, G; Liang, J; Zhu, S

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that beta-glucan derived from oats or barley can reduce cardiovascular disease risk through reductions in serum lipids. However, the effects of beta-glucan on lipid changes in hypercholesterolemic patient groups are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the effect of beta-glucan, a marker of water-soluble fiber, on various lipid parameters and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models according to heterogeneity. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses were also performed. Seventeen eligible RCTs with 916 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled result showed that beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic population significantly lowered the total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.33 to -0.18; P < 0.00001) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration (MD, -0.21 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.14; P < 0.00001). However, there were no significant differences in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and glucose. No adverse effects were reported among the eligible trials. Our meta-analysis showed that beta-glucan consumption significantly decreased TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but did not affect TG, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV Positive Patients on ART with ART Naïve Patients

    PubMed Central

    V, Vijay; Shekhanawar, M.S.; Rajeshwari; M, Amareshwaras; D, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients has coincided with increasing reports of complications like HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and the metabolic alterations, affecting the lipid and glucose metabolism. Evidences in support of lipodystrophy and dyslipidaemia associated with First- line HAART in our area is scarce. The aim of the present study was 1) to study and compare Lipid profile in HIV positive patients on ART with that of freshly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART. 2) To assess lipodystrophy syndrome in patients on ART. Materials and Methods: Hundred newly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART were taken as controls (ART-Naïve).Hundred randomly selected HIV+ patients who were already on First-line ART regimen (Stavudine/Zudovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) for more than 12 months were taken as cases (ART). This study was conducted for a period of 12 months at the VIMS ART centre, Bellary, Karnataka, India. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, VLDL, Non-HDL -C & TC/HDL-C ratio in ART patients compared to ART-naïve patients. Of the 100 ART patients 23 had lipodystrophy syndrome (buffalo hump, abnormal fat deposition around neck & back, buccal fat resorption, increase in abdominal fat). Conclusion: To conclude, it is evident from our study that there is increase in lipid profile (except HDL) in ART patients compared to ART Naïve group and 23 ART patients showed lipodystrophy syndrome. Hence it appears reasonable to measure fasting lipid levels before and 3-6 months after antiretroviral therapy is initiated or when ART regimen is changed. PMID:25478335

  2. Statin Use, Serum Lipids, and Prostate Inflammation in Men with a Negative Prostate Biopsy: Results from the REDUCE Trial.

    PubMed

    Allott, Emma H; Howard, Lauren E; Vidal, Adriana C; Moreira, Daniel M; Castro-Santamaria, Ramiro; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Statin use is associated with lower advanced prostate cancer risk. In addition to cholesterol lowering, statins have systemic anti-inflammatory properties. However, their effect on histologic prostate inflammation is not well understood, particularly among men at increased prostate cancer risk but with a negative prostate biopsy. We examined associations between serum lipid levels, statin use, and histologic prostate inflammation using data from 6,655 men with a negative baseline prostate biopsy in the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. Statin use and lipid levels [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides] were assessed at baseline. Inflammation was assessed by central review. Logistic regression was used to examine the effects of lipids and statin use on presence and extent of chronic and acute prostate inflammation [none, moderate (<20%), severe (≥20% biopsy cores)]. Chronic and acute inflammation affected 77% and 15% of men, respectively. Men with high HDL (≥60 vs. <40 mg/dL) had reduced presence of acute inflammation [OR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-0.99] and were less likely to have severe acute inflammation (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.45-0.97), but there were no other associations between lipids and inflammation. Statin users had reduced presence of chronic inflammation (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69-0.95) and were less likely to have severe chronic (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.95) and severe acute inflammation (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-1.00), relative to non-users. Given the possible role for inflammation in prostate cancer, the inverse association between statins and prostate inflammation suggests a mechanism linking statins with lower advanced prostate cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 10(6); 319-26. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Prenatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl acids and serum lipids at ages 7 and 15 in females.

    PubMed

    Maisonet, Mildred; Näyhä, Simo; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marcus, Michele

    2015-09-01

    In some cross-sectional epidemiologic studies the shape of the association between serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and lipids suggests departures from linearity. We used statistical approaches allowing for non-linearity to determine associations of prenatal exposures of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with lipid concentrations. PFAAs were measured in serum from pregnant women collected in 1991-1992 at enrollment in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and lipids in serum from their daughters at ages 7 (n=111) and 15 (n=88). The associations of PFAAs with lipids were first explored by cubic splines, followed by piecewise linear regressions by tertiles to obtain regression coefficients (β) and their 95% confidence limits (95% CL) (in mg/dL per 1ng/mL). At age 7, total cholesterol was positively associated with prenatal PFOA concentrations in the lower tertile (β=15.01; 95% CL=2.34, 27.69) but not with PFOA concentrations in the middle (β=-3.63; 95% CL=-17.43, 10.16) and upper (β=-1.58; 95% CL=-4.58, 1.42) tertiles. At age 15, a similar pattern was noted as well. Positive associations between LDL-C and prenatal PFOA concentration in the lower tertile were observed in daughters at ages 7 (β=14.91; 95% CL=3.53, 28.12) and 15 (β=13.93; 95% CL=0.60, 27.26). LDL-C was not associated with PFOA concentrations in the middle or upper tertile at any age. Neither HDL-C nor triglycerides was associated with prenatal PFOA exposure. Non-linear patterns of association of total cholesterol and LDL-C with prenatal PFOS were less consistently noted. Exposure to low levels of PFOA during prenatal development may alter lipid metabolism later in life. Given the small sample size further replication of the association in large independent cohorts is important. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Serum lipid levels and suicidality: a meta-analysis of 65 epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Xie, Guoming; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the association between serum lipid levels and suicidality, as evidence from previous studies has been inconsistent. Methods We identified relevant studies by searching Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1980 to Dec. 5, 2014). Studies assessing the association between serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or triglycerides (TG) levels and suicidality were included. We used a random-effects model to take into account heterogeneity among studies. Results We included 65 studies with a total of 510 392 participants in our analysis. Compared with the nonsuicidal patients, suicidal patients had significantly lower serum TC (weighted mean difference [WMD] −22.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] −27.95 to −16.75), LDL-C (WMD −19.56, 95% CI −26.13 to −12.99) and TG (WMD −23.40, 95% CI −32.38 to −14.42) levels, while compared with the healthy controls, suicidal patients had significantly lower TC (WMD −24.75, 95% CI −27.71 to −21.78), HDL-C (WMD −1.75, 95% CI −3.01 to −0.48) and LDL-C (WMD −3.85, 95% CI −7.45 to −0.26) levels. Furthermore, compared with the highest serum TC level category, a lower serum TC level was associated with a 112% (95% CI 40%–220%) higher risk of suicidality, including a 123% (95% CI 24%–302%) higher risk of suicide attempt and an 85% (95 CI 7%–221%) higher risk of suicide completion. The cut-off values for low and high serum TC level were in compliance with the categories reported in the original studies. Limitations A major limitation of our study is the potential heterogeneity in most of the analyses. In addition, the suicidal behaviour was examined using different scales or methods across studies, which may further explain heterogeneity among the studies. Conclusion We identified an inverse association

  5. No long-term benefits of supplementation with arabinogalactan on serum lipids and glucose.

    PubMed

    Marett, Rebecca; Slavin, Joanne L

    2004-04-01

    We conducted a 6-month randomized, double-blind, parallel trial in which subjects consumed their usual diet plus arabinogalactan, a functional fiber isolated from either larch or tamarack. Healthy human subjects (28 men, 26 women) ages 18 to 55 years old consumed 8.4 g/day larch arabinogalactan (n=18), tamarack arabinogalactan (n=19), or a placebo of rice starch (n=17). Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, glucose, and insulin were measured monthly. Three-day food records, body weight, blood pressure, and gastrointestinal symptom surveys were obtained monthly. Serum lipids seemed to decrease at month 2, but there were no statistically significant differences among diets for any measured endpoint. Arabinogalactan is a recognized soluble fiber and is currently being used in products because it is not viscous, is easily incorporated into foods and beverages, and is well accepted by consumers.

  6. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels and lipid peroxidation in children with chronic giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Mustafa; Delibas, Namik; Altuntas, Irfan; Oktem, Faruk; Yönden, Zafer

    2003-03-01

    This study investigated the levels of iron, zinc, and copper and their demolishing effects against lipid peroxidation in chronic giardiasis. Serum iron, zinc and copper levels, erythrocyte cytosolic superoxide dismutase activity, and malondialdehyde levels were measured in 34 children with chronic giardiasis and were compared with controls. The serum iron and zinc levels and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher among the children with chronic giardiasis compared to the control group (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in copper levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). Consequently, the oxidant-antioxidant balance may tilt towards the oxidative side due to weakness of the antioxidant system in giardiasis. If early and proper treatment is not performed, free radical-mediated damage might occur in children with chronic giardiasis.

  7. Factors affecting serum oxytetracycline levels in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Mercer, H D; Rollins, L D; Carter, G G; Gural, R P; Bourne, D W; Dittert, L W

    1977-08-01

    Fifteen Aberdeen Angus steers, 295-364 kg, were dosed with either 4.4 or 11 mg of oxytetracycline hydrochloride/kg im. The antimicrobial activity of the serum was determined periodically, and the resulting data were treated statistically to determine the sources of variation. Variance in serum levels of oxytetracycline activity was attributed to dose, time of bleeding, order of dosing, animal, and assay. The total variance component was proportionately greater for the 11-mg/kg dose than for the 4.4-mg/kg dose. Animal variance increased with the higher dose level of oxytetracycline. The influence of dose on serum level was tested by applying a t test to the mean serum levels and their standard deviations at each bleeding time. The 4.4- and 11-mg/kg serum levels were significantly different (p less than 0.01) at all bleeding times. The 4.4-mg/kg serum levels mutliplied by 2.5 were not significantly different (p less than 0.05) from the 11-mg/kg serum levels at all bleeding times.

  8. NMR spectral mapping of Lipid A molecular patterns affected by interaction with the innate immune receptor CD14

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, Seth; Agrawal, Prashansa; Jain, Nitin U.

    2009-01-23

    Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a serum glycoprotein that binds to the Lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with high affinity as part of the innate immune response to bacterial endotoxins. In order to investigate structural interactions of Lipid A with sCD14, we have prepared an isotopically labeled form of a fully active and chemically defined endotoxin, Kdo{sub 2}-Lipid A, which allowed us to carry out detailed NMR spectral mapping of this agonist ligand bound to sCD14 and identify for the first time structural regions that are strongly affected during complex formation with sCD14. These map to two adjacent areas comprising the lower portions of the sugar headgroup and upper half of the acyl chains I, III, and V, which are spatially proximal to the 1- and 4'-phosphate ends. Additionally, we have detected for the first time, presence of differential dynamic behavior for the affected resonances, suggesting a likely role for dynamics in the mechanism of Lipid A pattern recognition by sCD14.

  9. Effects of coffee consumption on oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins and serum lipid levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, G S; Mune, M; Otani, H; Tone, Y; Liang, X-M; Iwahashi, H; Sakamoto, W

    2004-01-01

    Since little is known about how coffee intake affects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidative susceptibility and serum lipid levels, we conducted an in vivo study in 11 healthy male students of Wakayama Medical University aged between 20 and 31 years fed an average Japanese diet. On days 1-7 of the study, the subjects drank mineral water. On day 7, the subjects began drinking coffee, 24 g total per day, for one week. This was followed by a one week "washout period" during which mineral water was consumed. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were taken at the end of each one-week period. LDL oxidation lag time was approximately 8% greater (p < 0.01) after the coffee drinking period than the other periods. Serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly decreased after the coffee drinking period. Finally, regular coffee ingestion may favorably affect cardiovascular risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and decreasing LDL-cholesterol and MDA levels.

  10. The effects of classic ketogenic diet on serum lipid profile in children with refractory seizures.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Parviz; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Badv, Reza Shervin; Tavassoli, Ali Reza; Azizi Malamiri, Reza

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 % of children with epilepsy develop refractory seizures unresponsive to both old and new generation anticonvulsants. Since such seizures have a serious negative impact on the quality of life, other treatment options are considered. The ketogenic diet is a well-known treatment for managing refractory seizures, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies have shown that this diet is as good as, or better than, any of the newer medications in reducing seizure frequency. However, concerns about adverse effects have been raised. We conducted an open label trial to show the effects of this diet on serum lipid profile. Thirty-three children with refractory epilepsy were treated with the ketogenic diet and were followed for 6 months. Their serum lipid profile was assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after initiating the diet. Seizure frequency was reduced in 63 % of children (no seizures in 2/33 and reduced >50 % in 19/33). However, after 6 months of administering the diet, median triglyceride was significantly increased (from 84 to 180 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median total cholesterol was significantly increased (from 180 to 285 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was significantly increased (from 91 to 175 mg/dl, P < 0.001), and median serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased (from 51 to 58 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Results of this study indicate that a classic ketogenic diet in children with refractory seizures is effective in seizure reduction, but leads to development of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  11. Factors Affecting Lipid Oxidation Due to Pig and Turkey Hemolysate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haizhou; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jianhao; Richards, Mark P

    2017-09-13

    Turkey hemolysate promoted lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than pig hemolysate, which was partly attributed to the greater ability of H2O2 that formed during auto-oxidation to oxidize the avian hemoglobin (Hb). Turkey and pig hemolysate (2.5 μM Hb) exposed to 10 μM H2O2 oxidized to 48% and 4% metHb, respectively. Catalase activity, which converts H2O2 to water, was elevated in the pig hemolysate. The larger difference in Hb oxidation when comparing turkey and pig hemolysate in washed muscle (relative to their auto-oxidation rates) suggested that lipid oxidation products facilitated formation of metHb. Turkey metHb released hemin more readily than pig metHb, which coincided with turkey metHb promoting lipid oxidation more effectively than pig metHb. Ferryl Hb was not detected during storage of turkey or pig hemolysate in washed muscle, which suggested a minor role for hypervalent forms of Hb in the oxidation of the lipids.

  12. Multiscale structures of lipids in foods as parameters affecting fatty acid bioavailability and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Michalski, M C; Genot, C; Gayet, C; Lopez, C; Fine, F; Joffre, F; Vendeuvre, J L; Bouvier, J; Chardigny, J M; Raynal-Ljutovac, K

    2013-10-01

    On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum Lipid Profile, Prevalence of Dyslipidaemia, and Associated Risk Factors Among Northern Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; De la Garza, Yolanda E.; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the serum lipid profile, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia, and associated risk factors among the North Mexican adolescent population. Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three subjects (47.8% girls) ages 11 to 16 years took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, dyslipidaemia was defined as a presence of ≥1 of the following levels (mg/dL): Total cholesterol ≥200, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40, and triglyceride ≥130. Results: The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 48.8% with no differences between sexes. Adolescents with high body mass index were more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (overweight: odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.77, P < 0.05; obesity: OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.11–4.41, P < 0.05) than those with normal weight. Abdominally subjects with obesity were also more likely to have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.35–3.91, P < 0.01) than their leaner counterparts. Conclusions: Half of Mexican adolescents living in the State of Nuevo León have at least 1 abnormal lipid concentration. Low HDL-chol level was the most common dyslipidaemia. Body mass index and abdominal obesity were associated with the prevalence of at least 1 abnormal lipid level. PMID:27379432

  14. [Correlation of lipid profiles and anthropometric variables with serum lipoprotein(a) levels in childhood].

    PubMed

    Sáez Meabe, Y; Lafita Bernar, M; Sáez de Lafuente Chivite, J P; Narváez Gofinondo, I; Vacas Rius, M; Magro López, A M; Sagastagoitia Gorostiza, J D; Molinero de Miguel, E; Iriarte Ezkurdia, J A

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate lipoprotein(a) distribution in children and to assess its association with lipid profile and anthropometric variables. We studied 98 children (44 girls and 54 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 7 years, who were included in an epidemiological study on the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in children in the province of Biscay. The following parameters were determined: weight and height, body mass index, lipoprotein(a), and lipid profile. Lipid profile included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein A1. The mean and median serum lipoprotein(a) levels were 13.07 and 5.56 mg/dl respectively and were 11.43 and 3.92 mg/dl for boys and 15.09 and 8.32 mg/dl for girls. Lipoprotein(a) concentrations > 30 mg/dl were found in 7.4% of the boys and in 11.4% of the girls. The mean values and prevalences of lipoprotein(a) > 30 mg/dl were lower in boys than in girls but these differences were not statistically significant. A positive correlation was found between lipid profile (LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol index) and lipoprotein(a) levels. When evaluating anthropometric variables, we found a statistically significant inverse correlation between weight and lipoprotein(a). In view of the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors and the results of this study, we believe that lipoprotein(a) determination should be considered in children with an unfavorable lipid profile.

  15. Serum biochemical profile, enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation in organs of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Braz, N M; Freitas, E R; Trevisan, M T S; do Nascimento, G A J; Salles, R P R; Cruz, C E B; Farias, N N P; da Silva, I N G; Watanabe, P H

    2017-03-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding laying hens diets containing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) as a source of anacardic acid on the blood biochemical parameters as well as the enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation of liver and tissues of the reproductive system (ovary, magnum, and uterus). A total of 216 Hisex White commercial laying hens were distributed randomly into six treatments, with six replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a diet without growth promoter (GP); a diet with GP; and diets without GP, with addition of increasing levels of CNSL (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0%). Addition of CNSL to the diet did not affect the blood biochemical parameters (uric acid, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides), the enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase and nonprotein sulphydryl groups) in the organs (liver, ovary, magnum and uterus) or the peroxidation of lipids from the blood serum, liver, magnum and uterus (p > 0.05). However, the addition of 0.75% and 1.00% CNSL provided a lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content in the birds' ovary (p < 0.001) compared to birds of other treatments, whereas the treatment without the GP provided a higher value. Addition of up to 1% of the CNSL as a source of anacardic acid in the laying hens' diets does not influence blood biochemical parameters or the endogenous enzymatic activity in the liver, ovary, magnum and uterus, but affects the lipid peroxidation in the ovary, although the problem is reduced from the inclusion of 0.75% CNSL.

  16. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Morris, Stacy; Nguyen, Angel; Betts, Nancy M.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) in adults [n = 60; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS), low dose control beverage (LD-C), high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS), and high dose control beverage (HD-C) for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.); glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p < 0.05). Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43%) versus control group (p < 0.01). No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids. PMID:27429802

  17. Effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wahrburg, U; Martin, H; Schulte, H; Walek, T; Assmann, G

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the effects of two kinds of decaffeinated coffee on serum lipid profiles in healthy young adults. Randomized controlled study with three study groups and a parallel design, consisting of two consecutive periods. Outpatient clinical research center in a university clinic. 119 healthy students (60 male, 59 female) who were selected after a screening. All completed the study. Blood samples of three subjects (1 male, 2 female) were excluded from evaluation due to later diagnosed genetic anomalies of lipid metabolism. All subjects consumed 750-1000 ml of caffeinated filtered coffee per day for a 2 week wash-in period. During the 6 week test period one group continued drinking the caffeinated coffee, while the two other groups consumed different kinds of decaffeinated coffee. Consumption of both types of decaffeinated coffee did not lead to any significant changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the reactions between the three groups. The diet did not change during the study. Switch from regular to decaffeinated coffee had no cholesterol-elevating effects, irrespective of the type of coffee.

  18. Lowering serum lipids via PCSK9-targeting drugs: current advances and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    He, Ni-ya; Li, Qing; Wu, Chun-yan; Ren, Zhong; Gao, Ya; Pan, Li-hong; Wang, Mei-mei; Wen, Hong-yan; Jiang, Zhi-sheng; Tang, Zhi-han; Liu, Lu-shan

    2017-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), also known as neural apoptosis regulated convertase (NARC1), is a key modulator of cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 increases the serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by escorting low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) from the membrane of hepatic cells into lysosomes, where the LDLRs are degraded. Owing to the importance of PCSK9 in lipid metabolism, considerable effort has been made over the past decade in developing drugs targeting PCSK9 to lower serum lipid levels. Nevertheless, some problems and challenges remain. In this review we first describes the structure and function of PCSK9 and its gene polymorphisms. We then discuss the various designs of pharmacological targets of PCSK9, including those that block the binding of PCSK9 to hepatic LDLRs (mimetic peptides, adnectins, and monoclonal antibodies), inhibit PCSK9 expression (the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 platform, small molecules, antisense oligonucleotides, and small interfering RNAs), and interfere with PCSK9 secretion. Finally, this review highlights future challenges in this field, including safety concerns associated with PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, the limited utility of PCSK9 inhibitors in the central nervous system, and the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors. PMID:28112180

  19. Lowering serum lipids via PCSK9-targeting drugs: current advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    He, Ni-Ya; Li, Qing; Wu, Chun-Yan; Ren, Zhong; Gao, Ya; Pan, Li-Hong; Wang, Mei-Mei; Wen, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng; Tang, Zhi-Han; Liu, Lu-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), also known as neural apoptosis regulated convertase (NARC1), is a key modulator of cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 increases the serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by escorting low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) from the membrane of hepatic cells into lysosomes, where the LDLRs are degraded. Owing to the importance of PCSK9 in lipid metabolism, considerable effort has been made over the past decade in developing drugs targeting PCSK9 to lower serum lipid levels. Nevertheless, some problems and challenges remain. In this review we first describes the structure and function of PCSK9 and its gene polymorphisms. We then discuss the various designs of pharmacological targets of PCSK9, including those that block the binding of PCSK9 to hepatic LDLRs (mimetic peptides, adnectins, and monoclonal antibodies), inhibit PCSK9 expression (the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 platform, small molecules, antisense oligonucleotides, and small interfering RNAs), and interfere with PCSK9 secretion. Finally, this review highlights future challenges in this field, including safety concerns associated with PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies, the limited utility of PCSK9 inhibitors in the central nervous system, and the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors.

  20. Fucoidan improves serum lipid levels and atherosclerosis through hepatic SREBP-2-mediated regulation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Yeom, Mijung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to the hypolipidemic activity of fucoidan, complex polysaccharides from brown seaweeds, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study was performed to investigate whether and how fucoidan has lipid-lowering potential in poloxamer-407 (P407)-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Fucoidan treatment 2 h after acute administration of P407 in these mice significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol levels, but increased the levels of HDL cholesterol. In HepG2 hepatocytes and the liver, fucoidan decreased the expression of FAS and ACC mRNA with no or only a moderate inhibitory effect on SREBP-1c mRNA expression. Furthermore, fucoidan attenuated the hepatic expression of mature SREBP-2 protein with a subsequent decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression and an increase in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA expression. In addition, atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of chronically P407-treated mice were also reduced by fucoidan. These findings indicate that fucoidan improves serum lipid levels by regulating the expression of key enzymes of cholesterol and triglyceride syntheses in the liver through modulation of SREBP-2.

  1. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in Afro-Caribbean men.

    PubMed

    Miljkovic, I; Kuipers, A L; Kuller, L H; Sheu, Y; Bunker, C H; Patrick, A L; Wheeler, V W; Evans, R W; Zmuda, J M

    2013-09-01

    When compared with other ethnic groups, African ancestry individuals have lower triglycerides and higher High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, although the mechanisms for these differences remain unclear. A comprehensive array of factors potentially related to fasting serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in African ancestry men was evaluated. Men (1,821) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of total body fat and quantitative computed tomography assessments of calf skeletal muscle adiposity [subcutaneous and intermuscular adipose tissue (AT), and muscle density as a measure of intra-muscular AT]. Multivariable linear regression analysis identified age (-), total body fat (+), subcutaneous AT (-), fasting glucose (+), fasting insulin (+), diastolic blood pressure (+), and non-African ancestry (+) as independent correlates of triglycerides (all P < 0.05). Total body fat (+), intra-muscular AT (-), and diastolic blood pressure (+) were independent correlates of Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P < 0.001). Age (+), waist circumference (-), fasting insulin (-), physical activity (+), and alcohol intake (+) were independent correlates of HDL-C (all P < 0.05). A novel relationship between skeletal muscle adiposity and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in African ancestry men, independent of total and central adiposity was illuminated. In African ancestry populations, genetic factors are likely a significant determinant of triglycerides levels. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. The Relationship between Serum Lipid Fractions and Heart Rate Variability in Diabetic Patients with Statin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Badea, Anamaria Raluca; Nedelcu, Laurentiu; Valeanu, Madalina; Zdrenghea, Dumitru

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and highlight the relationship between serum lipid fractions and heart rate variability in diabetic patients receiving statin therapy. The study was performed in a group of 87 type 2 diabetic patients on statin associated therapy. All patients were on Holter ECG 24 hours monitored with three channel monitor (Labtech ECG Holter monitor), and data were analyzed on a commercially available software (Cardiospy PC SW/EV 5.02.06.02). Concentrations of biochemical parameters were determined using specific enzymatic assays on an autoanalyzer Olympus AU 680. In the studied patients, we analyzed Holter/24 hours monitoring reports with respect to heart rate variability indexes, arrhythmic events and myocardial ischemia. It was noticed that the mean values of serum TG were slightly elevated, TC levels were close to the limits specified by the guidelines for diabetic patients and for patients with cardiovascular diseases, with no significant differences between males and females. After analyzing the HRV in both time and frequency domains, we found no strong correlations between any of the HRV indexes and any of the lipid fractions. The results suggest that statin therapy may reduce the autonomic impairment secondary to dyslipidemia.

  3. Timing of Levothyroxine Administration Affects Serum Thyrotropin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Huynh, Thien-Giang; Nayak, Bindu; Loh, Jennifer; Soldin, Steven; Jonklaas, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients treated with levothyroxine typically ingest it in a fasting state to prevent food impairing its absorption. The serum thyrotropin concentration is the therapeutic index of levothyroxine action. Objective: The study objective was to determine the effect of the timing of levothyroxine administration in relationship to food on serum thyrotropin levels. Design: Participants were randomized to one of six sequences, each consisting of three 8-wk regimens in a three-period crossover design. These regimens were in a fasting state, at bedtime, and with breakfast. The concentrations of TSH, free T4, and total T3 during each of the three timing regimens were documented. The primary outcome was the difference between serum TSH concentrations under fasting conditions compared with concentrations during the other 8-wk regimens. Setting: The study was conducted in an academic medical center. Participants: Study participants were receiving levothyroxine for treatment of hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the study. The mean thyrotropin concentration was 1.06 ± 1.23 mIU/liter when levothyroxine was administered in the fasting state. When levothyroxine was taken with breakfast, the serum thyrotropin concentration was significantly higher (2.93 ± 3.29 mIU/liter). When levothyroxine was taken at bedtime, the serum TSH concentration was also significantly higher (2.19 ± 2.66 mIU/liter). Conclusion: Nonfasting regimens of levothyroxine administration are associated with higher and more variable serum TSH concentrations. If a specific serum TSH goal is desired, thereby avoiding iatrogenic subclinical thyroid disease, then fasting ingestion of levothyroxine ensures that TSH concentrations remain within the narrowest target range. PMID:19584184

  4. RNA interference silencing of a major lipid droplet protein affects lipid droplet size in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Moellering, Eric R; Benning, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells store oils in the chemical form of triacylglycerols in distinct organelles, often called lipid droplets. These dynamic storage compartments have been intensely studied in the context of human health and also in plants as a source of vegetable oils for human consumption and for chemical or biofuel feedstocks. Many microalgae accumulate oils, particularly under conditions limiting to growth, and thus have gained renewed attention as a potentially sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. However, little is currently known at the cellular or molecular levels with regard to oil accumulation in microalgae, and the structural proteins and enzymes involved in the biogenesis, maintenance, and degradation of algal oil storage compartments are not well studied. Focusing on the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the accumulation of triacylglycerols and the formation of lipid droplets during nitrogen deprivation were investigated. Mass spectrometry identified 259 proteins in a lipid droplet-enriched fraction, among them a major protein, tentatively designated major lipid droplet protein (MLDP). This protein is specific to the green algal lineage of photosynthetic organisms. Repression of MLDP gene expression using an RNA interference approach led to increased lipid droplet size, but no change in triacylglycerol content or metabolism was observed.

  5. Stability of selected serum hormones and lipids after long-term storage in the Janus Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Gislefoss, Randi E; Grimsrud, Tom K; Mørkrid, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The potential value of a biobank depends on the quality of the samples, i.e. how well they reflect the biological or biochemical state of the donors at the time of sampling. Documentation of sample quality has become a particularly important issue for researchers and users of biobank studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of selected components: cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDLC), low density cholesterol (LDLC), apolipoprotein A1 (apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (apo B), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (FT4). Samples, stored at -25°C, from 520 men aged 40-49 years at blood sampling distributed in equally sized groups (n=130) according to length of storage, 0, 4, 17 and 29 years, respectively, were used in a cross sectional design. The freshly collected serum samples were used as a reference group to calculate storage related changes. The differences between fresh samples and samples stored for 29 years were substantial for apo-A1 (+12%), apo-B (+22.3%), HDLC (-69.2%), LDLC (+31.3%), and PRL (-33.5%), while total cholesterol, FSH, LH, TSH and FT4 did not show any significant difference. The study showed large differences in serum level of the selected components. The lipids and apolipoproteins were all changed except for total cholesterol. Most hormones investigated (FSH, LH, TSH and FT4) proved to be stable after 29 years of storage while PRL showed sign of degradation. The observed differences are probably due to long-term storage effects and/or external factors (i.e. diet and smoking). Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in 4-year-old children are associated with parental levels and track over time.

    PubMed

    Öhlund, I; Hernell, O; Hörnell, A; Lind, T

    2011-04-01

    There are only a few studies linking dietary fat intake to serum lipid levels in young children. Our objective was to prospectively evaluate serum lipid levels from infancy to early childhood, and to explore their possible association with dietary, growth and parental factors. Children (n=127) followed from early infancy were examined for serum lipid levels, anthropometry and dietary intake at 4 years of age. We also studied possible associations with parental anthropometric and blood biochemistry data collected from 122 mothers' and 118 fathers' when children were 4 years of age. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (apo B/apo A-1) showed significant tracking from infancy to 4 years. Furthermore, children's TC levels correlated with paternal TC level from 6 months to 4 years, but with maternal only at 4 years. In girls, both LDLC and HDLC correlated with parental LDLC and HDLC. In all children, intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) was higher than recommended, and in 90% of the children polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was lower than recommended. Serum lipid levels values tracked from infancy to 4 years and were associated with parental values. Higher serum lipid levels at 4 years compared with 6-18 months of age may result from changes in the quality of dietary fat. We therefore suggest that intake of dietary fat in 4-year-old children should be more focused on quality. Furthermore, as there were strong associations between the child and parental serum lipid levels this supports the view that family-based rather than individual intervention is preferable. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved

  7. A clinical study of serum lipid disturbance in Chinese patients with sudden deafness.

    PubMed

    Weng, Tingwen; Devine, Erin E; Xu, Hongming; Yan, Zhisong; Dong, Pin

    2013-07-03

    Pathological levels of blood lipids could be one of the causes of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). The objective of this manuscript is therefore to evaluate the relationship between blood lipid content and sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). The correlation between serum lipid parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apo AI), apolipoprotein B (apo B), and lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), and the onset of SSNHL was analyzed from a data set of 250 patients and an age, gender and weight matched control group of 250 subjects. The result of single factor logistic regression shows that TC (p<0.01), LDL-C (p<0.01), and apo B (p=0.03) of SSNHL group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The odds ratio of TC, LDL, and apo B are higher than 1, while the confidence intervals of the odds rations do not include 1. No significant difference was found with the prevalence of hypertension (P=0.818), diabetes (P=0.869) and smoking habits (P=0.653) between SSNHL group and control group. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations may be important factors in the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and should be assessed during the investigation of patients with this condition.

  8. Effect of Achyranthes aspera L. on fetal abortion, uterine and pituitary weights, serum lipids and hormones.

    PubMed

    Shibeshi, Workineh; Makonnen, Eyasu; Zerihun, Legesse; Debella, Asfaw

    2006-06-01

    The practice of traditional medicine for the control of fertility in rural Ethiopia is based on folk use of numerous antifertility herbs and Achyranthes aspera is one of these used for this purpose. Many plants are known to possess anti-fertility effect through their action on hypothlamo-pituitary-gonadal axis or direct hormonal effects on reproductive organs resulting in inhibition of ovarian steroidogenesis. The present study focused to investigate the effect of methanolic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera L. on some indicators for anti-fertility activities such as abortifacient, estrogenesity, pituitary weight, and ovarian hormone level and lipids profile in female rats, in attempt to validate the traditional claim. The abortifacient effect of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Achyranthes aspera was determined by counting the dead fetuses in vivo. Effect on estrogenesity was assessed by taking the ratio of the uterine weight to body weight. The ratio of the pituitary weight to body weight was also calculated. The effect of the extract on the level of ovarian hormones and lipid profile was evaluated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The extract showed significant (p<0.05) abortifacient activity and increased pituitary and uterine wet weights in ovarectimized rats. The extract, however, did not significantly influence serum concentration of the ovarian hormones and various lipids except lowering HDL at doses tested. The methanolic leaves extract of Achyranthes aspera possesses anti-fertility activity, which might be exploited to prevent unwanted pregnancy and control the ever-increasing population explosion.

  9. The effect of olive oil-based ketogenic diet on serum lipid levels in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Unsal; Uysal, Utku; Arslan, Nur

    2016-03-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is one of the most effective therapies for intractable epilepsy. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant molecules and has some beneficial effects on lipid profile, inflammation and oxidant status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid levels of children who were receiving olive oil-based KD for intractable seizures at least 1 year. 121 patients (mean age 7.45 ± 4.21 years, 57 girls) were enrolled. At baseline and post-treatment 1, 3, 6, and 12 months body mass index-SDS, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for data analysis. The mean duration of KD was 15.4 ± 4.1 months. Mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of the KD treatment, compared to pre-treatment levels (p = 0.001), but showed no difference among during-treatment measurements. Mean body mass index-SDS and HDL-cholesterol levels were not different among the baseline and follow-up time points (p = 0.113 and p = 0.067, respectively). No child in this study discontinued the KD because of dyslipidemia. Even if rich in olive oil, high-fat KD causes significant increase in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. More studies are needed to determine the effect of KD on serum lipids in children using different fat sources in the diet.

  10. A study of serum apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipid profile in stroke.

    PubMed

    As, Shilpasree; Sahukar, Savitri; Murthy, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Kiran

    2013-07-01

    Role of Serum Lipids, Lipoproteins and Lipoprotein related variables in the prediction of Stroke is less clear. Abnormalities in plasma Lipoproteins are the most firmly established and best understood risk factors for Atherosclerosis and they are probable risk factors for Ischaemic stroke, largely by their link to Atherosclerosis. Apo B reflects the concentration of potentially atherogenic particles (LDL), and Apo A1 reflects the corresponding concentration of anti- atherogenic particles (HDL), represent additional lipoprotein related variables that may indicate the vascular risk. To study serum concentration of Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B, Apo B/Apo A1 ratio and Lipid profile in Stroke Cases and to compare with healthy controls. A total number of 100 subjects within 30 - 70 years were considered for the study. 50 subjects with Stroke (both clinically as well as Computed tomographically proven cases) and 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken for the study. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are estimated by Enzymatic method using Semiautoanalyser. LDL cholesterol is estimated by Friedewald formula. Apo B and Apo A1 are estimated by Immunoturbidimetric method using Semiautoanalyser. Student 't' test was used to compare the data between cases and controls. Diagnostic validity tests were conducted to assess the Diagnostic efficiency of Apo A1, Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are significantly increased in Cases compared to Controls. HDL - cholesterol is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio are significantly increased and Apo A1 is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed that, Apo B , Apo A1 and Apo B /Apo A1 ratio have highest Sensitivity, Specificity and Diagnostic efficiency. Apo B , Apo A1 and Apo B / Apo A1 ratio can be used as predictors of stroke along with traditional lipid

  11. A High Legume Low Glycemic Index Diet Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiying; Lanza, Elaine; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Colburn, Nancy H.; Bagshaw, Deborah; Rovine, Michael J.; Ulbrecht, Jan S.; Bobe, Gerd; Chapkin, Robert S.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that fiber consumption facilitates weight loss and improves lipid profiles; however, the beneficial effects of high fermentable fiber low glycemic index (GI) diets under conditions of weight maintenance are unclear. In the Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment, a randomized controlled cross-over feeding study, 64 middle-aged men who had undergone colonoscopies within the previous 2 years received both a healthy American (HA) diet (no legume consumption, fiber consumption = 9 g/1,000 kcal, and GI = 69) and a legume enriched (1.5 servings/1,000 kcal), high fiber (21 g/1,000 kcal), low GI (GI = 38) diet (LG) in random order. Diets were isocaloric and controlled for macronutrients including saturated fat; they were consumed each for 4 weeks with a 2–4 week break separating dietary treatments. Compared to the HA diet, the LG diet led to greater declines in both fasting serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P <0.001 and P <0.01, respectively). Insulin-resistant (IR) subjects had greater reductions in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P <0.01), and triglycerides (TAG)/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. Insulin-sensitive (IS) subjects had greater reductions in TC (P <0.001), LDL-C (P <0.01), TC/HDL-C (P <0.01), and LDL-C/HDL-C (P = 0.02) after the LG diet, compared to the HA diet. In conclusion, a high legume, high fiber, low GI diet improves serum lipid profiles in men, compared to a healthy American diet. However, IR individuals do not achieve the full benefits of the same diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid risk factors. PMID:20734238

  12. Alterations in serum lipids in lepromatous leprosy patients with and without ENL reactions and their relationship to acute phase proteins.

    PubMed

    Memon, R A; Hussain, R; Raynes, J G; Lateff, A; Chiang, T J

    1996-06-01

    The concentrations of serum lipids were measured in patients with lepromatous (LL/BL) leprosy and erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). The relationships between serum lipid levels and serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also examined in these patients. LL/BL patients had significantly higher serum triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the endemic controls. ENL patients had significantly lower total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels compared to the endemic controls. The levels of all lipid metabolites also were significantly lower in ENL patients compared to LL/BL patients. The concentrations of SAA and CRP were markedly elevated in ENL patients but were not statistically different in LL/BL patients compared to control subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between SAA and HDL-cholesterol levels in both stable lepromatous and reactional (ENL) patients; there was no statistically significant correlation between CRP and HDL-cholesterol levels. SAA levels also had a significant negative correlation with total and LDL-cholesterol levels. Our results indicate that serum lipids are significantly altered in patients with lepromatous disease and ENL reaction. Our results also suggest that an increase in SAA levels may divert the metabolism of lipoproteins from hepatocytes toward macrophages, resulting in a decrease in serum lipoprotein levels.

  13. DNA Methylation of Lipid-Related Genes Affects Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Liliane; Wahl, Simone; Pilling, Luke C.; Reischl, Eva; Sandling, Johanna K.; Kunze, Sonja; Holdt, Lesca M.; Kretschmer, Anja; Schramm, Katharina; Adamski, Jerzy; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Hedman, Åsa K.; Roden, Michael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Grallert, Harald; Gieger, Christian; Herder, Christian; Teupser, Daniel; Meisinger, Christa; Spector, Timothy D.; Kronenberg, Florian; Prokisch, Holger; Melzer, David; Peters, Annette; Deloukas, Panos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigenetic mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of interindividual lipid level variability and thus may contribute to the cardiovascular risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genome-wide DNA methylation and blood lipid levels high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Observed DNA methylation changes were also further analyzed to examine their relationship with previous hospitalized myocardial infarction. Methods and Results Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were determined in whole blood samples of 1776 subjects of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4 cohort using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina). Ten novel lipid-related CpG sites annotated to various genes including ABCG1, MIR33B/SREBF1, and TNIP1 were identified. CpG cg06500161, located in ABCG1, was associated in opposite directions with both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β coefficient=−0.049; P=8.26E-17) and triglyceride levels (β=0.070; P=1.21E-27). Eight associations were confirmed by replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F3 study (n=499) and in the Invecchiare in Chianti, Aging in the Chianti Area study (n=472). Associations between triglyceride levels and SREBF1 and ABCG1 were also found in adipose tissue of the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource cohort (n=634). Expression analysis revealed an association between ABCG1 methylation and lipid levels that might be partly mediated by ABCG1 expression. DNA methylation of ABCG1 might also play a role in previous hospitalized myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval=1.06–1.25). Conclusions Epigenetic modifications of the newly identified loci might regulate disturbed blood lipid levels and thus contribute to the development of complex lipid-related diseases. PMID:25583993

  14. Deficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids (VLDL-3) study.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Joshua R; Faridi, Kamil F; Martin, Seth S; Sharma, Sristi; Kulkarni, Krishnaji; Jones, Steven R; Michos, Erin D

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found an association between deficiencies in serum vitamin D, as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and an atherogenic lipid profile. These studies have focused on a limited panel of lipid values including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Our study examines the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and an extended lipid panel (Vertical Auto Profile) while controlling for age, gender, glycemic status, and kidney function. We used the Very Large Database of Lipids, which includes US adults clinically referred for analysis of their lipid profile from 2009 to 2011. Our study focused on 20,360 subjects who had data for lipids, 25(OH)D, age, gender, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Subjects were split into groups based on serum 25(OH)D: deficient (<20 ng/mL), intermediate (≥ 20-30 ng/mL), and optimal (≥ 30 ng/mL). The deficient group was compared to the optimal group using multivariable linear regression. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression, deficient serum 25(OH)D was associated with significantly lower serum HDL-C (-5.1%) and higher total cholesterol (+9.4%), non-HDL-C (+15.4%), directly measured LDL-C (+13.5%), intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+23.7%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+19.0%), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (+18.4%), and TG (+26.4%) when compared with the optimal group. Deficient serum 25(OH)D is associated with significantly lower HDL-C and higher directly measured LDL-C, intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol, and TG. Future trials examining vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular disease risk should consider using changes in an extended lipid panel as an additional outcome measurement. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations of MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms with serum lipid levels in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shanqun; Zhao, Ruimeng; Pan, Mingluo; Venners, Scott A; Zhong, Guisheng; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effects of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene polymorphisms and their interactions with environmental factors on serum lipid levels. We investigated totally 340 patients with essential hypertension, from Dongzhi community, Anhui, China. High-throughput TaqMan allelic discrimination assay was used for the genotyping of MTHFR C677T (Ala222Val), MTHFR A1298C (Glu429Ala), MTRR A66G (Ile22Met), and MTRR His595Tyr. Compared with the MTRR 66AA genotype carriers, the GG genotype carriers had lower serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (adjusted β ± standard error [SE]: -0.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L; P = .003) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (adjusted β ± SE: -0.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L; P = .005). Their false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P values were 0.056 and 0.056, respectively. We further found that there was a statistically significant interaction between 677TT genotype and sex in their associations with LDL levels (P interaction = .020), and significant interaction between 677TT genotype and smoking on LDL levels (P interaction = .036). A similar pattern of interaction was found between 66GG and drinking on levels of TC (P interaction = .034) and LDL (P interaction = .020). However, there were no significant interactions observed after FDR adjustment. Both MTHFR and MTRR gene polymorphisms could be important genetic determinants of serum lipid levels in Chinese patients with hypertension. These findings need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  16. Effects of Anthocyanin on Serum Lipids in Dyslipidemia Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Bo, Yacong

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia was present in most of the patients with coronary heart disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that anthocyanin has some effects on the serum lipid. However, these results are controversial. This study aimed at collecting current clinical evidence and evaluating the effects of anthocyanin supplementation on total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in dialysis patients. Methods The search included PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database (up to July 2015) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the association between anthocyanin and serum lipids. RevMan (version 5.2) was used for Meta-analysis. Meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis and Egger’s weighted regression tests were performed by using STATA software (version 12.0; StatCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Results Six studies (seven arms) involving 586 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that anthocyanin supplementation has significant effects on TC [MD = -24.06, 95% CI(-45.58 to -2.64) mg/dL, I2 = 93%], TG [MD = -26.14, 95%CI(-40.20 to -3.08) mg/dL, I2 = 66%1], LDL-C [MD = -22.10, 95% CI (-34.36 to -9.85) mg/dL, I2 = 61%], and HDL-C(MD = 5.58, 95% CI (1.02 to 10.14) mg/dL;I2 = 90%). Conclusion Anthocyanin supplementation significantly reduces serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in patients with dyslipidemia, and increases HDL-C. Further rigorously designed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the effectiveness of anthocyanin supplementation for dyslipidemia, especially hypo high density lipoprotein cholesterolemia. PMID:27589062

  17. Medication compliance and serum lipid changes in the Helsinki Heart Study.

    PubMed Central

    Mäenpää, H; Heinonen, O P; Manninen, V

    1991-01-01

    1. To control the bias caused by poor medication compliance in the Helsinki Heart Study three methods were used to measure medication compliance during the total 5 years follow up time: continuous capsule counting, semi-annual urine gemfibrozil analysis and a new method, the digoxin marker at the end of the third and fifth study years. 2. The serum lipid responses to gemfibrozil treatment varied linearly with the level of medication compliance, e.g. the mean change in serum total cholesterol was -11.4% among those whose apparent capsule consumption was greater than or equal to 90% of the scheduled dosage, -11.2% among those who had greater than or equal to 90% positive gemfibrozil analyses and -11.4% among those with good compliance according to both digoxin marker measurements. In contrast the mean serum cholesterol change was only -0.02% if the mean daily capsule count was less than 50%, -1.7% with fewer than 50% positive gemfibrozil analyses and -1.1% if the result was poor in both digoxin marker measurements. 3. Combining the different method findings revealed that the cholesterol changes tended to be small in those groups who had poor compliance classification measured by any of the methods, even if the other results showed good compliance. PMID:1958432

  18. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in patients with benign breast disease and all the markers were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in normal controls. All the markers had a low accuracy (AUCs < 0.75) in differentiating between breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  19. Effects of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of human serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Kiran D K; Kunde, Dale A; Ball, Madeleine J; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2006-08-23

    The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is believed to be the initiating factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The active ingredients of spices such as chili and turmeric (capsaicin and curcumin, respectively) have been shown to reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. One of the techniques used to study the oxidation of LDL is to isolate LDL and subject it to metal-induced (copper or iron) oxidation. However, whole serum may represent a closer situation to in vivo conditions than using isolated LDL. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0.1-3 microM) of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of serum lipoproteins. The lag time (before initiation of oxidation) and rate of oxidation (slope of propagation phase) were calculated. The lag time increased, and the rate of oxidation decreased with increasing concentrations of the tested antioxidants (p < 0.05). A 50% increase in lag time (from control) was observed at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 microM for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin. This study shows that oxidation of serum lipids is reduced by capsaicinoids and curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner.

  20. Effect of synbiotic supplementation and dietary fat sources on broiler performance, serum lipids, muscle fatty acid profile and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, H A; Shivazad, M; Mirzapour Rezaei, S S; Karimi Torshizi, M A

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to investigate the effect of adding a synbiotic supplement to diets containing two different types of fat on performance, blood lipids and fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of breast and thigh meat in broilers. A total of 800 one-d-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned into 1 of 8 treatments with 4 replicates of 25 birds per treatment. The experiment consisted of a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 4 concentrations of synbiotic (0, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 g/kg diet) and 2 types of fat [sunflower oil (SO) or canola oil (CO)] at an inclusion rate of 50 g/kg diet. Dietary fat type did not affect body weight gain (BWG) or feed conversion ratio (FCR) during the overall experimental period (0-42 d). However, fat type modified serum lipid profile and FA composition and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content in breast and thigh meat. The addition of synbiotic to the diet linearly improved overall BWG and FCR and also decreased serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The TBARS value in thigh meat after 30 d of storage at 4°C was linearly decreased as the synbiotic inclusion concentrations in the diets increased. Dietary synbiotic also decreased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in thigh meat, whereas the FA profile of breast meat was not affected by synbiotic supplementation. Moreover, the PUFA/SFA ratio in the breast meat was linearly increased when synbiotic was included in the CO-containing diets. In conclusion, the addition of synbiotic to broiler diets had a positive effect on growth performance, blood lipid profile and meat quality. The results also support the use of synbiotic to increase the capacity of canola oil for enhancing PUFA/SFA ratio of breast meat in broilers.

  1. The interaction between physical activity and fasting on the serum lipid profile during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Haghdoost, A A; Poorranjbar, M

    2009-09-01

    The serum lipid profiles in Muslims change during the fasting month of Ramadan, but it is not clear whether this change is due to changes in their physical activities. In this study, we compared the patterns of the lipid profile changes in those who engaged in regular physical activity with those who did not. In a randomised trial, we assigned 93 students who took a physical education course into two groups--those who had regular physical activity after Ramadan and those who had physical activity during Ramadan. Venous blood (5 ml) was taken just before, at the end, and 40 days after Ramadan, and the fasting glucose sugar and lipid profile were measured. Fasting with physical activity decreased body weight by 1.2 kg (p-value is 0.03). Fasting blood sugar also decreased by 7 mg/dL during Ramadan, but this drop was observed in both groups. Triglyceride decreased in both groups during Ramadan, but cholesterol levels dropped considerably during and after Ramadan for those who concurrently engaged in physical activity and fasted (-12.24 and -8.4 mg/dL, respectively). The patterns of changes in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL/LDL values were more or less comparable in both groups (p is greater than 0.5). Usually, people are less physically active during Ramadan, but our findings show that physical activity alone cannot explain the variations in the lipid profile. Other factors, such as changes in the diet and sleeping hours, may have more important roles.

  2. Serum amyloid a gene polymorphism and its association with lipid profile in Saudi females with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdu-Allah, Azza M.; Tarhouny, Shereen A. El; Baghdadi, Hussam Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Osteoporosis can be defined as a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural decline of bone tissue. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a family of protein that increases up to 1,000-fold in blood during inflammation. In this study, we aimed to study the relationship between SAA1 gene polymorphism (rs12218) and lipid profile and osteoporosis. Methods: The study was performed on the female students of Taibah University in Al Medina, KSA during June 2014 to April 2015. According to BMD; osteoporosis group (138 students) and control group (128 students). All groups were subjected to; BMI, BMD, calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, lipid profile and SAA. Polymerase chain reaction and Real Time were done to determine the distribution of allele and genotype frequency of SAA (rs12218) C/T polymorphism. Results: This study shows that the TT genotype of rs12218 was more frequent in osteoporosis group than control group (P<0.001). Also, TT genotype and T allel was found to be associated with plasma total cholesterol, TG, LDLc, HDLc, Tscore, Zscore and SAA1 level in osteoporosis group (P=0.000, P=0.05, and P=0.000, P=0.000, P=0.01, P=0.02, P=0.000 respectively). The logistic regression analysis with and without lipid disorders in the osteoporosis group also show that the TT genotype of rs12218 still differed significantly between these two groups (P=0.001, OR=1.814, 95% CI: 0.719-4.577). Conclusion: The results of this study shows a significant association between TT genotype of rs12218 and both lipid level and osteoporosis in Saudi female population. PMID:26648999

  3. SEPP1 polymorphisms modulate serum glucose and lipid response to Brazil nut supplementation.

    PubMed

    Donadio, Janaina L S; Rogero, Marcelo M; Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M; Desmarchelier, Charles; Borel, Patrick; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2017-05-13

    The consumption of Brazil nuts has been associated with benefits to lipid metabolism and reductions in total cholesterol and LDL concentrations. They are the richest natural source of selenium which has essential functions in human physiology. Genetic polymorphisms in Selenoprotein P could impair lipid and glucose metabolisms. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of polymorphisms in genes for selenoproteins on blood lipid levels after dietary supplementation with Brazil nuts in healthy adults. The study included 130 healthy volunteers selected at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. They were supplemented with one nut a day for 8 weeks, followed by 8 weeks without intervention. The following analyses were performed: anthropometric measurements, serum fasting glucose, lipid profile, C-reactive protein and plasma MDA levels. The volunteers were genotyped for SNPs rs1050450, rs3811699, rs1800699, rs713041, rs3877899, rs7579, rs34713741, and rs5845 in genes for selenoproteins. The concentrations of total cholesterol and fasting glucose levels decreased after 8 weeks of supplementation (p < 0.05). Glucose levels were modulated by rs3877899 in SEPP1, with significantly lower levels observed for individuals with the GA + AA genotype (p = 0.025). In addition, rs7579 was associated with cholesterol concentrations, which were significantly lower for individuals with the GG genotype (p = 0.053). Supplementation with one Brazil nut a day for 8 weeks reduced total cholesterol and glucose levels. Furthermore, our results suggest that rs3877899 might be associated with glucose concentrations and rs7579 with cholesterol concentrations. Therefore, the effect of genetic variations should be considered in future nutritional interventions evaluating the response to Brazil nut supplementation.

  4. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of relationship between serum lipids levels with colorectal carcinoma: a single center prospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Turgay; Canturk, Nuh Zafer; Canturk, Zeynep; Yirmibesoglu, Oktay Ahmet; Bayhan, Zülfü; Oz, Sarpkaya

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate association of serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose levels with colorectal cancer. This prospective case control study was conducted with 347 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 310 age and gender matched healthy controls who were examined for annual check-up. Total cholesterol, serum lipids and fasting glucose levels were measured in both groups. Body weight and body mass indices were also evaluated. The mean serum cholesterol level was 167.4 +/- 43.6 mg/dL for patients with colorectal cancer and 210.1 +/- 30.7 mg/dL for controls. The mean fasting plasma glucose levels for both groups were respectively 107.7 +/- 22.4 and 90.2 +/- 10.3. Between the colorectal cancer and control groups, there was a statistically significant difference in fasting plasma glucose and serum lipid levels except LDL-C. Serum total cholesterol level was even lower in advanced stages of cancer. Our study suggests that there is an inverse association between low serum total cholesterol levels and colorectal cancer. Since cholesterol levels were lower in the advanced stages of colorectal cancer it is possible that low levels of serum cholesterol levels were a consequence of colorectal cancer. The association with hypertriglyceridemia and high fasting plasma glucose levels suggest the role of hyperinsulinemia in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  6. 10-Year Trends in Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidemia Among Children and Adolescents From Several Schools in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenqing; Cheng, Hong; Yan, Yinkun; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Fangfang; Huang, Guimin; Hou, Dongqing; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum lipid trends in children and adolescents are predictors of the future prevalence of cardiovascular disease in adults. Methods Data were obtained from cross-sectional studies conducted in 2004 and 2014. A total of 3249 children aged 6–18 years were included in the present study; serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Results Overall, upward trends in mean TC, non-HDL-C, and LDL-C levels, and in geometric mean TG levels, were observed (all P < 0.001). Mean HDL-C levels significantly decreased between 2004 and 2014 (from 1.54 mmol/L to 1.47 mmol/L; P < 0.001). The prevalence of abnormal levels of serum lipids, with the exception of the prevalence of low HDL-C (P = 0.503), significantly increased over the study period (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hyperlipidemia (from 13.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.6%–15.0% to 24.5%; 95% CI, 22.4%–26.6%; P < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (from 18.8%; 95% CI, 16.9%–20.7% to 28.9%; 95% CI, 26.7%–31.3%; P < 0.001) also increased from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of abnormal serum lipids increased, and mean serum lipid levels, with the exception of TC levels, worsened in subjects with obesity compared with non-overweight subjects, as well as in subjects with mixed obesity compared with non-obese subjects (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Adverse trends in serum lipid concentrations over the past 10 years were observed among children aged 6–9 years, with the exception of specific lipids, and among adolescents aged 10–18 years, from several schools in Beijing, China. PMID:27397598

  7. Weight loss increased serum adiponectin but decreased lipid levels in obese subjects whose body mass index was lower than 30 kg/m².

    PubMed

    Lang, Hui-Fen; Chou, Ching-Ya; Sheu, Wanye Huey-Herng; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-05-01

    We hypothesized that weight loss in obese subjects may affect adipokine levels, such as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α. This study investigated the effects of an 8-week weight-control program on serum adiponectin, TNF-α, and blood lipid level profiles in obese subjects. Twenty obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI) higher than 25 kg/m² were recruited for this weight loss program that used dietetic control and aerobic exercise training. A total of 3 obese men and 11 obese women (mean age, 40.3 ± 10.8 years; BMI, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m²) finished the program. Anthropometric and biochemical characteristics in subjects before and after the program were determined. The results showed that subjects' body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly (P < .05) decreased during the program. Further analysis showed a negative correlation between delta adiponectin and delta TNF-α, triacylglycerol, and systolic blood pressure in obese subjects. Subgroup analysis showed that obese subjects whose original BMI was less than 30 kg/m² had significantly increased serum adiponectin levels, and more than 3% weight reduction markedly improved blood lipids and body fat profiles during the program. Our findings suggest that weight reduction through an 8-week weight loss program may have anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects via increased serum adiponectin levels and improvements in blood lipid profiles and systolic blood pressure.

  8. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Objectives This study compared the tomato and tomato paste supplementation on the level of serum lipids and lipoproteins in rats fed with high cholesterol. Materials and Methods In this study, four male rat groups (10 rats per group) were used. Control group received basal diet, second group received basal diet and 2% cholesterol (Chol), third and fourth groups received basal diet, 2% cholesterol tomato and tomato paste respectively (20 percent of the diet) for a month. Then serum TC, LDL, HDL and TG were measured. Results Results showed that in Chol group, all lipids increased significantly (P < 0.05) except HDL compared to the control group. Tomato and tomato paste supplementation decreased TC, LDL and TG concentration significantly (P < 0.05) compared to Chol group. Tomato paste had the higher effect on lipids decreasing than tomato. Conclusions Decreases of TC, LDL and TG may be related to tomato antioxidant effect. This course in human required more investigations. PMID:24082999

  9. Apolipoprotein A-IV polymorphism in Saami and Finns: frequency and effect on serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, S; Luoma, P; Näyhä, S; Hassi, J; Ehnholm, C; Nikkari, T; Peltonen, N; Jokela, H; Koivula, T; Lehtimäki, T

    1998-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a glycoprotein constituent of triglyceride-rich and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and may thus play an important role in lipid metabolism. In Finland two common isoforms (A-IV-1 and A-IV-2) of apoA-IV have been found. The isoforms are the result of the G to T substitution in the third base of the codon 360 in the apoA-IV-2 allele of the apoA-IV gene. The purpose of the study was to determine the apoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns, and to relate the apoA-IV phenotypes to serum lipids. The sample was drawn in connection with a Reindeer Herders' Health Survey performed in northern Finland in 1989. The study group included 248 men with known ethnic origin, Saami and Finns, who lived in the area of the nine northernmost municipalities of Finland. ApoA-IV phenotypes from 71 Saami (both parents Saami) and 177 Finns (both parents Finns) were determined by isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum lipids were determined enzymatically. ApoA-IV allele frequencies in the Saami and the Finns were for A-IV-1 0.894 vs 0.944 and for A-IV-2 0.106 vs 0.056, respectively (chi2-test, P < 0.05). The effect of the apoA-IV phenotype on serum HDL-cholesterol levels differed significantly between the Saami and the Finns (two-way ANCOVA, interaction between ethnicity and apoA-IV phenotype, P < 0.02). In the Saami, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the apoA-IV-2/1 than in the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes (ANCOVA, P < 0.05). Mean total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not differ statistically significantly between the Saami and the Finns. Yet, there was a trend in the Saami of having higher mean total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels than the Finns among the apoA-IV-2/1 phenotypes, while there was only a small difference in these parameters between the Saami and the Finns among the apoA-IV-1/1 phenotypes. In

  10. Evaluation of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins concentrations in cord blood serum of newborns from rural and urban environments.

    PubMed

    Pac-Kozuchowska, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to check the influence of rural and urban environments on some of the parameters of lipids metabolism in the cord blood serum in healthy newborns, as well as the evaluation of the concentration of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in the cord blood serum with relation to risk factors of atherosclerosis in the family of the studied newborns. The study included 75 newborns (37 from rural areas and 38 from urban areas). Newborns weight and length were recorded at birth. On the basis of the family history taken from the mothers, the atherosclerosis risk factors were established in the families of the studied newborns. In all of the studied newborns, concentration of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, VLDL and HDL cholesterol as well as of apolipoproteins (apo-Al, apo-B) in the cord blood serum sampled soon after birth were performed. No statistically significant differences between the mean levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and cholesterol of fractions: LDL, VLDL, HDL and apolipoproteins (apo-AI, apo-B) in the cord blood serum in the newborns from rural and urban areas were found. However, when analysing the concentration of parameters of lipid metabolism in cord blood serum in newborns with regard to gender, higher concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo-AI in female newborns from rural areas, and higher HDL cholesterol and apo-AI in female newborns from urban regions were confirmed. When analysing the concentration of lipids and lipoproteins in cord blood serum in newborns from families with risk factors confirmed as compared to the families without that risk, both in the rural and urban regions no significant differences were confirmed. The studies have not proved any significant differences between the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in the cord blood serum in newborns from rural and urban areas.

  11. Association of serum lipid levels and prostate cancer severity among Hispanic Puerto Rican men.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Montilla, Jeannette; Soto Salgado, Marievelisse; Surillo Trautmann, Barbara; Sánchez-Ortiz, Ricardo; Irizarry-Ramírez, Margarita

    2015-09-17

    While obesity and fat intake have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness and mortality, the association between lipid levels and PCa phenotype remains unclear. Previous reports evaluating this association are inconsistent and highly variable when considering different racial/ethnic groups. There are scarce data regarding this association among Hispanics, and specifically Puerto Rico's Hispanic men, a population with a higher burden of PCa, metabolic syndrome and overweight. This population has a different ancestry profile than other Hispanics from Central and South America. Due to the above the researchers inquired if there is a relationship between serum lipid levels and PCa phenotype in this understudied population using a cohort of patients treated with radical prostatectomy as their first treatment. We performed an exploratory retrospective medical record review study of 199 PCa patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2005 and 2012. Variables analyzed included age at PCa diagnosis, Body Mass Index (BMI), preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), lipid levels, and clinical parameters such as prostatectomy pathologic stage and Gleason Score (GS). PCa severity was defined using pathologic stage and GS. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) to define the relationship among clinical characteristics and PCa severity. Mean age for the cohort was 58.8 years (range: 40-75), 78.9 % were overweight or obese, 36.7 % had hypertriglyceridemia, and 35.2 % had low HDL levels. In the unadjusted logistic regression model, hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 2.11, 95 % CI = 1.13-3.93), low HDL (OR: 1.90, 95 % CI = 1.02-3.56-), and age (OR: 2.34, 95 % CI 1.25-4.40) were significantly associated with a diagnosis of high severity of PCa. In Puerto Rican men with PCa, elevated hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL levels, and age were

  12. Reduction of the infectivity of baculovirus stocks frozen at ultra-low temperature in serum-free media: The role of lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Ignacio; Gioria, Verónica Viviana; Micheloud, Gabriela Analía; Claus, Juan Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The infectivity of stocks of baculoviruses produced in serum-free media is sensitive to freezing at ultra-low temperatures. The objective of this work was to elucidate the causes of such sensitivity, using as a model the freezing of stocks of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a baculovirus widely employed as biological insecticide. Titers of supernatants of cell cultures infected with AgMNPV in four different serum-free media supplemented with lipid emulsions were reduced by 50 to 90% after six months freezing. By using a full factorial experiment, freezing and lipid emulsion, as well as the interaction between them, were identified as the main factors reducing the viral titer. The virucidal effect of the lipid emulsion was reproduced by one of their components, the surfactant Polysorbate 80. Damaged viral envelopes were observed by transmission electron microscopy in most particles frozen in a medium supplemented with lipid emulsion or Polysorbate 80. Additionally, Polysorbate 80 also affected the infectivity of AgMNPV stocks that were incubated at 27°C. The identification of the roles played by the lipid emulsion and Polysorbate 80 is not only a contribution to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the inactivation of baculovirus stocks produced in serum-free media during storage at ultra-low temperature, but is also an input for the rational development of new procedures aimed at improving both the preservation of baculovirus stocks and the composition of culture media for the production of baculovirus-based bioproducts in insect cells. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1559-1569, 2016.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on hepatic and serum lipid profiles in zebrafish exposed to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ana Claudia Reis; Machado, Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro; de Assis, Adriano Martimbianco; Hermes, Djuli Milene; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Guizzo, Ranieli; Fracasso, Laísa Beduschi; de-Paris, Fernanda; Meurer, Fábio; Barth, Afonso Luis; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel

    2014-08-01

    Zebrafish is a powerful tool in pharmacological research and useful to identify new therapies. Probiotics can offer therapeutic options in alcoholic liver disease. This study was done in two independent experiments: first, we confirmed the intestinal colonization of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) after ethanol exposure. Second, four groups were performed: control (C), probiotic (P), ethanol (E), and probiotic+ethanol (P+E). Liver histology, hepatocytes morphometry, hepatic and serum lipid quantifications were conducted in second experiment. During 4 weeks, P and P+E groups were fed with LGG supplemented feed; E and C unsupplemented. E and P+E groups received 0.5% of ethanol added into tank water. Zebrafish exposed to ethanol (E group) presented intense liver steatosis after 28 days in contrast to the almost normalized liver histology of P+E group at the same period. Liver morphometry showed a significant enlargement of hepatocytes of E group after 4 weeks (p<0.0001). Serum triglycerides decreased in P+E group compared with C, P (p<0.001), and E (p=0.004), after 14 and 28 days similarly. Serum cholesterol was also decreased by LGG; P group decreased compared with C and E after 14 days (p=0.002 and p=0.007, respectively) and P+E group decreased significantly compared with E and C groups (p<0.0001) after 28 days. Hepatic triglycerides were reduced in P+E group after 28 days compared to E (p=0.006). The persistence of LGG in zebrafish intestines was demonstrated. LGG decreased serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol and improved hepatic steatosis.

  14. In vitro lipid peroxidation of human serum catalyzed by cupric ion: Antioxidant rather than prooxidant role of ascorbate

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, A.; Zdunek, T. )

    1992-01-01

    Ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting human serum from lipid peroxidation induced by azo dye-generated free radicals. On the other hand, ascorbate is readily oxidized in the presence of transition metal ions, (especially cupric ion) and accelerates lipid peroxidation in tissue homogenates by producing free radicals. Interestingly, the authors observed an antioxidant rather than an expected prooxidant role of ascorbate when human serum supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L ascorbate underwent lipid peroxidations initiated by 2mmol/L copper sulfate. The antioxidant role of ascorbate was confirmed by studying the conventional thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as well as by observing the protective effect of ascorbate on the copper-induced peroxidation of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The antioxidation protection provided by ascorbate was comparable to that of equimolar {alpha}-tocopherol when incubated for 24h. However, lipid peroxidation products were lower in serum supplemented with {alpha}-tocopherol after 48h of incubation. This effect may be attributed to the binding of copper by serum proteins, thus preventing direct interaction between cupric ions and ascorbate. This proposed mechanisms is based on the observation that the concentration of ascorbate decreased more slowly in serum than in phosphate buffer at physiological pH.

  15. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Pressman, Eva K; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Kent, Tera R; Bar, Haim Y; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Vitamin D Status Affects Serum Metabolomic Profiles in Pregnant Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Julia L.; Pressman, Eva K.; Cooper, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Tera R.; Bar, Haim Y.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes through largely unknown mechanisms. This study was conducted to examine the role of vitamin D status in metabolomic profiles in a group of 30 pregnant, African American adolescents (17.1 ± 1.1 years) at midgestation (26.8 ± 2.8 weeks), in 15 adolescents with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) ≥20 ng/mL, and in 15 teens with 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL. Serum metabolomic profiles were examined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. A novel hierarchical mixture model was used to evaluate differences in metabolite profiles between low and high groups. A total of 326 compounds were identified and included in subsequent statistical analyses. Eleven metabolites had significantly different means between the 2 vitamin D groups, after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing: pyridoxate, bilirubin, xylose, and cholate were higher, and leukotrienes, 1,2-propanediol, azelate, undecanedioate, sebacate, inflammation associated complement component 3 peptide (HWESASXX), and piperine were lower in serum from adolescents with 25(OH)D ≥20 ng/mL. Lower maternal vitamin D status at midgestation impacted serum metabolic profiles in pregnant adolescents. PMID:25367051

  17. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin-Chun; Jing, Jun; Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  18. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001), while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05). For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  19. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid as markers for carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Vivas, I; Spagnuolo, L; Palacios, P

    1992-08-01

    Concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) were determined in serum samples from 88 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 26 normal subjects, and 44 patients with benign uterine or ovarian disease. TSA concentrations in patients with cervical cancer were found to correlate with advanced-stage disease. LSA concentrations were only increased in stage IV of the disease. Sensitivity of the test for stage IB was zero for TSA and 27% for LSA. The specificity of both markers was about 80% due to a low incidence of false-positive values in the pathologic control group. Measurements of TSA or LSA appear to be of no value for the early detection of cervical cancer or to complement the clinical staging of this tumor.

  20. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuelan; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Peipei; Shi, Tianhong; Wei, Xiangfa

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell. PMID:27383812

  1. Serum lipids associated with inflammation-related PET-FDG uptake in symptomatic carotid plaque.

    PubMed

    Chróinín, Danielle Ní; Marnane, Michael; Akijian, Layan; Merwick, Aine; Fallon, Emer; Horgan, Gillian; Dolan, Eamon; Murphy, Sean; O'Rourke, Killian; O'Malley, Kevin; O'Donohoe, Martin; McDonnell, Ciaran; Noone, Imelda; Barry, Mary; Crowe, Morgan; Kavanagh, Eoin; O'Connell, Martin; Kelly, Peter J

    2014-05-13

    We hypothesized that serum lipids, which experimental data suggest may be key initiators of carotid plaque inflammation, would be associated with plaque inflammation on (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in patients with acutely symptomatic carotid stenosis. In this cohort study, consecutive patients with acute symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (≥50%) underwent carotid PET-CT. We quantified plaque FDG uptake as follows: (1) average maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) across 10 regions of interest (ROI); (2) highest single ROI SUV measure (SUVROImax); (3) averaged mean SUV across 10 ROIs (SUVmean). Sixty-one patients were included. Plaque inflammatory FDG SUVmax was associated with increasing tertiles of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (trend p = 0.004), total cholesterol (p = 0.009), and triglycerides (p = 0.01), and with lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.005). When analyzed as a continuous variable, LDL was associated with symptomatic ICA SUVmean (Spearman rho 0.44, p = 0.009), SUVROImax (rho 0.33, p = 0.01), and SUVmax (rho 0.35, p = 0.06). Total cholesterol was associated with SUVmean (rho 0.33, p = 0.009), with trends for SUVmax (rho 0.24, p = 0.059) and SUVROImax (rho 0.23, p = 0.08). Triglycerides were associated with SUVmax (rho 0.32, p = 0.01) and SUVROImax (rho 0.35, p = 0.005). HDL was associated with lower SUVmax (rho -0.37, p = 0.004) and SUVROImax (rho -0.44, p = 0.0004). On multivariable linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, degree of carotid stenosis, statins, and smoking, LDL (p = 0.008) and total cholesterol (p = 0.04) were independently associated with SUVmax. Serum LDL and total cholesterol were associated with acutely symptomatic carotid plaque FDG uptake, supporting experimental data suggesting lipids may promote plaque inflammation, mediating rupture and clinical events.

  2. Stronger relationship of serum apolipoprotein A-1 and B with diabetic retinopathy than traditional lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ankit, B. S.; Mathur, G.; Agrawal, R. P.; Mathur, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common preventable cause of blindness where early detection and treatment can be sight-saving. Search for biomarkers of the disease has been relentless. We aimed to determine whether lipoproteins apolipoproteins A1 and B1 (Apo-A1 and Apo-B1) have stronger associations with DR in contrast to conventionally measured low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study and studied 117 patients. Serum lipid profile was assessed by autoanalyzer. Serum Apo-A1 and Apo-B were measured using immunoturbidimetric kit on an autoanalyzer. Apo-B/A1 ratio was calculated. Retinopathy was graded from the digital retinal photographs, taken with nonmydriatic auto fundus camera and classified according to International Clinical DR Disease Severity Scale. Results: Mean Apo-A1 for mild, moderate, severe retinopathy, and proliferative DR (PDR) shows a significant negative correlation (P = 0.001) with severity of retinopathy. Mean Apo-B for mild, moderate, severe, PDR displayed a significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P = 0.001). Mean Apo-B/A1 for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed highly significant positive correlation with severity of retinopathy (P < 0.001). In contrast, mean LDL for mild, moderate, severe, PDR showed insignificant association with severity of DR (P = 0.081). Conclusion: Apo-A1 and Apo-B have a stronger association with the development of DR than traditional lipids and can thus facilitate early detection and treatment of the disease. PMID:28217507

  3. The relationship between serum lipids and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, I Jen; Kang, Chung Jan; Yueh, Chen Yu; Fang, Ku Hao; Yeh, Re Ming; Tsai, Yao Te

    2015-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a relatively common condition that is usually of unknown etiology. A number of individual studies have investigated the association between various serum lipids and SSNHL; however, the findings have been inconsistent. In an attempt to obtain more definitive information on the relationship between serum lipids and SSNHL, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched using the following key words: lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride, fat, serum, blood, sudden hearing loss, hearing loss, hearing disorders. Randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, and retrospective case-control studies involving patients with SSNHL and healthy controls that examined the relationship (reported as odds ratios [OR]) between lipid profiles and SSNHL were included. Primary outcomes were total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations. Secondary outcomes were triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) concentrations. A total of 6 case-control studies were included in this systematic review/meta-analysis. The total number of participants ranged from 30 to 250 in the case group and from 43 to 271 in the control group. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in total cholesterol levels between the case and control groups (pooled OR = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98 to 3.26, P = 0.057). Likewise, meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in LDL-C concentrations between the case and control groups (pooled OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.64 to 2.07, P = 0.639). Since there were an insufficient number of studies reporting data for the secondary outcomes, meta-analysis was not possible. Our results do not provide evidence for serum lipids being associated with SSNHL, nor do they definitively rule out such an association. Additional studies are needed to ascertain the relationship, or lack thereof

  4. Acute effects of plant stanol esters on postprandial metabolism and its relation with changes in serum lipids after chronic intake.

    PubMed

    De Smet, E; Mensink, R P; Lütjohann, D; Plat, J

    2015-01-01

    Plant stanol esters lower serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), but responses between individuals vary widely. As the ability of subjects to respond to acute dietary challenges may reflect the flexibility to adapt to changes on the longer term, we related subjects' acute postprandial metabolic changes to changes in serum lipoproteins after chronic intake of plant stanol esters. In a double-blind crossover design, 20 healthy subjects received in random order a high-fat shake enriched with or without plant stanol esters (4 g). Blood samples were taken during 4 h to examine lipid, glucose and lipoprotein profiles. Two subjects dropped out. For the 3 weeks after this postprandial test, the subjects who received the shake with plant stanol esters continued the consumption of plant stanol-enriched (3g/day) margarine and subjects receiving the control shake in the postprandial test consumed for the next 3 weeks a control margarine. After the washout period, subjects received the other shake and margarines. The margarine enriched with plant stanol esters lowered concentrations of total cholesterol by 7.3% (P<0.01), LDL-C by 9.5% (P<0.01) and apoB100 by 8.6% (P<0.01). Furthermore, particle concentrations of total very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), small VLDL and large LDL were reduced by 26.6% (P=0.02), 27.6% (P=0.02) and 12.3% (P=0.04), respectively. Plant stanol esters did not affect parameters related to lipid and glucose metabolism during the postprandial phase. However, the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the postprandial glucose concentration after consuming the control shake correlated positively with changes in fasting concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, apoB100, total VLDL, small VLDL and intermediate-density lipoprotein after 3 weeks. A single dose of plant stanol esters does not change postprandial lipid and lipoprotein profiles. However, postprandial glucose responses may predict the effects of chronic plant stanol ester

  5. Pistachio diet improves erectile function parameters and serum lipid profiles in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Kayıgil, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Antep pistachio on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) parameters and serum lipid levels in patients with ED. A total of 17 married male patients with ED for at least 12 months were included in this prospective study. Patients were put on a 100 g pistachio nuts diet for 3 weeks. IIEF and PCDU were evaluated before and after the pistachio diet. In addition, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were measured before and after dietary modifications from all subjects. Mean IIEF-15 score was 36 ± 7.5 before the diet and 54.2 ± 4.9 after the diet (P=0.001). Similarly, an increase in all five domains of IIEF was observed after the diet (P<0.05). Mean peak systolic velocity values before and after the pistachio diet were 35.5 ± 15.2 and 43.3 ± 12.4 cm s(-1), respectively (P=0.018). After the pistachio diet, TC and LDL levels decreased significantly, whereas HDL level increased (P=0.008, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). We demonstrated that a pistachio diet improved IIEF scores and PCDU parameters without any associated side effects in patients with ED. Furthermore, the lipid parameters showed statistically significant improvements after this diet.

  6. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27516681

  7. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P<0.05). Also, the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein of the T. terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27840471

  8. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk.

  9. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Sanchez, Karah; Leyva, Misti J; Wu, Mingyuan; Betts, Nancy M; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effects of supplementation of green tea beverage or green tea extracts with controls on body weight, glucose and lipid profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and safety parameters in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Randomized, controlled prospective trial. General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC). Thirty-five subjects with obesity and metabolic syndrome were recruited in age- and gender-matched trios and were randomly assigned to the control (4 cups water/d), green tea (4 cups/d), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water/d) group for 8 weeks. The tea and extract groups had similar dosing of epiogallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the active compound in green tea. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipids, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based lipid particle size, safety parameters, biomarkers of oxidative stress (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [LDL], myeloperoxidase [MPO], malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenals [MDA and HNE]), and free catechins were analyzed at screen and at 4 and 8 weeks of the study. Pairwise comparisons showed green tea beverage and green tea extracts caused a significant decrease in body weight and body mass index (BMI) versus controls at 8 weeks (-2.5 +/- 0.7 kg, p < 0.01, and -1.9 +/- 0.6, p < 0.05, respectively). Green tea beverage showed a decreasing trend in LDL-cholesterol and LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) versus controls (p < 0.1). Green tea beverage also significantly decreased MDA and HNE (-0.39 +/- 0.06 microM, p < 0.0001) versus controls. Plasma free catechins were detectable in both beverage and extract groups versus controls at screen and at 8 weeks, indicating compliance and bioavailability of green tea catechins. Green tea beverage consumption (4 cups/d) or extract supplementation (2 capsules/d) for 8 weeks significantly decreased body weight and BMI. Green tea beverage further lowered lipid peroxidation versus age- and

  10. Reduction in blood pressure and serum lipids by lycosome formulation of dark chocolate and lycopene in prehypertension.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y; Chalyk, Natalia E; Klochkov, Victor; Kyle, Nigel H

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-nine healthy volunteers aged 47-69 years old were randomly assigned to a 28-day oral intake of different dark chocolate (DC) formulations. The main group received daily 30 g of proprietary lycopene-containing (L-tug) lycosome formulation of DC with enhanced bioavailability of cocoa flavanols. Two control groups daily consumed either 30 g of regular DC alone or along with 7 mg of lycopene, which corresponds to the amount of lycopene ingested with L-tug formulation. It was found that L-tug was more efficient in reducing diastolic blood pressure (mean value of -6.22 mmHg, 95% CI: 5.00, 8.00) when compared with the regular DC group (-3.00 mmHg, P < 0.05) or the group which ingested the DC and lycopene as two separate formulations (mean reduction of -4 mmHg, 95% CI: 2.47, 6.00, P = 0.0262). Only marginal superiority for L-tug formulation in the reduction in systolic blood pressure was seen. However, the L-tug formulation was the only formulation of DC which affected serum lipids. There was a reduction in total cholesterol (from median 228.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 206.2, 242.5] to 187.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 166.2, 202.2, P < 0.05]) with corresponding decline of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (from a median of 166.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 130.8, 177.0] to 151.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 122.8, 167.4; P < 0.05]) at the end of the intervention period. Similar decline was seen in serum triglycerides (P < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP) values remained statistically unchanged in all study groups throughout the intervention period. A superior biological activity of the L-tug lycosome formulation of DC extending beyond its antihypertensive effect to lipid-lowering ability opens up new possibilities for the use of DC for health purposes helping to reduce daily caloric intake without compromising on the health benefits of DC consumption.

  11. Reduction in blood pressure and serum lipids by lycosome formulation of dark chocolate and lycopene in prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y; Chalyk, Natalia E; Klochkov, Victor; Kyle, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine healthy volunteers aged 47–69 years old were randomly assigned to a 28-day oral intake of different dark chocolate (DC) formulations. The main group received daily 30 g of proprietary lycopene-containing (L-tug) lycosome formulation of DC with enhanced bioavailability of cocoa flavanols. Two control groups daily consumed either 30 g of regular DC alone or along with 7 mg of lycopene, which corresponds to the amount of lycopene ingested with L-tug formulation. It was found that L-tug was more efficient in reducing diastolic blood pressure (mean value of −6.22 mmHg, 95% CI: 5.00, 8.00) when compared with the regular DC group (−3.00 mmHg, P < 0.05) or the group which ingested the DC and lycopene as two separate formulations (mean reduction of −4 mmHg, 95% CI: 2.47, 6.00, P = 0.0262). Only marginal superiority for L-tug formulation in the reduction in systolic blood pressure was seen. However, the L-tug formulation was the only formulation of DC which affected serum lipids. There was a reduction in total cholesterol (from median 228.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 206.2, 242.5] to 187.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 166.2, 202.2, P < 0.05]) with corresponding decline of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (from a median of 166.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 130.8, 177.0] to 151.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 122.8, 167.4; P < 0.05]) at the end of the intervention period. Similar decline was seen in serum triglycerides (P < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP) values remained statistically unchanged in all study groups throughout the intervention period. A superior biological activity of the L-tug lycosome formulation of DC extending beyond its antihypertensive effect to lipid-lowering ability opens up new possibilities for the use of DC for health purposes helping to reduce daily caloric intake without compromising on the health benefits of DC consumption. PMID:25493193

  12. Serum heat inactivation affects protein corona composition and nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Anna; Campbell, Abigail; Monopoli, Marco P; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles are of an appropriate size to interact with cells, and are likely to use a range of cellular machinery for internalisation and trafficking to various sub-cellular compartments. It is now understood that once in contact with biological fluids, the nanoparticle surface gets covered by a highly specific layer of proteins, forming the nanoparticle protein corona. This protein layer is stable for times longer than the typical time scale of nanoparticle import, and thus can impact on particle uptake and trafficking inside the cells. In this work, the effect of the corona composition on nanoparticle uptake has been investigated, by studying the impact of serum heat inactivation and complement depletion on the load of nanoparticles accumulated inside the cell. For the same material and nanoparticle size, cellular uptake was found to be significantly different when the nanoparticles were dispersed in medium where the serum was heat inactivated or not heat inactivated, even for non-specialized cells, suggesting that different sera can lead to different nanoparticle doses. The fact that uptake was correlated with the amount of protein bound into the nanoparticle corona suggests the need for commonly agreed dispersion protocols for in vitro nanoparticle-cell studies.

  13. Serum metabolomics analysis reveals changes in signaling lipids in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Wang, Qiaolian; Chen, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer death among women worldwide. It is a biologically variable disease with different molecular subtypes, risk factors, clinical behaviors and responses to treatment. Better understanding of the molecular changes associated with each subtype is essential for identifying new therapeutic targets and markers for the monitoring of treatment responses. In this pilot study, mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the changes in serum profiles of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) - the most common type of breast cancer. Serum samples from 20 IDC patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were analyzed and 15 differentially expressed metabolites were identified. These metabolites are involved in several metabolic pathways such as sphingolipid metabolism, phospholipid metabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation. Among these, two classes of signaling lipids, lysophosphatidylethanolamine and ceramide, may play an important role in IDC development and progression. This study demonstrates metabolic profiling as a promising tool for finding disease biomarkers and our findings provide new directions for further mechanistic studies on the pathology of IDC.

  14. Catalase and lipid peroxidation values in serum of Tunisian patients with pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abida, Olfa; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Gargouri, Bochra; Ben Ayed, Mourad; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Turki, Hamida; Masmoudi, Hatem; Lassoued, Saloua

    2012-12-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder resulting from the interaction between autoantibodies and desmoglein. Oxidative stress seems to be responsible for the onset/aggravation of many human diseases. Actually, it is considered as one of the several factors for the etiopathogenesis of pemphigus. The present study aims to evaluate the oxidative state in the sera of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus patients by assessing lipid peroxidation, proteins oxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activity. This study included 36 pemphigus vulgaris and 42 pemphigus foliaceus patients as well as a group of controls consisting of 78 healthy volunteers. Malondialdehyde levels (p < 0.001) and catalase activity (p < 0.001) are higher in both groups of patients than in the control group. The two groups of patients showed a nonsignificant decrease in the thiol groups compared with the healthy one. A nonsignificant difference was shown between pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus patients, except for the catalase which shows an increase in the pemphigus vulgaris group. We have also found significant correlations between serum oxidative stress marker levels and serum anti-desmoglein antibody levels in the two pemphigus groups. These findings underline the implication of oxidative stress in the physiopathology of pemphigus by the increase in the autoantibodies' reactivity.

  15. Agglutination of intravenously administered phosphatidylcholine-containing lipid emulsions with serum C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Tugirimana, Pierrot; Speeckaert, Marijn M; Fiers, Tom; De Buyzere, Marc L; Kint, Jos; Benoit, Dominique; Delanghe, Joris R

    2013-04-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is able to bind phospholipids in the presence of calcium. We wanted to investigate the reaction of CRP with various commercial fat emulsions and to explore the impact of CRP agglutination on serum CRP levels. Serum specimens were mixed with Intralipid 20% (soybean oil-based fat emulsion), Structolipid (structured oil-based fat emulsion), Omegaven (fish oil-based fat emulsion), or SMOFlipid (mixed soybean oil-, olive oil-, and fish oil-based emulsion) in Tris-calcium buffer (pH 7.5). After 30 minutes of incubation at 37°C, CRP-phospholipid complexes were turbidimetrically quantified and flow cytometric analysis was performed. Similarly, CRP complexes were monitored in vivo, following administration of fat emulsion. CRP was able to agglutinate phospholipid-containing lipid droplets present in the soybean oil-based fat emulsion and the structured oil-based fat emulsion. To a lesser extent, agglutination was observed for fish oil-containing fat emulsions, whereas no agglutination was noticed for the mixed soybean oil-, olive oil-, and fish oil-based emulsion. Results for propofol-containing emulsions were comparable. Agglutination correlated with phospholipid content of the emulsions. When in vivo agglutination occurred, plasma CRP values dropped due to consumption of CRP by phospholipid-induced agglutination. In this in vitro experiment, we demonstrated agglutination of CRP with phospholipids in various fat emulsions. Research studies are required in patients to determine which effects occur with various intravenous fat emulsions.

  16. Effect of vitamin C on serum lipids and electrolyte profile of albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Eteng, M U; Ibekwe, H A; Amatey, T E; Bassey, B J; Uboh, F U; Owu, D U

    2006-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of vitamin C on serum lipids and electrolyte profile were investigated in albino rats of the Wistar strain. Eighteen (18) albino rats of opposite sexes weighing between 150-300 g were used for the study and randomly assigned on the basis of body weight and litter origin to three study groups of six animals each. The control group received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water), while test groups 1 and II received 100 mg/kg body weight and 200 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C in 2.5 ml and 5.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. The administration of vitamin C for 30 days produced a significant [P < 0.05] decrease in total cholesterol (TC), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the test groups versus control but there was no change in triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Computed HDL:LDL ratio also increased in the treatments relative to the control. Except for computed HDL:LDL ratio all the other changes were dose dependent and there was a slight non-significant increase in all electrolytes (Na(+), K(+); and HCO3(-) ions. The study confirms the hypocholesterolaemic effect of vitamin C and that Vitamin C has no adverse effect on serum electrolytes. It is suggested that its administration in moderate to high doses may protect against atherosclerosis and hypertension.

  17. Effects of Greek Orthodox Christian Church fasting on serum lipids and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarri, Katerina O; Tzanakis, Nikolaos E; Linardakis, Manolis K; Mamalakis, George D; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2003-05-16

    No study to date has focused on the impact of Greek Orthodox Christian fasting on serum lipoproteins and obesity yet. 120 Greek adults were followed longitudinally for one year. Sixty fasted regularly in all fasting periods (fasters) and 60 did not fast at all (controls). The three major fasting periods under study were: Christmas (40 days), Lent (48 days) and Assumption (August, 15 days). A total of 6 measurements were made during one year including pre- and end-fasting blood collection, serum lipoprotein analyses and anthropometric measurements. Statistically significant end-fasting total and LDL cholesterol differences were found in fasters. Fasters compared to controls presented 12.5% lower end-total cholesterol (p < 0.001), 15.9% lower end-LDL cholesterol (p < 0.001) and 1.5% lower end-BMI (p < 0.001). The end- LDL/HDL ratio was lower in fasters (6.5%, p < 0.05) while the change in end- HDL cholesterol in fasters (4.6% decline) was not significant. Similar results were found when the pre- and end-fasting values of fasters were compared. No change was found in control subjects. Adherence to Greek Orthodox fasting periods contributes to a reduction in the blood lipid profile including a non-significant reduction in HDL cholesterol and possible impact on obesity.

  18. [Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices and lipid metabolism in Coilia nasus].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guang-Lian; Xu, Gang-Chun; Gu, Ruo-Bo; Xu, Pao

    2013-12-01

    Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices, and enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in fingerlings Coilia nasus at age of 6 months were investigated during 60-day experiment in this study. Fingerlings with similar body length and mass were fed with one of 3 types of diets (diet 1: soft pellet; diet 2: soft pellet mixed with fish oil; diet 3: slow-sinking hard pellet). Fish fed with diets 2 or 3 had significantly higher total body mass, rate of mass gain, specific growth rate, and fullness coefficient than those fed with diet 1. Fish fed with diet 3 exhibited the lower food coefficient compared to those fed with diets 1 or 2. Growth traits (length, length to mass ratio, length to width ratio, hepatopancreas somatic indices and viscera somatic index) and serum biochemical indices (total protein, albumin, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides) in all three treatments were not significantly different. Fish fed with diet 1 exhibited significantly higher carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I than those fed with diets 2 or 3, while fish fed with diet 2 exhibited significantly lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II. However, amylase, pepsin, lipase activity, lipoprotein lipase and acetyl-coa carboxylase had no significant difference in fish body among all groups. Results suggested that fish oil as a diet supplement highly facilitated fish growing. The slow-sinking pellet had the highest utilization efficiency and was suitable to feed fish fingerlings of C. nasus.

  19. Effects of Greek orthodox christian church fasting on serum lipids and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sarri, Katerina O; Tzanakis, Nikolaos E; Linardakis, Manolis K; Mamalakis, George D; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2003-01-01

    Background No study to date has focused on the impact of Greek Orthodox Christian fasting on serum lipoproteins and obesity yet. Methods 120 Greek adults were followed longitudinally for one year. Sixty fasted regularly in all fasting periods (fasters) and 60 did not fast at all (controls). The three major fasting periods under study were: Christmas (40 days), Lent (48 days) and Assumption (August, 15 days). A total of 6 measurements were made during one year including pre- and end-fasting blood collection, serum lipoprotein analyses and anthropometric measurements. Results Statistically significant end-fasting total and LDL cholesterol differences were found in fasters. Fasters compared to controls presented 12.5% lower end-total cholesterol (p < 0.001), 15.9% lower end-LDL cholesterol (p < 0.001) and 1.5% lower end-BMI (p < 0.001). The end- LDL/HDL ratio was lower in fasters (6.5%, p < 0.05) while the change in end- HDL cholesterol in fasters (4.6% decline) was not significant. Similar results were found when the pre- and end-fasting values of fasters were compared. No change was found in control subjects. Conclusions Adherence to Greek Orthodox fasting periods contributes to a reduction in the blood lipid profile including a non-significant reduction in HDL cholesterol and possible impact on obesity. PMID:12753698

  20. Bioavailability of Fullerene under Environmentally Relevant Conditions: Effects of Humic Acid and Fetal Bovine Serum on Accumulation in Lipid Bilayers and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yeonjeong; Wang, Xianzhe; Liljestrand, Howard M; Maynard, Jennifer A; Katz, Lynn E

    2016-07-05

    Carbon fullerene (C60) has emerged at the forefront of nanoscale research and application due to its unique properties. As the production of this nanoparticle rapidly increases, it can be released into natural aquatic environments and can accumulate in biological systems. This research examined the effects of humic acid and fetal bovine serum (FBS), which are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and representative of blood plasma in living organisms, respectively, on bioavailability of fullerene. Bioavailability was investigated using in vitro methods for lipid membrane accumulation and cellular uptake studies. Humic acid and FBS significantly changed the characteristics of fullerene including its particle size and surface charge. The effects of humic acid on lipid accumulation of fullerene depended on the lipid head charge. FBS also significantly decreased the lipid accumulation when positively charged and zwitterionic head groups were present on the lipids, possibly due to the higher steric repulsion of the protein coated nanoparticles. In addition, both humic acid and FBS protein effectively lowered the amounts of fullerene taken up by Caco-2 cells, which are derived from a human colorectal adenocarcinoma and have similar functions to the small intestinal epithelium. Results of this study suggest that surface modification of fullerene by environmentally relevant matrices can significantly affect the biological transport, as well as the possible toxicity of this nanomaterial.

  1. A Study of Serum Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B and Lipid Profile in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    AS, Shilpasree; Sahukar, Savitri; Murthy, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Role of Serum Lipids, Lipoproteins and Lipoprotein related variables in the prediction of Stroke is less clear. Abnormalities in plasma Lipoproteins are the most firmly established and best understood risk factors for Atherosclerosis and they are probable risk factors for Ischaemic stroke, largely by their link to Atherosclerosis. Apo B reflects the concentration of potentially atherogenic particles (LDL), and Apo A1 reflects the corresponding concentration of anti- atherogenic particles (HDL), represent additional lipoprotein related variables that may indicate the vascular risk. Aim: To study serum concentration of Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B, Apo B/Apo A1 ratio and Lipid profile in Stroke Cases and to compare with healthy controls. Design: A total number of 100 subjects within 30 – 70 years were considered for the study. 50 subjects with Stroke (both clinically as well as Computed tomographically proven cases) and 50 age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken for the study. Material and Methods: Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are estimated by Enzymatic method using Semiautoanalyser. LDL cholesterol is estimated by Friedewald formula. Apo B and Apo A1 are estimated by Immunoturbidimetric method using Semiautoanalyser. Statistical Analysis: Student ‘t’ test was used to compare the data between cases and controls. Diagnostic validity tests were conducted to assess the Diagnostic efficiency of Apo A1, Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio. Results: Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides are significantly increased in Cases compared to Controls. HDL – cholesterol is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio are significantly increased and Apo A1 is significantly decreased in Cases compared to Controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed that, Apo B , Apo A1 and Apo B /Apo A1 ratio have highest Sensitivity, Specificity and Diagnostic efficiency. Conclusion: Apo B

  2. Increasing phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate biosynthesis affects plant nuclear lipids and nuclear functions

    PubMed Central

    Dieck, Catherine B.; Wood, Austin; Brglez, Irena; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Boss, Wendy F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the effects of increasing phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) on nuclear function, we expressed the human phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase (HsPIP5K) 1α in Nicotiana tabacum (NT) cells. The HsPIP5K-expressing (HK) cells had altered nuclear lipids and nuclear functions. HK cell nuclei had 2-fold increased PIP5K activity and increased steady state PtdIns(4,5)P2. HK nuclear lipid classes showed significant changes compared to NT (wild type) nuclear lipid classes including increased phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and decreased lysolipids. Lipids isolated from protoplast plasma membranes (PM) were also analyzed and compared with nuclear lipids. The lipid profiles revealed similarities and differences in the plasma membrane and nuclei from the NT and transgenic HK cell lines. A notable characteristic of nuclear lipids from both cell types is that PtdIns accounts for a higher mol % of total lipids compared to that of the protoplast PM lipids. The lipid molecular species composition of each lipid class was also analyzed for nuclei and protoplast PM samples. To determine whether expression of HsPIP5K1α affected plant nuclear functions, we compared DNA replication, histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in NT and HK cells. The HK cells had a measurable decrease in DNA replication, histone H3K9 acetylation and pRB phosphorylation. PMID:22677448

  3. Increasing phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate biosynthesis affects plant nuclear lipids and nuclear functions.

    PubMed

    Dieck, Catherine B; Wood, Austin; Brglez, Irena; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Boss, Wendy F

    2012-08-01

    In order to characterize the effects of increasing phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) on nuclear function, we expressed the human phosphatidylinositol (4)-phosphate 5-kinase (HsPIP5K) 1α in Nicotiana tabacum (NT) cells. The HsPIP5K-expressing (HK) cells had altered nuclear lipids and nuclear functions. HK cell nuclei had 2-fold increased PIP5K activity and increased steady state PtdIns(4,5)P(2). HK nuclear lipid classes showed significant changes compared to NT (wild type) nuclear lipid classes including increased phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and decreased lysolipids. Lipids isolated from protoplast plasma membranes (PM) were also analyzed and compared with nuclear lipids. The lipid profiles revealed similarities and differences in the plasma membrane and nuclei from the NT and transgenic HK cell lines. A notable characteristic of nuclear lipids from both cell types is that PtdIns accounts for a higher mol% of total lipids compared to that of the protoplast PM lipids. The lipid molecular species composition of each lipid class was also analyzed for nuclei and protoplast PM samples. To determine whether expression of HsPIP5K1α affected plant nuclear functions, we compared DNA replication, histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in NT and HK cells. The HK cells had a measurable decrease in DNA replication, histone H3K9 acetylation and pRB phosphorylation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher serum lipids and oxidative stress in patients with normal tension glaucoma, but not pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Necat; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Bayindir, Asli; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Giray, Ozlem; Sayrac, Suha; Tekeli, Seckin Ozgur; Eren, Esin

    2016-01-01

    This study entailed a cross-examination of oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-linked paraoxonase 1 (PON1) phenotypes, and levels of serum routine lipids among patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) compared with healthy control groups. We aimed to investigate the links between oxidative stress (OS), HDL-related antioxidant enzyme activities and dyslipidemia in distinct subtypes of glaucoma. The study included 32 patients with NTG, 31 patients with PEXG, and 40 control subjects. Levels of PON1 and arylesterase enzymatic activity, total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status were measured by spectrophotometry and OS indexes (OSI) were calculated. The phenotype distribution of PON1 was determined using the dual substrate method. Blood serum levels of HDL, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were measured. The TOS and OSI values in the NTG group were significantly higher compared with the other groups (both p < 0.01). The phenotype distribution found in the glaucoma and control groups were NTG: QQ, 59.4%; QR, 37.5%; RR, 3.1%; PEXG: QQ, 45.1%; QR, 48.4%; RR, 6.5%; and in the control group: QQ, 42.5%; QR, 50.0%; RR, 7.5%. Serum TC levels were significantly higher than the control in both NTG and PEXG groups, whereas TG was significantly higher in NTG only (p < 0.01 and p < 0.02, respectively). Hyperlipidemia, OS and variations in phenotype distribution of PON1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of different types of glaucoma. PMID:26773174

  5. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Lipid Amphiphile Exchange between Lipoproteins and Albumin in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Estronca, Luís M. B. B.; Moreno, Maria João; Laranjinha, J. A. N.; Almeida, L. M.; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the kinetics and thermodynamics of the exchange of a fluorescent amphiphile derived from a phospholipid, NBD-DMPE, between serum albumin and the serum lipoproteins of high density (HDL2 and HDL3), LDL, and VLDL. Binding of the fluorescent lipid amphiphile to bovine serum albumin is characterized, at 35°C, by an equilibrium binding constant of ∼3 × 106 M−1 and a characteristic time ≤0.1 s. Association of NBD-DMPE with the lipoprotein particles, if considered as a partitioning of amphiphile monomers between the aqueous phase and the lipoprotein particles, is characterized by an equilibrium partition coefficient between 105 and 106, being highest for LDL and lowest for HDL. The association of NBD-DMPE monomers with lipoprotein particles can be described by insertion rate constants on the order of 105 M−1 s−1 for VLDL and LDL and 104 M−1 s−1 for HDL. The desorption rate constants are on the order of 10−5 s−1 for all particles. The study was performed as a function of temperature between 15 and 35°C. This permitted the calculation of the equilibrium thermodynamic parameters (ΔGo, ΔHo, and ΔSo) as well as the activation parameters (ΔG‡o, ΔH‡o, and ΔS‡o) for the insertion and desorption processes. The association equilibrium is dominated by the entropic contribution to the free energy in all cases. The results are discussed in relation to phospholipid and amphiphile exchange phenomena involving the lipoproteins. PMID:15465860

  6. Effect of alpha-linolenic acid-rich Camelina sativa oil on serum fatty acid composition and serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Henna M; Aro, Antti; Tapola, Niina S; Salminen, Irma; Uusitupa, Matti I j; Sarkkinen, Essi S

    2002-10-01

    Camelina sativa-derived oil (camelina oil) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. The proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in serum fatty acids is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effects of camelina oil on serum lipids and on the fatty acid composition of total lipids in comparison to rapeseed and olive oils in a parallel, double-blind setting. Sixty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects aged 28 to 65 years were randomly assigned after a 2-week pretrial period to 1 of 3 oil groups: camelina oil, olive oil, and rapeseed oil. Subjects consumed daily 30 g (actual intake, approximately 33 mL) of test oils for 6 weeks. In the camelina group, the proportion of alpha-linolenic acid in fatty acids of serum lipids was significantly higher (P <.001) compared to the 2 other oil groups at the end of the study: 2.5 times higher compared to the rapeseed oil group and 4 times higher compared to the olive oil group. Respectively the proportions of 2 metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid (eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids) increased and differed significantly in the camelina group from those in other groups. During the intervention, the serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration decreased significantly by 12.2% in the camelina oil group, 5.4% in the rapeseed oil group, and 7.7% in the olive oil group. In conclusion, camelina oil significantly elevated the proportions of alpha-linolenic acid and its metabolites in serum of mildly or moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Camelina oil's serum cholesterol-lowering effect was comparable to that of rapeseed and olive oils.

  7. Serum albumin correlates with affective prosody in adult males with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Grabemann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Zimmermann, Marco; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2014-07-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum albumin, affective prosody, and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found coincidentally in a recently published study. Here, serum albumin levels were assessed as a covariate. Twenty healthy male adults (controls) and 20 adult male patients with ADHD participated in the study on two study days. Serum albumin levels and performance in an affective prosody task were assessed, and correlations were determined. Serum albumin had a significant correlation with performance on an affective prosody task on both of the 2 study days. The same correlations were not significant in the healthy control group. There was no difference in the serum albumin level between patients with ADHD and healthy controls. The association between serum albumin and affective prosody in adults with ADHD is a novel finding. However, to date, there is no clear theory that explains this association. Future research should analyze whether serum albumin influences causes changes in performance in affective prosody using experimental designs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and backs. Methods The sporting group was divided into 18 forwards and 16 backs and were compared with 26 sedentary controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. Results There were significant differences among the three groups. The forwards had the highest body weight, body mass index, percentage of body fat (calculated by sum of four skinfold thicknesses), as well as the highest lean body mass, followed by the backs and the control group. The mean carbohydrate intake was marginal and protein intake was lower than the respective recommended targets in all three groups. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, and vitamins A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances or adequate dietary intakes for the rugby players. The forwards had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL2-C than the backs and had significantly higher apo B and LCAT activity than the controls. The backs showed significantly higher HDL-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apo A-I, and LCAT activity than the controls. Four forwards (22%), five backs (31%), and three controls (12%) had hemolysis. None of the rugby players had anemia or iron depletion. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that as the athletes increased their carbohydrate and protein intake, their performance and lean body mass increased. Further, to increase mineral and vitamin intakes, we recommended athletes increase their

  9. Status of serum magnesium in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Shahbah, Doaa; El Naga, Amr Abo; Hassan, Tamer; Zakaria, Marwa; Beshir, Mohamed; Al Morshedy, Salah; Abdalhady, Mohamed; Kamel, Ezzat; Rahman, Doaa Abdel; Kamel, Lamiaa; Abdelkader, May

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, having 25% to 39% prevalence. This deficit could be associated with the development of late diabetic complications, especially macroangiopathy.We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assess its relation to glycemic control and lipid profile.We included 71 Egyptian children with type 1diabetes having their follow-up at Pediatric Endocrinology outpatient clinic, Zagazig University Hospital and 71 age- and sex-matched control. We measured Serum magnesium, HbA1c, and lipid profile in all study subjects.Diabetic children had significantly lower serum magnesium level compared to control children (1.83 ± .27 mg/dL in diabetic children versus 2.00 ± .16 mg/dL in control children). Taking cut-off level of serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dL for definition of hypomagnesemia, hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% of diabetic children compared to 9.9% of control children. In diabetic patients, there was statistically significant difference in HbA1c between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic group being higher in the low magnesium group, as it is mean ± SD was 11.93 ± 3.17 mg/dL in group I versus 8.92 ± 0.93 mg/dL in the normomagnesemic group. Serum magnesium was found to be positively correlated with HDL (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001).We concluded that total serum magnesium was frequently low in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and it is correlated with HbA1c and with lipid profile. Hypomagnesemia was more evident in patients with poor diabetic control and those with higher atherogenic lipid parameters. We suggest that low serum magnesium may be included in pathogenesis of poor glycemic control and abnormal lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes. We need to perform further

  10. Status of serum magnesium in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and its correlation to glycemic control and lipid profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahbah, Doaa; El Naga, Amr Abo; Hassan, Tamer; Zakaria, Marwa; Beshir, Mohamed; Al Morshedy, Salah; Abdalhady, Mohamed; Kamel, Ezzat; Rahman, Doaa Abdel; Kamel, Lamiaa; Abdelkader, May

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, having 25% to 39% prevalence. This deficit could be associated with the development of late diabetic complications, especially macroangiopathy. We aimed to evaluate the status of serum Mg in children with type 1 diabetes and assess its relation to glycemic control and lipid profile. We included 71 Egyptian children with type 1diabetes having their follow-up at Pediatric Endocrinology outpatient clinic, Zagazig University Hospital and 71 age- and sex-matched control. We measured Serum magnesium, HbA1c, and lipid profile in all study subjects. Diabetic children had significantly lower serum magnesium level compared to control children (1.83 ± .27 mg/dL in diabetic children versus 2.00 ± .16 mg/dL in control children). Taking cut-off level of serum magnesium <1.7 mg/dL for definition of hypomagnesemia, hypomagnesemia was detected in 28.2% of diabetic children compared to 9.9% of control children. In diabetic patients, there was statistically significant difference in HbA1c between hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic group being higher in the low magnesium group, as it is mean ± SD was 11.93 ± 3.17 mg/dL in group I versus 8.92 ± 0.93 mg/dL in the normomagnesemic group. Serum magnesium was found to be positively correlated with HDL (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with age, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, and duration of diabetes (P < 0.001). We concluded that total serum magnesium was frequently low in Egyptian children with type 1 diabetes and it is correlated with HbA1c and with lipid profile. Hypomagnesemia was more evident in patients with poor diabetic control and those with higher atherogenic lipid parameters. We suggest that low serum magnesium may be included in pathogenesis of poor glycemic control and abnormal lipid profile in children with type 1 diabetes. We need to perform

  11. Elderly women: homocysteine reduction by short-term folic acid supplementation resulting in increased glucose concentrations and affecting lipid metabolism (C677T MTHFR polymorphism).

    PubMed

    Chmurzynska, Agata; Malinowska, Anna M; Twardowska-Rajewska, Jolanta; Gawecki, Jan

    2013-06-01

    Serum homocysteine levels show interindividual variation and are determined by nutritional factors, such as B-vitamin intake, and by age and genetic influences, such as the genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Recently, the relation between one-carbon and lipid metabolism has been shown. Therefore, we hypothesized that folic acid supplementation would not only decrease homocysteine concentrations but also affect lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of short-term folic acid supplementation on homocysteine and lipid metabolism in Polish women older than 60 y with different C677T MTHFR genotypes. One hundred twenty-two volunteers were supplemented with folic acid 400 μg/d for 8 wk. Folate intake was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. The serum homocysteine level was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum biomarkers were measured with a Vitalab Flexor biochemical analyzer. MTHFR genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In the studied group, the MTHFR genotype frequencies were 0.14 for TT, 0.43 for CT, 0.43 for CC carriers. At baseline, the average folic acid and homocysteine concentrations were 12.16 ± 0.23 ng/mL and 7.94 ± 0.3 μmol/L, respectively. Folic acid supplementation lowered the serum homocysteine concentration. However, the dietary intervention also led to an increase in glucose concentrations (P < 0.01). The T-allele carriers had a larger waist circumference (P < 0.05) and a higher waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.01). In elderly women, a short-term, low-dose folic acid supplementation lowered the serum homocysteine level but also increased glucose concentrations. The C677T MTHFR polymorphism affects the waist-to-hip ratio and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  13. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state.

  14. Effects of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid profiles on 2 hyperlipidemic groups with or without diet pattern.

    PubMed

    Afrasiabi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Susan; Sattarivand, Reza; Mahboob, Soltanali

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Ramadan fasting, with low fat and low calorie diet, on blood lipid and lipoprotein levels were studied. Results revealed reduction of plasma lipid levels and anthropometric parameters in the hyperlipidemic cases. To find out whether such reductions were due to nutritional diet or Ramadan fasting, we conducted a study to evaluate effects of Ramadan fasting on 2 separate hyperlipidemic groups with or without nutritional diet regimen. This study was carried out at Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, during the year 1998. Thirty-eight hyperlipidemic healthy men voluntarily enrolled into 2 groups, group I, 22 men on low fat and low calorie diet and group II, 16 men without any special diet interference. The blood lipid profile tests were measured 4 times (3 weeks before, first week, last week and one month after Ramadan). To evaluate nutritional composition, 12 times in non-successive days, 24 hour nutrition recalls were obtained from all individuals during the study. Analysis of data revealed that only triglyceride in both groups reduced in the beginning of Ramadan compared to 3 weeks before. During Ramadan, with a reduction of 300 Kcal/day in comparison to before Ramadan, no changes were seen concerning anthropometric parameters and serum lipids levels. It seems that the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid levels may be closely related to the nutritional diet. For reduction of plasma lipid levels, it would be necessary to omit at least one term meal or reduce energy by 500 Kcal or more per day.

  15. Lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, and low serum retinol and carotenoid levels in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Tânia Regina Beraldo; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano; Pitta, Tassiana Sacchi; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Hix, Sonia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Tardini, Priscila Chemiotti; dos Santos, Valter Pinho; Lopez, Fábio Ancona

    2010-06-01

    To assess serum retinol and levels of carotenoids in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to correlate low serum retinol and carotenoid levels with the presence of lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, lipid peroxidation, and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional, controlled observational study was carried out with 30 children and adolescents with AIDS (mean age 9.1 y) receiving antiretroviral therapy (median length of treatment 28.4 mo), including 30 uninfected healthy controls matched for age and gender. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed to determine nutritional status, presence of lipodystrophy, serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), glycemia, and serum insulin (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, cutoff point >3). Statistical analysis was done with chi-square test and Student's t test. Lipodystrophy was observed in 53.3% of patients with AIDS, and dyslipidemia was detected in 60% and 23% of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus and control subjects, respectively (P = 0.004). A higher prevalence of retinol deficiency (60% versus 26.7%, P = 0.009) and beta-carotene deficiency (23.3% versus 3.3%, P = 0.026) was found in the group with human immunodeficiency virus than in the control group. No correlation was found for low retinol and beta-carotene levels, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, or lipodystrophy in children and adolescents with AIDS. Despite the high frequency of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies, it was not possible to demonstrate a correlation of these findings with lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies in this population and the clinical

  16. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  17. Effects of Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Homocysteine Levels in a Post-Menopausal Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Umar, Nor Aini; Mokhtar, Norhayati; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2008-01-01

    Oxidized unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on serum lipid profile, homocysteine and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in estrogen-deficient rats. Twenty-four female Sprague Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then were divided equally into four groups. The control group was given 2% cholesterol diet only throughout the study period. The three treatment groups received 2% cholesterol diet fortified with fresh, once-heated or five-times-heated palm oil, respectively. Serum TBARS, lipid profile and homocysteine levels were measured prior to ovariectomy and at the end of four months of the study. Five-times-heated palm oil caused a significant increase in TBARS and total cholesterol (TC) compared to control (F = 22.529, p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in serum homocysteine in the control as well as five-times heated palm oil group compared to fresh and once-heated palm oil groups (F = 4.432, p < 0.05). The findings suggest that repeatedly heated palm oil increase lipid peroxidation and TC. Ovariectomy increases the development of atherosclerosis as seen in this study. Feeding with fresh and once-heated palm oil does not cause any deleterious effect but repeatedly heated oil may be harmful because it causes oxidative damage thereby predisposing to atherosclerosis. PMID:19148313

  18. Short-term magnesium deficiency results in decreased levels of serum sphingomyelin, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Shah, Nilank C; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Li, Zhiqiang; Perez-Albela, José Luis; Sica, Anthony C; Altura, Bella T

    2009-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that short-term dietary deficiency of magnesium (Mg) (21 days) in rats would 1) result in decreased serum(s) [the present study tested the levels of Mg, sphingomyelin (SM), and phosphatidylcholine (PC)]; 2) promote DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation (LP), and activation of caspase-3 in cardiac (ventricular and atrial) and vascular(aortic) muscle; and 3) low levels of Mg(2+) added to drinking water would either prevent or greatly ameliorate these manifestations. The data indicate that short-term Mg deficiency (10% normal dietary intake) resulted in profound reductions in serum-ionized Mg and total Mg with an elevation in serum-ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), significant lowering of serum SM and serum PC, with concomitant LP, DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspase-3 in ventricular (right and left chambers), atrial (right and left chambers) and abdominal aortic smooth muscle. The greater the reduction in serum-ionized Mg, the greater the effects on DNA fragmentation, LP, and caspase-3 activity. The intake of water-borne Mg(2+) at all levels greatly attenuated or inhibited the reductions in serum SM and serum PC, activation of LP, DNA fragmentation, and the activation of caspase-3; even very low levels of Mg(2+) in drinking water (i.e., 15 parts.million(-1).day(-1)) were cardio- and vascular protective. In addition, we demonstrate that short-term dietary deficiency of Mg probably results in a downregulation of SM synthase and a decreased synthesis of PC.

  19. Lipid composition affects the rate of photosensitized dissipation of cross-membrane diffusion potential on liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ytzhak, Shany; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic or amphiphilic tetrapyrrole sensitizers are taken up by cells and are usually located in cellular lipid membranes. Singlet oxygen is photogenerated by the sensitizer and it diffuses in the membrane and causes oxidative damage to membrane components. This damage can occur to membrane lipids and to membrane-localized proteins. Depolarization of the Nernst electric potential on cells’ membranes has been observed in cellular photosensitization, but it was not established whether lipid oxidation is a relevant factor leading to abolishing the resting potential of cells’ membranes and to their death. In this work we studied the effect of liposomes’ lipid composition on the kinetics of hematoporphyrin-photosensitized dissipation of K+-diffusion electric potential that was generated across the membranes. We employed an electrochromic voltage-sensitive spectroscopic probe that possesses a high fluorescence signal response to the potential. We found a correlation between the structure and unsaturation of lipids and the leakage of the membrane, following photosensitization. As the extent of non-conjugated unsaturation of the lipids is increased from 1 to 6 double bonds, the kinetics of depolarization become faster. We also found that the kinetics of depolarization is affected by the percentage of the unsaturated lipids in the liposome: as the fraction of the unsaturated lipids increases the leakage trough the membrane is enhanced. When liposomes are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes and photosensitization is being carried out under usual photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions, photodamage to the lipids is not likely to cause enhanced permeability of ions through the membrane, which would have been a mechanism that leads to cell death. PMID:20536150

  20. Evaluation of Serum, Urine, and Hair Chromium Levels as Indices of Chromium Exposure and the Relationship of these Indices to Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Janis Avril

    Concentrations of chromium (Cr) in hair, serum, and urine, and serum concentrations of insulin and lipids of a selected group of men exposed to trivalent Cr (Cr III) were compared with those of men not exposed to Cr. Seventy -three tannery workers (TW) (mean age 37 +/- 12 years) from four Southern Ontario tanneries and fifty-two control subjects (CS) (mean age 41 +/- 13 years), matched for age, race, and socioeconomic status, from the Guelph and Toronto areas participated. The median hair and serum Cr concentrations for the TW were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for the CS (hair Cr 453 vs 124 ng/g; serum Cr 0.49 vs 0.15 ng/ml). Median urinary Cr/creatinine ratios (Cr/Cre) for the TW on Monday morning (0.83 ng/mg) and Friday afternoon (0.68 ng/mg) were also significantly higher (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively) than the median urinary Cr/Cre ratio for the urine samples collected on a Friday afternoon from the CS (0.18 ng/mg). For the TW, the median Friday urinary Cr/Cre ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than the corresponding Monday Cr/Cre ratio. For the TW, urinary Cr/Cre ratios (Monday and Friday) were correlated significantly and positively with both Cr concentrations in serum (r = 0.45, p < 0.01; r = 0.71, p < 0.01, respectively) and in hair (r = 0.43, p < 0.01; r = 0.64, p < 0.01, respectively). Concentrations of Cr in hair and in serum were also significantly correlated (r = 0.52, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the TW and CS in serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides, or in calculated values for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, %HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C. Likewise, no significant differences in serum insulin concentrations were noted between the two groups. Results of this study indicate that Cr III, from compounds used in the leather tanning industry, is absorbed and retained. Absorption of Cr III had no significant effect on serum insulin

  1. A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Matthew J; Kraemer, William J; Love, Dawn M; Avery, Neva G; Gómez, Ana L; Scheett, Timothy P; Volek, Jeff S

    2002-07-01

    Very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets are popular yet little is known regarding the effects on serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examined the effects of a 6-wk ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial serum biomarkers in 20 normal-weight, normolipidemic men. Twelve men switched from their habitual diet (17% protein, 47% carbohydrate and 32% fat) to a ketogenic diet (30% protein, 8% carbohydrate and 61% fat) and eight control subjects consumed their habitual diet for 6 wk. Fasting blood lipids, insulin, LDL particle size, oxidized LDL and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) and insulin responses to a fat-rich meal were determined before and after treatment. There were significant decreases in fasting serum TAG (-33%), postprandial lipemia after a fat-rich meal (-29%), and fasting serum insulin concentrations (-34%) after men consumed the ketogenic diet. Fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL were unaffected and HDL cholesterol tended to increase with the ketogenic diet (+11.5%; P = 0.066). In subjects with a predominance of small LDL particles pattern B, there were significant increases in mean and peak LDL particle diameter and the percentage of LDL-1 after the ketogenic diet. There were no significant changes in blood lipids in the control group. To our knowledge this is the first study to document the effects of a ketogenic diet on fasting and postprandial CVD biomarkers independent of weight loss. The results suggest that a short-term ketogenic diet does not have a deleterious effect on CVD risk profile and may improve the lipid disorders characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  2. Effects of feeding schedule changes on the circadian phase of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tada, Yuki; Hida, Azumi; Sunami, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Yuri; Yasuda, Jun; Nakai, Ayumi; Togo, Fumiharu; Kawano, Yukari

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether scheduling meals earlier in the day affects the circadian phase of the cardiac autonomic nervous system as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and serum lipid levels. Healthy men aged 21.4 ± 0.5 years (n = 14) with a habit of regularly skipping breakfast participated in this parallel trial involving altered feeding schedules. Participants in the early mealtime group (EM group, n = 8) were asked to eat three meals at 8:00, 13:00, and 18:00, and the control group (n = 6) ate at 13:00, 18:00, and 23:00 for 2 weeks. On the measurement day before and after intervention, fasting blood samples and 24-h electrocardiograph recordings were collected. Spectral analysis was used for approximate 10-min HRV segments. Low frequency (LF) power, high frequency (HF) power, and the ratio of HF to total power (%HF) were calculated to assess sympathovagal balance. Acrophases of the circadian rhythm of HRV variables were obtained by nonlinear least squares regression. Triglyceride and total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in the EM group when compared with the control group (p = 0.035, 0.008, and 0.004, respectively). Acrophases for HRV variables were advanced in the EM group and their difference between before and after the intervention in LF power (-3.2 ± 1.2 h) and %HF (-1.2 ± 0.5 h) reached significant level, respectively (p < 0.05). Timing of meals was a key factor in regulating circadian phases of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism.

  3. Comparison of serum lipid management between elderly and non-elderly patients with and without coronary heart disease (CHD).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Rumiko; Torii, Haruki; Yasuda, Daisuke; Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Furukawa, Yutaka; Yoshimoto, Akihiro; Iwakura, Toshio; Matsuoka, Naoki; Tomii, Keisuke; Kohara, Nobuo; Hashida, Tohru; Kume, Noriaki

    2016-12-01

    Serum lipid management in patients aged ≥ 75 has not been precisely explored. We, therefore, compared the serum lipid management between the two age groups with and without coronary heart disease (CHD). We, therefore, retrospectively reviewed medical charts of patients who were hospitalized in the departments of internal medicine during a period of 14 months. Serum lipid goal attainment was explored by applying the lipid goals for patients aged < 75 to those aged ≥ 75. In 1988 enrolled patients, 717 subjects (36.1%) were aged ≥ 75. Among them, 41.3% and 32.4% of the patients had CHD, 44.2% and 41.0% were primary prevention at high-risk, and 14.5% and 14.6% were primary prevention at moderate-risk in patients aged ≥ 75 and aged < 75, respectively. Serum LDL-C goal achievement rates in CHD were 66.9% and 65.0% in patients aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p = 0.334). In the primary prevention at high-risk, these rates were 73.5% and 63.3%, in patients aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p = 0.001). They were 77.9% and 58.1% in primary prevention at moderate-risk aged ≥ 75 and < 75, respectively (p < 0.001). In CHD, lipid-lowering medication subscription rates were significantly lower in patients aged ≥ 75 (60.1%) than those aged < 75 (73.8%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, in CHD, serum lipid goal attainment was comparable between the two age groups although the lipid-lowering drugs were less frequently prescribed in patients aged ≥ 75. Without CHD, it was significantly better in patients aged ≥ 75 than those aged < 75 although the lipid-lowering drug subscription rates were comparable between the two age groups.

  4. Effects of Erxian decoction, a Chinese medicinal formulation, on serum lipid profile in a rat model of menopause

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk of cardiovascular disease increase after menopause in correlation with the progression of abnormality in the serum lipid profile and the deprivation of estrogen. Erxian decoction (EXD), a Chinese medicinal formulation for treating menopausal syndrome, stimulates ovarian estrogen biosynthesis. This study investigates whether EXD improves the serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model. Methods Twenty-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with EXD and its constituent fractions. Premarin was administered for comparison. After eight weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were determined. The hepatic protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density-lipoprotein receptor were assessed with Western blot. Results The serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly lower in the EXD-treated group than in the constituent fractions of EXD or premarin groups. However, the serum levels of triglyceride and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol were not significantly different from the control groups. Results from Western blot suggest that EXD significantly down-regulated the protein level of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and up-regulated low-density-lipoprotein receptor. Conclusion EXD improves serum lipid profile in a menopausal rat model through the suppression of the serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, possibly through the down-regulation of the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA and up-regulation of the low-density-lipoprotein receptor. PMID:22047073

  5. Serum myostatin in central south Chinese postmenopausal women: Relationship with body composition, lipids and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yulin; Li, Xianping; Zhang, Hongbin; Ou, Yangna; Zhang, Zhimin; Li, Shuang; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

    2016-08-01

    Previous data suggest that myostatin has direct effects on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. The relationships between serum myostatin, body composition lipids and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women remain unclear. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationships between serum myostatin, body composition, lipids and bone mineral density in central south Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 175 healthy postmenopausal women, aged 51-75 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Serum myostatin, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(25OH-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast to the osteoporotic women, the women without osteoporosis had higher BMI, fat mass and lean mass (P<0.01). The osteoporotic women were older than women without osteoporosis (P<0.01). There were no differences between two groups with regard to serum BAP, CTX, (25OH-D), PTH, lipids and myostatin after adjusted by age. BMD at each site was positively correlated with age at menopause, fat mass and lean mass, and also negatively correlated with age and serum BAP. Serum myostatin was positively correlated with tryglicerides, not correlated with either body composition or BMD at each site. Our data indicated that serum myostatin concentration did not correlate with muscle and bone mass. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the role of myostatin in regulating the bone metabolism.

  6. Serum lipid effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Curb, J D; Wergowske, G; Dobbs, J C; Abbott, R D; Huang, B

    2000-04-24

    Recent studies have identified potential beneficial effects of eating nuts, most of which have substantial amounts of monounsaturated fats. Macadamia nuts are 75% fat by weight, 80% of which is monounsaturated. To examine variations in serum lipid levels in response to a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts. A randomized crossover trial of three 30-day diets was conducted in 30 volunteers aged 18 to 53 years from a free-living population. Each was fed a "typical American" diet high in saturated fat (37% energy from fat); an American Heart Association Step 1 diet (30% energy from fat); and a macadamia nut-based monounsaturated fat diet (37% energy from fat) in random order. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured. Mean total cholesterol level after the typical American diet was 5.20 mmol/L (201 mg/dL). After the Step 1 diet and the macadamia nut diet, total cholesterol level was 4.99 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) and 4.95 mmol/L (191 mg/dL), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 3.37 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) (typical diet), 3.21 mmol/L (124 mg/dL) (Step 1 diet), and 3.22 mmol/L (125 mg/dL) (macadamia nut diet). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was 1.43 mmol/L (55 mg/dL) (typical), 1.34 mmol/L (52 mg/dL) (Step 1), and 1.37 mmol/L (53 mg/dL) (macadamia nut). Lipid values after the Step 1 and macadamia nut diets were significantly different from those after the typical diet (P<.05). The macadamia nut-based diet high in monounsaturated fat and the moderately low-fat diet both had potentially beneficial effects on cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels when compared with a typical American diet.

  7. Effects of rosuvastatin on serum lipids and arteriosclerosis in dyslipidemic patients with cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ichiro; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Sehara, Yoshihide; Kato, Yuji; Ohe, Yasuko; Fukuoka, Takuya; Maruyama, Hajime; Sano, Hiroyasu; Nagamine, Yuito; Tanahashi, Norio

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the effect of rosuvastatin, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, on serum lipids and arteriosclerosis in dyslipidemic patients with cerebral infarction. The subjects were 24 patients with noncardiogenic cerebral infarction complicated by dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥ 140 mg/dL). Serum lipids and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured at the start of the study and at 3 and 12 months after the initiation of oral rosuvastatin (5 mg/day). Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), intima-media thickness (IMT), and plaque score (PS) were also determined at the start of the study and at 12 months. Of the 24 patients admitted, 17 were eligible for statistical analysis. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (mean [standard deviation {SD}], mg/dL) were significantly decreased at 3 months (TC, 149.4 [20.4]; LDL-C, 78.7 [18.6]; non-HDL-C, 94.6 [21.7]) and at 12 months (TC, 154.9 [27.2]; LDL-C, 82.5 [23.3]; non-HDL-C, 100.2 [28.8]) compared with the baseline data (TC, 232.8 [29.7]; LDL-C, 162.2 [21.2]; non-HDL-C, 183.0 [27.7]). The serum hs-CRP level (mean [SD], ng/mL) was 1053.1 [818.8] at baseline, 575.2 [481.8] at 3 months, and 488.1 [357.7] at 12 months. The decrease in this parameter at 12 months was statistically significant. There was a decrease, although not statistically significant, in CAVI (mean [SD]) at 12 months (right [Rt.] 8.7 [.9]; left [Lt.] 8.6 [1.0]), compared with baseline (Rt. 9.1 [1.1]; Lt. 9.0 [1.1]). The max-IMT (mean [SD], mm) was (Rt. 2.11 [.97]; Lt. 2.01 [.75]) at baseline and (Rt. 2.18 [.82]; Lt. 2.06 [.79]) at 12 months of study treatment. The PS (mean [SD], mm) was 8.93 [4.33] at baseline and 9.61 [4.79] at 12 months; neither parameter showed a significant change. Rosuvastatin at 5 mg/day significantly reduced serum levels of TC, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and hs-CRP in dyslipidemic patients with cerebral infarction. No

  8. Apple cider vinegar modulates serum lipid profile, erythrocyte, kidney, and liver membrane oxidative stress in ovariectomized mice fed high cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Güler, Mustafa; Özgül, Cemil; Saydam, Gündüzalp; Küçükayaz, Mustafa; Sözbir, Ercan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentially beneficial effects of apple cider vinegar (ACV) supplementation on serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, liver and kidney membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant levels in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed high cholesterol. Four groups of ten female mice were treated as follows: Group I received no treatment and was used as control. Group II was OVX mice. Group III received ACV intragastrically (0.6% of feed), and group IV was OVX and was treated with ACV as described for group III. The treatment was continued for 28 days, during which the mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet. The lipid peroxidation levels in erythrocyte, liver and kidney, triglycerides, total, and VLDL cholesterol levels in serum were higher in the OVX group than in groups III and IV. The levels of vitamin E in liver, the kidney and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH) were decreased in group II. The GSH-Px, vitamin C, E, and β-carotene, and the erythrocyte GSH and GSH-Px values were higher in kidney of groups III and IV, but in liver the vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were decreased. In conclusion, ACV induced a protective effect against erythrocyte, kidney, and liver oxidative injury, and lowered the serum lipid levels in mice fed high cholesterol, suggesting that it possesses oxidative stress scavenging effects, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and increases the levels of antioxidant enzymes and vitamin.

  9. Serum extracellular vesicle depletion processes affect release and infectivity of HIV-1 in culture.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhaohao; Muth, Dillon C; Eitan, Erez; Travers, Meghan; Learman, Lisa N; Lehrmann, Elin; Witwer, Kenneth W

    2017-05-31

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in intercellular communication and affect processes including immune and antiviral responses. Blood serum, a common cell culture medium component, is replete with EVs and must be depleted prior to EV-related experiments. The extent to which depletion processes deplete non-EV particles is incompletely understood, but depleted serum is associated with reduced viability and growth in cell culture. Here, we examined whether serum depleted by two methods affected HIV-1 replication. In cell lines, including HIV-1 latency models, increased HIV-1 production was observed, along with changes in cell behavior and viability. Add-back of ultracentrifuge pellets (enriched in EVs but possibly other particles) rescued baseline HIV-1 production. Primary cells were less sensitive to serum depletion processes. Virus produced under processed serum conditions was more infectious. Finally, changes in cellular metabolism, surface markers, and gene expression, but not miRNA profiles, were associated with depleted serum culture. In conclusion, depleted serum conditions have a substantial effect on HIV-1 production and infectivity. Dependence of cell cultures on "whole serum" must be examined carefully along with other experimental variables, keeping in mind that the effects of EVs may be accompanied by or confused with those of closely associated or physically similar particles.

  10. Serum Lipid Levels and Dyslipidaemia Prevalence among 2–10 Year-Old Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Novelo, Hilda I.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of dyslipidaemia. The aim was to assess the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors among the Northern Mexican child population. Methods and Results Four hundred and fifty-one subjects aged between 2 and 10 (47.5% girls) took part in the Nuevo León State Survey of Nutrition and Health 2011–2012. According to the 2011 Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents, serum lipid levels (mg/dL) were categorized into three subgroups (acceptable, borderline-high/low or high/low) as follows: TChol: acceptable <170, borderline-high 170–199, high ≥200; LDL-chol: acceptable <110, borderline-high 110–129, high ≥130; non-HDL-chol: acceptable <120, borderline-high 120–144, high ≥145; HDL-chol: acceptable >45, borderline-low 40–45, low <40; and TG: acceptable <75, borderline-high 75–99, high ≥100 in ≤9 year-old children, and acceptable <90, borderline-high 90–129, and high ≥130 in 10 year-old children. The overall prevalence of borderline-high + high TG, non-HDL-chol, TChol, and LDL-chol was 63.0%, 44.1%, 43.5%, and 29.9%, respectively. The overall prevalence of borderline-low + low HDL-chol was 46.3%. The overall frequency of dyslipidaemia was 54.3%. Thirteen children (2.9%) had all five symptoms of dyslipidaemia. The most common dyslipidaemia was high TG in combination (26.2%) and in isolation (10.6%). Conclusions Half of the children had at least one abnormal lipid concentration. A high TG level was the most frequent dyslipidaemia. Obesity was associated with the occurrence of at least one abnormal lipid level. These findings emphasize the need to pay further attention to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and obesity from an early age. PMID:25793380

  11. Serum lipids and glucose control: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.

    PubMed

    Petitti, Diana B; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Palla, Shana L; Daniels, Stephen R; Dolan, Lawrence M; Kershnar, Ann K; Marcovina, Santica; Pettitt, David J; Pihoker, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    To assess the relationship of serum lipid concentrations with glucose control in youth with diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional analyses of data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Multicenter study of youth with diabetes onset at younger than 20 years. PATIENTS/ PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen hundred seventy-three SEARCH participants aged 10 years or older with hemoglobin A(1c) and fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride measured at the SEARCH study examination. Hemoglobin A(1c). Lipid concentrations. There were significant trends of higher levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C (but not HDL-C) with higher hemoglobin A(1c) concentrations for both diabetes types. The slopes of TC increase were 7.8 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) per unit increase in hemoglobin A(1c) for type 1 and 8.1 mg/dL (0.21 mmol/L) for type 2. Levels of TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and non-HDL-C were all significantly higher (all P values <.001) in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes (mean differences in milligrams per deciliter [millimoles per liter], +13.6 [+0.35] for TC; +8.3 [+0.22] for LDL-C; +66.3 [+0.75] for triglyceride; +25.5 [+0.66] for non-HDL-C). Levels of HDL-C were lower in youth with type 2 diabetes (mean difference, -11.9 mg/dL [-0.31 mmol/L]). Among those with type 1 diabetes in poor glycemic control, 35%, 27%, and 12% had high concentrations of TC (>or=200 mg/dL [5.17 mmol/L]), LDL-C (>or=130 mg/dL [3.36 mmol/L]), and triglyceride (>or=200 mg/dL [2.26 mmol/L]), respectively. In youth with type 2 diabetes in poor glycemic control, percentages with high levels of TC, LDL-C, and triglycerides were 65%, 43%, and 40%, respectively. Glycemic control and lipid levels are independently associated in youth with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  12. The association between serum lipid levels, suicide ideation, and central serotonergic activity in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    There is some evidence that low lipid levels cause suicide in depressed patients. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum lipid levels are associated with suicide ideation or are correlated with central serotonin function. Auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) was measured in 73 outpatients with major depressive disorder. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered on the same day as measurement of the LDAEP. In addition, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. All subjects had received antidepressant monotherapy. The depressed subjects were divided into those with and without suicide ideation according to the score for HAMD item 3 or BDI item 9. TG levels differed significantly between the two groups, whereas body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and LDAEP did not. The scores for HAMD item 3 and BDI item 9 were negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.045 and 0.026, respectively). The LDAEP was negatively correlated with TG levels (p=0.012). Although there was tendency toward a negative correlation between the LDAEP and serum LDL, it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.068). The cross-sectional design of this study means that baseline serum lipid levels were not measured. The findings of this study revealed a relationship between TG and suicide ideation that is independent of both BMI and body weight. Furthermore, serum lipid levels were associated with central serotonergic activity, as assessed using the LDAEP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between sleep duration and abnormal serum lipid levels: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Gaeun; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Shin, Il-Seon

    2016-08-01

    Shorter or longer sleep duration has been reported to be associated with abnormal serum lipid levels, but the findings have been inconsistent. This study examined associations between sleep duration and abnormal serum lipid levels in a Korean adult population. This study used the data of 13,609 people aged ≥20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2010-2012. Sleep duration was classified into five groups: ≤5, 6, 7 (reference category), 8, and ≥9 hours. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride were measured and defined in terms of abnormal serum lipid levels. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the associations between sleep duration and abnormal serum lipid levels. The covariates included age, sex, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, depressive symptoms, and stress level. Self-reported sleep duration of ≤5 hours was significantly associated with high TC and high LDL-C levels in unadjusted models, but after adjusting for age and sex, the statistical significance disappeared. On the other hand, after adjusting for covariates, self-reported sleep duration of ≥9 h was significantly associated with low HDL-C levels (odds ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.09-1.54). These findings suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with low HDL-C levels among Korean adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Noni juice improves serum lipid profiles and other risk markers in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids.

  15. [Alteration of serum lipid profile in young men with different somatotypes after food load].

    PubMed

    Fefelova, V V; Koloskova, T P; Kazakova, T V; Fefelova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipid profiles of 76 men of young age (17-21years) were investigated using thin layer chromatography and determination of somatotypes was realized using the scheme of V.P. Chtetsov et al. (1978). The investigation was conducted on an empty stomach and after one hour after food loads (test meal with energy value of 419 kcal, content of proteins - 17,9 g, fats - 11,9 g, carbohydrates - 60,1 g). Regularities inherent to certain somatotypes were revealed. In young men with the abdominal somatotype (with the most pronounced fat component), changes evidencing membranes rigidity growth were revealed: cholesterol esterification processes inhibition and increase of sphingomyelin after meal (p = 0.001). In young men with muscular somatotype the highest level of phosphatidylcholine and the lowest level of easily-oxidized phospholipid fractions in comparison to other somatotypes [thoracic (p = 0.044), abdominal (p = 0.037) and undetermined (p = 0.021)] were registered. General rule is lowering of the free fatty acids levels after meal in comparison with the indices on the empty stomach for all somatotypes: thoracic (p = 0.0001), muscular (p = 0.012), abdominal (p = 0.041) and undetermined (p = 000018). Definiteness of the effect of lowering of free fatty acids levels after meal for all somatotypes could evidence the importance Of this process for maintaining the homeostatic body constants.

  16. Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

  17. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius mixture on performance, intestinal health and serum lipids of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3) from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of diet to broilers for 42 days improved body weight, body weight gain and FCR, reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased populations of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, decreased harmful bacteria such as E. coli and total aerobes, reduced harmful cecal bacterial enzymes such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, and improved intestinal histomorphology of broilers. Because of its remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens, the L. salivarius mixture could be considered as a good potential probiotic for chickens, and its benefits should be further evaluated on a commercial scale. PMID:28459856

  18. Adherence to Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and serum lipid, lipoprotein and homocysteine concentrations at birth.

    PubMed

    Gesteiro, Eva; Bastida, Sara; Rodríguez Bernal, Beatriz; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    Mediterranean diet consumption is associated to low prevalence of major degenerative diseases. Low Mediterranean-diet-adherence (MDA) score has been related to high insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance levels at birth. The relationship between maternal MDA and offspring lipoprotein profile at birth has been scarcely reported. Cross-sectional study aimed to study the relationship between pregnancy diet quality and serum lipid, arylesterase and homocysteine values at birth. Cord blood of the offspring of 35 women whose diets were classified as "adequate" or "inadequate" according to their 13-point MDA-score (≥7 or <7, respectively) were studied. MDA-scores did not significantly change through pregnancy. Low-MDA-score diets presented a higher atherogenic index, contained less fiber and folates, and had a lower (polyunsaturated + monounsaturated)/saturated fatty acids (PUFA + MUFA/SFA) ratio, more cholesterol, and higher SFA/carbohydrates (SFA/CHO) and ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios than their respective high-MDA-score counterparts. Mothers at the low MDA-score delivered neonates with high LDL-c (P = 0.049), Apo B (P = 0.040), homocysteine (P = 0.026) and Apo A1/Apo B ratio (P = 0.024). Neonates whose mothers consumed low MDA diets presented impaired lipoprotein and increased homocysteine levels at birth. A follow-up study on early cardiovascular disease prevention is needed to understand the importance of present findings later in life.

  19. Lipid peroxidation and serum antioxidant enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Feroza N; Naqvi, Farzana N; Shafiq, Fakhra

    2006-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by fasting hyperglycemia, with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Persons are also known to be prone to develop complications related to elevated blood glucose concentrations, including atherosclerosis, retinal damage, cataract, and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia may also result in increased production of the reactive oxygen species within numerous biochemical pathways that have the potential to initiate changes in endothelial function. This article demonstrates the presence of lipid peroxidation products in the red cell membranes of type 2 diabetic patients compared to the normal subjects. These membranes are more susceptible to exogenous oxidative stress than those of normal healthy individuals. Significantly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely, serum peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were found in type 2 diabetic patients as compared to control. This study led us to conclude that elevated levels of glucose induce oxidative stress that is ultimately reflected by the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocyte ghost membranes of diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia also induced an increase in antioxidant enzymes and a relationship seems to exist between diabetic complications and elevated levels of these enzymes. It is suggested that these antioxidant enzymes may be considered as markers for vascular injury.

  20. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P < 0.001) in birds fed the PO diets compared with birds fed the SO diets. The diets containing PO increased abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat

  1. Providing lipid-based nutrient supplements does not affect developmental milestones among Malawian children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to assess whether using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) to complement the diets of infants and young children affected when they achieved selected developmental milestones. In rural Malawi, 840 6-month-old healthy infants were enrolled to a randomised trial. Control particip...

  2. Effect of 6-month calorie restriction and exercise on serum and liver lipids and markers of liver function.

    PubMed

    Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Newcomer, Bradley R; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R; Alfonso, Anthony J; Lefevre, Michael; Rood, Jennifer C; Williamson, Donald A; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with insulin resistance are increasingly recognized as major health burdens. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relation between liver lipid content and serum lipids, markers of liver function and inflammation in healthy overweight subjects, and to determine whether caloric restriction (CR) (which improves insulin resistance) reduces liver lipids in association with these same measures. Forty-six white and black overweight men and women (BMI = 24.7-31.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized to "control (CO)" = 100% energy requirements; "CR" = 25%; "caloric restriction and increased structured exercise (CR+EX)"= 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through exercise; or "low-calorie diet (LCD)" = 15% weight loss by liquid diet followed by weight-maintenance, for 6 months. Liver lipid content was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and computed tomography (CT). Lipid concentrations, markers of liver function (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK)), and whole-body inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured in fasting blood. At baseline, increased liver lipid content (by MRS) correlated (P < 0.05) with elevated fasting triglyceride (r = 0.52), ALT (r = 0.42), and hsCRP (r = 0.33) concentrations after adjusting for sex, race, and alcohol consumption. With CR, liver lipid content was significantly lowered by CR, CR+EX, and LCD (detected by MRS only). The reduction in liver lipid content, however, was not significantly correlated with the reduction in triglycerides (r = 0.26; P = 0.11) or with the changes in ALT, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, or markers of whole-body inflammation. CR may be beneficial for reducing liver lipid and lowering triglycerides in overweight subjects without known NAFLD.

  3. Serum lipids and arterial plaque load are altered independently with high-dose progesterone in hypercholesterolemic male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Houser, S L; Aretz, H T; Quist, W C; Chang, Y; Schreiber, A D

    2000-01-01

    Antiatherogenic effects of sex steroids in premenopausal women are not well defined. Therefore, we employed an established rabbit model for atherosclerosis to study the effects of exogenous estrogen and a progesterone analogue (P) on serum lipids and aortic plaque load. Serum cholesterol (C) and triglyceride (T) levels and atherosclerotic plaque loads were compared in 5 groups of male New Zealand White rabbits fed a 12-week, C-rich diet: 1 control group (CG) and 4 groups treated with estriol (E), haloperidol (H), low-dose 17-hydroxyprogesterone (LDP), or high-dose 17-hydroxyprogesterone (HDP). Serum P was measured in the LDP and HDP groups. Serial histologic sections (15 each of 27 ascending aortas) were studied by light microscopy and computerized morphometric analysis. Plaque load is defined as the ratio of intimal area to medial area (I/M). Exogenous E (p<0.001), H (P = 0. 02), LDP and HDP (P<0.001, each) were found to be significantly associated with less aortic plaque load than controls. In a multivariate analysis, after controlling for the differences in serum C and T levels, HDP (p = 0.014) was found to be associated with less aortic plaque load than controls, and this association approached statistical significance in the E (p = 0.052) and H (p = 0.069) groups. These data suggest that the mechanism(s) involved with the antiatherogenic effect of HDP in this animal model is, or are, independent of an alteration in serum lipids.

  4. Intravenous lipid emulsion given to volunteers does not affect symptoms of lidocaine brain toxicity.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Juho A; Litonius, Erik; Salmi, Tapani; Haasio, Juhani; Tarkkila, Pekka; Backman, Janne T; Rosenberg, Per H

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion has been suggested as treatment for local anaesthetic toxicity, but the exact mechanism of action is still uncertain. Controlled studies on the effect of lipid emulsion on toxic doses of local anaesthetics have not been performed in man. In randomized, subject-blinded and two-phase cross-over fashion, eight healthy volunteers were given a 1.5 ml/kg bolus of 20% Intralipid(®) (200 mg/ml) or Ringer's acetate solution intravenously, followed by a rapid injection of lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg. Then, the same solution as in the bolus was infused at a rate of 0.25 ml/kg/min. for 30 min. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded, and 5 min. after lidocaine injection, the volunteers were asked to report subjective symptoms. Total and un-entrapped lidocaine plasma concentrations were measured from venous blood samples. EEG band power changes (delta, alpha and beta) after the lidocaine bolus were similar during lipid and during Ringer infusion. There were no differences between infusions in the subjective symptoms of central nervous system toxicity. Lidocaine was only minimally entrapped in the plasma by lipid emulsion, but the mean un-entrapped lidocaine area under concentration-time curve from 0 to 30 min. was clearly smaller during lipid than Ringer infusion (16.4 versus 21.3 mg × min/l, p = 0.044). Intravenous lipid emulsion did not influence subjective toxicity symptoms nor affect the EEG changes caused by lidocaine.

  5. Cuticular lipids and silverleaf whitefly stage affect conidial germination of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Buckner, J S; Freeman, T P

    2003-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus are generalist entomopathogenic fungi that infect the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii). We found second and third instar whiteflies to be the most susceptible larval stage to both fungi. Conidia of B. bassiana germinated most readily on the cuticle of second instars (54% germinated) and P. fumosoroseus germination was highest on third instar cuticle (45%). Fourth instars (the ultimate instar) had low susceptibility to these pathogens, and spore germination on the cuticle of fourth instars was very low for B. bassiana (7%) and intermediate for P. fumosoroseus (33%). Cuticular lipids were found to have toxic or inhibitory effects on conidia of B. bassiana and P. fumosoroseus when the spores were germinated on nutrient agar in the presence of the lipids. In the absence of added nutrients, P. fumosoroseus conidial germination increased in the presence of the lipids. To test if the inhibitory effects of the lipids were due solely to hydrophobicity (preventing water from coming into contact with the conidia) we tested the effects of synthetic long-chain wax esters. The synthetic wax esters inhibited germination of P. fumosoroseus to a degree that was similar to the effect of the cuticular lipid extracts, but the synthetic lipids did not have a significant effect on B. bassiana. Thus, the thick coating of long-chain wax esters produced by whitefly nymphs affect spore germination of fungal pathogens, but whether they play a significant role in defense against disease is not clear.

  6. Suppressive effects of dietary fiber in yogurt on the postprandial serum lipid levels in healthy adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shizuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki

    2004-05-01

    This study assessed the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in yogurt on the elevation of postprandial serum lipid levels. Eleven healthy adult male subjects were given yogurt with or without 6 g of PHGG in a fat tolerance test as a crossover study. Supplementation with 6 g of PHGG significantly suppressed the incremental peaks and areas under the incremental curve (AUIC) of postprandial serum remnant-like lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and triglyceride (TG). The results suggest the potential of PHGG to reduce the risk of hyperlipemia.

  7. TCDD-Elicited Effects on Liver, Serum, and Adipose Lipid Composition in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zacharewski, Timothy Richard

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates alterations in hepatic lipid composition elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to further investigate the effects of TCDD, liver, serum, and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and lipids were examined in fasted 4-week-old female mice orally gavaged with 30 µg/kg TCDD at 24, 72, and 168h postdose. Mean hepatic FAME levels increased (236.7 µmol/g in controls compared with 392.2 µmol/g in TCDD treated) with minimal changes in gWAT and serum. In the liver, TCDD decreased saturated fatty acids (SFAs 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0) and increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs 16:1n7, 18:1n9, and 20:1n9). Hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 20:2n6, 20:3n6, 18:3n3, and 22:5n3 also increased, whereas 20:4n6 and 22:6n3 levels decreased. gWAT PUFAs 20:2n6 and 20:3n6 exhibited modest increases, whereas serum 18:0 decreased and 18:1n9 increased. Serum analyses also identified a ~25% decrease in total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein following TCDD treatment. The decrease in serum CHOL was consistent with the induction of hepatic reverse CHOL transport genes Lcat (2.0-fold), Apoa1 (1.7-fold), and Ldlr (3.6-fold), and the repression of CHOL biosynthesis genes Hmgcs1 (−2.1-fold) and Hmgcr (−2.3-fold). In addition, TCDD decreased serum Apob100 (4.4-fold) and Apob48 (2.2-fold) protein levels, suggesting serum lipid clearance and decreased hepatic efflux. Collectively, the TCDD-elicited decreases in serum lipid levels are consistent with AhR-mediated enhancement of dietary fat distribution to the liver. PMID:22977169

  8. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels.

  9. Betaine affects muscle lipid metabolism via regulating the fatty acid uptake and oxidation in finishing pig.

    PubMed

    Li, Sisi; Wang, Haichao; Wang, Xinxia; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Betaine affects fat metabolism in animals, but the specific mechanism is still not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible mechanisms of betaine in altering lipid metabolism in muscle tissue in finishing pigs. A total of 120 crossbred gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average initial body weight of 70.1 kg were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments. The treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 1250 or 2500 mg/kg betaine. The feeding experiment lasted 42 d. Betaine addition to the diet significantly increased the concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) in muscle (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of serum cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased (P < 0.05) and total cholesterol content was increased in muscle (P < 0.05) of betaine fed pigs. Experiments on genes involved in fatty acid transport showed that betaine increased expression of lipoprotein lipase(LPL), fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation (FAT/CD36), fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) and fatty acid transport protein (FATP1) (P < 0.05). The abundance of fatty acid transport protein and fatty acid binding protein were also increased by betaine (P < 0.05). As for the key factors involved in fatty acid oxidation, although betaine supplementation didn't affect the level of carnitine and malonyl-CoA, betaine increased mRNA and protein abundance of carnitine palmitransferase-1(CPT1) and phosphorylated-AMPK (P < 0.05). The results suggested that betaine may promoted muscle fatty acid uptake via up-regulating the genes related to fatty acid transporter including FAT/CD36, FATP1 and FABP3. On the other hand, betaine activated AMPK and up-regulated genes related to fatty acid oxidation including PPARα and CPT1. The underlying mechanism regulating fatty acid metabolism in pigs supplemented with betaine is associated with the up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid transport and fatty

  10. The effect of kind of carbohydrate in the diet and use of oral contraceptives on metabolism of young women. II. Serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Behall, K M; Moser, P B; Kelsay, J L; Prather, E S

    1980-04-01

    The response of lipids in the blood between two groups of six young women was compared. Group 1 took oral contraceptives and group 2 had never taken oral contraceptives. Two experimental diets supplied about 13% of the calories from protein, 36% from fat, and 51% from carbohydrate. Of the carbohydrate, 84% was either sucrose or wheat starch. Each diet was fed for 4 weeks in a cross-over design. In the portion of the research presented here, subjects were fed a high sucrose meal before each dietary period and after weeks 1 and 3 of each dietary period. Blood lipids were measured before and 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after each meal. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were not affected by the sucrose meal, but free fatty acid levels decreased significantly in both groups. The serum levels of triglycerides, beta-lipoproteins, and cholesterol were significantly higher in users than in nonusers of oral contraceptives. Free fatty acid levels were affected by an interaction between diet and time, and the decrease in response was greater after the sucrose than after the wheat starch diet. Triglycerides, cholesterol, and total lipids were not significantly different after the two carbohydrate diets.

  11. Butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced oxidative stress: effects on serum lipids and cardiac energy metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Faine, L A; Rodrigues, H G; Galhardi, C M; Ebaid, G M X; Diniz, Y S; Fernandes, A A H; Novelli, E L B

    2006-01-01

    Recent lines of evidences indicate that several pathological conditions, as cardiovascular diseases, are associated with oxidative stress. In order to validate a butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced experimental model of oxidative stress in the cardiac tissue and serum lipids, 12 Wistar rats were divided into two groups, a control group and the BHT group, which received BHT i.p. twice a week (1500 mg/kg body weight) during 30 days. BHT group presented lower body weight gain and heart weight. BHT induced toxic effects on serum through increased triacylglycerols (TG), VLDL and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The heart of BHT animals showed alteration of antioxidant defenses and increased concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides, indicating elevated lipoperoxidation. TG concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase activities were elevated in the cardiac muscle of BHT animals. Thus, long-term administration of BHT is capable to induce oxidative and metabolic alterations similarly to some pathological disorders, constituting an efficient experimental model to health scientific research.

  12. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat.

  13. Associations between dietary patterns and serum lipids, apo and C-reactive protein in an adult population: evidence from a multi-city cohort in South America.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Rosana; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-02-01

    Several previous epidemiological studies from developed countries have shown that an unhealthy dietary pattern affects plasma lipid levels and inflammation biomarkers. We assessed the cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among 961 adults from a multi-city cohort in South America. We conducted a principal component analysis to derive dietary patterns. As outcomes, we examined plasma levels of apo A-I, apo B, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), LDL-, HDL- and serum total cholesterol and TAG. The crude and adjusted changes in each outcome were estimated for quartiles of dietary patterns using multivariable linear regression models. The prudent pattern (PP) characterised by higher intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, seafood, whole cereal and low-fat dairy products was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of apo B (-8·5 mg/l), total cholesterol (-18·8 mg/dl) and LDL-cholesterol (-16·5 mg/dl) and hs-CRP (-1·6 mg/l) in men. In women also reduced plasma concentrations of apo B (-6·6 mg/l), total (-12·0 mg/dl) and LDL (-9·3 mg/dl). The 'Western-like' pattern characterised by higher intake of eggs, pastry and cakes, pizza, snacks, refined grains, red meat, vegetable oils and poultry was not significantly associated with any of the selected serum lipid or inflammatory biomarkers. The explained variances were 10·3 and 7·4 %, respectively. The PP was associated with better lipid profile, mainly lower atherogenic particles (apo B) and LDL-cholesterol and serum total cholesterol. This study provides possible evidence of a prudent diet in South American populations to help reduce the burden of CVD.

  14. [The effect of middle molecules isolated from the serum of burn patients on the state of lipid peroxidation in animal tissues].

    PubMed

    Tupikova, Z A; Osipovich, V K

    1990-01-01

    Intensity of ascorbate-, NADPH-dependent and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were studied in mice brain and liver tissues after intravenous administration of middle molecular mass peptides, isolated from blood serum of animals with thermic burns. Positive effect of these peptides on lipid peroxidation was detected in tissues of animals with altered rate of lipid peroxidation (strong burns of 10-12% of body surface served as a biological model). The data obtained suggest that individual components of blood serum middle molecular fraction appear to exhibit the regulating effects on lipid peroxidation in animal tissues.

  15. Consumption of sericin reduces serum lipids, ameliorates glucose tolerance and elevates serum adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Kakehi, Shoko; Xu, Yonghui; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Masahiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Norihisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect was examined of dietary sericin on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats were fed with a 20% beef tallow diet with or without sericin at the level of 4% for 5 weeks. The final body weight and white adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary manipulation. The consumption of sericin significantly reduced the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and LDL-phospholipids were also significantly reduced by the sericin intake. Liver triglyceride and the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, the lipogenic enzymes, were also reduced by the sericin intake. Dietary sericin caused a marked elevation in serum adiponectin. The consumption of sericin suppressed the increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. These results imply the usefulness of sericin for improving the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

  16. Sex-specific association of the zinc finger protein 259 rs2075290 polymorphism and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wang, Wei; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Cheng-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association of ZNF259 rs2075290 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Chinese population. This study aimed to detect the association of ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP and environmental factors with serum lipid levels between males and females in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP was performed in 788 of Mulao and 778 of Han participants using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were significantly different between Mulao and Han populations (AA, 50.1% Vs 58.9%; AG, 42.3% Vs 35.7%; GG, 7.6% Vs 5.4%, P = 0.002) and between Han males and females (AA, 64.5% Vs 55.2%; AG, 28.3% Vs 40.6%; GG, 7.2% Vs 4.2%, P = 0.001). Serum levels of triglyceride (TG) in Mulao males, and total cholesterol (TC), TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in Mulao females were different between the AA and AG/GG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum TC, LDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 levels in Han males, and TG and ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han females were different between the AA and AG/GG genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). An interaction between ZNF259 rs2075290 polymorphism and male gender on serum TC, LDL-C, and ApoA1 levels was noted in Han population (P < 0.05-0.01) but not in Mulao's. The subjects with AG/GG genotype in Mulao males and females and Han females have less favorable lipid profiles than those with AA genotype. In contrast, the subjects with AG/GG genotype in Han males have more favorable lipid profiles than those with AA genotype. These findings suggest that the association between ZNF259 rs2075290 SNP and serum lipid levels might have ethnic- and/or sex-specificity.

  17. An impact of the diet on serum fatty acid and lipid profiles in Polish vegetarian children and children with allergy.

    PubMed

    Gorczyca, D; Paściak, M; Szponar, B; Gamian, A; Jankowski, A

    2011-02-01

    Vegetarian diet has become an increasing trend in western world and in Poland. The frequency of allergies is growing, and the effectiveness of vegetarian diet in allergic diseases is a concern for research. We aimed to study an effect of vegetarian diet on lipid profile in serum in a group of Polish children in Poland and to investigate lipid parameters in healthy vegetarian children and in omnivorous children with diagnosed atopic disease. Serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, fatty acids) were assessed in groups of children: healthy vegetarians (n=24) and children with diagnosed atopic diseases (n=16), with control group of healthy omnivores (n=18). Diet classification was assessed by a questionnaire. No differences were observed in serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids level in all groups. In the group of Polish vegetarian children, we recorded high consumption of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acid, and sunflower oil containing linoleic acid. This observation was associated with higher content of linoleic acid in serum in this group. Among polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acids, linoleic acid revealed significantly (P<0.05) lower levels in allergy vs vegetarian groups. In case of eicosapentaenoic acid (n-3 fatty acid), the allergy group showed higher levels of this compound in comparison to vegetarians. Significantly higher concentration of linoleic acid in vegetarian children in comparison to allergy group indicated possible alternative path of lipid metabolism in studied groups, and in consequence, some elements of vegetarian diet may promote protection against allergy.

  18. Change in serum lipids after acute coronary syndromes: secondary analysis of SPACE ROCKET study data and a comparative literature review.

    PubMed

    Barth, Julian H; Jackson, Beryl M; Farrin, Amanda J; Efthymiou, Maria; Worthy, Gillian; Copeland, Joanne; Bailey, Kristian M; Romaine, Simon P R; Balmforth, Anthony J; McCormack, Terry; Whitehead, Andrew; Flather, Marcus D; Nixon, Jane; Hall, Alistair S

    2010-10-01

    It has long been an accepted belief that serum cholesterol significantly falls after myocardial infarction and that a return to pre-event levels takes approximately 3 months. The magnitude and clinical significance of this fall has recently been challenged. In the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Events-Reduction Of Cholesterol to Key European Targets (SPACE ROCKET) trial, we measured serum lipids of individuals on day 1 and between days 2 and 4 after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Second, we performed a thorough literature review and compared all studies reporting data on absolute changes in lipids immediately after AMI, using weighted means. Of 1263 SPACE ROCKET participants, 128 had paired lipid measurements where both samples had been measured using identical methods at baseline and on days 2-4 after AMI. The mean lowering in total cholesterol between day 1 and day 2-4 was 0.71 mmol/L (95% CI 0.58-0.84; P < 0.0001) and in triglycerides was 0.10 mmol/L (-0.14-0.33; P = 0.405). A total of 25 papers showing absolute lipid changes post-AMI were identified. The combined data demonstrated a mean fall in total cholesterol of 9% to 11% from baseline over days 3-14 post-AMI, whereas for triglycerides, there was a rise of 18% from baseline to between day 9 and 12 weeks. After a secondary analysis of SPACE ROCKET data and a comparison of previously published data, we report a 10% fall in total cholesterol after AMI-a difference that is of high clinical significance. Consequently, measurement of serum lipids in patients with AMI should be performed within the first hours after presentation.

  19. Bilirubin scavenges chloramines and inhibits myeloperoxidase-induced protein/lipid oxidation in physiologically relevant hyperbilirubinemic serum.

    PubMed

    Boon, A C; Hawkins, C L; Coombes, J S; Wagner, K H; Bulmer, A C

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), an oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), induces protein and lipid oxidation, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Individuals with mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations (i.e., Gilbert syndrome; GS) are protected from atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and related mortality. We aimed to investigate whether exogenous/endogenous unconjugated bilirubin (UCB), at physiological concentrations, can protect proteins/lipids from oxidation induced by reagent and enzymatically generated HOCl. Serum/plasma samples supplemented with exogenous UCB (≤250µM) were assessed for their susceptibility to HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) oxidation, by measuring chloramine, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Serum/plasma samples from hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats and humans with GS were also exposed to MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) to: (1) validate in vitro data and (2) determine the relevance of endogenously elevated UCB in preventing protein and lipid oxidation. Exogenous UCB dose-dependently (P<0.05) inhibited HOCl and MPO/H2O2/Cl(-)-induced chloramine formation. Albumin-bound UCB efficiently and specifically (3.9-125µM; P<0.05) scavenged taurine, glycine, and N-α-acetyllysine chloramines. These results were translated into Gunn rat and GS serum/plasma, which showed significantly (P<0.01) reduced chloramine formation after MPO-induced oxidation. Protein carbonyl and MDA formation was also reduced after MPO oxidation in plasma supplemented with UCB (P<0.05; 25 and 50µM, respectively). Significant inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation was demonstrated within the physiological range of UCB, providing a hypothetical link to protection from atherosclerosis in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. These data demonstrate a novel and physiologically relevant mechanism whereby UCB could inhibit protein and lipid modification by quenching chloramines induced by MPO-induced HOCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum trace elements are associated with hemostasis, lipid spectrum and inflammatory markers in men suffering from acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Klimenko, Lydmila L; Turna, Aliya A; Budanova, Maria N; Baskakov, Ivan S; Savostina, Marina S; Mazilina, Aksana N; Deyev, Anatoly I; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-02-20

    The primary objective of the study is investigation of the association between trace elements status and hemostasis, lipid spectrum and inflammatory markers in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A total of 30 men suffering from AIS and 30 healthy controls were involved in the current survey. Blood count, serum lipid spectrum, complement components C4 and C3a, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), S100B protein, NR2 antibodies (NR2Ab), and total antioxidant status (TAS), as well as plasma fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were assessed. Serum trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. AIS patients were characterized by significantly increased fibrinogen, D-dimer, TG, C3a, C4, NR2Ab, and VEGF levels. The leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum atherogenic index were also increased in stroke patients. Oppositely, TAS and APTT values, bleeding and blood coagulation time were decreased. AIS patients were characterized by significantly decreased serum Fe and Co concentrations, whereas the level of Cu, I, Li, Mn, Se, Zn, As, Pb, Ni, and especially V and B in serum was significantly increased. Serum V and B tightly correlated with the procoagulant state and inflammatory markers. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant inverse association between serum Se levels and stroke markers after adjustment for covariates. Therefore, it is hypothesized that elements like vanadium and boron may be closely involved in stroke pathogenesis by modulation of hemostasis and inflammation, whereas the observed increase in Se levels may be considered as a compensatory reaction.

  1. Sex-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum lipid levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Feng; Yin, Rui-Xing; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Li, Qing; Yan, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Huang, Ke-Ke; Huang, Ping; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2012-01-13

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is a key enzyme in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and in atherosclerosis. The cellular cholesterol efflux correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations has shown to be impaired in hyperlipidemic mice. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the hyperlipidemic subjects. A total of 821 unrelated subjects (hyperlipidemia, 476; normolipidemia, 345) aged 15-80 were included in the study. Genotyping of the ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP between the normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI in hyperlipidemic subjects were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in male but not in female (P < 0.05-0.01), the C allele carriers had higher serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the C allele noncarriers. The association of genotypes and serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in hyperlipidemia was found mainly in the male subjects with hypercholesterolemia but not in those with hypertriglyceridemia. There were no significant differences in serum lipid levels between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in the normolipidemic subjects. The present study shows that the C allele carriers of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP in male hyperlipidemic subjects had higher serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the C allele noncarriers. There is a sex (male)-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  2. EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL ELDERLY WOMEN: ASSOCIATION WITH ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA GENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    SAI, ADARSH J.; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER; FANG, XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine the effect of conjugated equine estrogens alone (ET), conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone (EPT), calcitriol alone, calcitriol plus EPT/ET or placebo on serum lipid profile and analyze the interaction with estrogen receptor alpha gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (ESR-α SNPs) on response to therapy. Methods 489 postmenopausal women > 65 years age enrolled in 3-year double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial Results In both intent to treat and complier (>80% adherent) analysis, there was significant increase in serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL), significant decrease in serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and LDL:HDL ratio in all hormone treatment groups compared to placebo (p<0.05). However, serum triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) increased in EPT and ET+ calcitriol groups' versus placebo (p <0.05). ESR-α SNPs PvuII and XbaI appeared to have a significant effect on response to treatment. Genotypes containing p allele showed significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol and VLDL than those having P allele in the ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05) and those with x allele had significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol in HT plus calcitriol group at the end of 3 years versus X allele and a greater decrease in serum LDL in alleles x versus X in ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05). Conclusions ET with or without progesterone had a favorable effect on lipid profile in postmenopausal elderly women and this was dependent on estrogen receptor SNP's – PvuII and XbaI. However, this interaction with ESR-α SNPs need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:21712736

  3. Pigmented Rice Bran and Plant Sterol Combination Reduces Serum Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kitts, David D.; Zawistowski, Jerzy; Dossett, Cynthia M.; Kopeć, Aneta; Pope, Benjamin T.; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the dietary effect of including pigmented rice bran with or without plant sterols on lipid profiles during energy restriction–induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults not taking cholesterol-lowering medication. In addition, the study examined the effect of intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods A group of 24 overweight and obese adults (age: 43 ± 6 years, body mass index 32 ± 1 kg/m2, 18 females) were randomized to a 25% calorie-restricted diet containing either pigmented rice bran (RB) or the RB with addition of plant sterols (RB + PS) snack bars for 8 weeks. The individualized nutrient-balanced diet contained ~70% of daily energy needs assessed from indirect calorimetry measured resting energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity-related EE assessed using accelerometry. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, urinary F2-isoprostanes, C-reactive protein, insulin, and leptin were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention. Results Participants lost approximately 4.7 ± 2.2 kg (p < 0.001). Weight loss was not significant between the RB + PS and RB group (p = 0.056). Changes in body fat corresponded to changes in body weight. Average decrease in total cholesterol was significantly higher in the RB + PS group than in the RB group (difference 36 ± 25 g/dL vs 7 ± 16 g/dL; p = 0.044). A similar pattern was observed for the decrease in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (difference 22.3 ± 25.2 g/dL vs 4.4 ± 18.9 g/dL; p = 0.062). Changes in systolic blood pressure, serum levels of leptin, and F2-isoprostanes were significant between baseline values and after 8 weeks on the diet in both groups (p < 0.05) but did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusions A nutrient-balanced and energy-restricted diet supplemented with rice bran and plant sterols resulted in a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol in overweight and obese adults. PMID

  4. Prospective associations between serum biomarkers of lipid metabolism and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    His, Mathilde; Zelek, Laurent; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Pouchieu, Camille; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Blacher, Jacques; Touvier, Mathilde

    2014-02-01

    Experimental studies provided evidence about mechanisms by which cholesterol, especially high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), could influence carcinogenesis, notably through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, prospective studies that investigated the associations between specific lipid metabolism biomarkers and cancer risk provided inconsistent results. The objective was to investigate the prospective associations between total cholesterol (T-C), HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1 (apoA1) and B, and triglycerides and overall, breast and prostate cancer risk. Analyses were performed on 7,557 subjects of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants Study, a nationwide French cohort study. Biomarkers of lipid metabolism were measured at baseline and analyzed regarding the risk of first primary incident cancer (N = 514 cases diagnosed during follow-up, 1994-2007), using Cox proportional hazards models. T-C was inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.82-1.00; P = 0.04) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.69-0.99; P = 0.04) cancer risk. HDL-C was also inversely associated with overall (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.61, 95 % CI 0.46-0.82; P = 0.0008) and breast (HR(1mmol/L increment) = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.28-0.83; P = 0.009) cancer risk. Consistently, apoA1 was inversely associated with overall (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.56, 95 % CI 0.39-0.82; P = 0.003) and breast (HR(1g/L increment) = 0.36, 95 % CI 0.18-0.73; P = 0.004) cancer risk. This prospective study suggests that pre-diagnostic serum levels of T-C, HDL-C and ApoA1 are associated with decreased overall and breast cancer risk. The confirmation of a role of cholesterol components in cancer development, by further large prospective and experimental studies, may have important implications in terms of public health, since cholesterol is already crucial in cardiovascular prevention.

  5. Effects of rice bran oil enriched with n-3 PUFA on liver and serum lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Rajni; Sambaiah, Kari

    2009-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare different structured lipids (SL) from rice bran oil (RBO) by replacing some of the fatty acids with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from linseed oil (LSO) and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from cod liver oil (CLO). In one SL, the ALA content was 20% whereas in another the long chain n-3 PUFA content was 10%. Most of the n-3 PUFA were incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triacylglycerol. The influence of SL with RBO rich in ALA and EPA + DHA was studied on various lipid parameters in experimental animals. Rats fed RBO showed a decrease in total serum cholesterol by 10% when compared to groundnut oil (GNO). Similarly structured lipids with CLO and LSO significantly decreased total serum cholesterol by 19 and 22% respectively compared to rice bran oil. The serum TAGs level of rats fed SLs and blended oils were also significantly decreased by 14 and 17% respectively compared to RBO. Feeding of an n-3 PUFA rich diet resulted in the accumulation of long chain n-3 PUFA in various tissues and a reduction in the long chain n-6 PUFA. These studies indicate that the incorporation of ALA and EPA + DHA into RBO can offer health benefits.

  6. Association of liver X receptor α (LXRα) gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease, serum lipids and glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zong-Xue; Miao, Jing-Li; Yin, Qiao-Xiang; Li, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Hui-Lan

    2014-02-17

    To explore the relationship between the liver X receptor α gene (LXRα) rsl2221497 polymorphism and the susceptibility of coronary heart disease (CHD) and serum lipids and glucose levels. The single fluorescently labeled probes technique was used to detect the genotype of rsl2221497 in LXRα gene in 240 CHD patients and 250 healthy control subjects. The difference of genotype distribution between the two groups was analyzed using of Chi-square test. The serum lipids and glucose levels between the different genotypes were also compared. The risk of CHD in carriers with (AA + GA) genotype was 1.76 times as that in the GG genotype carriers (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.18-2.87, P <0.05), and the risk of CHD in carriers with A allele increased 0.88 times compared to that in G allele carriers (OR = 1.88, 95% CI:1.21-3.43, P <0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for other confounding factors, A allele was an independent risk for CHD. However, there were no differences in serum lipids and glucose levels between each genotype. The rsl2221497 polymorphism in LXRα gene was associated with susceptibility of CHD in Han population.

  7. Correlation of serum triglyceride and its reduction by omega-3 fatty acids with lipid transfer activity and the neutral lipid compositions of high-density and low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Pownall, H J; Brauchi, D; Kilinç, C; Osmundsen, K; Pao, Q; Payton-Ross, C; Gotto, A M; Ballantyne, C M

    1999-04-01

    Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are inversely correlated and mechanistically linked by means of lipid transfer activities. Phospholipid transfer activity (PLTA) moves phospholipids among serum lipoproteins; cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA), which exchanges cholesteryl esters (CE) and TG among lipoproteins, is stimulated by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). The aims of this study were (a) to develop a quantitative model that correlates the neutral lipid (NL = CE + TG) compositions of HDL and LDL with serum TG concentration; (b) identify the serum lipid determinants of CETA and PLTA, and; (c) identify the effects of serum TG reductions on the neutral lipid compositions of HDL and LDL, serum NEFA concentrations, and on PLTA and CETA. These aims were addressed in 40 hypertriglyceridemic subjects before and after treatment with an 85% concentrate of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor) and in 16 untreated normolipidemic subjects. In vivo, the NL compositions of LDL and HDL were described by a mathematical model having the form of adsorption isotherms: HDL - (TG/NL) = (0.90 +/- 0.07) serum TG/(7.0 +/- 1.2 mmol/l + serum TG) and LDL - (TG/NL) = (0.65 +/- 0.08) serum TG/(4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/l + serum TG). Reduction of serum TG was associated with reductions in HDL - (TG/NL), serum NEFA concentration, and serum CETA but not PLTA. These data suggest that both hypertriglyceridemia and the attendant elevated serum CETA but not PLTA are determinants of HDL and LDL composition and structure and that serum TG concentrations are good predictors of the NL compositions of HDL and LDL.

  8. Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Qi; Yin, Rui-Xing; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Huang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels. PMID:26722494

  9. Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-Qi; Yin, Rui-Xing; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Huang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels.

  10. Analysis of the effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides on serum lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anniston, Alabama, is the site of a former Monsanto plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured from 1929 until 1971. Residents of Anniston are known to have elevated levels of PCBs. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that levels of the various lipid components (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) are differentially associated with concentrations of total PCBs and total pesticides, and further that different congeners, congener groups and different pesticides do not have identical associations in serum samples obtained from Anniston residents in a cross-sectional study. Methods Fasting serum samples were obtained from 575 residents of Anniston who were not on any lipid-lowering medication and were analyzed for 35 PCB congeners, nine chlorinated pesticides, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Associations between toxicant concentrations and lipid levels were determined using multiple linear regression analysis. Results We observed that elevated serum concentrations of lipids were associated with elevated serum concentrations of ΣPCBs and summed pesticides in analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercising status. The strongest associations were seen for PCB congeners with three, four, or at least eight substituted chlorines. Mono-ortho substituted congeners 74 and 156, di-ortho congeners 172 and 194, and tri- and tetra-ortho congeners 199, 196–203, 206 and 209 each were significantly associated with total lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Serum concentrations of HCB and chlordane also had strong associations with lipid components. Conclusions Increased concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides are associated with elevations in total serum lipids, total cholesterol and triglycerides, but the patterns are different for different groups of PCBs and different pesticides. These

  11. Susceptibility of serum lipids to copper-induced peroxidation correlates with the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Shimonov, M; Pinchuk, I; Bor, A; Beigel, I; Fainaru, M; Rubin, M; Lichtenberg, D

    1999-03-01

    As a first step in evaluating the significance of our recently developed method of monitoring the kinetics of copper-induced oxidation in unfractionated serum, we recorded the kinetics of lipid oxidation in the sera of 62 hyperlipidemic patients and analyzed the correlation between oxidation and lipid composition of the sera [high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides]. We used six factors to characterize the kinetics of oxidation, namely, the maximal absorbance of oxidation products (ODmax), the maximal rate of their production (Vmax), and the time at which the rate was maximal (t(max)) at two wavelengths (245 nm, where 7-ketocholesterol and conjugated dienic hydroperoxides absorb intensely, and 268 nm, where the absorbance is mostly due to dienals). The major conclusions of our analyses are that: (i) Both ODmax and Vmax correlate positively with the sum of concentrations of the major oxidizable lipids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters. (ii). The value of t(max), which is a measure of the lag preceding oxidation and therefore reflects the resistance of the serum lipids to copper-induced oxidation, exhibits a negative correlation with HDL cholesterol. Although this finding accords with the observation of shorter lags for HDL than for LDL, it is apparently inconsistent with the role of HDL as an antirisk factor in coronary heart diseases.

  12. Association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and changes in serum lipid profiles throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lepsch, Jaqueline; Eshriqui, Ilana; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Vaz, Juliana S; Cunha Figueiredo, Amanda C; Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Brito, Alex; Mokhtar, Rana; Allen, Lindsay H; Holick, Michael F; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) concentrations, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that first trimester 25(OH)D inadequacy is associated with lower concentrations of HDL-c and higher LDL-c, TC, TG, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. A prospective cohort study with 3 visits at 5-13 (baseline), 20-26, and 30-36 gestational weeks, recruited 194 pregnant women attending a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in the first trimester using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 25(OH)D concentrations were classified as adequate (≥75nmol/L) or inadequate (<75nmol/L). Serum TC, HDL-c, and TG concentrations were measured enzymatically. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were employed to evaluate the association between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in serum lipid concentrations throughout pregnancy. Confounders adjusted for in the multiple analysis were age, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), early pregnancy BMI, leisure time physical activity before pregnancy, energy intake, and gestational age. At baseline, 69% of the women had inadequate concentrations of 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D inadequacy had higher mean LDL-c than those with adequate concentrations (91.3 vs. 97.5mg/dL; P=0.064) at baseline. TC, HDL-c, LDL-c TG, TG/HDL-c ratios, and TC/HDL-c ratios, increased throughout pregnancy independently of 25(OH)D concentrations (ANOVA for repeated measures P<0.001). The adjusted models showed direct associations between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in TC (β=9.53; 95%CI=1.12-17.94), LDL-c (β=9.99; 95% CI=3.62-16.36) concentrations, and TC/HDL-c ratios (β=0.16; 95% CI=0.01-0.31) throughout

  13. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk.

  14. Serum Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study Using Multiple Time Points

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lisa J.; Melnichouk, Olga; Huszti, Ella; Connelly, Philip W.; Greenberg, Carolyn V.; Minkin, Salomon

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is strong evidence that breast cancer risk is influenced by environmental factors. Blood lipid and lipoprotein levels are also influenced by environmental factors and are associated with some breast cancer risk factors. We examined whether serial measures of serum lipids and lipoproteins were associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: We carried out a nested case-control study within a randomized long-term dietary intervention trial with 4690 women with extensive mammographic density followed for an average of 10 years for breast cancer incidence. We measured lipids in an average of 4.2 blood samples for 279 invasive breast cancer case subjects and 558 matched control subjects. We calculated subaverages of lipids for each subject based on menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at blood collection and analyzed their association with breast cancer using generalized estimating equations. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (P = .05) and apoA1 (P = .02) levels were positively associated with breast cancer risk (75th vs 25th percentile: HDL-C, 23% higher; apoA1, 28% higher) and non-HDL-C (P = .03) and apoB (P = .01) levels were negatively associated (75th vs 25th percentile: non-HDL-C, 19% lower; apoB, 22% lower). These associations were observed only when lipids were measured when HRT was not used. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that serum lipids are associated with breast cancer risk in women with extensive mammographic density. The possibility that interventions for heart disease prevention, which aim to reduce non-HDL-C or raise HDL-C, may have effects on breast cancer risk merits examination. PMID:25817193

  15. Six weeks oral gavage of a Phyllanthus acidus leaf water extract decreased visceral fat, the serum lipid profile and liver lipid accumulation in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Chongsa, Watchara; Radenahmad, Nisaudah; Jansakul, Chaweewan

    2014-08-08

    Advancing age is associated with an increased accumulation of visceral fat and liver lipid which is then responsible for an age-related risk for cardiovascular disease. Looking after ourselves well with suitable micronutrients could prevent disease or prolong our healthy cardiovascular functions. In Thai traditional medicine, leaves of Phyllanthus acidus (PA) have been used for many purposes including as an antihypertensive agent and to provide relief from a headache caused by hypertension. We aimed to investigate the effects of a chronic oral administration of PA extracts to middle-aged (12-14 months) rats on their body weight, food intake, body fats, liver and kidney functions, fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles, liver lipid accumulation and on blood pressure. Three different kinds of PA extracts were used: (1) a PA water extract, (2) a heated PA water extract, and (3) an n-butanol fraction of the PA water extract, prepared from fresh leaves of Phyllanthus acidus. The rats were orally gavaged with the three PA extracts at 1.0 g/kg body weight or, as a control, with distilled water once a day for 6 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and ALP, SGOT, SGPT, BUN and creatinine levels were measured by enzymatic methods. Liver lipid accumulation was measured using oil red O staining on fresh thin cryostat liver tissue sections. The animal basal blood pressure and heart rate were measured in anesthetized rats via a common carotid artery using a polygraph. Results showed that after 6 weeks of treatment using gavaged heated PA extract and PA n-butanol extract there were no changes in any of the parameters studied. However, the initial PA water extract caused a slight decrease in the animal body weight with no change in food intake. No changes were observed in the liver and kidney functions (serum ALP, SGOT, SGPT, BUN and creatinine did not change), nor did the fasting blood sugar or triglyceride levels differ significantly. Serum cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels

  16. Palm oil versus hydrogenated soybean oil: effects on serum lipids and plasma haemostatic variables.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jan I; Muller, Hanne; Seljeflot, Ingebjorg; Kirkhus, Bente

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test if replacement of trans fatty acids by palmitic acid in an experimental margarine results in unfavourable effects on serum lipids and haemostatic factors. We have compared the effects of three different margarines, one based on palm oil (PALM-margarine), one based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil (TRANS- margarine) and one with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-margarine), on serum lipids in 27 young women. In nine of the participants fasting levels and diurnal postprandial levels of haemostatic variables on the 3 diets were compared. The sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 provided 11% of energy (E%) in the PALM diet, the same as the sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0 and trans fatty acids in the TRANS-diet. Oleic acid provided 10-11E% in all three diets, while PUFA provided 5.7, 5.5 and 10.2 E%, respectively. Total fat provided 30-31% and the test margarines 26% of total energy in all three diets. Each of the diets was consumed for 17 days in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB between the TRANS- and the PALM-diet. HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I were significantly higher on the PALM-diet compared to the TRANS-diet while the ratio of LDL- to HDL-cholesterol was lower, although not significantly (P = 0.077) on the PALM-diet. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and apoB were significantly lower on the PUFA-diet compared to the two other diets. HDL-cholesterol was not different on the PALM- and the PUFA-diet while it was significantly lower on the TRANS-diet compared to the PUFA-diet. Triglycerides and Lp(a) were not different among the three diets. The diurnal postprandial state level of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was significantly decreased on the TRANS-diet compared to the PALM-diet. t-PA activity was also decreased on the PUFA-diet compared to PALM-diet although not significantly (P=0.07). There were no significant differences in neither fasting

  17. Effect of centrifuge test on blood serum lipids index of cadet pilots.

    PubMed

    Wochyński, Zbigniew; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof; Kłossowski, Marek; Sobiech, Krzysztof A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between the lipid index (WS) in the examined cadets and duration of exposure to +Gz in the human centrifuge. The study involved 19 first-year cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin. Tests in the human centrifuge were repeated twice, i.e. prior to (test I) and 45 days after (test II). After exposure to +Gz, the examined cadets were divided into 2 groups. Group I (N=11) included cadets subjected to a shorter total duration of exposure to +Gz, while group II (N=8) included cadets with a longer total duration of exposure to +Gz. Total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), and apolipoproteins A1 and B were assayed in blood serum prior to (assay A) and after (assay B) both exposures to +Gz. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) level was estimated from the Friedewald formula. WS is an own mathematical algorithm. WS was higher in group II, assay A - 10.0 and B - 10.08 of test I in the human centrifuge than in group I where the WS values were 6.91 and 6.96, respectively. WS was also higher in group II in assay A - 10.0 and B -10.1 of test II in the human centrifuge than in group I - 6.96 and 6.80, respectively. The higher value of WS in group II, both after the first and second exposure to +Gz in human centrifuge, in comparison with group I, indicated its usefulness for determination of the maximum capability of applying acceleration of the interval type during training in the human centrifuge.

  18. Are serum nitric oxide metabolites associated with fasting insulin among Iranian adults? (Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study).

    PubMed

    Makhzani, Parastesh; Afghan, Marjan; Tohidi, Maryam; Bagheripour, Fatemeh; Azizi, Fereidoun; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2017-05-01

    It has been suggested that insulin resistance is associated with altered nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis. There is however no population-based study documenting an association between fasting serum insulin and serum NO metabolites (NOx) with multivariable adjustment. This study was therefore designed to determine the association between serum NOx and fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices in a sample of a population-based study in Iran. This study, performed within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), analyzed the data of 1518 non-diabetic subjects (955 women), aged 20-87 years, who had participated in phase III of the TLGS (2006-2008). Serum NOx concentrations were measured using the Griess method. Fasting serum insulin was measured by the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the association between serum NOx concentration and quartiles of insulin and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices (HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR, and QUICKI). NOx concentration in women only was weakly correlated with HOMA1-IR (r = 0.07, P = 0.03) and QUICKI (r = -0.07, P = 0.03), whereas no significant association was observed in men (P > 0.05). Marginally significant correlations were also found between serum NOx and fasting insulin concentration (r = 0.062, p = 0.057) and HOMA2-IR (r = 0.063, p = 0.053) in women. NOx concentration differed significantly between quartiles of insulin and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices among women and the total population (P < 0.05), associations which remained significant after age adjustment (P < 0.05), but not after adjustment for other confounding variables (P > 0.05). Fasting serum insulin level and insulin resistance/sensitivity indices are not associated with serum NOx level after multivariable adjustment.

  19. pH, cholesterol sulfate, and fatty acids affect the stratum corneum lipid organization.

    PubMed

    Bouwstra, J A; Gooris, G S; Dubbelaar, F E; Weerheim, A M; Ponec, M

    1998-08-01

    Lipid mixtures prepared from cholesterol (CHOL), isolated ceramides (CER), and free fatty acids can serve as attractive tools to study the role various stratum corneum (SC) lipids or microenvironmental conditions play in the SC lipid organization, as the phase behavior in these mixtures and in SC are similar: two lamellar phases with periodicities of approximately 6 and 13 nm are present. Because pH and cholesterol sulfate (CSO4) gradients exist in SC and may affect the local SC lipid organization, the effects of pH and CSO4 on lipid phase behavior was examined. X-ray diffraction studies with CHOL:CER mixtures revealed that the lamellar ordering at pH 5 and 7.4 were similar: both the short and the long periodicity phases were present. Upon addition of free fatty acids the phase behavior became pH dependent; the long periodicity phase being more dominant at pH 7.4 than at pH 5. Similar observations have been made upon addition of CSO4. Furthermore, only in the presence of CSO4 did phase-separated CHOL disappear, indicating that CHOL completely dissolves in the lamellar phases. A major phase change from an hexagonal to an orthorhombic lateral packing has been observed in the presence of free fatty acids. Furthermore, in the presence of CSO4 next to orthorhombic also liquid lateral packing could be detected. In contrast to lamellar ordering, changes in pH did not affect the lateral packing in any of the lipid mixtures studied.

  20. Lipid profile and non-cholesterol sterols in obese women's serum after supplementing with plant stanol ester.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Przysławski, Juliusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of increased plant stanol ester intake on lipid profile and serum ratio of non-cholesterol sterols to cholesterol in obese women (50 years of age) with dyslipidemia. 90 females were assigned into 2 treatment groups: For a period of 4 weeks, group 1 was receiving a yoghurt, enriched with 2 g of plant stanol ester (PS group), and group 2 was receiving a yoghurt drink without extra stanols. Anthropometric measurements included body height and weight. Lipid profile was determined by commercially available enzymatic methods. Serum non-cholesterol sterols and stanols concentrations were quantitated by gas chromatography. The study was single-blind and placebo-controlled. The yoghurt drink enriched with plant stanol ester significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0.05). No changes were observed in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The highest drop of LDL cholesterol was noted in the upper quartile of total cholesterol concentrations. In the PS group the statistically significant (p < 0.0001) changes were also observed in serum ratios of non-cholesterol sterols to cholesterol: campesterol, sitosterol, sitostanol, and avenasterol. Plant stanol esters influence the concentration of total cholesterol, particularly LDL cholesterol. This effect seems to be related to the reduced dietary cholesterol absorption. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Comparison of Serum Apolipoproteins and Traditional Lipids in Eyes with Diabetic Retinopathy in Indian Population: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Gunjan; Agrawal, Rachit; Satsangi, S. K.; Prakash, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To review the associations of serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients of DR. DR was graded according to modified Airlie House Classification system. Traditional serum lipids (total, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol and triglycerides [TGs]), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apoB-to-apoAI ratios were assessed. The analysis of variance test was applied. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, and P < 0.001 was considered highly significant. Results: Twenty-four patients with DR were evaluated. Serum apoAI was statistically significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of having more severe DR levels (P < 0.001). Increasing levels of apoB (P < 0.001) and apoB-to-apoAI ratio (P < 0.001) were statistically significantly associated with increasing DR severity levels. The association of total (P > 0.05) and LDL cholesterol (P > 0.05) with severity of DR was not statistically significant. HDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the severity of DR (P < 0.05). TGs were also statistically significantly associated with the severity of DR (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum apolipoprotein levels may be stronger biomarkers of DR than traditional lipids. PMID:27162455

  2. Effects of dietary fats on egg quality and lipid parameters in serum and yolks of Shan Partridge Duck.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Liu, Yali; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun; Zeng, Tao; Tian, Yong; Xu, Xiaoqin; Shen, Jianliang; Niu, Dong; Lu, Yingru

    2017-05-01

    The effects of different dietary fats with variable levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on egg quality of Shan Partridge Duck, serum, and yolk lipid parameters were examined in this study. A flock of 585 optimal produced ducks were selected and diets enriched with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% fish oil (F)/flaxseed oil (FL)/rapeseed oil (R)/tallow (T) plus basal diet were supplied through a 28-d period. Supplemental fat source and fat level had no effects on egg qualities. Proportions of yolk total cholesterol (TC), saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were reduced (P < 0.001), while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFAs), ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA), and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) were increased by fish oil, flaxseed oil, or rapeseed oil. Effects of supplementation increasing DHA and EPA were detected in F, FL, and R. Compared with C, fish oil significantly increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum, flaxseed oil significantly reduced TC and increased very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), rapeseed oil significantly reduced TC and LDL-C in serum and increased VLDL-C, tallow significantly increased LDL-C. It is concluded that unsaturated fatty acids rich diets (fish oil, flaxseed oil, and rapeseed oil) might increase yolk PUFAs, reduce yolk cholesterol, and change serum lipid parameters without evident effect on egg qualities. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid in herbal plants, protects pancreatic islets and serum lipids in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Wei-Han; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-07-27

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) damages pancreatic islets, gradually causing chronic complications. This study investigated the berberine effect on T1D in vivo. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were grouped and administered 50, 150, and 500 mg of berberine/kg of body weight over 14 weeks using consecutive tube feeding. Changes in pancreatic islets, serum insulin, berberine, and lipid levels were determined. The results showed that berberine supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the number of decreased islets and raised serum berberine levels in dose-dependent manners in experimental mice. Berberine supplementation also increased insulin levels, but decreased the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/total cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, serum berberine levels showed a significantly positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the HDL-C/TC ratio, but a negative correlation with the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. This study suggests that berberine administration in vivo protects pancreatic islets and serum lipids in NOD mice.

  4. Association of dietary caloric intake with blood pressure, serum lipids and anthropometric indices in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Siji; Chary, T M

    2013-10-01

    The influence of dietary caloric intake was studied on blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip-ratio (WHR) according to age and gender. The study population consisted of 400 healthy individuals as controls and 746 first time detected untreated hypertensive (HTN) subjects. The subjects were regrouped according to amount of calorie intake per day i.e. high and low calorie intake diet within two age-groups: 30-50 years and 51-80 yrs. Blood samples were drawn from all the subjects, following an overnight fast and serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and HDL-C were measured by standard methods. Serum LDL-C was calculated by Fredrickson-Friedwald formula. BP and anthropometric measurements were measured by a standardized protocol. Highly significant increases in TC, TG, LDL-C, anthropometric and atherogenic indices were seen. While a decrease in HDL-C was observed in high calorie HTN, as compared to low calorie controls. Gender-wise, men had increased values compared to women, except, HDL-C and BMI. With increase in age, all parameters increased in both the subject categories, except atherogenic and anthropometric indices. Hypertensive subjects with high calorie intake diet showed an increase in BP, serum lipids and BMI which might be the major contributor in precipitation of hypertension and also in increasing risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  5. Effect of butter, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched butter, trans fatty acid margarine, and zero trans fatty acid margarine on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wood, R; Kubena, K; O'Brien, B; Tseng, S; Martin, G

    1993-01-01

    The effect of diets containing 50% of fat calories from butter, butter enriched with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and margarines with and without trans fatty acids on the serum lipids of 38 healthy men in a free-living condition have been determined. Serum lipid responses to the high level of individual dietary fats were unexpectedly small. The butter diet produced a small, but significant rise (5%) in the total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, relative to all other diets. Enrichment of butter with either olive oil (50/50) or sunflower oil (50/50) failed to reduce serum lipid levels below habitual diet values. Hard margarine, containing 29% trans fatty acids, caused a decrease in apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, but did not change total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels, relative to habitual diet values. A soft margarine, high in linoleate, with no trans fatty acids reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B significantly, relative to all diets. Soft margarine high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels remained unchanged, but apolipoprotein A-I values were decreased relative to habitual and butter diets. The quantities of saturated fatty acids and the sum of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids consumed on the hard and soft margarines were equal; therefore, the different response of serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol between these two diets is attributable to the trans fatty acids in the hard margarine. The data indicate that trans fatty acids are not metabolically equivalent to the natural cis isomers and that they affect the serum lipid profile adversely.

  6. Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Montes, L G; Valles-Sanchez, V; Moreno-Aguilar, J; Chavez-Balderas, R A; García-Marín, J A; Cortés Sotres, J F; Hheinze-Martin, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a relation to low serum cholesterol, lipoprotein, serotonin or tryptophan levels in patients with depression who have recently attempted suicide. DESIGN: Biochemical and behavioural study. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient treatment at the Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of major depressive episode. Eighteen of these patients had attempted suicide in the month before the start of the study; 15 patients had never attempted suicide. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, serotonin (5-HT) and tryptophan. Scores on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Carroll Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Beck Suicide Attempt Severity Scale. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not in terms of serum cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels. Serum levels of 5-HT and tryptophan were significantly lower in patients with depression who had a recent suicide attempt than in those patients who had never attempted suicide. A comparison of patients not taking antidepressant medication found serum 5-HT levels to be more than 3 times lower in those patients with a recent suicide attempt than in patients with no history of suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: The study found no difference in lipid profiles between patients who had attempted suicide and those who had not. Low serum levels of 5-HT may increase the risk of suicide attempt in patients who are depressed. PMID:11022402

  7. Association of the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Quan-Zhen; Yin, Rui-Xing; Guo, Tao; Wu, Jian; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shen, Shao-Wen; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2014-08-03

    A previous genome-wide association study has displayed the association of the ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialytransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) gene variant and lipid traits in the individuals of European ancestry, but the reproducibility of this association has not been detected in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ST3GAL4 rs11220462 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 700 unrelated individuals of Mulao nationality and 694 subjects of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotypes of the SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in combination with gel electrophoresis, and then verified by direct sequencing. Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher and the ApoAI/ApoB ratio was lower in Mulao than in Han (P<0.05-0.01). There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP between the two ethnic groups or between males and females. The A allele carriers in both Mulao males and females had higher total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and ApoB levels than the A allele non-carriers (P<0.05-0.01). The subjects with AA genotype in Han males but not in females had higher TC and triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with AG or GG genotype (P<0.01 for each). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females; TC and LDL-C in Mulao males; and TC in Han males were correlated with the genotypes (P<0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P<0.05 -0.001). The association of ST3GAL4 rs11220462 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, suggesting that there may be a racial

  8. Tofu (soybean curd) lowers serum lipid levels and modulates hepatic gene expression involved in lipogenesis primarily through its protein, not isoflavone, component in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Konishi, Tomokazu

    2011-08-24

    Although soy foods are recommended to prevent hyperlipidemia and related diseases, it is unclear how their active ingredients exert their effects. Here, the effects of tofu (soybean curd) and its putative active components, protein and isoflavone, on lipid metabolism in male rats were compared. Tofu and soy protein significantly lowered serum triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels compared to casein and, through microarray analyses, were found to exclusively alter transcriptomes involved in fatty acid and/or steroid synthesis in the liver, where most of the serum lipids are synthesized. In contrast, isoflavone supplementation had little effect on serum lipid levels or gene expression and exerted no synergistic effects with soy protein or tofu. The importance of the proteinaceous components was further confirmed by the lower activity of enzymes involved in lipogenesis. From these findings it was concluded that the protein, not isoflavone, fraction of soy reduces lipogenesis in liver through gene expression and that this may result in lower serum lipid levels.

  9. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  11. Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipids in patients with primary aldosteronism: a controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Matrozova, Joanna; Steichen, Olivier; Amar, Laurence; Zacharieva, Sabina; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2009-04-01

    An association between primary aldosteronism and metabolism disorders has been reported. The aim of this retrospective study was to test for this association by comparison between large cohorts of patients with primary aldosteronism and with essential hypertension. We retrieved the records of 460 cases with primary aldosteronism (103 lateralized, 150 not lateralized, and 207 undetermined) and of 1363 controls with essential hypertension individually matched for age and sex. We compared clinical history; blood pressure levels; body mass index; levels of fasting plasma glucose and serum triglycerides; total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose among subtypes of primary aldosteronism, as well as between cases with primary aldosteronism and their matched controls. Fasting plasma glucose and serum lipid levels did not differ among the 3 subtypes of primary aldosteronism. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower in patients with primary aldosteronism than their matched controls, but the prevalence of hyperglycemia (impaired fasting glucose or diabetes mellitus) and blood levels of glucose and lipids did not differ between cases and controls. There was no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative levels of either fasting plasma glucose or serum lipids in patients who underwent adrenalectomy and had follow-up data available. The analysis of this large group of patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension does not confirm a higher prevalence of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism disorders in the former. It is unlikely that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome differs significantly between patients with primary aldosteronism and those with essential hypertension.

  12. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    PubMed Central

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; vanDam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal amounts of protein, cholesterol and phospholipid, whereas the classical DRM/lipid raft markers Src, caveolin-1 and flotillin display the same gradient distribution. DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts themselves are severely depleted of sphingolipids. The fatty acid profile of the remaining sphingolipids as well as that of the glycerophospholipids shows several differences compared with control, most prominently an increase in highly saturated C16 species. The glycerophospholipid headgroup composition is unchanged in sphingolipid-depleted cells and cell-derived detergent-free lipid rafts. Sphingolipid depletion does not alter the localization of MRP1 (multidrug-resistance-related protein 1) in DRMs/detergent-free lipid rafts or MRP1-mediated efflux of carboxyfluorescein. We conclude that extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity in two cell lines and does not affect the function of the lipid-raft-associated protein MRP1. PMID:20604746

  13. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctanesulfonate, and serum lipids in children and adolescents: results from the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Shankar, Anoop; Knox, Sarah S.; Steenland, Kyle; Savitz, David A.; Fletcher, Tony; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) are man-made compounds with widespread presence in human sera. In previous occupational and adult studies, PFOA and PFOS have been positively associated with serum lipids. Our objective is to interrogate the association between PFOA and PFOS and serum lipids in children. Design Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting Mid-Ohio river valley. Participants 12,476 children included in the C8 Health Project, resultant from the pre-trial settlement of a class action lawsuit pursuant to PFOA contamination of the drinking water supply. Main Outcome Measures Serum lipids (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting triglycerides). Results Mean serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations were 69.2±111.9 ng/mL and 22.7±12.6 ng/mL. In linear regression after adjustment for covariables, PFOA was significantly associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol, and PFOS was significantly associated with increased total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. In GLM ANCOVA analysis, between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOA there was a 4.6 mg/dL and 3.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean of total and LDL cholesterol, and an 8.5 mg/dL and 5.8 mg/dL increase in the adjusted mean for total and LDL cholesterol between the 1st—5th quintiles of PFOS. Increases were 10 mg/dL for some age- and gender-group strata. Observed effects were non-linear, with larger increases in total and LDL cholesterol occurring the lowest range of particularly PFOA. Conclusions While the epidemiologic and cross-sectional nature of the current study limit causal inferences, the consistent observed associations between increasing PFOA and PFOS and elevated total and LDL cholesterol warrant further study. PMID:20819969

  14. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Sarrsfzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Nooshin; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Maghroon, Maryam; Alikhassi, Hassan; Esmailzaded, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19–81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in “Isfahan Healthy Heart Program” (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. RESULTS: Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association. PMID:23205051

  15. The relation between dietary intake of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels in central Iran.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Hossein Khosravi; Sarrsfzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Nooshin; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Maghroon, Maryam; Alikhassi, Hassan; Esmailzaded, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The detrimental effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) on apolipoproteins have been reported from several parts of the world. However, little data is available in this regard from the understudied region of the Middle East. The present study therefore tried to evaluate the association between type of vegetable oils and serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels among Iranians. In this cross-sectional study, data from 1772 people (795 men and 977 women) aged 19-81 years, who were selected with multistage cluster random sampling method from three cities of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak in "Isfahan Healthy Heart Program" (IHHP) (Iran), was used. To assess participants' usual dietary intakes, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Hydrogenated vegetable oil (commonly consumed for cooking in Iran) and margarine were considered as the category of PHVOs. Soy, sunflower, corn, olive and canola oils were considered as non-HVOs. After an overnight fasting, serum cholesterol (total, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and triglyceride as well as apolipoproteins A and B were measured using standard methods. Participants with the highest intakes of non-HVOs and PHVOs were younger and had lower weight than those with lowest intakes. High consumption of non-HVOs and PHVOs was associated with lower intakes of energy, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, meat, milk and grains. No overall significant differences were found in serum lipids and apolipoprotein levels across the quartiles of non-HVOs and PHVOs after controlling for potential confounding. We did not find any significant associations between hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated vegetable oil and serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. Thus, further studies are needed in this region to explore this association.

  16. The effect of yoghurt and its probiotics on blood pressure and serum lipid profile; a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ivey, K L; Hodgson, J M; Kerr, D A; Thompson, P L; Stojceski, B; Prince, R L

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong mechanistic data, and promising results from in vitro and animal studies, the ability of probiotic bacteria to improve blood pressure and serum lipid concentrations in humans remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis Bb12, provided in either yoghurt or capsule form, on home blood pressure and serum lipid profile. Following a 3-week washout period, 156 overweight men and women over 55 y were randomized to a 6-week double-blinded, factorial, parallel study. The four intervention groups were: A) probiotic yoghurt plus probiotic capsules; B) probiotic yoghurt plus placebo capsules; C) control milk plus probiotic capsules; and D) control milk plus placebo capsules. Each probiotic test article provided a minimum L. acidophilus La5 and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 dose of 3.0 × 10⁹ CFU/d. Home blood pressure monitoring, consisting of 7-day bi-daily repeat measurements, were collected at baseline and week 6. Fasting total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and serum triglyceride were performed at baseline and week 6. When compared to control milk, probiotic yoghurt did not significantly alter blood pressure, heart rate or serum lipid concentrations (P > 0.05). Similarly, when compared to placebo capsules, supplementation with probiotic capsules did not alter blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol LDLC, HDLC, or triglycerides (P > 0.05). The probiotic strains L. acidophilus La5 and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 did not improve cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A spectrophotometric assay for lipid peroxides in serum lipoproteins using a commercially available reagent.

    PubMed

    el-Saadani, M; Esterbauer, H; el-Sayed, M; Goher, M; Nassar, A Y; Jürgens, G

    1989-04-01

    A method is described for measuring lipid peroxides by means of the color reagent of a commercially available test kit for cholesterol estimation. In principle, this assay makes use of the oxidative capacity of lipid peroxides to convert iodide to iodine, which can be measured photometrically at 365 nm. Calibration curves were obtained using peroxides such as H2O2, t-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumene hydroperoxide. A stoichiometric relationship was observed between the amount of organic peroxides assayed and the concentration of iodine produced. Concentrations of lipid peroxides as small as 1 nmol/ml could be measured. The ability to estimate lipid peroxides of isolated low density lipoprotein was demonstrated.

  18. Lipid emulsion solution: A novel cause of hemolysis in serum and plasma blood samples.

    PubMed

    Jaben, Elizabeth A; Koch, Christopher D; Karon, Brad S

    2011-02-01

    After several hemolyzed blood samples were received in the laboratory, we investigated lipid emulsion/TPN as a novel cause of hemolysis. Whole blood was spiked with lipid emulsion and TPN. Hemolysis was proportional to the amount of lipid emulsion present in whole blood, with less hemolysis occurring in blood gas syringes compared to vacutainer tubes. Collection of specimens in blood gas syringes may prevent hemolysis in patients on lipid emulsion. Copyright © 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracking of serum lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index from childhood to adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Juhola, Jonna; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jula, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Åkerblom, Hans K; Pietikäinen, Matti; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Taittonen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2011-10-01

    To examine tracking and predictiveness of childhood lipid levels, blood pressure, and body mass index for risk profile in adulthood and the best age to measure the childhood risk factor levels. Study subjects were participants of the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, started in 1980 (age 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years). A total of 2204 subjects participated to the 27-year follow-up in 2007 (age, 30 to 45 years). In both sex groups and in all age groups, childhood risk factors were significantly correlated with levels in adulthood. The correlation coefficients for cholesterol levels and body mass index were 0.43 to 0.56 (P < .0001), and for blood pressure and triglyceride levels, they were 0.21 to 0.32 (P < .0001). To recognize children with abnormal adult levels, the National Cholesterol Education Program and the National High Blood Pressure Education Program cutoff points for lipid and blood pressure values and international cutoff points for overweight and obesity were used. Age seemed to affect associations. The best sensitivity and specificity rates were observed in 12- to 18-year-old subjects. Childhood blood pressure, serum lipid levels, and body mass index correlate strongly with values measured in middle age. These associations seemed to be stronger with increased age at measurements. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Serum Lipid, Thyroid, and Hepatic Clinical Chemistries in Association With Serum Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Cynomolgus Monkeys After Oral Dosing With Potassium PFOS

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bruce C.; Andres, Kara L.; Ehresman, David J.; Falvo, Ria; Provencher, Anne; Olsen, Geary W.; Butenhoff, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An oral dose study with perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was undertaken to identify potential associations between serum PFOS and changes in serum clinical chemistry parameters in purpose-bred young adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). In this study, control group (n = 6/sex) was sham-dosed with vehicle (0.5% Tween 20 and 5% ethanol in water), low-dose group (n = 6/sex) received 1 single K+PFOS dose (9 mg/kg), and high-dose group (n = 4–6/sex) received 3 separate K+ PFOS doses (11–17.2 mg/kg). Monkeys were given routine checkups and observed carefully for health problems on a daily basis. Scheduled blood samples were drawn from all monkeys prior to, during, and after K+PFOS administration for up to 1 year and they were analyzed for PFOS concentrations and clinical chemistry markers for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. No mortality occurred during the study. All the monkeys were healthy, gained weight, and were released back to the colony at the end of the study. The highest serum PFOS achieved was approximately 165 μg/ml. When compared with time-matched controls, administration of K+PFOS to monkeys did not result in any toxicologically meaningful or clinically relevant changes in serum clinical measurements for coagulation, lipids, hepatic, renal, electrolytes, and thyroid-related hormones. A slight reduction in serum cholesterol (primarily the high-density lipoprotein fraction), although not toxicologically significant, was observed. The corresponding lower-bound fifth percentile benchmark concentrations (BMCL1sd) were 74 and 76 μg/ml for male and female monkeys, respectively. Compared to the 2013–2014 geometric mean serum PFOS level of 4.99 ng/ml (0.00499 μg/ml) in US general population reported by CDC NHANES, this represents 4 orders of magnitude for margin of exposure. PMID:28115654

  1. Quantitative analysis of polar lipids in the nanoliter level of rat serum by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polar lipids in serum, including lysophospholipids (LPLs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), have a broad range of biological activities and require a suitable method for their quantitative analysis. Conventional methods use multistep procedures to simultaneously purify and analyze polar lipids and non-po...

  2. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  3. δ-Tocotrienol and quercetin reduce serum levels of nitric oxide and lipid parameters in female chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic, low-grade inflammation provides a link between normal ageing and the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. A series of in vitro tests confirmed the strong anti-inflammatory activities of known inhibitors of NF-κB activation (δ-tocotrienol, quercetin, riboflavin, (-) Corey lactone, amiloride, and dexamethasone). δ-Tocotrienol also suppresses β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity (the rate-limiting step in de novo cholesterol synthesis), and concomitantly lowers serum total and LDL cholesterol levels. We evaluated these compounds in an avian model anticipating that a dietary additive combining δ-tocotrienol with quercetin, riboflavin, (-) Corey lactone, amiloride, or dexamethasone would yield greater reductions in serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and nitric oxide [NO]), than that attained with the individual compounds. Results The present results showed that supplementation of control diets with all compounds tested except riboflavin, (-) Corey lactone, and dexamethasone produced small but significant reductions in body weight gains as compared to control. (-) Corey lactone and riboflavin did not significantly impact body weight gains. Dexamethasone significantly and markedly reduced weight gain (>75%) compared to control. The serum levels of TNF-α and NO were decreased 61% - 84% (P < 0.001), and 14% - 67%, respectively, in chickens fed diets supplemented with δ-tocotrienol, quercetin, riboflavin, (-) Corey lactone, amiloride, or dexamethasone as compared to controls. Significant decreases in the levels of serum total and LDL-cholesterol were attained with δ-tocotrienol, quercetin, riboflavin and (-) Corey lactone (13% - 57%; P < 0.05), whereas, these levels were 2-fold higher in dexamethasone treated chickens as compared to controls. Parallel responses on hepatic lipid infiltration were confirmed by histological analyses

  4. Influence of Sorghum Kafirin on Serum Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats (In Vitro and In Vivo Studies)

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz Cruz, Raquel A.; Cárdenas López, José L.; González Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Astiazarán García, Humberto; Gorinstein, Shela; Canett Romero, Rafael; Robles Sánchez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract. Diets supplemented with sorghum kafirin extract have improved lipid metabolism and increased the serum antioxidant potential (67%) especially in rats fed with added cholesterol. The bioactive peptides generated from kafirin in vivo hydrolysis appear to be associated with the positive effect on serum lipids and antioxidant activity. According to these results, sorghum kafirin extract at the levels used in this study apparently could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases. PMID:26634202

  5. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Radecka, Aleksandra; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Rotter, Iwona; Laszczyńska, Maria; Dudzińska, Wioleta

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m²). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM). Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  6. Influence of Sorghum Kafirin on Serum Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats (In Vitro and In Vivo Studies).

    PubMed

    Ortíz Cruz, Raquel A; Cárdenas López, José L; González Aguilar, Gustavo A; Astiazarán García, Humberto; Gorinstein, Shela; Canett Romero, Rafael; Robles Sánchez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract. Diets supplemented with sorghum kafirin extract have improved lipid metabolism and increased the serum antioxidant potential (67%) especially in rats fed with added cholesterol. The bioactive peptides generated from kafirin in vivo hydrolysis appear to be associated with the positive effect on serum lipids and antioxidant activity. According to these results, sorghum kafirin extract at the levels used in this study apparently could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases.

  7. Soy protein, genistein, and daidzein improve serum paraoxonase activity and lipid profiles in rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammadshahi, Majid; Haidari, Fatemeh; Saei, Amir Ata; Rashidi, Bahman; Mahboob, Soltanali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of genistein, daidzein, and soy protein on paraoxonase and arylesterase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and lipid profiles of arthritic rats in vivo and the results were compared with that of dexamethasone. Seventy-two female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: healthy control, animals with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), CIA-soy protein (7 g/kg)-treated rats, CIA-genistein (20 mg/kg)-treated animals, CIA-daidzein (20 mg/kg)-treated rats, and CIA-dexamethasone (1 mg/kg)-treated rats. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced using collagen type II and the treatments were carried out by daily gavages feedings for 50 days. The paraoxonase activity in serum was measured spectrophotometrically using paraoxon and phenylacetate as substrates. Serum MDA and lipids levels were determined using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Arthritis-induced decreases in paraoxonase and arylesterase activity was restored after treatment with soy protein and isoflavones (P<.05). MDA concentrations were lower after treatment with all tested compounds. However, only soy protein could partially improve the lipid profile.

  8. Effect of substratum, serum and linoleic acid on the lipid synthesis of isolated alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cott, G.R.; Edeen, K.E.; Hale, S.G.; Mason, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    The authors examined the effect of cellular substratum (plastic or amnionic basement membrane (ABM)) and serum additive (fetal bovine (FBS), pork, horse, rat or human) on phospholipid synthesis in alveolar type II cells. The cells were isolated from adult rats, cultured for 48 hours under the various substratum and serum conditions, and then incubated for an additional 2 hours with (1-/sup 14/C) acetate. ABM consistently caused a significant increase in the percent of radiolabel incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (PC) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG). Serum also had a significant effect with the highest values of PC and saturated PC being obtained with rat serum and the highest PG values with horse serum. The fatty acid composition of the sera used varied according to species with the largest variations in percent linoleic acid. Supplementing media with linoleic acid resulted in a marked increase in saturated PC values and a fall in PG values. Therefore, they conclude that: 1) ABM improves differentiated function, 2) FBS supplementation may not be optimal, and 3) the different effects of linoleic acid supplementation on PC, saturated PC, and PG values suggests an independent regulation of synthesis for these lipid species in vitro.

  9. Technological steps and yeast biomass as factors affecting the lipid content of beer during the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Buzzini, Pietro; Della Sera, Rolando; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2009-07-22

    Knowledge of lipid content and composition in the brewing process enables the quality control of the final product. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as deleterious effects on end-product quality. The lipid content of a beer affects its ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Lipid oxidation during wort production is of great interest because of its effect on beer quality: both lipids and their oxidation products are known to have adverse effects on beer flavor, whereas interactions between lipids and protein films stabilizing the gas bubbles are thought to cause the collapse of foam. In this background, the aim of this research was the characterization of the lipid content during a brewing process for evaluating the influence of both technological steps and yeast biomass in the lipid composition of beer. Lipid contents and their fatty acid profile were evaluated in brewing raw materials, wort, and beer. A high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID) system was used for fatty acid determination in lipid extracts. The results of the present study highlighted that the main technological steps influencing the lipid content in brewing byproduct and beer were clarification in a whirlpool and filtration. Moreover, the presence of metabolically active yeast cells (used as starter culture) were found to have a great influence on the fatty acids composition of lipids.